AX5042 Programming Manual

APPLICATION NOTE AND9354/D
AX5042
Programming Manual
Revision 3
2
Table of Contents
1.
Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1. Connecting the AX5042 to a Micro-Controller ........................................................................... 5
Frame Mode ...................................................................................................................................... 5
Synchronous Wire Mode .................................................................................................................. 6
Asynchronous Wire Mode ............................................................................................................... 6
1.2. Pin Function Descriptions ................................................................................................................ 7
1.3. SPI Register Access ........................................................................................................................... 8
Status Bits............................................................................................................................................. 9
2.
Programming the Chip .............................................................................................................. 10
2.1. Parameter Programming .............................................................................................................. 15
Choosing the Fundamental Communication Characteristics............................................... 15
Setting-up the Chip......................................................................................................................... 17
2.2. Synthesizer VCO Auto-Ranging ................................................................................................... 22
2.3. AFC .................................................................................................................................................... 23
Frequency Tracking ........................................................................................................................ 24
Frequency Acquisition ................................................................................................................... 25
Factory Calibration ......................................................................................................................... 26
2.4. Receive and Transmit .................................................................................................................... 27
Wire Mode ........................................................................................................................................ 27
Frame Mode .................................................................................................................................... 27
2.5. Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................... 34
Interrupt Strategies .......................................................................................................................... 36
2.6. Preamble .......................................................................................................................................... 37
Choosing the Preamble Bit Pattern ............................................................................................. 37
Choosing the Preamble Duration ................................................................................................ 38
PSK Frequency Lock ....................................................................................................................... 39
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Table of Contents
2.7. Postamble......................................................................................................................................... 39
2.8. RSSI ..................................................................................................................................................... 40
3.
Register Bank Description ......................................................................................................... 42
3.1. Control register map ...................................................................................................................... 43
3.2. Register Descriptions....................................................................................................................... 47
REVISION ............................................................................................................................................ 47
SCRATCH ........................................................................................................................................... 47
PWRMODE ......................................................................................................................................... 47
XTALOSC ............................................................................................................................................ 48
FIFOCTRL ............................................................................................................................................ 48
FIFODATA ........................................................................................................................................... 48
IRQMASK ............................................................................................................................................ 49
IRQREQUEST ...................................................................................................................................... 49
IFMODE .............................................................................................................................................. 49
PINCFG1 ............................................................................................................................................ 50
PINCFG2 ............................................................................................................................................ 51
PINCFG3 ............................................................................................................................................ 51
IRQINVERSION................................................................................................................................... 52
MODULATION ................................................................................................................................... 52
ENCODING........................................................................................................................................ 52
FRAMING ........................................................................................................................................... 54
CRCINIT3, CRCINIT2, CRCINIT1, CRCINIT0 ................................................................................... 55
FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1, FREQ0 ........................................................................................................ 55
FSKDEV2, FSKDEV1, FSKDEV0.......................................................................................................... 57
IFFREQHI, IFFREQLO .......................................................................................................................... 57
PLLLOOP ............................................................................................................................................ 58
PLLRANGING ..................................................................................................................................... 59
TXPWR ................................................................................................................................................ 59
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Table of Contents
TXRATEHI, TXRATEMID, TXRATELO .................................................................................................. 59
MODMISC ......................................................................................................................................... 60
AGCTARGET ..................................................................................................................................... 60
AGCATTACK ..................................................................................................................................... 60
AGCDECAY ...................................................................................................................................... 60
AGCCOUNTER ................................................................................................................................. 61
CICSHIFT ............................................................................................................................................ 61
CICDECHI, CICDECLO .................................................................................................................... 61
DATARATEHI, DATARATELO ............................................................................................................ 61
TMGGAINHI, TMGGAINLO ............................................................................................................. 62
PHASEGAIN ....................................................................................................................................... 62
FREQGAIN ......................................................................................................................................... 62
FREQGAIN2 ....................................................................................................................................... 62
AMPLGAIN ........................................................................................................................................ 62
TRKAMPLHI, TRKAMPLLO ................................................................................................................. 63
TRKPHASEHI, TRKPHASELO .............................................................................................................. 63
TRKFREQHI, TRKFREQLO .................................................................................................................. 63
APEOVER ........................................................................................................................................... 64
PLLVCOI ............................................................................................................................................ 64
PLLRNG .............................................................................................................................................. 64
REF ...................................................................................................................................................... 64
RXMISC .............................................................................................................................................. 64
4.
References .................................................................................................................................. 65
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Overview
1.
Overview
AX5042 is true single chip low-power CMOS transceiver for use in SRD bands. The on-chip
transceiver consists of a fully integrated RF front-end with modulator and demodulator and
flexible communication controller. Base band data processing is implemented in an
advanced and flexible communication controller that enables user friendly communication
either via SPI interface or in direct wire mode.
1.1.
Connecting the AX5042 to a Micro-Controller
The AX5042 can easily be connected to any micro-controller. The micro-controller
communicates with the AX5042 via a register file that is implemented in the AX5042 and that
can be accessed serially via an industry standard Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) protocol.
There are also a few dedicated signalling lines.
Power-up, Reset and Receive/Transmit switching can be performed via these dedicated lines
or via the register file. Therefore, connecting these dedicated signals is optional.
Reset can be performed via a dedicated signalling line or via the register file. It is also safe to
perform power-on reset using the SPI reset bit in the PWRMODE register, so the RESET_N line is
strictly optional. If RESET_N is not used, it should be tied to VDD, and the micro-controller
should perform a device reset using SPI as soon as it leaves reset.
The AX5042 supports three different modes:
Frame Mode
In Frame mode, the internal communication controller performs frame delimiting, and data is
received and transmitted via a 3 level x 10 bit FIFO accessible via the register file. Figure 1
shows the corresponding diagram for frame mode. In frame mode, connecting the interrupt
line is highly recommended, though not strictly required.
PWRUP
RESET_N
IRQ_TXEN
AX5042
optional
optional
recommended
Interrupt in
microcontroller
MOSI
MISO
SPI
communication
CLK
SEL
SYSCLK
optional
µC clock input
Figure 1: Frame Mode connection diagram
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Overview
Synchronous Wire Mode
In Synchronous Wire mode, the internal communication controller is disabled, and the
modem data is directly available on a dedicated pin (DATA). The modem also outputs the
bit clock on a dedicated pin (DCLK), both during receive and transmit.
In synchronous wire mode, the AX5042 generates the bit clock both in receive and in transmit
mode. Therefore, it is important that the micro-controller generates and receives data on the
DATA pin synchronous to the clock on the DCLK pin.
Asynchronous Wire Mode
Asynchronous Wire mode works similar to synchronous wire mode, but in addition it performs
RS232 start bit recognition and resynchronisation for transmit. It is therefore intended to be
directly connected to an RS232 interface. In Asynchronous Wire mode the maximum bit rate
is limited to fxtal/32.
Figure 2 shows the wiring diagram between the AX5042 and the micro-controller in wire
mode. Power-up, Reset and Receive/Transmit switching can be performed via dedicated
lines or via the register file. Therefore, these dedicated signals are optional.
The SYSCLK pin may be used to clock the micro-controller, but otherwise is not required. In
wire mode, transmit/receive data is available on the DATA line, so it must be connected. In
asynchronous wire mode, the receive / transmit clock is available on the DCLK pin, but its
usage is optional.
The AX5042 receive bit rate, the transmit bit rate, and the micro-controller RS232 interface
baud rate must all be programmed to the same value. In transmit mode, the micro-controller
must be programmed to transmit two stop bits (e.g. by setting the format to 8N2). In receive
mode, the micro-controller must be programmed to accept only one stop bit (e.g. by setting
the format to 8N1). The AX5042 synchronizer synchronizes the micro-controller RS232 interface
clock to its bit clock by inserting or omitting stop bits.
PWRUP
RESET_N
IRQ_TXEN
optional
optional
optional
RX / TX
controls
DATA
AX5042
microcontroller
DCLK
MOSI
MISO
SPI
communication
CLK
SEL
SYSCLK
optional
µC clock input
Figure 2: Wire Mode connection diagram
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Overview
1.2.
Pin Function Descriptions
Symbol
Pin(s)
Type
Description
NC
1
N
Not to be connected
VDD
2
P
Power supply
GND
3
G
Ground
ANTP
4
A
Antenna input/output
ANTN
5
A
Antenna input/output
GND
6
P
Ground
VDD
7
P
Power supply
NC
8
N
Not to be connected
LPFILT
9
A
Pin for optional external synthesizer loop filter; leave unconnected if not used
It is recommended to use the internal loop filter
NC
10
N
Not to be connected
GND
11
P
Ground
RESET_N
12
I
Optional reset input. If not used this pin must be connected to VDD.
SYSCLK
13
I/O
SEL
14
I
Serial peripheral interface select
CLK
15
I
Serial peripheral interface clock
MISO
16
O
MOSI
17
I
DATA
18
I/O
In wire mode: Data input/output
Can be programmed to be used as a general purpose I/O pin
IRQ_TXEN
19
I/O
In frame mode: Interrupt request output
In wire mode: Transmit enable input
Can be programmed to be used as a general purpose I/O pin
VDD
20
P
DCLK
21
I/O
GND
22
P
Default functionality: Crystal oscillator (or divided) clock output
Can be programmed to be used as a general purpose I/O pin
Serial peripheral interface data output
Serial peripheral interface data input
Power supply
In wire mode: Clock output
Can be programmed to be used as a general purpose I/O pin
Ground
