AT89C5131 USB Bootloader - Complete

Features
• Protocol
– USB Used as Physical Layer
– Device Firmware Upgrade Class Compliant
– USB Clock Auto-Configuration
• In-System Programming
– Read/Write Flash and EEPROM Memories
– Read Device ID
– Full-chip Erase
– Read/Write Configuration Bytes
– Security Setting from ISP Command
– Remote Application Start Command
• In-Application Programming/Self Programming (IAP)
– Read/Write Flash and EEPROM Memories
– Read Device ID
– Block Erase
– Read/Write Configuration Bytes
– Bootloader Start
USB
Microcontrollers
AT89C5131A
USB Bootloader
Description
This document describes the USB bootloader functionalities as well as the USB protocol to efficiently perform operations on the on-chip Flash (EEPROM) memories.
Additional information on the AT89C5131A product can be found in the AT89C5131A
datasheet and the AT89C5131A errata sheet available on the Atmel web site.
The bootloader software package (binary) currently used for production is available
from the Atmel web site.
Bootloader Revision
Purpose of Modifications
Date
Revision 1.0.2
First release
25/03/2003
Revision 1.2.0
Bootloader improvement
20/03/2007
4287E–USB–04/08
Functional
Description
The AT89C5131A bootloader facilitates In-System Programming and In-Application
Programming.
In-System
Programming
Capability (IAP)
In-System Programming allows the user to program or reprogram a microcontroller on-chip
Flash memory without removing it from the system and without the need of a pre-programmed
application.
The USB bootloader can manage a communication with a host through the USB bus. It can also
access and perform requested operations on the on-chip Flash memory.
In-Application
Programming or
Self Programming
Capability (ISP)
In-Application Programming (IAP) allows the reprogramming of a microcontroller on-chip Flash
memory without removing it from the system and while the embedded application is running.
Block Diagram
This section describes the different parts of the bootloader. Figure 1 shows the on-chip bootloader and IAP processes.
The USB bootloader contains some Application Programming Interface routines named API routines that allow IAP by using the user’s firmware.
Figure 1. Bootloader Process Description
On-chip
User
Application
External Host Via the
USB Protocol
Communication
IAP
User Call
Management
ISP Communication
Management
Flash Memory
Management
Flash
Memory
2
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
ISP Communication
Management
The purpose of this process is to manage the communication and its protocol between the onchip bootloader and an external device (host). The on-chip bootloader implements a USB protocol (see section “Protocol”). This process translates serial communication frames (USB) into
Flash memory accesses (read, write, erase...).
User Call Management Several Application Program Interface (API) calls are available to the application program to
selectively erase and program Flash pages. All calls are made through a common interface (API
calls) included in the bootloader. The purpose of this process is to translate the application
request into internal Flash memory operations.
Flash Memory
Management
This process manages low level access to the Flash memory (performs read and write access).
Bootloader Configuration
Configuration and
Manufacturer
Information
The table below lists Configuration and Manufacturer byte information used by the bootloader.
This information can be accessed through a set of API or ISP commands.
Mnemonic
Description
Default Value
BSB
Boot Status Byte
FFh
SBV
Software Boot Vector
FCh
SSB
Software Security Byte
FFh
EB
Extra Byte
FFh
P1_CF
Port 1 Configuration
FEh
P3_CF
Port 3 Configuration
FFh
P4_CF
Port 4 Configuration
FFh
Manufacturer
58h
Id1: Family code
D7h
Id2: Product Name
F7h
Id3: Product Revision
DFh
3
4287E–USB–04/08
Mapping and Default
Value of Hardware
Security Byte
The 4 MSB of the Hardware Byte can be read/written by software (this area is called Fuse bits).
The 4 LSB can only be read by software and written by hardware in parallel mode (with parallel
programmer devices).
Note:
Security
Bit Position
Mnemonic
Default Value
Description
7
X2B
U
To start in x1 mode
6
BLJB
P
To map the boot area in code area between F800h-FFFFh
5
OSCON1
U
Oscillator control (bit 1)
4
OSCON0
U
Oscillator control (bit 0)
3
reserved
U
2
LB2
P
1
LB1
U
0
LB0
U
To lock the chip (see datasheet)
U: Unprogrammed = 1
P: Program = 0
The bootloader has Software Security Byte (SSB) to protect itself from user access or ISP
access.
The Software Security Byte (SSB) protects from ISP accesses. The command "Program Software Security Bit" can only write a higher priority level. There are three levels of security:
•
Level 0: NO_SECURITY (FFh)
This is the default level.
From level 0, one can write level 1 or level 2.
•
Level 1: WRITE_SECURITY (FEh)
In this level it is impossible to write in the Flash memory.
The Bootloader returns an err_WRITE status.
From level 1, one can write only level 2.
