EMI Filtering, USB Upstream Line Termination and ESD Protection Using the STF202 Device

AND8074/D
EMI Filtering, USB
Upstream Line Termination
and ESD Protection Using
the STF202 Device
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APPLICATION NOTE
WHAT IS A USB?
The simultaneous work of the USB system finds
expression also in the dual support in both isochronous and
asynchronous bandwidth allocation methods. Isochronous
means that the necessary bandwidth is guaranteed,
whenever the device requires it – it will be available.
Asynchronous on the other hand means that there is no
guarantee – the data will be sent whenever it will be possible
to send it. Devices, such as video and audio multimedia, that
use stream transfer, will use the isochronous method while
devices that use bulk transfer, such as printers and scanners
will use the asynchronous method.
The USB is robust. Through all the different protocol
layers there is an error detection and recovery mechanism,
which guarantees low error rate. The USB provides
detection of faulty devices and flow control mechanism,
which is built in the protocol.
USB, or Universal Serial Bus, is a peripheral bus
connectivity standard which was conceived, developed and
is supported by a group of leading companies in the
computer and telecommunication industries – Compaq,
DEC, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC and Northern Telecom.
The current standard published and implemented on most of
the USB devices is version 1.1, nevertheless, the good news
is, USB is getting even faster, USB 2.0 promises even higher
data transfer rates, up to 480 Mbps. The higher bandwidth
of USB 2.0 will allow high performance peripherals, such as
monitors, video conferencing cameras, next-generation
printers, and faster storage devices to be easily connected to
the computer via USB. The higher data rate of USB 2.0 will
also open up the possibilities of new and exciting
peripherals. USB 2.0 will be a significant step towards
providing additional I/O bandwidth and broadening the
range of peripherals that may be attached to the PC.
USB 2.0 is expected to be both forward and backward
compatible with USB 1.1. Existing USB peripherals will
operate with no change in a USB 2.0 system. Devices such
as mice, keyboards and game pads, will not require the
additional performance that USB 2.0 offers and will operate
as USB 1.1 devices. All USB devices are expected to
The Universal Serial Bus was invented and standardized
by a group of computer and peripherals manufacturers in
1995. The idea was to take the whole area of serial port and
serial bus and update it with the twenty-first century
technology. It is true that there were many standards of
communication between host computers and peripherals,
but the goal was to create a technology that combines low
speed and high speed bus activity. The technology enables
shared access for both speeds, a technology which provides
robust protocol, automatic configuring of devices and
a serial bus which is simplified and easy to plug into. All
those requirements were met with the USB standards.
The USB has become a very popular expansion to the
personal computer. The USB is not a serial port, it is a serial
bus, a fact that enables a single port on the computer to be
a link for a myriad of devices (up to 127 devices in a USB
system). We can easily chain one device to another and use
one port as a connecting point of many devices by using
a hub. This enables us to look at the USB system as a small
network of devices.
The Universal Serial Bus (USB) makes connecting
devices to your computer faster, easier and virtually
limitless. High-Speed USB devices are capable of
communicating at speeds up to 12 megabits without shutting
down and without having to open your computer.
The plug and play capability of the USB is one of its
advantages over other serial buses. This capability enables
automatic detection of a new device, which is attached into
the system, an automatic configuration of it by the host, and
an automatic detection of its detachment from the system.
The flexible attachment and detachment of devices to and
from the system allows mobility on the bus and adjustment
of the system to new devices without the need to restart the
whole system each time a new device is detected.
Another important aspect of the USB is its mid and high
speed flexibility. This feature refers to the ability of the USB
to support simultaneously medium-speed devices, (which
work in 1.5 Mbps), and high-speed devices, (which work in
12 Mbps).
© Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2015
January, 2015 − Rev. 5
1
Publication Order Number:
AND8074/D
AND8074/D
co-exist in a USB 2.0 system. The higher speed of USB 2.0
will greatly broaden the range of peripherals that may be
attached to the PC. This increased performance will also
allow a greater number of USB devices to share the available
bus bandwidth, up to the architectural limits of USB.