Power-up/-down input; activates/deactivates analog blocks
Can be programmed to be used as a general purpose I/O pin
If the power-up/-down functionality is handled in software and no usage as
general purpose I/O pin is planned then this pin should be tied to VDD
PWRUP
23
I/O
NC
24
N
Not to be connected
NC
25
N
Not to be connected
VDD
26
P
Power supply
CLK16P
27
A
Crystal oscillator input/output
CLK16N
28
A
Crystal oscillator input/output
A =
I =
O =
analog signal
digital input signal
digital output signal
I/O
N
P
=
=
=
digital input/output signal
not to be connected
power or ground
The centre pad of the QFN28 package should be connected to GND.
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Overview
1.3.
SPI Register Access
Registers are accessed via a synchronous Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). Most registers
are 8 bit wide and accessed using the waveforms as detailed in Figure 3. These
waveforms are compatible to most hardware SPI master controllers, and can easily be
generated in software. MISO changes on the falling edge of CLK, while MOSI is latched on
the rising edge of CLK.
SEL
CLK
MOSI
R/W
MISO
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
D0
Figure 3: SPI 8 bit read/write access
It is necessary to deactivate and reactivate SEL between register accesses. Some registers
perform preparatory actions on the falling edge of SEL and perform cleanup actions on the
rising edge of SEL, so if SEL is left active between register accesses, some registers may fail.
Some device registers (TRKAMPL, TRKPHASE, TRKFREQ) are 16 bit registers that are
continuously updated by the chip. These registers should not be accessed by two individual 8
bit accesses, as both halves may be inconsistent if the chip updates the register between the
two accesses.
The chip therefore supports atomic 16 bit register read accesses. Figure 4 shows the 16 bit
read waveform if the address of the high byte is supplied, and Figure 5 shows the waveform if
the address of the low byte is supplied.
SEL
CLK
MOSI
0
MISO
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Figure 4: SPI 16 bit read access, most significant byte first
SEL
CLK
MOSI
MISO
0
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
Figure 5: SPI 16 bit read access, least significant byte first
16 bit write accesses are not supported.
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Overview
Status Bits
During the address phase of the access, the chip outputs the most important status bits. This
feature is designed to speed up software decision on what to do in an interrupt handler.
Table 1 shows which register bit is transmitted during the status timeslots.
SPI bit cell
Status
Register bit
0
–
0
1
S6
PLL LOCK
2
S5
FIFO OVER
3
S4
FIFO UNDER
4
S3
FIFO FULL
5
S2
FIFO EMPTY
6
S1
FIFOSTAT(1)
7
S0
FIFOSTAT(0)
Table 1: Status register bits
For information on the meaning of the status bits see the Receive and Transmit section of the
next chapter as well as the description of the register FIFOCTRL in the Register Description
section.
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Programming the Chip
2. Programming the Chip
The operation sequences of the chip can be controlled using the PWRMODE and APEOVER
registers.
PWRMODE
register
APEOVER
register
Name
0x00
0x80
POWERDOWN
All digital and analog functions, except the register file,
are disabled. SPI registers are still accessible.
0.5 μA
0x00
STANDBY
The crystal oscillator is powered on; receiver and
transmitter are off.
650 μA
0x60
0x00
Description
The mode is determined by the state of the PWRUP and
IRQ_TXEN pins.
0x61
0x00
PWRUPPIN
0x01
PWRUP = 0: Same function as POWERDOWN
17 - 23 mA
PWRUP = 1, IRQ_TXEN = 1: Same function as FULLTX
13 - 37 mA
0x68
0x00
SYNTHRX
0x69
0x00
FULLRX
Synthesizer and receiver are running
SYNTHTX
The synthesizer is running on the transmit frequency.
Transmitter and receiver are still off. This mode is used to
let the synthesizer settle on the correct frequency for
transmit.
FULLTX
Synthesizer and transmitter are running. Do not switch
into this mode before the synthesizer has completely
settled on the transmit frequency (in SYNTHTX mode),
otherwise spurious spectral transmissions will occur.
0x6D
0x00
0x00
0.5 μA
PWRUP = 1, IRQ_TXEN = 0: Same function as FULLRX
The synthesizer is running on the receive frequency.
Transmitter and receiver are still off. This mode is used to
let the synthesizer settle on the correct frequency for
receive.
0x6C
Typical Idd
12 mA
17 -23mA
11 mA
13 - 37 mA
Table 2: PWRMODE and APEOVER register states
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Programming the Chip
Alternatively the operation sequences of the chip can be controlled using the pins PWRUP
and IRQ_TXEN if PWRMODE = 0x01. The use of the use of PWRUP and IRQ_TXEN pins to control
transmission is however not recommended. Since there is no way to enter the SYNTHTX mode,
the transmitter is switched on before the synthesizer is fully settled, thus producing spurious
signals at various frequencies. To mitigate this, it is possible to first set TXPWR to 0, then PWRUP
= 1 and IRQ_TXEN = 1 to turn the transmitter on, and then after the synthesizer settling time of
5 – 50 μs program the desired transmit power into TXPWR.
PWRUP
pin
IRQ_TXEN
pin
0
1
1
Name
Description
X
POWERDOWN
All digital and analog functions, except the register file,
are disabled. SPI registers are still accessible, but at a
slower speed.
0
FULLRX
Synthesizer and Receiver are running.
17 - 23 mA
FULLTX
Synthesizer and Transmitter are running. Do not switch on
transmitter power (register TXPWR) before the synthesizer
has settled, otherwise spurious spectral transmissions will
occur.
13 - 37 mA
1
Typical Idd
0.5 μA
Table 3: PWRUP and IRQ_TXEN pin states
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Programming the Chip
Figure 6 shows the basic programming flow chart of the device for transmitting, and Figure 7
for receiving.
1.
Power up references and oscillators: Set PWRMODE to STANDBY
First, the on-chip references and the crystal oscillator are powered up, but the synthesizer
is still powered down. Settling time of this phase is dominated by the crystal oscillator
start-up time, which depends on the specific crystal used but is typically 3 ms.
2.
Program parameters
Then the desired modulation, carrier frequency and encoding is set (see section 2.1). This
can be done while the crystal oscillator is settling.
3.
Power up synthesizer: Set PWRMODE to SYNTHTX (transmit mode) or to SYNTHRX (receive
mode)
The settling time of the synthesizer is 5 – 50 μs depending on settings (see section AC
Characteristics in the AX5042 Datasheet).
4.
Auto-ranging
After all the modulation parameters are set, the VCO in the synthesizer needs to be autoranged to the correct range setting. This is done using the auto-ranging procedure, for
details see section 2.2: Synthesizer VCO Auto-Ranging. The auto-ranging needs to be
performed if it has not been done in a previous RX/TX session, if the temperature or VDD
have changed or if the frequency has changed.
5.
Start transmitter/receiver: Set PWRMODE to FULLTX (transmit mode) or FULLRX (receive
mode)
6.
Power down: Set PWRMODE to POWERDOWN
When transmission or reception is finished, the chip can be powered down.
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Programming the Chip
Set PWRMODE to STANDBY
Set PWRMODE to STANDBY
Receive
Program Parameters
Program Parameters
Set PWRMODE to STANDBY
Set PWRMODE to SYNTHTX
Set PWRMODE to SYNTHRX
Wait 3- 30us
(synthesizer settling)
Perform Auto-ranging
Perform Auto-ranging
Set PWRMODE to FULLTX
Set PWRMODE to FULLTX
Set PWRMODE to FULLRX
Transmit
Transmit
Receive
Set PWRMODE to SYNTHRX
Set PWRMODE to
POWERDOWN
Set PWRMODE to
POWERDOWN
Wait 3 - 30us
(synthesizer settling)
Set PWRMODE to FULLRX
Receive
Figure 6: Transmit flow chart
Figure 7: Receive flow chart
Figure 8: Receive interrupted by
transmit flow chart
The register contents are preserved as long as the chip is powered, therefore, registers that
do not change between receiving and transmitting do not need to be reprogrammed.
Figure 8 shows the recommended sequence for transmitting packets during packet
reception. This sequence avoids powering down the crystal oscillator and reference, thereby
avoiding the start-up delays. The synthesizer VCO does not need to be re-auto-ranged, but,
since this is not a zero IF receiver, the synthesizer needs 3 – 30 μs to settle on the correct
frequency. The value depends on the synthesizer settings, see section AC Characteristics in
the AX5042 Datasheet.
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Programming the Chip
Transmit on Freq 0
Receive on Freq 0
Set PWRMODE to SYNTHTX
Set FLT (PLLLOOP) to 10
Set FLT (PLLLOOP) to 10
Set PLLRANGING to range of
Freq 1
Set PLLRANGING to range of
Freq 1
Set FREQ3 to Freq 1 Bits
31:24
Set FREQ3 to Freq 1 Bits
31:24
Set FREQ2 to Freq 1 Bits
23:16
Set FREQ2 to Freq 1 Bits
23:16
Set FREQ1 to Freq 1 Bits 15:8
Set FREQ1 to Freq 1 Bits 15:8
Set FREQ0 to Freq 1 Bits 7:0
Set FREQ0 to Freq 1 Bits 7:0
Wait 3us (synthesizer settling)
Wait 3us (synthesizer settling)
Set FLT (PLLLOOP) to 01
Set FLT (PLLLOOP) to 01
Receive on Freq 1
Set PWRMODE to FULLTX
Transmit on Freq 1
Figure 9: Transmit frequency change flow chart
Figure 10: Receive frequency change flow chart
In Frequency Hopping systems, it is important to perform fast frequency changes. Figure 10
shows the recommended frequency change flow chart for frequency hopping receivers,
while Figure 9 shows the recommended frequency change flow chart for frequency hopping
transmitters.
These flow charts detail the recommended sequence to change the transmit/receive
frequency. They do not detail the synchronization necessary to keep transmitter and receiver
hopping schedules synchronous.
It is assumed that auto-ranging has been performed offline for all frequencies of the hopping
schedule, and the auto-ranging results (VCOR bits of register PLLRANGING) have been
stored in the micro-controller. For a detailed description of the synthesizer VCO auto-ranging
see section 2.2: Synthesizer VCO Auto-Ranging.
In the transmit case, the transmitter must be disabled before starting the frequency change
and must only be re-enabled once the synthesizer has settled on the new frequency, in order
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Programming the Chip
to avoid spurious transmissions. In the receive case, this is not necessary, the receiver can be
left running.
2.1.
Parameter Programming
Choosing the Fundamental Communication Characteristics
Table 4 lists the fundamental communication characteristics that need to be chosen before
the device can be programmed.
Parameter
Description
fXTAL
Frequency of the connected crystal in Hz
modulation
GFSK, FSK, MSK, GMSK, ASK, PSK or OQPSK (for recommendations see Table 5)
fCARRIER
Carrier frequency (i.e. center frequency of the signal) in Hz
fIF
Intermediate frequency in Hz, nominally 1MHz
BITRATE
Desired bit rate, in bits/s
h
Modulation index, determines the frequency deviation for FSK and GFSK.
4 > h ≥ 0.5 for FSK, fdeviation = 0.5 * h* BITRATE
h = 0.5 for MSK, GMSK and OQPSK
h = 0 for all other modulations
TMGCORRFRAC
Determines the timing recovery speed and the preamble length required
The relationship between TMGCORRFRAC and the preamble length and is
preamble length in bits = 3*TMGCORRFRAC,
for details see section: Choosing the Preamble Duration
Choose TMGCORRFRAC=32 for best noise performance at the expense of long
synchronization time
Choose TMGCORRFRAC=8 for faster synchronization time at the expense of noise
performance
Note that there is a lower bound for this value given in point 9 of section: Setting-up the Chip.
encoding
Inversion, differential, Manchester, scrambled, for recommendations see the description of
the register ENCODING in the section 3: Overview and Table 15: Customary telecom modes
description.
Table 4: Fundamental communication characteristics
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Programming the Chip
Table 5 gives an overview of the trade-offs between the different modulations that AX5042
offers, they should be considered when making a choice.
Modulation
Trade-offs
ASK
For bit rates up to 600 kbit/s
The sensitivity for equivalent peak output power is 3 dB lower than for the other modulation types, as
the average transmit power is only half the maximum transmit power.
It is recommended to use shaped ASK for data transmissions, as the spectral efficiency is greatly
improved vs. non- shaped ASK. For receive operation there is no difference between shaped and nonshaped.
FSK
For bit rates up to 200 kbit/s
Frequency deviation is a free parameter
GFSK
For bit rates up to 200 kbit/s
Gaussian shaped FSK, spectrally more efficient than FSK;
GFSK with h=0.5 is spectrally more efficient than MSK (which is FSK with h=0.5).
Frequency deviation is a free parameter
MSK
For bit rates up to 200 kbit/s
Robust and spectrally efficient form of FSK (Modulation is the same as FSK with h=0.5)
Frequency deviation given by bit rate
Slightly longer pre-ambles required than for FSK
GMSK
For bit rates up to 200 kbit/s
Robust and spectrally efficient form of FSK (Modulation is the same as GFSK with h=0.5)
Frequency deviation given by bit rate
Slightly longer pre-ambles required than for GFSK
PSK
For bit rates up to 600 kbit/s
Slightly longer pre-ambles required than for FSK
It is recommended to use shaped PSK for data transmissions, as the spectral efficiency is greatly
improved vs. non- shaped PSK. For receive operation there is no difference between shaped and nonshaped.
OQPSK
For bit rates up to 200 kbit/s
Very similar to MSK, with added precoding / postdecoding
For new designs, use MSK instead
Table 5: Modulation trade-offs
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Programming the Chip
Setting-up the Chip
The AX5042 should be programmed according to the following guide-line, for more detailed
recommendations and descriptions see the corresponding register descriptions in the section
Register Bank Description:
1. General set-up registers
Set register AGCTARGET = 0x0E
Set bit PLLARNG=1 in register PLLRNG, otherwise auto-ranging will not work correctly
under all circumstances
Set bits RXIMIX = 01 in register RXMISC
These settings are mandatory for optimal performance of AX5042
2. Program the PLLLOOP register
Bits FLT and PLLCPI must be set to program the synthesizer loop bandwidth
Recommended settings are given in Table 6
Bit BANDSEL is programmed to select the appropriate frequency band for fCARRIER, set to 0
for 868/915 MHz band, set to 1 for 433 MHz band.
Register
settings
Characteristics
Usage
FLT
01
01
11
10
PLLCPI
111
001
111
111
Loop
bandwidth
100 kHz
50 kHz
200 kHz
500 kHz
Start-up
time
25 μs
50 μs
12 μs
5 μs
RX/TX
switch time
15 μs
30 μs
7 μs
3 μs
•
Recommended setting for all modulations, all
values of BITRATE, RX and TX
•
Mandatory for FSK, GFSK, GMSK, MSK, OQPSK
with BITRATE > 50 kHz
•
Use for TX if phase noise between 300 kHz and 1
MHz from carrier is critical
•
Cannot be used for FSK, GFSK, GMSK, MSK,
OQPSK with BITRATE > 50 kHz
•
Use to speed up start-up or switching
•
Do not use for RX or TX
•
Note that this setting will not work if an external
loop filter is connected to LPFILT
•
Use to speed up start-up or switching
•
Do not use for RX or TX
•
Note that this setting will not work if an external
loop filter is connected to LPFILT
Table 6: Recommended synthesizer loop bandwidth settings
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Programming the Chip
3. Program the frequency registers FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1, FREQ0;
f
1
FREQ =  CARRIER 2 24 +  ;
2
 f XTAL
ensure that the bit 0 of FREQ0 is set to one; this ensures that the built-in ΔΣ modulator
does not exhibit tonal behaviour. 1
For coding details and frequencies that are not selectable in 433 MHz band see the
FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1, FREQ0 register description in section 3.2: Register Descriptions.
Note that to program frequencies in the 433 MHz band registers FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1,
FREQ0 must be programmed to appropriate values and the bit BANDSEL in the PLLLOOP
register must be set to 1.
4. Program the TXPWR register according to the desired output power
5. Program the IF frequency registers IFFREQHI and IFFREQLO
 f
1
IFFREQ =  IF 217 + 
2
 f XTAL
6. Program the frequency deviation registers FSKDEV2, FSKDEV1 and FSKDEV0;
f DEVIATION =
h
BITRATE
2
f
1
FSKDEV =  DEVIATION 2 24 + 
2
 f XTAL
7. Program the transmit bit rate registers TXRATEHI, TXRATEMID and TXRATELO;
 BITRATE 24 1 
TXRATE = 
2 + 
2
 f XTAL
8. Program the receiver IF bandwidth registers CICDECHI and CICDECLO
 1.5 ⋅ f XTAL 
CICDEC = 

