Electroluminescent Lamp Driver IC

MC33441
Electroluminescent Lamp
Driver IC
The MC33441 is a DC−AC inverter integrated circuit for driving EL
lamps. It can boost the supply voltage to the level required by EL
lamps and also provide high voltage AC lamp excitation. It consists of
an oscillator, a frequency divider, a coil driving circuit and a switched
H−bridge network. The input supply voltage range is from 1.8 V to
3.5 V and is capable to supply a typical 140 Vpp AC output voltage.
The standby current of the device is typically 10 nA which is ideal for
low power portable products. Externally, one inductor and one resistor
are needed to generate the desirable voltage charge and to fine tune the
oscillator’s frequency. This device is offered in 8−Pin TSSOP
miniature package. The operating temperature is −20°C to 70°C.
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8
1
TSSOP−8
DTB SUFFIX
CASE 948J
Features
Battery Operation 1.8 V − 3.5 V
Typical Voltage Output 140 Vpp
Typical Standby Current 10 nA
Internal Oscillator with External Tuning Resistor
Enable Control Pin with a 300 K Internal Pull−Down Resistor
8−Pin TSSOP Package (Thickness = 1.05 mm, Width = 4.5 mm,
Length = 3.1 mm & Lead Pitch = 0.65 mm)
Types of Applications
1
ENB
2
EL1
7
EL2
RT1
3
6
FILTER
VSS
4
5
COIL
FEL
FREQUENCY
DIVIDER
FCOIL
H−BRIDGE
8 EL1
ENB 2
7 EL2
RT1 3
6 FILTER
5 COIL
(Top View)
8
OSC
VDD 1
VSS 4
• Pagers, Cellular Phones, Portable CD Players/Minidisks
• Databanks, Calculators
VDD
PIN CONNECTIONS AND
MARKING DIAGRAM
M33
441
ALY
W
•
•
•
•
•
•
A
L
Y
W
= Assembly Location
= Wafer Lot
= Year
= Work Week
ORDERING INFORMATION
Device
Package
Shipping
MC33441DTBR2
TSSOP−8
2500 Units / Reel
COIL
DRIVER
Simplified Block Diagram
© Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2006
July, 2006 − Rev. 3
1
Publication Order Number:
MC33441/D
MC33441
Battery / VDD
INDUCTOR
VSS
REXT
RT1
ENB
MAIN SWITCH 5
4
COIL DRIVER
OSC
&
FREQ.
DIVIDER
3
2
6
CFILTER
AND2
AND2
1
OPTIONAL
FILTER
H−BRIDGE
FCOIL
VDD
COIL
7
EL2
8
EL1
AND2
FEL
EL LAMP
Figure 1. Test Circuit
PIN FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Pin No.
(TSSOP−8)
Name
Pin 1
VDD
Input voltage supply
Pin 2
ENB
Enable the whole device to operate
Pin 3
RT1
Internal oscillator’s fine tuning resistance input
Pin 4
VSS
Analog/Power ground
Pin 5
COIL
Coil/Inductance input
Pin 6
Filter
EL Filter
Pin 7
EL2
EL lamp driver output 2
Pin 8
EL1
EL lamp driver output 1
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Description
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2
MC33441
MAXIMUM RATINGS (TC = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
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ÁÁÁ
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ÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁ
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Rating
Symbol
Max
Unit
VDD
7.5
V
LOGIC = 0
LOGIC = 1
0.5
VDD
V
TJ(max)
150
°C
Power Supply Voltage
Digital Input Voltage Range
Operating Junction Temperature
Operating Ambient Temperature
TA
−20 to +70
°C
Storage Temperature Range
Tstg
−50 to +150
°C
Power Dissipation
PD
300
mW
RθJA
178
°C/W
Thermal Resistance, Junction−to−Air
DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VDD = 2.65 V, TA = 25°C, Lamp Capacitance = 2.2 nF, Coil = 1 mH unless
otherwise noted.)