BUS TOPOLOGY
USB devices can be connected to the computer either
directly through the USB port on the back of the computer
or through a USB hub. The Universal Serial Bus connects
USB devices with the USB host. There is only one host on
any USB system. The USB interface to the host computer
system is referred to as the host controller.
MONITOR
TELEPHONE
COMPUTER PC
CPU
PLOTTER
KEYBOARD
MOUSE
SCANNER
HUB
PRINTER
Figure 1. Typical USB System
are bus-powered (get power from the bus), and
responsibility for bus error detection and recovery. Another
important role of the hub is to manage both full and low
speed devices. When a device is attached to the system the
hub detects the speed at which the device operates, and
through the whole communication on the bus prevents full
speed traffic from reaching low speed devices and vice
versa.
The Device is defined as everything in the USB system,
which is not a host (including hubs). A device provides one
or more USB functions. Most of the devices provide only
one function but there may be some, which provide more
than one and are called compound devices. We refer to two
kinds of devices − self powered or bus powered devices.
A device that gets its power from the bus is called bus
powered and a device which supplies its own power is called
self powered. There are two kinds of devices:
• Full-speed Devices Operate at 12 Mb/s
• Low-speed Devices Operate at 1.5 Mb/s
Figure 1 shows a typical USB system which consists of
one host, hubs and devices.
The Host in the USB system, is responsible to the whole
complexity of the protocol (simplifies the designing of USB
devices). The host controls the media access, therefore, no
one can access the bus without the required approval from
the host.
The Hub provides an interconnect point, which enables
many devices to connect to a single USB port. The logical
topology of the USB is a star structure; all the devices are
connected (logically) directly to the host. It is totally
transparent to the device what is its hub tier (the number of
hubs the data has to flow through). The hub is connected to
the USB host in the upstream direction (data flows “up” to
the host) and is connected to the USB device in the
downstream direction (data flows “down” from the host to
the device). The hubs’ main functionality is the
responsibility of detecting an attachment and detachment of
devices, handling the power management for devices that
USB LINE TERMINATION (USB 1.1 SPECIFICATION)
connects to the host either in a direct way or through a hub,
you are upstream (data flows “up” to the host) and on the
other hand, if you are the host or your port provides access
to the host then you are downstream (data flows “down”
from the host to the device). In the case of the STF202
ON Semiconductor device, it provides “upstream
termination”. Figure 2 illustrates the USB keyed connector
protocol (USB 1.1 specification information):
The Universal Serial Bus (USB) line termination is
specified in the USB 1.1 specification and the main purpose
of the line termination is to maintain the signal integrity to
minimize end user termination problems. The termination
requirement will depend on what kind of driver is used,
whether the transceiver operates in full speed (12 Mb/s) or
low speed (1.5 Mb/s), and if the port is upstream or
downstream.
As mentioned, there are two types of configuration for the
USB port, which are upstream and downstream. If your port
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AND8074/D
Series “B” Connectors
Series “A” Connectors
Series “A” plugs are always
oriented upstream towards
the host system.
Series “B” plugs are always
oriented downstream
towards the USB device.
“A” plugs
(From the USB Device)
“B” plugs
(From the Host System)
“A” receptacles
(Downstream output from
the USB Host or Hub)
“B” receptacles
(Upstream input to the USB
Device or Hub)
(Connection between
“A” plugs and “A”
receptacles)
(Connection between
“B” plugs and “B”
receptacles)
Figure 2.
• Series “A” receptacle mates with a Series “A” plug.
•
•
•
on the D+ and D− lines, so if a 15 kW pull down resistor is
connected on either the D+ or D− line, the port is identified
as downstream and in the other hand, if a 1.5 kW pull up
resistor is connected on either the D+ or D− line, the port is
identified as upstream. Figure 3 illustrates the termination
for an upstream USB port.
The USB Line termination is reached through the series
resistors placed in the D+ and D− lines. These resistors
ensure the proper termination to maintain the integrity of the
signal. The pull up resistor of 1.5 kW on either the D+ or D−
data lines is used to identify the line as an upstream port.