 8 ⋅1.2 ⋅ BW 
, if TMGCORRFRAC>16, or
 1.5 ⋅ f XTAL 
CICDEC = 

 8 ⋅1.4 ⋅ BW  , if TMGCORRFRAC≤16,
with
1
x 
BW = (1 + h) BITRATE
denotes the floor function of the real number x. It returns the highest integer less than or equal to x.
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Programming the Chip
Note that CICDEC must lie between 2≤CICDEC≤512. If the above formulas result in a
CICDEC less than 2, the chosen bandwidth is too high. Reduce the bit rate, or in the case
of FSK, the modulation factor h. If the resulting CICDEC value is larger than 512, the
chosen bandwidth is too narrow and not supported by the channel filter. Increase the
bandwidth (set CICDEC to 512). The chip will work with BW>(1+h)BITRATE, at somewhat
reduced sensitivity.
9. Determine the FSK over-sampling factor FSKMUL
For modulations other than FSK, GFSK and GMSK, FSKMUL=1.
For FSK, GFSK and GMSK, first, make sure TMGCORRFRAC fulfils the following inequality:
TMGCORRFRAC ≥
f XTAL
4 ⋅ BITRATE ⋅ CICDEC
Then compute FSKMUL:




1

FSKMUL = 
1

 4 ⋅ BITRATE ⋅ CICDEC
+


TMGCORRFRA
C
f
XTAL


The resulting FSKMUL value must lie between 1 and 4 (inclusive). If FSKMUL>4, then h is
larger than the supported maximum value, i.e. the deviation is too large compared to
the given bit rate. In this case h and thus also the deviation must be reduced.
10. Program the modulation register MODULATION according to Table 7.
For FSK and GFSK use the calculation of FSKMUL to determine the correct FSK or GFSK
over-sampling mode. Note that for RX operation there is no difference between shaped
and non-shaped modulations. For GMSK chose GFSK and use h = 0.5.
MODULATION bits
FSKMUL
Meaning
0000
1
ASK
0010
1
ASK Shaped
0100
1
PSK
0101
1
PSK Shaped
0110
1
OQSK
0111
1
MSK
1000
1
1001
2
1010
3
1011
4
1100
1
1101
2
1110
3
1111
4
FSK
GFSK
Table 7: Modulation register programming
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Programming the Chip
11. Program the receiver bit rate registers DATARATEHI and DATARATELO

210 f XTAL
1
+ 
DATARATE = 
 BITRATE ⋅ CICDEC ⋅ FSKMUL 2 
12. Program the timing recovery dynamics registers TMGGAINHI and TMGGAINLO
 FSKMUL ⋅ DATARATE 1 
+ 
TMGGAIN = 
2
 TMGCORRFRAC
DATARATE and TMGGAIN must fulfil the following inequality in order to function correctly:
DATARATE ≥ TMGGAIN + 212
The bandwidth computation in point 8 above and the condition on TMGCORRFRAC in
point 9 above ensure that this inequality holds.
13. Program the tracking loop dynamics registers PHASEGAIN, FREQGAIN, FREQGAIN2 and
AMPLGAIN according to Table 8:
PHASEGAIN
FREQGAIN
FREQGAIN2
AMPLGAIN
ASK
0
6
6
6
PSK, MSK,
OQPSK
3
6
6
6
(G)FSK, GMSK
3
3
6
6
Modulation
Table 8: Tracking loop dynamics register values
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Programming the Chip
14. Program the AGC dynamics registers AGCATTACK and AGCDECAY according Table 9.
Modulation
Register
Recommended Setting
ASK
AGCATTACK