•
Level 2: RD_WR_SECURITY (FCh)
Level 2 forbids all read and write accesses to/from the Flash memory.
The Bootloader returns an err_WRITE or an err_VENDOR status.
Only a full chip erase command can reset the software security bits.
4
Level 0
Level 1
Level 2
Flash/EEPROM
Any access allowed
Read only access allowed
All access not allowed
Fuse bit
Any access allowed
Read only access allowed
All access not allowed
BSB & SBV & EB
Any access allowed
Any access allowed
Any access allowed
SSB
Any access allowed
Write level2 allowed
Read only access allowed
Manufacturer info
Read only access allowed
Read only access allowed
Read only access allowed
Bootloader info
Read only access allowed
Read only access allowed
Read only access allowed
Erase block
Allowed
Not allowed
Not allowed
Full chip erase
Allowed
Allowed
Allowed
Blank Check
Allowed
Allowed
Allowed
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
In-System
Programming
ISP allows the user to program or reprogram a microcontroller’s on-chip Flash memory through
the USB bus without removing it from the system and without the need of a pre-programmed
application.
This section describes how to start the USB bootloader and the higher level protocol over the
USB.
Boot Process
The bootloader can be activated in two ways:
•
Hardware conditions
•
Regular boot process
Figure 3 and Figure 4 describe the boot process flows for low pin count and high pin count
products.
High Pin Count
Hardware Conditions
The Hardware conditions (EA = 1, PSEN = 0) during the RESET rising edge force the on-chip
bootloader execution. In this way the bootloader can be carried out regardless of the user Flash
memory content. It is recommended to pull the PSEN pin down to ground though a 1K resistor to
prevent the PSEN pin from being damaged (see Figure 2 below).
Figure 2. ISP Hardware conditions
VCC
VCC
VCC
EA
ALE
Unconnected
C2
RST
GND
XTAL2
Bootloader
Crystal
XTAL1
/PSEN
GND
C1
1K
GND
GND
VSS
GND
As PSEN is an output port in normal operating mode (running user application or bootloader
code) after reset, it is recommended to release PSEN after rising edge of reset signal. The hardware conditions are sampled at reset signal rising edge, thus they can be released at any time
when reset input is high.
Low Pin Count
Hardware Conditions
The Hardware Condition forces the bootloader execution from reset.
The default factory Hardware Condition is assigned to port P1.
•
P1 must be equal to FEh
In order to offer the best flexibility, the user can define its own Hardware Condition on one of the
following Ports:
•
Port1
5
4287E–USB–04/08
•
Port3
•
Port4 (only bit0 and bit1)
The Hardware Condition configuration are stored in three bytes called P1_CF, P3_CF, P4_CF.
These bytes can be modified by the user through a set of API or through an ISP command.
There is a priority between P1_CF, P3_CF and P4_CF (see Figure 4 on page 9).
Note:
6
The BLJB must be at 0 (programmed) to be able to restart the bootloader.
If the BLJB is equal to 1 (unprogrammed) only the hardware parallel programmer can change this
bit (see AT89C5131A datasheet for more details).
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Software Boot
Vector
The default value [FF]00h is used in ISP mode. The boot address is, in this mode, the lowest
adress of FM1 USB bootloader.
The Software Boot Vector (SBV) can be used to force the execution of a user bootloader starting
at address [SBV]00h in the application area (FM0).
The way to start this user bootloader is described in section “Boot Process”.
USB Bootloader
[FC]00h
User Bootloader
FM1
[SBV]00h
Application
FM0
FLIP Software
Program
FLIP is a PC software program running under Windows® 9x/Me/2000/XP and Linux® which can
be used in ISP mode and which supports all Atmel C51 Flash microcontroller and USB protocol
communication media.
The FLIP software program is free and is available from the Atmel web site.
7
4287E–USB–04/08
Figure 3. High-pin Count Regular Boot Process
B it E N B O O T in A U XR 1 R egis ter is
Initialized with B LJ B inverted
Hardware
Boot Process
RESET
No
ENBOOT = 0
P C = 0000h
Y es
B LJ B = 1
No
Software Boot Process
F C O N = 00h
ENBOOT = 1
P C = F 400h
F C O N = 0F h
Y es
No
S B V < 7F h
No
Y es
S ta rt A p p lica tio n
8
Y es
H ardw are
C ondition
ENBOOT = 1
P C = F 400h
F C O N = 00h
S ta rt U se r B o o tlo a d e r
S ta rt B o o tlo a d e r
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Figure 4. Low-pin Count Regular Boot Process
Bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 Register is
Initialized with BLJB Inverted
Hardware
Boot Process
RESET
ENBOOT = 0
PC = 0000h
Yes
BLJB = 1
No
No
No
Software Boot Process
Yes
P1_CF = FFh
No
P1_CF = P1
Yes
ENBOOT = 1
PC = F400h
No
P3_CF = P3
P3_CF = FFh
No
Yes
P4_CF = FFh
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
BSB = 0
P4_CF = P4
Yes
No
SBV < 7Fh
No
Yes
Start Application
Start User Bootloader
Start Bootloader
9
4287E–USB–04/08
Physical Layer
The USB norm specifies all the transfers over the USB line. The USB specification also includes
several CLASS and SUB-CLASS specifications. These stand-alone documents are used by the
manufacturer to implement a USB link between a PC and a device supporting the In System
Programming. Mostly, the USB specification is implemented by hardware (automatic reply,
handshakes, timings, ...) and the USB Classes and SubClasses are implemented by software at
a data level.