In addition to the identification of downstream or
upstream port through the values of the pull down or pull up
resistors, it is important to identify the speed operation of the
port which is determined as follows: if the pull up resistor
(Rpu) is connected to the D+ line, the port is identified as
full-speed operation (12 Mb/s) and if the pull up resistor
(Rpu) is connected to the D− line the port is identified as
low-speed operation (1.5 Mb/s).
According to the USB 1.1 specification, the USB
differential driver line must match the cable impedance in
order to maintain the signal integrity & reduce signal
reflections. The USB twisted pair cable has a characteristic
impedance of (Zo) of 90 W ±15%.
For a CMOS driver implementation, the CMOS driver’s
impedance will be significantly less than this resistance, so
in order to achieve matching impedance, a series resistor Rs
is included on both D+ and D− USB differential driver lines.
The series resistor (Rs) will vary in value depending on the
variation of the driver’s impedance. The USB 1.1
specification requires a series resistor with value between
28 W and 44 W. Figure 4 shows the buffer impedance
required by the USB 1.1 specification:
Electrically, Series “A” receptacles function as outputs
from host systems and/or hubs.
Series “A” plug mates with a Series “A” receptacle.
The Series “A” plug always is oriented towards the host
system.
Series “B” receptacle mates with a Series “B” plug
(male). Electrically, Series “B” receptacles function as
inputs to hubs or devices.
Series “B” plug mates with a Series “B” receptacle.
The Series “B” plug is always oriented towards the
USB hub or device.
The USB uses a differential output driver to drive the USB
data signal onto the USB cable. The pins D+ and D− identify
these lines.
VCC
Rpu
D+IN
RS
D+OUT
C
C
RS
D−IN
D−OUT
Figure 3.
In order to determine if the line is an upstream or
downstream line, the USB uses pull up or pull down resistors
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AND8074/D
IDENTICAL CMOS DRIVERS
TxD+
Rs
28 ohms to 44 ohms
D+ (equivalent impedance)
TxD−
Rs
28 ohms to 44 ohms
D− (equivalent impedance)
DRIVER OUTPUT IMPEDANCE (ZDrv)
Figure 4. USB 1.1 Specification Information
Nevertheless, it has been found through some research
that most of the industrial drivers require a series resistor of
22 W or 30 W, so it seems that the tendency for the driver
impedance’s value is going to the upper side; therefore, the
series resistance would need to be lower to compensate this
tendency.
EMI FILTERING (USB 1.1 SPECIFICATION)
The USB 1.1 specification also establishes what must be
the data signal rise and fall time to minimize RFI emissions
and signal skew. The criteria to measure the rise and fall time
is from 10% to 90% as shown in Figure 5.
Rise Time
Fall Time
90%
Differential
Data Lines
90%
VCRS
10%
10%
tr
tf
Figure 5. USB 1.1 Specification Information
EMI filtering and line termination futures, the STF202
device from ON Semiconductor provides ESD Protection to
IEC6100−4−2 (Level 4) in an integrated solution placed in
a small and single package (TSOP−6, Case 318G). Figure 6
shows the STF202 device schematic and the equivalent
circuit of this device is shown in Figure 7:
The rise and fall time ranges have to be taken as the main
reference to specify the capacitance necessary to achieve the
required rise and fall time. According to the USB 1.1, the rise
and fall times for full-speed buffers must be between 4 ns
and 20 ns, and matched to within ±10% to minimize RFI
emissions and signal skew. This indicates that the loading
capacitance must not exceed the 75 pF between the line and
GND in each line of the transceiver. This criteria applies for
either downstream or upstream ports.
In the case of low-speed buffers on hosts and hubs that are
attached to USB, receptacles must have a rise and fall time
between 75 ns and 300 ns for any balanced capacitive load.
The edges must be matched to within ±20% to minimize RFI
emissions and signal skew. The USB 1.1 spec recommends
200 pf to 600 pf for downstream port and 50 to 150 pf for
upstream port.