 BITRATE 

AGCATTACK = 27 + log 2 

 10 ⋅ f XTAL 
ASK
AGCDECAY

 BITRATE
AGCDECAY = 27 + log 2 
 100 ⋅ f XTAL

(G)FSK, (G)MSK,
(OQ)PSK
AGCATTACK

 BITRATE 

AGCATTACK = 27 + log 2 
 f XTAL 

(G)FSK, (G)MSK,
(OQ)PSK
AGCDECAY

 BITRATE 

AGCDECAY = 27 + log 2 

 10 ⋅ f XTAL 



Table 9: AGC dynamics register values
15. Program the ENCODING register according to the desired bit encoding
16. Program the FRAMING register according to the desired framing mode
17. Program the IFMODE register according to the desired interfacing mode
18. Program the PINCFG1, PINCFG2, PINCFG3 according to the desired pin usage
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Programming the Chip
2.2.
Synthesizer VCO Auto-Ranging
Whenever the frequency or the environment (e.g. temperature, voltage) of the chip
changes, the synthesizer VCO should be set to the correct range using the built-in autoranging. A re-ranging of the VCO is required if the frequency change required is larger than 5
MHz in the 868/915 MHz band or 2.5 MHz in the 433 MHz band.
Figure 11 shows the flow chart of the auto-ranging process.
Set RNGSTART of
PLLRANGING
yes
RNGSTART == 1?
no
yes
RNGERR == 1?
Error
no
Figure 11: Synthesizer VCO auto-ranging flow chart
Before starting the auto-ranging, the frequency registers (FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1 and FREQ0)
need to be programmed, and the chip should be in SYNTHRX or SYNTHTX mode.
Auto-ranging starts at the VCOR (register PLLRANGING) setting; if you already know the
approximately correct synthesizer VCO range, you should set VCOR to this value prior to
starting auto-ranging; this can speed up the ranging process considerably. If you have no
prior knowledge about the correct range, set VCOR to 8. Starting with VCOR < 6 should be
avoided, as the initial synthesizer frequency can exceed the maximum frequency
specification.
Furthermore, make sure that before starting the auto-ranging, the bit PLLARNG=1 in register
PLLRNG, otherwise auto-ranging will not work correctly under all circumstances. This setting
can be done once at chip power-on.
Hardware clears the RNG_START bit automatically as soon as the ranging is finished; the
device may be programmed to deliver an interrupt on resetting of the RNG_START bit.
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2.3.
AFC
Commercial crystals only have a limited accuracy. Furthermore, since the crystal runs at a
fraction of the RF carrier frequency, any crystal frequency offset is multiplied by the
synthesizer by approximately a factor of 25 or 50, depending on the RF frequency band.
While the receiver does have automatic frequency tracking, it can only track incoming
signals that fall within its digital channel filter pass-band. It is therefore important to transmit
and receive on the correct frequency. The smaller the bit rate, the higher the accuracy
requirements for the reference crystal.
There are three primary methods to deal with frequency offset:
•
Frequency Tracking
•
Frequency Acquisition
•
Factory Calibration
Frequency Tracking is automatically performed by the chip.
Whenever the frequency uncertainties are larger than the maximum tracking range of the
frequency tracking logic, Frequency Acquisition and/or Factory Calibration may be used to
augment Frequency Tracking.
As an example, consider a 433 MHz communication system utilizing a 16 MHz reference
frequency with ±10 ppm frequency uncertainty. This translates into a RF carrier frequency
uncertainty of 4.33 kHz. Since both the receiver and the transmitter will exhibit this
uncertainty, the maximum frequency offset is ±8.66 kHz. For bit rates ≥40 kbit/s, the built in
frequency tracking circuit is enough (the following section lists the maximum frequency
offsets for frequency tracking). For lower bit rates, Frequency Acquisition, Factory Calibration
or a better reference frequency accuracy must be used in addition to Frequency Tracking.
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Programming the Chip
Frequency Tracking
The receiver contains circuitry to compensate for transmitter frequency offsets. This circuitry is
fully automatic. The current frequency offset can be read out from the TRKFREQLO and
TRKFREQHI registers. These registers are valid whenever the receiver is locked to a transmit
signal.
The frequency tracking circuitry can compensate offsets up to approximately ±½⋅BITRATE in
FSK mode, and up to approximately ±¼⋅⋅BITRATE in PSK mode. In ASK mode, the frequency
tracking circuitry is not used, the received signal must simply pass the receiver filter.
The frequency tracking logic can also be used to compensate for environmental conditions
and crystal aging. To do this, the receiver should monitor frequency offsets over long
timeframes. To make sure that a valid transmit signal is present, the receiver should read the
tracking registers immediately after receiving a correct packet. If the observed frequency is
consistently off the expected frequency over a longer timeframe, the micro-controller can
assume that its crystal has drifted off and should compensate for the frequency change.
Compensation should be performed by changing the frequency registers (FREQ3, FREQ2,
FREQ1 and FREQ0) accordingly.
The exact algorithm for the frequency compensation varies widely with MAC protocol and
other system considerations, but the following guidelines are recommended:
•
In a peer-to-peer scenario with two stations, both stations should adjust only their
receive frequency, to avoid instability of the whole system.
•
In a master-slave system with higher quality masters, only the slaves should adjust both
their receive and transmit frequencies.
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Frequency Acquisition
Frequency Acquisition makes use of the on-chip Frequency Tracking hardware with
progressively narrower bandwidths to widen the range of initial frequency offsets that can be
dealt with.
One side transmits a long preamble (or even just an unmodulated carrier), during which the
other side measures the frequency of this transmit signal. This frequency acquisition step can
be performed during system setup, upon user interaction, or before each transmission.
On the receiver side, the frequency tracking circuit is used to measure the signal frequency.
This is possible because the frequency tracking circuit works at approximately 10dB lower
signal levels than where data reception is possible. So the receiver should perform the
following actions:
1. Set the receiver to FSK, bandwidth approximately 10 times the desired modulation
bandwidth. FSK should be used during acquisition irrespective of the data transmission
modulation. Also, DATARATE should be set to 0x1000, which results in a datarate being
tied to the filter bandwidth, and having no relationship to the actual transmission
datarate. Furthermore, TMGGAIN should be set to 0 to disable timing acquisition.
2. Wait until TRKFREQHI, TRKFREQLO is settled (see section 2.6 for the time required for
TRKFREQHI, TRKFREQLO settling)
3. Read TRKFREQHI, TRKFREQLO, and compute the offset that needs to be applied to
FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1, FREQ0
4. Repeat steps 1—3 with approximately 3 times the modulation bandwidth
5. Set the receiver to the modulation parameters, and start receiving
6. Check the received data for plausibility — start over if only garbage is received, as
there may not have been a carrier transmitted during acquisition.
The AX5042-RNG Range Evaluation Kit contains example software to perform Frequency
Acquisition.
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Programming the Chip
Factory Calibration
Factory calibration cannot be done in-system as it involves the use of external measurement
equipment.
In order to be able to calibrate the crystal, one needs to measure its frequency. The
recommended method to measure its frequency is to use the SYSCLK pin, which can be
programmed to output the crystal clock frequency (or a fraction of it). Directly probing the
CLK16P or CLK16N pins is not recommended, as the load capacitance of the measuring
equipment will change the frequency of the crystal.
An alternative method to measure the actual crystal frequency is to transmit an RF signal on
a nominal frequency, and then measure the deviation of the actual transmit signal
frequency from the nominal one with an RF counter. Measurements with a spectrum analyzer
are generally not accurate enough.
Once the actual crystal frequency is known, it is recommended to correct for the crystal
frequency deviation by changing the frequency registers (FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1 and
FREQ0) accordingly.
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2.4.
Receive and Transmit
The chip offers two basic modes for receiving and transmitting data:
•
Wire Mode can be seen as a UART interface and transmits all bits received over the
air
•
Frame Mode communicates over a SPI interface, and sends framed data from a
dedicated FIFO
Wire Mode
In both the synchronous and the asynchronous wire mode, no registers need to be accessed
during receive and transmit, once the FULLRX / FULLTX mode has been entered. Data is
exchanged with the micro-controller or other circuitry using the dedicated pins DATA and
DCLK.
Frame Mode
During receive and transmit, the software communicates with the receiver and the
transmitter through a 10 bit wide and 3 levels deep FIFO.
Figure 12 shows the FIFO write process and Figure 13 shows the FIFO read process.
FIFO full, empty, overrun and underrun flags are also transmitted during the status phase of
SPI transfers. See section 1.3: SPI Register Access and Table 1: Status register bits for details.
FIFO flags may also be used to generate interrupts.
yes
yes
FIFOFULL == 1?
FIFOEMPTY == 1?
no
no
Read Bits 9:8 from FIFOCTRL[7:6]
Read Bits 7:0 from FIFODATA[7:0]
Write Bits 9:8 to FIFOCTRL[1:0]
Write Bits 7:0 to FIFODATA[7:0]
Figure 12: Write FIFO flow chart
Figure 13: Read FIFO flow chart
Bits [7:0] are data information in both read and write. During a write access to the FIFO, Bits 9
and 8 hold the FIFOCMD[1:0] bits of the FIFOCTRL register. During a read access to the FIFO,
Bits 9 and 8 are read from FIFOSTAT[1:0] of the FIFOCTRL register bits[7:6]. The function of
these bits depends on the framing mode (for more information see following sections). The
device offers two different framing modes, namely HDLC and 802.15.4 (ZigBee). Additionally,
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Programming the Chip
Raw Mode allows the implementation of legacy protocols in software. FIFO operation differs
slightly depending on the framing mode.
Write Access:
Bits 9 and 8 hold the bits FIFOCMD[1:0] of the FIFOCTRL
register during a write access to the FIFO.
FIFO
9 8
7
6
5
4
FIFOCMD
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
3
2
1
FIFO
9 8
0
FIFODATA
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
FIFOCTRL[1:0]
Read Access:
During a read access to the FIFO Bits 9 and 8 are read
from FIFOSTAT[1:0] of the FIFOCTRL register Bits[7:6].
7
6
5
FIFOCMD
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
4
3
2
1
0
FIFODATA
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
FIFOSTAT[1:0]
HDLC
In HDLC mode, frames start and end with the bit pattern 01111110.
HDLC uses bit-stuffing: In order to ensure that no bit pattern inside the frame can be
erroneously detected as a frame end, the transmitter inserts a 0 bit after five consecutive one
bits; the receiver automatically removes those inserted 0 bits, making the process transparent
to the user.
At the end of a HDLC frame, a checksum is transmitted. Seven or more consecutive one bits
are treated as an ABORT, causing the current packet to be discarded. See [4] for a more
elaborate description of HDLC.
In HDLC mode the meaning of the additional 2 bits in the 10 bit FIFO describe the content of
FIFODATA[7:0]:
Bit [9:8]
Transmit
FIFOCTRL[1:0]
Receive
FIFOSTAT[1:0]
Data Byte (bit stuffed)
Data Byte
01
CRC Byte
Packet End (Data holds status information)
Packet End is also an indication for Packet Start
Status Information
Bit[3]=1:
CRC ok
Bit[2:0]=110: full byte transfers only
10
Not used
Abort detected
11
RAW Byte (not bit-stuffing, CRC is initialized)
Used for flags (e.g. EOF)
Abort detected
00
Table 10: HDLC mode bits
In transmit the bits [9:8] describe the type of data in the FIFODATA[7:0] to be transmitted. This
controls the internal framing block and enables or disables bit stuffing for data or flags,
respectively. It also initiates CRC calculation. However the flag content and the CRC bytes
have to be written by the host processor according to the sequence shown in Figure 14. The
number of CRC bytes has to be chosen according to the type of CRC chosen in the
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Programming the Chip
FRAMING register (16 bit or 32 bit). For CRC insertion it does not matter what is written in the
CRC bytes, as the chip will calculate the CRC value and will change the values.
In receive the bits [9:8] describe the type of data received. If an end of packet delimiter flag
is detected, the chip automatically evaluates the CRC and sets the bits [3:0] of the data in
the flag to signal the result of the CRC.
Data Packet
CRC Packet
Transmit
Receive
0
0
FIFODATA[7:0]
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
write 2 or 4 times
0
0
FIFODATA[7:0]
0
1
x
x
x
x
1
1
1
0
x
x
x
CRC received and ok
0
1
x
x
x
x
0
CRC received and failed
1
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Abort detected
HDLC Flag Packet
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
HDLC Packet delimiter
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1
1
x
x
x
Abort detected
AND9354/D
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Programming the Chip
Preamble
Figure 14 shows the HDLC transmit process, while Figure 15 shows the HDLC receive process.
Write ten times 0x3AA to FIFO
(Preamble for Receiver
Synchronisation)
Write 0x37E to FIFO
(HDLC Flag, Packet Delimiter)
Write Packet Bytes to FIFO
(with Bits 9:8 set to zero)
Write two times
(CRC CCITT, CRC 16)
or four times (CRC 32) 0x100 to
FIFO
Write 0x37E to FIFO
(HDLC Flag, Packet Delimiter)
yes
more packets?
no
Write two times 0x3FF to FIFO