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Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Supply Voltage
VDD
1.8
−
3.5
V
Output Voltage (1.8 V < VDD ≤ 3.5 V)
VEL
120
140
160
V
Peak Coil Current (1.8 V < VDD ≤ 3.5 V)
ICOIL
−
70
150
mA
Average Coil Current from Battery (1.8 V < VDD ≤ 3.5 V)
IVDD
−
35
75
mA dc avg
Characteristic
Standby Current (VDD = 3.0 V, ENB = 0)
ISTAND
−
10
100
nA
Clock Frequency (REXT = 125 KW)
Fosc
112
140
168
kHz
Lamp Drive Frequency (Fosc Divide by 384)
FEL
−
364.6
−
Hz
FCOIL
−
35
−
kHz
DCCOIL
−
75
−
%
CEL
−
2.2
−
nF
Coil Drive Frequency ( Fosc Divide by 4)
Coil Drive Clock Duty Cycle
EL Lamp Capacitance Range
VEL1
TIME
VEL2
TIME
VEL
Typical Vpp = 140 V
(160 V max)
TIME
Figure 2. Output Waveform
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MC33441
VDD = 2.65 V
Lamp Freq. = 365 Hz
EL Lamp = 2.2 nF
X = 1 ms/div, Y = 50 V/div
Figure 3. Output Waveform versus Time
OPERATING DESCRIPTION
General
F
The MC33441 is a DC−AC inverter integrated circuit for
driving EL lamps. It can boost the supply voltage to the level
required by EL lamps and also provide high voltage AC lamp
excitation. It consists of an oscillator, a frequency divider, a coil
driving circuit and a switched H−bridge network. The input
supply voltage range is from 1.8 V to 3.5 V and is capable to
supply a typical 140 Vpp AC output voltage. The standby
current of the device is typically 10 nA which is ideal for low
power portable products. Externally, one inductor and one
resistor are needed to generate the desirable voltage charge and
to fine tune the oscillator’s frequency. This device is offered in
8−Pin TSSOP packages. The operating temperature is −20°C to
70°C.
OSC
+
ǒ
6
R
1
EXT
C
INT
Hz
Ǔ
+ 1.667 10 Hz
R
EXT
10
FCOIL = FOSC B 4
FEL = FOSC B 384
where CINT is about 10pF.
Coil Driver
The coil driver is basically a simplified boost converter. It
takes a higher frequency clock signal from the frequency divider
to turn on/off the main switch alternatively. When the main
switch is on, current will flow through the coil to ground. Once
the switch is being turned off, the energy stored in the coil will
be released to the external capacitor (EL lamp) through an
internal diode. According to the frequency of the clock signals
between the coil driver and the H−bridge, the external capacitor
(EL lamp) will be charging to the desirable level.
Current limit circuit (typical 70 mA & max. 150 mA) is
implemented in this device. Since the current through the coil
will increase corresponding to the input voltage, if the input
voltage is high and the inductance of the coil is small, the coil
can be saturated. The current limit feature is used to avoid this
happen. The main switch is parallel to a much smaller switch
which has their collector and their base connected together.
However, the emitter of the smaller switch is tied to a sensing
resistor while the emitter of the main switch is connected to
ground. The coil current will split into two according to the
sizing ratio between the main and the smaller switch. The
current through the smaller switch will also flow through the
sensing resistor and generates a voltage. If the voltage across this
sensing resistor is above the pre−set value, then both switches
Oscillator and Frequency Divider
Two circuits are put together to form the oscillator. They are
Vref and Ibias. The functionality of Vref block is to generate a
zero temperature coefficient (TC) voltage reference which is
about 1.27 V. This 1.27 V will then be used in Ibias circuit to
provide current biasing to all of the internal circuits with the
value equal to Vref divided by an internal resistor. Besides of
that, an external resistor is also connected to this circuit block for
setting the oscillator’s frequency. The temperature coefficient is
dominated by the value of that resistor. Therefore, if a low TC
resistor is used, the oscillator frequency’s TC can be kept low.
The current mirrors with the induced current equal to the Vref
divided by an external resistor are used to charge and discharge
an internal capacitor to provide a 50% duty cycle clock signal.
This original clock pulse will then be fed into the frequency
divider which will generate two additional clock signals with
different frequency and duty cycle to the coil−driver and the
H−bridge circuits. The oscillator frequency is governed by the
following equation:
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MC33441
will be turned off and the energy will release to the EL lamp.
And, those switches will remain off until the next clock cycle.
Moreover, if a low TC resistor is used, the oscillator
frequency’s TC can be kept low. The filter capacitor is to provide
a smooth and more stable output waveform for the EL lamp.
The value of this capacitor depends on the input voltage and the
coil’s inductance value. Equations below can be used to estimate
filter capacitor’s value at different input voltage.