GND
D(OUT)
D(OUT)
6
5
4
C
RS1
C
RS2
Rpu
STF202−22 ON Semiconductor Device
ON Semiconductor has developed the STF202 device
which meets the requirements of the Universal Serial Bus
(USB) specification revision 1.1 in terms of EMI Filtering
and line termination for the USB I/O lines. In addition to the
1
2
3
VBUS
D(IN)
D(IN)
Figure 6. STF202 Device Schematic
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AND8074/D
D+IN
Rpu
attenuation roll-off of –20 dB/decade. For a better reference
about RC Pi filters you may consult the ON Semiconductor
application note AND8026/D (“Solving EMI and ESD
Problems with Integrated Passive Device Low Pass Pi
Filter).
D+OUT
RS1
C
VBUS
GROUND
C
RS2
D−IN
STF202−22, ESD Protection to IEC6100−4−2 (Level 4)
D−OUT
The STF202 ON Semiconductor device also provides
ESD protection to IEC6100−4−2 in both I/O data lines (D+
& D−) and in the voltage bus (VBUS). The ESD protection
is achieved through the TVS devices placed in each of the
I/O lines.
The IEC6100−4−2 International Standard relates to the
immunity requirements and test methods for electrical and
electronic equipment subjected to static electricity
discharges, from operators directly, and to adjacent objects.
It additionally defines ranges of test levels which relate to
different environmental and installation conditions and
establishes test procedures. The object of this standard is to
establish a common and reproducible basis for evaluating
the performance of electrical and electronic equipment
when subjected to electrostatic discharges. In addition, it
includes electrostatic discharges which may occur from
personnel to objects near vital equipment.
The IEC6100−4−2 specification defines the preferential
range of test levels for the ESD test which are described in
the Table 1:
Figure 7. Equivalent Circuit of the STF202 Device
STF202−22, Line Termination
The USB Line termination is reached through the series
resistors, RS1 and RS2 (22 W or 30 W) connected on the D+
and D− lines. These resistors match the cable impedance to
that of the differential driver in order to ensure the proper
termination to maintain the integrity of the signal. The pull
up resistor of 1.5 kW on either the D+ or D− data lines is
required by the USB 1.1 specification to identify the
equipment as full-speed or low-speed device.
STF202−22, EMI Filtering
The EMI filter (low pass filter) is formed by the total
impedance of the buffer (buffer impedance plus Rs) and the
two zener diodes in parallel with the capacitor in each of the
I/O lines. The resulting Pi filter configuration is used to
bypass high frequency energy to ground. It attenuates noise
signals that are both entering and exiting the filter network.
The RC Pi filters are first order filters with a frequency
Table 1. PREFERENTIAL RANGE OF TEST LEVELS FOR THE ESD TEST
1a − Contact Discharge
1b − Air Discharge
Level
Test Voltage (kV)
Level
Test Voltage (kV)
1
2
1
2
2
4
2
4
3
6
3
8
4
8
4
15
X*
Special
X*
Special
* “X” is an open level. The level has to be specified in the dedicated equipment specification. If higher voltages than those shown are specified,
special test equipment may be needed.
The IEC6100−4−2 specification also defines what should
be the characteristics and performance of the ESD generator,
these characteristics are listed below:
Specifications
• Energy Storage Capacitance (Cs + Cd): 150 pF ±10%
• Discharge Resistance (Rd): 330 W ±10%
• Charging Resistance (Rc): between 50 mW and 100 mW
• Output Voltage (see Note 1): Up to 8 kV (Nominal) for
Contact Discharge; Up to 15 kV (Nominal) for Air
Discharge
Figure 8 illustrates the simplified diagram of the ESD
generator and Figure 9a shows the typical waveform of the
output current of the ESD generator (information taken from
the IEC6100−4−2 specification):
DISCHARGE SWITCH
RC =
50−100 mW
DC HV SUPPLY
Note 1: Open circuit voltage measured at the energy storage
capacitor.