(HDLC Abort)
no
Postamble
30
FIFO EMPTY == 1?
yes
Figure 14: HDLC transmit flow chart
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Programming the Chip
Read FIFO Word
no
Bits [9:8] == 01?
Search for delimiter
yes
Read FIFO Word
ABORT detected
discard packet
yes
Bit 9 == 1?
Packet Buffer
Overrun
discard packet
no
yes
no
no
Packet Buffer Full?
Bit 8 == 1?
Store Bits 7:0 to Packet Buffer
yes
yes
yes
Bit 3 == 1?
Bit 2:0 == 6?
no
no
CRC incorrect
discard packet
correct packet received
discard last 2 (CRC CCITT,
CRC16)
or 4 (CRC32) bytes
process packet
number of packet bits not
divisible by 8
discard packet
Figure 15: HDLC Receive Flow Chart
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Programming the Chip
RAW MODE
In Raw Mode, no framing is performed. Received bits are grouped into 8 bit bytes and stored
in the FIFO. Transmit bits are retrieved from the FIFO as 8 bit bytes and then serialized. The bits
are received and transmitted LSB first, that means that bit 0 was received first or will be
transmitted first. No byte synchronisation is performed.
Raw Mode is useful to implement legacy protocols in software on the micro-controller.
RAW SOFT-DECISION MODE
In Raw Soft-Decision Mode, no framing is performed. During receive, for each received bit, a
10-bit signed value is written into the FIFO. The sign of the value determines the received bit
value, and the magnitude indicates the likelihood of the value being correct.
This mode can be used to improve the performance of error correcting codes implemented
in software on the micro-controller.
Transmission works exactly the same as in Raw Mode.
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802.15.4
Receiver and transmitter operation differs slightly in 802.15.4 mode versus HDLC mode, due to
IEEE 802.15.4 not having a PHY CRC, and 802.15.4 determining packet length from the first
byte transmitted. See [3] for a description of the 802.15.4 PHY.
Read FIFO Word
Write four times 0x000 to FIFO
(Preamble for Receiver
Synchronisation)
no
Bits [9:0] == 0x1A7?
Write 0x0A7 to FIFO
(ZigBee Packet Start)
yes
Read FIFO Word
Write Packet Bytes to FIFO
(with Bits 9:8 set to zero)
no
Bit [9:8] == 00?
Write 1 to FABORT bit
of FRAMING register
yes
Write two times 0x000 to FIFO
Store Bits 7:0 to Packet Buffer (PKT)
yes
no
Length <= PKT[0]?
FIFO EMPTY == 1?
process packet
yes
Figure 16: 802.15.4 Transmit flow chart
Figure 17: 802.15.4 Receive flow chart
Figure 16 details the 802.15.4 transmit operation, while Figure 17 details the 802.15.4 receive
operation.
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Programming the Chip
2.5.
Interrupts
The AX5042 supports interrupts for all non-immediate actions. Interrupts, while not strictly
necessary, allow the micro-controller to perform other tasks instead of waiting for the AX5042.
The AX5042 supports level triggered interrupts.
FIFO EMPTY
IRQRQFIFONOTEMPTY
IRQINVFIFONOTEMPTY
IRQMFIFONOTEMPTY
FIFO FULL
IRQRQFIFONOTFULL
IRQINVFIFONOTFULL
IRQMFIFONOTFULL
PLL UNLOCK
IRQRQPLLUNLOCK
IRQINVPLLUNLOCK
IRQMPLLUNLOCK
PLL RANGINGDONE
IRQRQPLLRNGDONE
IRQINVPLLRNGDONE
IRQ
IRQ_TXENI
IRQMPLLRNGDONE
Figure 18: Interrupt logic diagram
Figure 18 shows the interrupt logic. The AX5042 supports 4 interrupt sources. Each source may
be individually inverted and masked. The final interrupt pin may also be inverted, to support
both level active high and level active low interrupts. Inverting and masking is configured
using registers IRQMASK, IRQREQUEST, IRQINVERSION. The bit IRQ_TXENI that is used to
invert the final interrupt can be found in register PINCFG2.
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Table 11 lists all interrupt sources, and how they can be cleared.
Source
When Active
How to Clear
FIFO Not Full
The FIFO contains less than 3 words. At least
one word can be written without causing an
overrun
Write words into the FIFO until it is full. Be
careful not to cause overruns.
FIFO Not Empty
The FIFO contains at least one word. At least
one word can be read without causing an
underrun
Read words from the FIFO until it is empty. Be
careful not to cause underruns.
PLL Unlock
PLL Ranging Done
The synthesizer has lost lock
The synthesizer has finished auto-ranging its
VCO
This interrupt can be cleared by reading the
PLLRANGING register. After switching the
synthesizer on, and after frequency changes
(including receive↔transmit switches), the
synthesizer requires some time to settle on the
correct frequency and to achieve phase lock
with the reference crystal. After that, it should
remain locked. The synthesizer losing lock
after that point indicates a severe problem.
Check the following:
•
Synthesizer programming (esp.
frequency, loop filter settings,
charge pump settings, VCO
settings) are correct
•
Synthesizer VCO has been autoranged properly
•
VDD is within spec and not too noisy
•
Temperature is within spec
•
Synthesizer is enabled
PLL Ranging Done can be cleared only by
restarting a new auto-ranging process. If no
more ranging processes are needed, mask
the interrupt.
Table 11: Interrupt sources
Edge triggered interrupts are not directly supported. In the unlikely event that the chosen
micro-controller does not support level triggered interrupts and only supports edge triggered
interrupts, they need to be emulated in software. The following C pseudo code illustrates how
this can be done:
void interrupt_handler(void)
{
acknowledge_interrupt();
do {
handle_interrupt();
} while (IRQ);
}
The first line, acknowledge_interrupt(), acknowledges the interrupt in the interrupt controller
of the micro-controller. How this is done is specific to the micro-controller in question, and
may even be implicit. The following loop handles interrupts as long as the IRQ line is still
active. It is important that the interrupt handler is not terminated before IRQ goes inactive,
because otherwise no new edges will be produced by the AX5042, and the interrupt
becomes stuck.
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Programming the Chip
Interrupt Strategies
The AX5042 supports two interrupt strategies:
1. The default strategy is to assert IRQ_TXEN as soon as there is one word in the FIFO
(receive, using the FIFONOTEMPTY interrupt) or there is one word empty space in the
FIFO (transmit, using the FIFONOTFULL interrupt). The micro-controller is required to
service the interrupt within 24 bit times (24/BITRATE) to prevent a FIFO overrun or
underrun. The micro-controller will receive one interrupt per received FIFO word
(message byte). This strategy is recommended for micro-controllers with low interrupt
overhead (which is true for most micro-controllers).
2. The second strategy is to assert IRQ_TXEN only when absolutely necessary, i.e. when
the FIFO is full (receive, using the inverted FIFONOTEMPTY interrupt) or when the FIFO is
empty (transmit, using the inverted FIFONOTEMPTY interrupt). The micro-controller will
receive one interrupt every three FIFO words (message bytes). This strategy is useful for
micro-controllers with a very high interrupt overhead. Care must be taken to avoid
FIFO overruns and underruns.
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2.6.
Preamble
At the beginning of a data transfer, a preamble must be transmitted, before the actual data
can be transmitted. The preamble has several purposes:
•
The preamble allows the power amplifier to ramp up to operational power levels. This
is not an issue with the built-in amplifier of the AX5042, which is nearly instantaneous,
but may be an issue if external amplifiers are used.
•
The preamble allows the various parts of the receiver to achieve lock
•
The preamble allows the encoder (transmitter) and the decoder (receiver) to initialise
The AX5042 /AX5051 Preamble Calculator [5] summarizes the rest of this chapter and allows
to calculate recommended preamble lengths.
Choosing the Preamble Bit Pattern
In 802.15.4, the preamble bit pattern is specified by the standards committee. This
specification, which is four bytes of 0x00, should be followed.
In all other modes, the preamble bit pattern as it enters the modulator should be chosen such
that:
•
It is DC-free, to ensure that frequency offset estimation works correctly
•
It contains as many transitions as possible
Now the transmitter cannot directly control the modulator bits, only the bits that enter the
encoder. Thus, the bytes transmitted during the preamble should be chosen according to
the selected encoder mode:
Encoder Settings
Preamble Byte
INV=X, DIFF=0, SCRAM=0, MANCH=0
0x55 or 0xAA
INV=0, DIFF=1, SCRAM=0, MANCH=0
0xFF
INV=1, DIFF=1, SCRAM=0, MANCH=0
0x00
INV=X, DIFF=X, SCRAM=1, MANCH=X
0x55 or 0xAA
INV=X, DIFF=0, SCRAM=0, MANCH=1
0x00 or 0xFF
INV=0, DIFF=1, SCRAM=0, MANCH=1
0x00
INV=1, DIFF=1, SCRAM=0, MANCH=1
0xFF
Table 12: Recommended preamble values
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AND9354/D
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38
Programming the Chip
Choosing the Preamble Duration
A recommended choice for the preamble duration for FSK is 32 bytes (TMGCORRFRAC = 32)
for full frequency offset compensation capabilities. The receiver can work with preambles as
short as 3 byte, TMGCORRFRAC must be set to 8 accordingly. With a 3 byte preamble it may
not be possible to reach optimal sensitivities and to correct for the full frequenycy offset
range. All sensitivities quoted in the AX5042 Data Sheet refer to TMGCORRFRAC = 32 and a
preamble length long enough to correct for the full frequency offset range.
The following section gives some details for a more complete understanding of the factors
affecting the preamble duration choice:
The preamble duration should be chosen to be the sum of the following components,
rounded up the next higher integral number of bytes (numbers below are given in bits)
•
Power amplifier startup time. Zero for the built-in amplifier of the AX5042. Consult
documentation in case an external amplifier is used.
•
The decoder needs 18-19 bits to synchronize the descrambler, if the descrambler is
used, otherwise 1-2 bits
•
The time the receiver needs to achieve bit lock is a probabilistic process, and
depends on the bit recovery speed settings, the frequency of transitions in the
transmit signal, as well as on the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal. A
reasonable estimate would be 3⋅TMGCORRFRAC if the preamble values detailed
above are used and the scrambler is disabled, or 4⋅TMGCORRFRAC if the scrambler is
used.
•
The time the receiver needs to achieve frequency offset and phase lock is again a
probabilistic process that depends on the initial frequency offset, the signal-to-noise
ratio of the received signal, the modulation, and the bandwidth (speed) setting of
the frequency recovery loop.
o
ASK: For ASK, achieving frequency lock is not required for demodulation, so no
additional preamble for achieving frequency lock needs to be used. TRKFREQ
is valid after approximately 600-800 bits.
o
FSK: FSK frequency lock is achieved within 160 bits with FREQGAIN= 3 for the
full supported frequency offset range (±½∙BITRATE). Frequency lock time is
approximately proportional to the frequency offset, so if the frequency offset
can be guaranteed to be lower than the maximum supported range,
correspondingly shorter preambles can be used. Setting FREQGAIN=2 halves
the number of bits required for frequency lock at the expense of a slightly
worse BER performance (<1dB). For small h (h≤1), FREQGAIN=1 or FREQGAIN=0
can be used to further shorten the required number of preamble bits, at the
expense of a larger BER performance penalty.
o
PSK: PSK frequency lock is required for demodulation, and is achieved within
140 bits over the full supported offset range (±¼ ∙BITRATE). Guaranteeing lower
frequency offset does not shorten the required preamble. Additional time may
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AND9354/D
Programming the Chip
be needed to ensure lock at the correct offset, see the next section for more
information.
PSK Frequency Lock
PSK transmits information bits by using a carrier phase angle of 0 or π. The transmit waveform
is therefore periodic. The frequency tracking circuit can therefore lock at either the correct
offset, or the correct offset ±½⋅DATARATE. In the latter case, every second bit at the input of
the decoder will be inverted, because the receiver applies an additional π rotation per
received bit. Differential encoding is usually used together with PSK, so after differential
decoding, the bitstream will look inverted if the frequency acquisition circuitry is locked to the
correct offset ±½⋅DATARATE.
In order to prevent false lock of the frequency acquistion, the microcontroller should
periodically check whether the current frequency offset is outside the range –
¼⋅DATARATE…+¼⋅DATARATE, and restart frequency acquisition if this is the case.
The following C code fragment performs this task and should be called periodically:
if (abs((int8_t)spi_read(TRKFREQHI)) >= 0x40) {
spi_write(TRKFREQHI, 0xC0);
}
Furthermore, the preamble duration should be prolonged by the periodicity of executing this
code fragment, to ensure that the receiver is fully synchronized before packet data is
transmitted.
For example, if 100 kbit/s PSK is used and this fragment is executed once per millisecond (ms),
the preamble should be prolonged by 1ms or 100 bits.
2.7.
Postamble
After the data is transmitted, the micro-controller must write two additional postamble bytes
to the FIFO. These bytes are used to clear the transmit pipeline. Their contents do not matter;
HDLC flags can be used in HDLC mode.
After these preamble bytes are written to the FIFO, the micro-controller must wait until the
FIFO is fully drained (empty). Only then can the transmitter be turned off.
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AND9354/D
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40
Programming the Chip
2.8.
RSSI
A first order approximation of the received signal strength (RSSI) is
RSSI1 = − AGCCOUNTER • 0.625dB − C1
C1 is a constant that is hardware specific. For the AX5042-DVK it is 38 dBm.
The first order approximation degrades for low S/N and low bit rates.
A more accurate RSSI formula is
RSSI2 = − AGCCOUNTER[7:1] • 1.25dB + 20 • log10(
+ {C2 − 80 • log10(CICDEC ) + 6 • CICSHIFT }