H−Bridge Network
To achieve the 140 V peak−to−peak voltage, H−bridge
network is used to charge and discharge the EL lamp. The
switching frequency of the bridge network is controlled by a
clock signal from the divider with its frequency much lower than
the one to the coil−driver. Moreover, to reduce the current
consumption, the biasing current to the two low−side switches
of the H−bridge is not activated until the coil−driver circuit
needed to release the energy to the EL lamp. Then, the biasing
circuit will be on and be ready before the main switch in the
coil−driver really starts to turn off.
Best Case Approximation for the Filter Capacitor:
C
C
By substitute the equation of FOSC from Oscillator &
Frequency Divider.
+ 4.341 10 Hz
R
EXT
7
so
FILTER
*V
SW
) 2ń(L
F
OSC
2
)
+ 0.085
(V
in
*V
SW
) 2ń(L
F
OSC
2
)
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ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
+ 4.341 10 W
F
EL
7
EXT
in
Table 1: Reference for CFILTER
FEL = FOSC B 384
R
(V
where VIN is the input voltage, VSW is voltage across the
switch when it is on, L is the coil’s value and FOSC is the
clock frequency.
Measurement below is recorded with the condition: coil
= 1 mH, EL lamp = 2.2 nF and at room temperature.
System designer will base on the application to decide the size
and the type of the EL lamp to be used. The external resistance
(REXT) at RT1 pin determines the excitation frequency (FEL) for
the lamp. The relationship between REXT and the frequency is:
EL
+ 0.026
Worst Case Approximation for the Filter Capacitor:
External Components
F
FILTER
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5
VDD
REXT
CFILTER
1.8 V
100 K−130 KW
5 n−10 nF
2.0 V
100 K−130 KW
10 n−22 nF
2.5 V
100 K−130 KW
10 n−22 nF
3.0 V
100 K−130 KW
22 nF−33 nF
MC33441
TYPICAL OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
700
300
VDD = 2.65 V
Coil = 1 mH
EL lamp = 2.2 nF
200
VDD = 2.65 V
Coil = 1 mH
EL lamp = 2.2 nF
600
LAMP FREQ (Hz)
OSC, FREQ (KHz)
250
150
100
50
500
400
300
200
100
0
50K
75K
100K
0
50K
200K
150K
75K
REXT (Ω)
25
30
20
25
10
0.82
15
10
VDD = 2.65 V
Lamp Freq. = 365 Hz
EL lamp = 2.2 nF
0
0.56
5
1
1.33
0
1.8
1.47
Coil = 1 mH
Lamp Freq. = 365 Hz
EL Lamp = 2.2nF
2
2.65
3
3.5
VDD (V)
COIL INDUCTANCE (mH)
Figure 6. Current Consumption versus Coil Inductance
Figure 7. Current Consumption versus VDD
138
150
136
145
134
140
VOUT (V)
132
VOUT (V)
200K
20
15
130
128
126
122
75K
100K
150K
135
130
125
120
VDD = 2.65 V
Coil = 1 mH
EL Lamp = 2.2 nF
124
120
50K
150K
Figure 5. Lamp Frequency versus REXT
1 (mA)
1 (mA)
Figure 4. Oscillator Frequency versus REXT
5
100K
REXT (Ω)
115
VDD = 2.65 V
Lamp Freq. = 365 Hz
EL Lamp = 2.2 nF
110
0.56
200K
0.82
1
1.33
1.47
COIL INDUCTANCE (mH)
REXT (Ω)
Figure 8. Output Voltage versus REXT
Figure 9. Output Voltage versus Coil Inductance
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MC33441
APPLICATION INFORMATION
EL Lamp Selection
The inductor must have a saturation current rating equal
to or bigger than the peak coil current which is 150 mA.
EL lamps are a laminate which exhibit a capacitance on
the order of 2.5 nF to 3.5 nF per square inch. The light will
emit as the high voltage is applied across the electrodes of
this capacitance. The color of the emitted light is determined
by the type of chemical used and the frequency of the
excitation voltage. On the other hand, the lamp brightness
increases approximately the square of the applied voltage
and nearly linear to the excitation frequency. Once a lamp
has been selected, the operating frequency and the essential
voltage for the optimum performance is determined. Then,
the driver circuit can begin to design.