RD =
330 W
CS =
150 pF
DISCHARGE
TIP
DISCHARGE
RETURN
CONNECTION
Figure 8. ESD Generator, Simplified Diagram
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AND8074/D
Figure 9b shows a real waveform sample taken from the
output of the ESD generator (tester according the
IEC6100−4−2 specification).
Tek Stop:
C1 Max
2.99 V
Ipeak
100%
90%
Conversion Factor:
V = “X” / [(2/267)*(0.1)*(0.5)]
V = 7.98 kV
Figure 9.
I at
80 ns
I at
60 ns
10%
1>
30 ns
60 ns
t = 0.7 to 1 ns
t
Figure 9b. Real Waveform Sample Taken
from ESD Generator
Figure 9a. Typical Output’s Waveform
of the ESD Generator
The integrated TVS devices of the STF202−22 series
device meet the requirements of the IEC6100−4−2
International Standard. Figures 10 and 11 illustrate the
typical ESD clamping response of the STF202−22 series
device for 8 kV contact and 15 kV air:
Figure 10. ESD, 8 kV Contact
Figure 11. ESD, 15 kV Air
Insertion Loss
In both of the above oscilloscope graphs, the conversion
factor is “1x10”, so it is possible to observe that in the case
of the contact ESD condition of 8 kV the device basically
clamps in 8.70 V while it clamps at 10.60 V in the case of the
air condition of 15 kV.
Other important parameters of the STF202−22 device that
it is important to analyze and take into consideration are the
insertion loss and the analog crosstalk (D+ to D−).
According with the ON Semiconductor application note
AND8026/D, the insertion loss is defined as the ratio of the
power delivered to the load with and without the filter
network in the circuit. This characteristic is dependent on the
impedance of the source and load circuits, and is
proportional to the magnitude of the filter resistance. The
insertion loss can be measured using a spectrum analyzer
with a tracking generator. Figure 12 shows the insertion loss
of the STF202 device at different frequency levels.
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AND8074/D
while the terminal 6 is connected to ground. The input of the
D+ line is connected in the terminal 3 which outputs from the
terminal 4. Finally, the input of the D− line is connected in
the terminal 2 which outputs from the terminal 5. Figure 14
shows the connections of the STF202 device for “Full-speed
devices”:
50
40
P = −25 dBm
Vdc = 0 V
30
20
(dB)
10
0
3.3 V
−10
Peripheral
1
6
USB
Controller
D−
2 STF202
5
D−
D+
3
4
D+
−20
−30
−40
−50
0.1
1
10
1000
100
(MHz)
GND
Figure 12. Insertion Loss
(Test Conditions, p = −25 dBm; Vdc = 0 V)
Figure 14. Connection for Full-speed Devices
Analog Crosstalk (D+ to D−)
Low-speed Devices
The pull up resistor (Rup) is connected to the D− Line.
The terminal 1 is connected to the Voltage Supply Line
(VBUS) while the terminal 6 is connected to ground. The
input of the D− line is connected in the terminal 3 which
outputs from the terminal 4. Finally, the input of the D+ line
is connected in the terminal 2 which outputs from the
terminal 5. Figure 15 shows the connections of the STF202
device for “Low-speed devices”:
In a brief way, the analog crosstalk defines how well is the
isolation between the two I/O channels (D+, D−) of the
STF202 device when they operate at different frequency
levels. In the same way than for the insertion loss
characteristic, the analog crosstalk characteristic can be
measured using a spectrum analyzer with a tracking
generator. Figure 13 shows the analog crossalk of the
STF202 device at different frequency levels:
10
3.3 V
0
−10
Peripheral
P = −25 dBm
Vdc = 0 V
1
6
USB
Controller
5
D+
4
D−
−20
(dB)
−30
−40
D+
2
D−
3
STF202
−50
GND
−60
−70
Figure 15. Connection for Low-speed Devices
−80
−90
0.1
1
10
(MHz)
100
1000
Typical Application for the STF202−22
ON Semiconductor Device
Figure 13. Analog Cross-talk (D+ to D−)
As it has been mentioned, the USB port has some design
considerations for proper operation. These considerations
are line termination, EMI filtering and ESD protection. All
these considerations are part of the USB 1.1 specification.