TRKAMPL
)
0 x8000
= − AGCCOUNTER[7:1] • 1.25dB + 20 • log10(TRKAMPL)
+ {C2 − 80 • log10(CICDEC ) + 6 • CICSHIFT − 20 • log10 (0 x8000)}
As soon as the device has been set-up according to section 2: Programming the Chip the
register CICSHIFT can be read and the term in {} can be pre-computed. C2 is a
hardware specific constant, for the AX5042-DVK it is 18 dBm for 433 MHz, 16 dBm for 868
MHz, and 16 dBm for 915MHz. The formula for RSSI2 does not need to be computed with
double precision floating point. It can be approximated precisely using a few integer shifts
and adds. The following code is used in the AX5042-DVK firmware:
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AND9354/D
Programming the Chip
/** \brief RSSI correction table
*
* This table contains the values of 80*log10(x) for 0.5<=x<1.0
*/
static const int8_t yf_rssilogtable[32] = {
-24, -23, -22, -21, -20, -19, -18, -17,
-16, -15, -15, -14, -13, -12, -11, -11,
-10, -9, -9, -8, -7, -7, -6, -5,
-5, -4, -3, -3, -2, -2, -1, -1
};
/**
* \brief Return bandwidth specific AGC reference level
*
* Due to the gain of internal filters, the reference level for the
* AGC routine is bandwidth specific. This routine computes the AGC
* reference level. It is 16dBm-80*log10(CICDEC)+6*CICSHIFT
* \returns the bandwidth specific AGC reference level in dBm
*/
static int8_t yellowfoot_get_agcref(void)
{
// 240: 80*log10(1024)
// 16: board specific reference level
int8_t r = 16-240;
uint16_t t = spi_read16(AX5042_REG_CICDECHI);
if (!t)
return -128;
while (t < 512) {
t <<= 1;
r += 24;
}
t >>= 4;
r -= yf_rssilogtable[((uint8_t)t) - 32];
r += 6 * (spi_read(AX5042_REG_CICSHIFT) & 0x1F);
return r;
}
/**
* \brief Return current AGC value
*
* \returns the current AGC value in dBm
*/
int8_t yellowfoot_get_agc(void)
{
int16_t agc = spi_read(AX5042_REG_AGCCOUNTER) & 0xfe;
uint16_t trkampl = spi_read16(AX5042_REG_TRKAMPLITUDEHI);
if (!trkampl)
return -128;
agc <<= 1;
agc += (agc >> 2);
agc = -agc;
while (trkampl < 0x4000) {
trkampl <<= 1;
agc -= 24;
}
trkampl >>= 9;
agc += yf_rssilogtable[((uint8_t)trkampl) - 32];
return (int8_t)(agc >> 2) + yellowfoot_get_agcref();
}
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42
Register Bank Description
3.
Register Bank Description
This section describes the bits of the register bank in detail. The registers are grouped by
functional block to facilitate programming.
No checks are made whether the programmed combination of bits makes sense! Bit 0 is
always the LSB.
Note Whole registers or register bits marked as reserved should be kept at their default values.
Note All addresses not documented here must not be accessed, neither in reading nor in writing.
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AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
3.1.
Control register map
Addr Name
Dir
Reset
Bit
7
6
5
Description
4
3
2
1
0
Revision & Interface Probing
0
REVISION
1
SCRATCH
R
SILICONREV(7:0)
00000010
RW 11000101
Silicon Revision
SCRATCH(7:0)
Scratch Register
Operating Mode
2
PWRMODE
RW 011-0000
RST
REFEN
XOEN
-
PWRMODE(3:0)
3
XTALOSC
RW ----0010
-
-
-
-
XTALOSCGM(3:0)
GM of Crystal Oscillator
4
FIFOCTRL
RW ------11
FIFOSTAT(1:0)
FIFO OVER
FIFO UNDER
FIFO EMPTY
FIFO Control
5
FIFODATA
RW --------
Power Mode
FIFO
FIFO FULL
FIFOCMD(1:0)
FIFODATA(7:0)
FIFO Data
Interrupt Control
6
IRQMASK
7
IRQREQUEST
RW ----0000
R
-
-
-
-
IRQMASK(3:0)
--------
-
-
-
-
IRQREQUEST(3:0)
IRQ Mask
IRQ Request
Interface & Pin Control
8
IFMODE
RW ----0011
-
-
-
-
IFMODE(3:0)
Interface Mode
0C
PINCFG1
RW 11111000
DATAZ
DCLKZ
IRQ_TXENZ
PWRUPZ
SYSCLK(3:0)
Pin Configuration 1
0D
PINCFG2
RW 00000000
DATAE
DCLKE
0E
PINCFG3
--------
-
-
-
SYSCLKR
0F
IRQINVERSION
RW ----0000
-
-
-
-
IRQINVERSION(3:0)
IRQ Inversion
RW ----0010
-
-
-
-
MODULATION(3:0)
Modulation
R
PWRUP_IRQ_TXENE
DATAI
DCLKI
IRQPTTI
PWRUPI
Pin Configuration 2
DATAR
DCLKR
IRQPTTR
PWRUPR
Pin Configuration 3
Modulation & Framing
10
MODULATION
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AND9354/D
43
44
Register Bank Description
11
ENCODING
RW ----0010
-
-
12
FRAMING
RW -0000000
-
HSUPP
14
CRCINIT3
RW 11111111
CRCINIT(31:24)
CRC Initialisation Data
15
CRCINIT2
RW 11111111
CRCINIT(23:16)
CRC Initialisation Data
16
CRCINIT1
RW 11111111
CRCINIT(15:8)
CRC Initialisation Data
17
CRCINIT0
RW 11111111
CRCINIT(7:0)
CRC Initialisation Data
-
-
ENC MANCH
CRCMODE(1:0)
ENC SCRAM
ENC DIFF
FRMMODE(2:0)
ENC INV
Encoder/Decoder Settings
FABORT
Framing settings
Synthesizer
20
FREQ3
RW 00111001
FREQ(31:24)
Synthesizer Frequency
21
FREQ2
RW 00110100
FREQ(23:16)
Synthesizer Frequency
22
FREQ1
RW 11001100
FREQ(15:8)
Synthesizer Frequency
23
FREQ0
RW 11001101
FREQ(7:0)
Synthesizer Frequency
25
FSKDEV2
RW 00000010
FSKDEV(23:16)
FSK Frequency Deviation
26
FSKDEV1
RW 01100110
FSKDEV(15:8)
FSK Frequency Deviation
27
FSKDEV0
RW 01100110
FSKDEV(7:0)
FSK Frequency Deviation
28
IFFREQHI
RW 00100000
IFFREQ(15:8)
2nd LO / IF Frequency
29
IFFREQLO
RW 00000000
IFFREQ(7:0)
2nd LO / IF Frequency
2C
PLLLOOP
RW -0011101
Reserved
BANDSEL
2D
PLLRANGING
RW 00001000 STICKY LOCK PLL LOCK
RNGERR
RNG START
VCOR(3:0)
Synthesizer VCO Auto-Ranging
–
–
TXRNG(3:0)
Transmit Power
-
PLLCPI(2:0)
FLT(1:0)
Synthesizer Loop Filter Settings
Transmitter
30
TXPWR
RW ----1000
31
TXRATEHI
RW 00001001
TXRATE(23:16)
Transmitter Bit Rate
32
TXRATEMID
RW 10011001
TXRATE(15:8)
Transmitter Bit Rate
33
TXRATELO
RW 10011010
TXRATE(7:0)
Transmitter Bit Rate
34
MODMISC
RW ––––––11
–
–
–
RW –––01010
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
reserved
PTTCLK
GATE
Misc RF Flags
Receiver
39
AGCTARGET
AGCTARGET(4:0)
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AGC Target
Must be set to 0x0E
AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
3A
AGCATTACK
RW 00010110
3B
AGCDECAY
RW 0–010011
3C
AGCCOUNTER
R
––––––––
3E
CICSHIFT
R
--000011
–
–
reserved
3E
CICDECHI
RW ––––––00
–
–
–
3F
CICDECLO
RW 00000100
CICDEC(7:0)
40
DATARATEHI
RW 00011010
DATARATE(15:8)
Data rate
41
DATARATELO
RW 10101011
DATARATE(7:0)
Data rate
42
TMGGAINHI
RW 00000000
TIMINGGAIN(15:8)
Timing Gain
43
TMGGAINLO
RW 11010101
TIMINGGAIN(7:0)
Timing Gain
44
PHASEGAIN
RW 00––0011
45
FREQGAIN
RW ––––1010
–
46
FREQGAIN2
RW ––––1010
47
AMPLGAIN
RW –––00110
48
TRKAMPLHI
R
––––––––
TRKAMPL(15:8)
Amplitude Tracking
49
TRKAMPLLO
R
––––––––
TRKAMPL(7:0)
Amplitude Tracking
4A
TRKPHASEHI
R
––––––––
4B
TRKPHASELO
R
––––––––
TRKPHASE(7:0)
Phase Tracking
4C
TRKFREQHI
R
––––––––
TRKFREQ(15:8)
Frequency Tracking
4D
TRKFREQLO
R
––––––––
TRKFREQ(7:0)
Frequency Tracking
reserved
reserved
–
reserved
AGCATTACK(4:0)
AGC Attack
AGCDECAY(4:0)
AGC Decay
AGCCOUNTER(7:0)
reserved
AGC Current Value
CICSHIFT(4:0)
–
–
CIC Shift Factor
–
CICDEC(9:8)
CIC Decimation Factor
CIC Decimation Factor
–
–
PHASEGAIN(3:0)
Phase Gain
–
–
–
FREQGAIN(3:0)
Frequency Gain
–
–
–
–
FREQGAIN2(3:0)
Frequency Gain 2
–
–
–
reserved
AMPLGAIN(3:0)
Amplitude Gain
–
–
–
–
TRKPHASE(11:8)
Phase Tracking
Misc
70
APEOVER
R/W 00000000
APEOVER
OSCAPE
72
PLLVCOI
RW --000100
–
–
74
PLLRNG
RW 00---000
reserved
REFAPE
reserved
reserved
-
-
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APE override
Synthesizer VCO current
VCO_I(2:0)
-
reserved
Leave at default
PLLARNG
Auto-ranging internal settings
PLLARNG MUST be set to 1
AND9354/D
45
46
Register Bank Description
7C
REF
RW ––100011
–
–
7D
RXMISC
RW --110110
–
–
reserved
reserved
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REF_I(2:0)
RXIMIX(1:0)
Reference adjust
Leave at default
Misc RF settings
RXIMIX must be set to 01
AND9354/D
47
Register Bank Description
3.2.
Register Descriptions
REVISION
The register holds the revision index of the chip.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
REVISION
7:0
R
00000010
Description
Silicon Revision
SCRATCH
The SCRATCH register does not affect the function of the chip in any way. It is intended for
the micro-controller to test communication to the AX5042.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
SCRATCH
7:0
R
11000101
Description
Scratch Register
PWRMODE
This register controls the powering and reset of the various blocks of the chip.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
RST
7
RW
0
REFEN
6
RW
1
Reference Enable; for usage see see Table 2:
PWRMODE and APEOVER register states and
Table 3: PWRUP and IRQ_TXEN pin states
XOEN
5
RW
1
Crystal Oscillator Enable, for usage see Table 2:
PWRMODE and APEOVER register states and
Table 3: PWRUP and IRQ_TXEN pin states
3:0
RW
0000
PWRMODE
Description
Reset; setting this bit to 1 resets the whole chip.
This bit does not auto-reset – the chip remains in
reset state until this bit is cleared.
Powermode; see Table 2: PWRMODE and
APEOVER register states and Table 3: PWRUP and
IRQ_TXEN pin states
Note The REFEN/XOEN bits have no effect unless PWRMODE is set to 0001.
Note Use the register APEOVER to power the chip down completely.
Note Before RST can be written to 1, the SPI interface of the chip needs to be reset. This is done by
setting the SEL line to high.
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AND9354/D
48
Register Bank Description
XTALOSC
This register controls the transconductance of the crystal oscillator. Optimal settings will
depend on the characteristics of the specific crystal that is used. For a table containing the
values as a function of the register settings see the AX5042 Datasheet.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
XTALOSCGM
3:0
RW
0010
Transconductance of the crystal oscillator
FIFOCTRL
This register is used to send control commands that depend on the selected frame mode
and holds the FIFO status information. For further information on FIFO settings see section 2.4:
Receive and Transmit and the register FIFODATA.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
FIFOCMD
1:0
RW
11
FIFO EMPTY
2
R
-
FIFO is empty if 1
FIFO FULL
3
R
-
FIFO is full if 1; if 1 the FIFO contains 3 words
-
FIFO underrun occurred since last read of FIFOCTRL
when 1. This bit is set when a read operation by the
transmitter (transmit mode) or the micro-controller
(receive mode) was attempted while the FIFO was
empty.
FIFO UNDER
FIFO OVER
FIFOSTAT
4
R
Description
FIFO command bits (written to FIFO during next write
to FIFODATA); see section 2.4: Receive and Transmit
for information on the exact operation of these bits
5
R
-
FIFO over run occurred since last read of FIFOCTRL
when 1. This bit is set when a write operation by the
receiver (receive mode) or the micro-controller
(transmit mode) was attempted while the FIFO was
full.
7:6
R
-
FIFO Status bits associated with current FIFO top
word; see section 2.4: Receive and Transmit for exact
operation of these bits
Note The FIFO OVER bit may also accidentally be set when the FIFO is completely empty.
FIFODATA
This register is used to read from and write to the 3 level x 10 bit FIFO. For further information
on FIFO settings see section 2.4 Receive and Transmit and the register FIFOCTRL.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
FIFODATA
7:0
RW
-
Description
FIFO access register
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AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
IRQMASK
This register allows to mask or de-mask interrupts. For further information on interrupt related
settings see section 2.5: Interrupts and the registers IRQREQUEST and IRQINVERSION as well
as PINCFG1 and PINCFG2.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
IRQMFIFONOTEMPTY
0
RW
0
FIFO not empty interrupt enable
IRQMFIFONOTFULL
1
RW
0
FIFO not full interrupt enable
IRQMPLLUNLOCK
2
RW
0
Synthesizer lock lost interrupt enable
IRQMPLLRNGDONE
3
RW
0
Synthesizer auto-ranging done interrupt enable
IRQREQUEST
This register indicates pending interrupts. For further information on interrupt related settings
see section 2.5: Interrupts and the register IRQMASK and IRQINVERSION as well as PINCFG1
and PINCFG2.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
IRQRQFIFONOTEMPTY
0
R
-
FIFO not empty interrupt pending
IRQRQFIFONOTFULL
1
R
-
FIFO not full interrupt pending
IRQRQPLLUNLOCK
2
R
-
Synthesizer lock lost interrupt pending
IRQRQPLLRNGDONE
3
R
-
Synthesizer auto-ranging done interrupt pending
IFMODE
This register is used to configure the interface mode of the AX5042.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
IFMODE
3:0
RW
0011
See Table 13
IFMODE Bits
Meaning
0000
Frame Mode
0010
Synchronous Wire Mode
0011
Asynchronous Wire Mode (RS232)
Table 13: Interface mode bit values
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AND9354/D
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50
Register Bank Description
PINCFG1
This register allows to configure some of the AX5042 pins if they have been set-up to function
as General Purpose I/O (GPIO) pins in register PINCFG2.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
SYSCLK
3:0
RW
1000
See Table 14
PWRUPZ
4
RW
1
1: configure PWRUP Pin as input (tri-state)
0: configure PWRUP Pin as output
The bit is only active if PWRUPE = 1
IRQ_TXENZ
1: configure IRQ_TXEN Pin as input (tri-state)
5
RW
1
0: configure IRQ_TXEN Pin as output
The bit is only active if IRQ_TXENE = 1
DCLKZ
1: configure DCLK Pin as input (tri-state)
6
RW
1
0: configure DCLK Pin as output
The bit is only active if DCLKE = 1
DATAZ
1: configure DATA Pin as input (tri-state)
7
RW
1
0: configure DATA Pin as output
The bit is only active if DATAE = 1
SYSCLK Bits
Meaning
0000
SYSCLK Pin as Output ’0’
0001
SYSCLK Pin as Output ’1’
0010
SYSCLK Pin as input (tri-state)
0011
SYSCLK Output inverted fXTAL
0100
SYSCLK Output fXTAL
0101
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/2
0110
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/4
0111
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/8
1000
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/16
1001
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/32
1010
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/64
1011
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/128
1100
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/256
1101
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/512
1110
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/1024
1111
SYSCLK Output fXTAL/2048
Table 14: SYSCLK bit values
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AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