Filter Capacitor Selection (C2)
See Table 1 for the estimated value of the filter capacitors
based on the input voltage supply. Since the maximum
voltage of the filter capacitor can reach 70 V or even 80 V,
capacitor with high voltage rating will be required.
Resistor Selection (R1)
Since the fundamental frequency of the oscillator is set by
the external resistor (R1), the temperature coefficient of the
frequency is dominated by the value of this resistor. A low
temperature coefficient (TC) resistor is suggested to use for
keeping the variation of oscillator’s frequency low against the
operation temperature range. (See Page 4, Fig. 3 & Fig. 4)
Inductor Selection (L1)
Use a 1 mH/0.15 A inductor for MC33441. Higher
inductor values can be used to reduce the peak transient coil
current from the battery supply. As the value of the inductor
(L1), increases, the resistor (R1) value may need to increase
correspondingly to provide optimum performance. While a
lower inductor values lead to smaller physical size, it will
generate a higher peak coil current. A lower resistor (R1)
value should be used when a lower inductance coil is being
used.
R1 + R
+ 4.341 10 W
F
EL
7
EXT
Layout
The MC33441 is high output voltage operation make PC
board layout critical to minimize ground bounce and noise.
Locate input bypass capacitor, filter capacitor and
oscillator’s resistor as close to the device pins as possible.
L1
1 mH
PB1
U1
1
ENABLE
C1
0.1 μF
2
3
BATTERY
4
R1
130 K
8
EL1
VDD
ENB
EL2
RT1
FILTER
VSS
COIL
MC33441
EL−LAMP
7
6
5
(TSSOP−8)
C2
27 nF/100 V
Figure 10. MC33441 Demo Board Schematic
COMPONENT SUPPLIER
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ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
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ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
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Supplier
Part Number
Description
Phone
Tech−Wave Industrial Co., Ltd.
Part# CC−0012
EL−Lamp: 14.5 mm x 47 mm Color:
Yellow−Green
(886)−2−22692827
Coils Electronics Co., Ltd.
Part# CRCH664−
102K−831015
Inductor: 1 mH / 0.15 A
(852)−2341−5539
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MC33441
Figure 11. MC33441 PC Board − Top View
Figure 12. MC33441 Component Placement Guide − Component Side
Figure 13. MC33441 PC Board − Bottom View
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MC33441
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
TSSOP−8
DTB SUFFIX
CASE 948J−01
ISSUE O
8x
0.15 (0.006) T U
K REF
0.10 (0.004)
S
M
T U
S
V
K
2X
L/2
8
J J1
B
−U−
PIN 1
IDENT.
ÉÉ
ÇÇ
ÇÇ
ÉÉ
K1
5
L
SECTION N−N
4
1
N
0.15 (0.006) T U
NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETER.
3. DIMENSION A DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD
FLASH. PROTRUSIONS OR GATE BURRS. MOLD
FLASH OR GATE BURRS SHALL NOT EXCEED
0.15 (0.006) PER SIDE.
4. DIMENSION B DOES NOT INCLUDE
INTERLEAD FLASH OR PROTRUSION.
INTERLEAD FLASH OR PROTRUSION SHALL NOT
EXCEED 0.25 (0.010) PER SIDE.
5. DIMENSION K DOES NOT INCLUDE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION. ALLOWABLE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION SHALL BE 0.08 (0.003) TOTAL IN
EXCESS OF THE K DIMENSION AT MAXIMUM
MATERIAL CONDITION.
6. TERMINAL NUMBERS ARE SHOWN FOR
REFERENCE ONLY.
7. DIMENSION A AND B ARE TO BE
DETERMINED AT DATUM PLANE −W−.
S
S
0.25 (0.010)
A
−V−
M
N
F
DETAIL E
−W−
C
0.10 (0.004)
−T− SEATING
PLANE
D
G
SEE DETAIL E
H
DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
J1
K
K1
L
M
MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
2.90
3.10
4.30
4.50
−−−
1.20
0.05
0.15
0.50
0.75
0.65 BSC
0.50
0.60
0.09
0.20
0.09
0.16
0.19
0.30
0.19
0.25
6.40 BSC
0_
8_
INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.114
0.122
0.169
0.177
−−−
0.047
0.002
0.006
0.020
0.030
0.026 BSC
0.020
0.024
0.004
0.008
0.004
0.006
0.007
0.012
0.007
0.010
0.252 BSC
0_
8_
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