Figure 16 shows a simplified schematic of a USB port. As
shown in the upstream part of this figure, the line
termination is reached through the series resistors connected
on both I/O lines D+ and D−. The pull up resistor (1.5 kW)
is used to identify an upstream port; if this pull up resistor is
connected on the D+ line, it will indicate a full speed device,
but if this resistor is connected on the D− line, it will indicate
a low speed device. The capacitors in the upstream
termination are used to bypass high frequency energy to
ground and the TVS arrangement provides ESD protection
to both I/O lines (D+ & D−) and to the voltage bus (VBUS).
(Test Conditions, p = −25 dBm; Vdc = 0 V)
Connection of the STF202 for Full-speed and
Low-speed Devices
As mentioned before, there are two kinds of port devices:
• Full-speed Devices − Operates in 12 Mb/s.
• Low-speed Devices that Work in 1.5 Mb/s.
The STF202 device can be shaped to be used for either
Full-speed or Low-speed devices which is achieved as
described below:
Full-speed Devices
The pull up resistor (Rup) is connected to the D+ Line. The
terminal 1 is connected to the Voltage Supply Line (VBUS)
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AND8074/D
CLK
CRYSTAL
XTAL1
VCC
XTAL2
GND
VCC
USB
HUB
DP1−DP4
Rpu
DPO
C
REGULATOR
RS
D+
DOWNSTREAM
TERMINATION
AND TVS
DM1−DM4
D−
TVS
C
OC1−OC4
DMO
VBUS
POWER
SWITCHING
RS
PWR1−PWR4
USB Data Lines
and Power to
Downstream
Ports
GND
UPSTREAM
TERMINATION
Figure 16. Simplified USB Port
ON Semiconductor STF202−22T1 device provides
“upstream termination”, EMI Filtering and ESD Protection
to IEC6100−4−2 in an integrated solution placed in a small
and single package (TSOP−6, Case 318G) to simplify the
USB port design. A typical application for the STF202
device is shown in Figure 17:
VBUS
D+
VBUS
D+
D−
DOWNSTREAM
TERMINATION
D−
D1D+
D1D−
TVS
6
5
4
STF202
GND
1
POWER
SWITCH
OC
OC
PWR
PWR
VBUS
D+
D−
GND
2
3
DOD+
DOD−
REGULATOR
DOWNSTREAM
TERMINATION
D2D+
D2D−
TVS
USB CONTROLLER
Figure 17. Example of a USB Hub Design
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GND
AND8074/D
PCB Design Considerations
References
The design of a USB hub is critical to meet the ESD and
EMI filtering requirements, so standard high frequency PCB
design rules should be used in the layout to minimize any
parasitic inductance and capacitance that may degrade the
filter’s response. It requires optimum component placement
and good practices in circuit designing. Some general design
guidelines are listed below to optimize the STF202−22T1’s
EMI/ESD performance. Some of these guidelines were
derived from the ON Semiconductor application note
AND8026/D:
• Use Ground Planes to Minimize the PCB’s Ground
Inductance
• Critical Signal Lines should not be Operated Near
Board Edges
• D+ & D− Signal Line Traces must not be Operated
Near Similar Signal Lines or High Speed
Data-transferring Lines
• Locate the STF202−22T1 Device as Close to the USB
Connector as Possible to Avoid Transient Coupling
• Minimize the PCB Trace Lengths between the USB
Connector and the STF202−22T1 Device
• Minimize the PCB Trace Lengths for the Ground
Return Connections
[1] Universal Serial Bus Specification, Revision 1.1,
September 23, 1998.
[2] International Standard IEC61000−4−2, 1999−05.
[3] Forum Web Site: www.usb.org
[4] Web Site of PULSE Data Communications Wide
Area Networks: www.pulsewan.com
[5] ON Semiconductor Application Note AND8026/D.
ON Semiconductor and the
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