PINCFG2
This register allows to configure some of the AX5042 pins to function as General Purpose I/O
(GPIO) pins rather than having their special default function.
Bits PWRUP_IRQ_TXENE, DCLKE and DATAE are used to enable the special function of the
respective pin or set it to GPIO.
Bits PWRUPI, IRQ_TXENI, DCLKI and DATAI are used to set the state of the pins, if defined as
GPIO and configured as output in PINCFG1. If the pins are configured as special function
pins, these bits are used to chose if the output signal should be inverted.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
PWRUPI
0
RW
0
IRQ_TXENI
1
RW
0
DCLKI
2
RW
0
DATAI
3
RW
0
5:4
RW
00
PWRUP_IRQ_TXENE
Description
GPIO pin
Special pin
0: set PWRUP pin to ‘1’
0: no output inversion
1: set PWRUP pin to ‘0’
1: invert output
0: set IRQ_TXEN pin to ‘1’
0: no output inversion
1: set IRQ_TXENpin to ‘0’
1: invert output
0: set DCLK pin to ‘1’
0: no output inversion
1: set DCLK pin to ‘0’
1: invert output
0: set DATA pin to ‘1’
0: no output inversion
1: set DATA pin to ‘0’
1: invert output
00: Enable special function: PWRUP, IRQ_TXEN
11: PWRUP and IRQ_TXEN pins are GPIO pins
01, 10: Invalid values, do not use
DCLKE
6
RW
0
DATAE
7
RW
0
0: Enable special function: DCLK
1: DCLK pin is a GPIO pin
0: Enable special function: DATA
1: DATA pin is a GPIO pin
PINCFG3
GPIO state register: This register holds the signals on the GPIO pins. It can be used to read
signals, if PINCFG1 configures the respective pin as input.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
PWRUPR
0
R
–
Logic State of PWRUP Pin
IRQ_TXENR
1
R
–
Logic State of IRQ_TXEN Pin
DCLKR
2
R
–
Logic State of DCLK Pin
DATAR
3
R
–
Logic State of DATA Pin
SYSCLKR
4
R
–
Logic State of SYSCLK Pin
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Register Bank Description
IRQINVERSION
This register allows to invert the logic levels of the level-triggered interrupts.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
IRQINVFIFONOTEMPTY
0
RW
0
FIFO not empty interrupt inversion
IRQINVFIFONOTFULL
1
RW
0
FIFO not full interrupt inversion
IRQINVPLLUNLOCK
2
RW
0
Synthesizer lock lost interrupt inversion
IRQINVPLLRNGDONE
3
RW
0
Synthesizer auto-ranging done interrupt inversion
MODULATION
This register is used to configure the modulation type to be used in data transfers. For a
programming guide and coding information see section 2.1: Programming the Chip and
Table 7: Modulation register programming
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
MODULATION
3:0
RW
0010
Description
See Table 7: Modulation register programming
ENCODING
The register configures the encoder.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
ENC INV
0
RW
0
Invert data if set to 1
ENC DIFF
1
RW
1
Differential encode / decode data if set to 1
ENC SCRAM
2
RW
0
Enable scrambler / descrambler if set to 1
ENC MANCH
3
RW
0
Enable manchester encoding / decoding. FM0/FM1
may be achieved by also appropriately setting ENC
DIFF and ENC INV
The intention of the scrambler is the removal of tones contained in the transmit data, i.e. to
randomize the transmit spectrum. The scrambler polynomial is 1+X12+X17, it is therefore
compatible to the K9NG/G3RUH Satellite Modems.
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AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Figure 19: Scrambler operation
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16
Figure 20: Descrambler operation
Figure 19 shows a schematic circuit diagram for the scrambler, and Figure 20 for the descrambler. The numbered boxes represent a delay by one bit.
NRZ
1
1
0
0
1
0
NRZI
FM1 (Biphase Mark)
FM0 (Biphase Space)
Manchester
Figure 21: Customary telecom encoding modes
Figure 21 shows a few well known encoding formats used in telecom and Table 15 describes
them.
Name
Bits
Description
NRZ
INV=0, DIFF=0,
SCRAM=0, MANCH=0
NRZ represents 1 as a high signal level, 0 as a low signal level. NRZ
performs no change
NRZI
INV=1, DIFF=1,
SCRAM=0, MANCH=0
NRZI represents 1 as no change in the signal level, and 0 as a change
in the signal level. NRZI is recommended for HDLC. The HDLC bit
stuffing ensures that there are periodic zeros and thus transitions, and
the encoding is inversion invariant, and therefore useable for PSK.
FM1
INV=1, DIFF=1,
SCRAM=0, MANCH=1
FM1 (Biphase Mark) always ensures transitions at bit edges. It encodes
1 as a transition at the bit center, and 0 as no transition at the bit
center.
FM0
INV=0, DIFF=1,
SCRAM=0, MANCH=1
FM0 (Biphase Space) always ensures transitions at bit edges. It
encodes 1 as no transition at the bit center, and 0 as a transition at
the bit center.
Manchester
INV=0, DIFF=0,
SCRAM=0, MANCH=1
Manchester encodes 1 as a 10 pattern, and 0 as a 01 pattern.
Manchester is not inversion invariant.
Table 15: Customary telecom modes description
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54
Register Bank Description
Guidelines:
•
Manchester, FM0, and FM1 are not recommended for new systems, as they double
the bit rate
•
In HDLC mode, use NRZI, NRZI+Scrambler, or NRZ+Scrambler. If HDLC is to be
transmitted over PSK, NRZI and NRZI+Scrambler are valid choices.
•
In 802.15.4, use NRZ mode.
•
In Raw Modes, the choice depends on the legacy system to be implemented.
FRAMING
This register sets the framing mode and the CRC type.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
0
S
0
FRMMODE
3:1
RW
000
Defines framing type. See Table 16
CRCMODE
5:4
RW
00
Defines the CRC type. See Table 17
6
RW
0
FABORT
HSUPP
FRMMODE Bits
Description
Write 1 to abort current HDLC packet
Suppress unneeded abort / flag / data indications
Meaning
000
Raw
001
Raw, Soft-Decision
010
HDLC
110
802.15.4
111
Reserved for future use
Table 16: Frame mode bit values
CRCMODE Bits
Meaning
00
CCITT (16bit)
01
CRC-16
10
CRC-32
11
Invalid
Table 17: CRC mode bit values
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AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
CRCINIT3, CRCINIT2, CRCINIT1, CRCINIT0
This register can be used to set the reset value of the CRC calculation. Normally this register is
left at all ones.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
CRCINIT
31:0
RW
0xFFFFFFFF
Description
CRC Reset Value; normally all ones
FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1, FREQ0
These registers are used to set the carrier frequency.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
Frequency;
FREQ
31:0
RW
0x3934CCCD
f
1
FREQ =  CARRIER 2 24 + 
2
 f XTAL
Note that to program frequencies in the 433 MHz band registers FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1,
FREQ0 must be programmed to appropriate values and the bit BANDSEL in the PLLLOOP
register must be set to 1.
In 868/915 MHz band mode, swap bits 23 and 24 of the frequency register.
In the 433 MHz band mode some frequencies are not selectable. Specifically, the following
divider ratios are not achievable:
Divider (fCARRIER/fXTAL)
Carrier Frequency (fXTAL=16MHz)
From
To
From (MHz)
To (MHz)
…
…
…
…
24.25
24.50
388
392
25.50
25.75
408
412
26.25
26.50
420
424
27.50
27.75
440
444
28.25
28.50
452
456
29.50
29.75
472
476
…
…
…
…
The pattern repeats every 2 divider values or every 32 MHz for a 16 MHz crystal. In this case,
the only known work-around is to choose another crystal frequency.
The following C code illustrates the encoding and decoding that needs to be performed on
the frequency register values in the 433 MHz band. The function encode433() converts the
value computed with the frequency formula above to the value that must be written into the
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56
Register Bank Description
frequency register. abort() marks those frequencies that cannot be programmed.
decode433() reverses the computation of encode433().
uint32_t decode433(uint32_t f)
{
uint32_t f1 = f & 0x003fffff;
f1 |= -((f >> 2) & 0x00400000);
f = (f & 0xff800000) + ((f << 1) & 0x00800000) + f1;
return f;
}
uint32_t encode433(uint32_t fr)
{
uint32_t fr1 = (fr >> 22) & 7;
if (fr1 == 1 || fr1 == 6) {
abort();
}
fr &= ~0x01c00000;
if (fr1 & 1) {
fr1 -= 3;
fr |= 0x01000000;
}
if (fr1 >= 2) {
fr1 -= 2;
fr |= 0x00800000;
}
if (fr1 >= 2) {
fr1 -= 2;
fr |= 0x00400000;
}
return fr;
}
For the 868/930 MHz band the ratio
For the 433 MHz band the ratio
f CARRIER FREQ
=
should not be in the range [62.5 .. 64.5].
f XTAL
2 24
2 • f CARRIER FREQ
=
should not be in the range [62.5 .. 64.5].
f XTAL
2 23
If a 16 MHz reference crystal is used, then the above limitations on the division ratio are not
limiting for SRD frequencies.
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AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
FSKDEV2, FSKDEV1, FSKDEV0
These registers are used to set the FSK frequency deviation.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
(G)FSK Frequency Deviation
FSKDEV
23:0
RW
0x026666
f
1
FSKDEV =  DEVIATION 2 24 + 
2
 f XTAL
Note fDEVIATION is actually half the deviation. The mark frequency is fCARRIER+fDEVIATION, the space
frequency is fCARRIER–fDEVIATION. The parameter h is defined by the following equation
f DEVIATION =
h
BITRATE
2
IFFREQHI, IFFREQLO
These registers are used to set the IF frequency, for most cases the nominal frequency of
1 MHz is suitable.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
IF Frequency;
IFFREQ
23:0
RW
0x2000
 f
1
IFFREQ =  IF 217 + 
2
 f XTAL
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58
Register Bank Description
PLLLOOP
This register allows to configure the synthesizer loop bandwidth and the frequency band. For
recommendations on settings to use see Table 6: Recommended synthesizer loop bandwidth
settings.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
FLT
1:0
RW
01
PLLCPI
4:2
RW
111
BANDSEL
6:5
RW
00
FLT Bits
Description
Filter setting. See Table 18
Charge pump current multiplier
Band selection. See Table 19
Meaning
00
External Loop Filter, do not use
01
Internal Loop Filter, nominal loop filter setting
10
Internal Loop Filter, bandwidth boosted by factor 5, only works if pin LPFILT is left unconnected
11
Internal Loop Filter, bandwidth boosted by factor 2, only works if pin LPFILT is left unconnected
Table 18: Filter bit values
BANDSEL bit
Meaning
0
868/915MHz
1
433MHz
Table 19: Band selection bit values
Note that to program frequencies in the 433 MHz band registers FREQ3, FREQ2, FREQ1,
FREQ0 must be programmed to appropriate values and the bit BANDSEL in the PLLLOOP
register must be set to 1.
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AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
PLLRANGING
This register is used to initiate and control the auto-ranging of the synthesizer VCO. It also
holds the VCO range value that is currently being used. For information on how to use this
register consult section 2.2: Synthesizer VCO Auto-Ranging.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
VCOR
3:0
RW
1000
VCO Range
RNG START
4
RS
0
Synthesizer VCO auto-ranging; Write 1 to start
auto-ranging, bit clears when auto-ranging done
RNGERR
5
R
-
Ranging Error; Set when RNG START transitions
from 1 to 0 and the programmed frequency
cannot be achieved
PLL LOCK
6
R
-
PLL LOCK indicates the state of the synthesizer at
the moment of the register access.
Synthesizer is locked if 1
STICKY LOCK
7
R
-
STICKY LOCK indicates the state of synthesizer
since the last read of the register.
if 0, then the synthesizer lost lock after last read of
PLLRANGING register
TXPWR
This register programs the transmit output power level.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
TXRNG
3:0
RW
1000
Transmit Power; see AX5042 Datasheet for details.
TXRATEHI, TXRATEMID, TXRATELO
These registers set the transmit bit rate.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
Transmit Bitrate;
TXRATE
23:0
In asynchronous wire mode,
RW
BITRATE<
0x09999A
 BITRATE 24 1 
2 + 
TXRATE = 
2
 f XTAL
f XTAL
32
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60
Register Bank Description
MODMISC
The behaviour of the transmitter if the synthesizer looses lock is set with this register.
Name
PTTLCK GATE
Bits
R/W
Reset
0
RW
1
Description
if set to 1, then the transmitter is automatically
disabled if the synthesizer looses lock
AGCTARGET
This register sets the target value which the AGC control loop tries to maintain.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
AGCTARGET
4:0
RW
10110
Must be set to 0x0E
AGCATTACK
This register along with AGCDECAY controls the AGC (automatic gain control) loop slopes,
and thus the speed of the gain adjustments. The higher the bit rate, the faster the AGC loop
should be set.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
AGCATTACK
4:0
RW
01010
Description
AGC gain reduction speed;
2.5dB ⋅ f XTAL 2 AGCATTACK − 27
[dB/s]
The recommended AGCATTACK settings can be found Table 9: AGC dynamics register
values.
AGCDECAY
This register along with AGCATTACK controls the AGC (automatic gain control) loop slopes,
and thus the speed of the gain adjustments. The higher the bit rate, the faster the AGC loop
should be set.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
AGCDECAY
4:0
RW
10011
Description
AGC gain increase speed
2.5dB ⋅ f XTAL 2 AGCDECAY − 27
[dB/s]
The recommended AGCDECAY settings can be found Table 9: AGC dynamics register
values.
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AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
AGCCOUNTER
This register contains the current setting of the automatic gain control (AGC) and can be
used to calculate an RSSI value (RSSI1). See section 2.8: RSSI for details on RSSI calculation.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
AGCCOUNTER
7:0
R
-
Description
Current AGC Gain, in 0.625dB steps
CICSHIFT
This register must be read to be able to make the calculations for RSSI2, the calculation is
described in section 2.8: RSSI. CICSHIFT is updated when CICDECHI, CICDECLO are written.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
CICSHIFT
4:0
R
00100
CIC Shift factor, used for RSSI2 calculation
CICDECHI, CICDECLO
These registers set the bandwidth of the digital channel filter. For detailed information on
programming this register see section 2.1: Parameter Programming.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
CIC Decimation factor;
CICDEC
9:0
RW
0x004
 1.5 ⋅ f XTAL 
CICDEC = 

 8 ⋅1.2 ⋅ BW  , if TMGCORRFRAC>16,
or
 1.5 ⋅ f XTAL 
CICDEC = 

 8 ⋅1.4 ⋅ BW  , if TMGCORRFRAC≤16,
DATARATEHI, DATARATELO
These registers specify the receiver data-rate, relative to the channel filter bandwidth. For
detailed information on programming this register see section 2.1: Parameter Programming.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
DATARATE
15:0
RW
0x1AAB
Description

210 ⋅ f XTAL
1
DATARATE = 
+ 
BITRATE
CICDEC
FSKMUL
⋅
⋅
2 

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Register Bank Description
TMGGAINHI, TMGGAINLO
These registers specify the aggressiveness of the receiver bit timing recovery. More aggressive
settings allow the receiver to synchronize with shorter preambles, at the expense of more
timing jitter and thus a higher bit error rate at a given signal-to-noise ratio. For detailed
information on programming this register see section 2.1: Parameter Programming.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
TMGGAIN
15:0
RW
0x00D5
Description
 FSKMUL ⋅ DATARATE 1 
TMGGAIN = 
+ 
2
 TMGCORRFRAC
PHASEGAIN
This register controls the bandwidth of the phase tracking loop. For detailed information on
programming this register see section 2.1: Parameter Programming.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
PHASEGAIN
3:0
RW
0011
Bandwidth of the phase recovery loop
FREQGAIN
This register controls the bandwidth of the phase tracking loop. For detailed information on
programming this register see section 2.1: Parameter Programming.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
FREQGAIN
3:0
RW
1010
Bandwidth of the frequency recovery loop
FREQGAIN2
This register controls the bandwidth of the frequency tracking loop. For detailed information
on programming this register see section 2.1: Parameter Programming.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
FREQGAIN2
3:0
RW
1010
Bandwidth of the frequency recovery loop
AMPLGAIN
This register controls the bandwidth of the amplitude tracking loop. For detailed information
on programming this register see section 2.1: Parameter Programming.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
AMPLGAIN
3:0
RW
0110
Bandwidth of the amplitude recovery loop
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AND9354/D
Register Bank Description
TRKAMPLHI, TRKAMPLLO
This register holds the current value of the amplitude of the received signal.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
TRKAMPL
15:0
R
-
Description
Current amplitude tracking value
Used for RSSI2 calculation
This is a signed 16 bit register and should only be read using the 16 bit read access sequence.
See section 2.8: RSSI on for details on how to use this register to derive a high resolution RSSI
value (RSSI2).
TRKPHASEHI, TRKPHASELO
This register holds the current value of the phase offset to the received signal.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
TRKPHASE
11:0
R
-
Description
Current phase tracking value
This is an unsigned 16 bit register (only 12 bits used) and should only be read using the 16 bit
TRKPHASE
read access sequence.
⋅ π converts the register contents to radians.
211
TRKFREQHI, TRKFREQLO
This register holds the current value of the frequency offset of the received signal.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
TRKFREQ
15:0
R
-
Description
Current frequency tracking value
Used for AFC
This is a signed 16 bit register and should only be read using the 16 bit read access sequence.
The current frequency offset estimate is ∆f = TRKFREQ ⋅ BITRATE .
16
2
For a description of the special handling required for this register to guarantee correct PSK
reception see the section PSK Frequency Lock.
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64
Register Bank Description
APEOVER
This register gives you software control over the reference and the oscillator by overriding the
automatic power enable of these blocks. The register should only be used in accordance
with Table 2: PWRMODE and APEOVER register states.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
Description
APEOVER
7:0
RW
0x00
APE override settings
PLLVCOI
This register is used to control the current through the synthesizer VCO.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
VCO_I
2:0
RW
100
Description
Current through synthesizer VCO
Leave at default
PLLRNG
This register is used to control the synthesizer VCO auto-ranging internal settings.
Name
PLLARNG
Bits
R/W
Reset
0
RW
0
Description
Synthesizer auto-ranging internal setting
Must be set to 1
REF
This register is used to program the master reference current of the AX5042.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
REF_I
2:0
RW
011
Description
Master reference current
Leave at default
RXMISC
This register is used to program internal settings of the receiver.
Name
Bits
R/W
Reset
RXIMIX
1:0
RW
10
Description
Mixer current
Must be set to 01
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AND9354/D
References
4.
References
[1]
ON Semiconductor, AX5042 Datasheet, see http://www.onsemi.com
[2]
ON Semiconductor, AX5042 Evaluation Software, see http://www.onsemi.com
[3]
LAN MAN Standards Committee. Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC)
and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks
(LR-WPANs). IEEE Computer Society, 2003.
[4]
Wikipedia. High-Level Data Link Control. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HDLC.
[5]
ON
Semiconductor,
http://www.onsemi.com
AX5042
/AX5051
Preamble
Calculator,
see
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