Figure 5. USB Bus Topography
Downstream Transfer: OUT
Upstream Transfer: IN
Device driver/API
Firmware
PC Driver
PC Application
USB Line
Application (Device)
PC (Host)
The USB is used to transmit information that has the following configuration:
48 MHz Frequency
Auto-Configuration
•
USB DFU using the Default Control Endpoint only (endpoint 0) with a 32 bytes length.
•
48 MHz for USB controller: USB clock configuration performed by the bootloader
The bootloader includes a function which will automatically setup the PLL frequency (48MHz)
versus the different XTAL configuration used on the application.
The table below shows the allowed frequencies compatible with the USB bootloader
48 MHz auto-generation.
X1 or X2
Clock
Modes
10
6 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
16 MHz
20 MHz
24 MHz
32 MHz
40 MHz
48 MHz
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Figure 6. 48 MHz Frequency Auto-Configuration
MAIN
No
No
USB Connected?
Suspend/Resume
Yes
Resume
Detected?
Configure PLL for
Frequency X
Configure Timer 0
Yes
Yes
SOF Detected?
No
Timer 0 Overflow?
No
Yes
Change Frequency
USB Scheduler
11
4287E–USB–04/08
Protocol
Device Firmware
Upgrade Introduction
Device Firmware Upgrade is the mechanism for accomplishing the task of upgrading the device
firmware. Any class of USB device can exploit this capability by supporting the requirements
specified in this document.
Because it is impractical for a device to concurrently perform both DFU operations and its normal run-time activities, those normal activities must cease for the duration of the DFU
operations. Doing so means that the device must change its operating mode; i.e., a printer is not
a printer while it is undergoing a firmware upgrade; it is a PROM programmer. However, a
device that supports DFU is not capable of changing its mode of operation on its own. External
(human or host operating system) intervention is required.
DFU Specific
Requests
In addition of the USB standard requests, 7 DFU class-specific requests are employed to
accomplish the upgrade operations (Table 1):
Table 1. DFU Class-specific Requests
bmRequestType
bRequest
wValue
wIndex
wLength
Data
0010 0001b
DFU_DETACH (0)
wTimeout
Interface (4)
Zero
none
0010 0001b
DFU_DNLOAD (1)
wBlock
Interface (4)
Length
Firmware
1010 0001b
DFU_UPLOAD (2)
wBlock
Interface (4)
Length
Firmware
1010 0001b
DFU_GETSTATUS (3)
Zero
Interface (4)
6
Status
0010 0001b
DFU_CLRSTATUS (4)
Zero
Interface (4)
Zero
none
1010 0001b
DFU_GETSTATE (5)
Zero
Interface (4)
1
State
0010 0001b
DFU_ABORT (6)
Zero
Interface (4)
Zero
none
DFU Descriptors Set
DFU Device Descriptor
The device exports the DFU descriptor set, which contains:
•
A DFU device descriptor
•
A single configuration descriptor
•
A single interface descriptor (including descriptors for alternate settings, if present)
•
A single functional descriptor
This descriptor is only present in the DFU mode descriptor set. The DFU class code is reported
in the bDeviceClass field of this descriptor.
Table 2. USB Parameters
12
Parameter
Atmel – AT89C5131A Bootloader
Vendor ID
0x03EB
Product ID
0x2FFD
Release Number
0x0000
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Table 3. DFU Mode Device Descriptor
Offset
Field
Size
Value
Description
0
bLength
1
12h
Size of this descriptor, in bytes
1
bDescriptorType
1
01h
DFU FUNCTIONAL descriptor type
2
bcdUSB
2
0100h
4
bDeviceClass
1
FEh
Application Specific Class Code
5
bDeviceSubClass
1
01h
Device Firmware Upgrade Code
6
bDeviceProtocol
1
00h
The device does not use a class specific protocol on this interface
7
bMaxPacketSize0
1
32
Maximum packet size for endpoint zero
8
idVendor
2
03EBh
Vendor ID
10
idProduct
2
2FFDh
Product ID
12
bcdDevice
2
0x0000
Device release number in binary coded decimal
14
iManufacturer
1
0
Index of string descriptor
15
iProduct
1
0
Index of string descriptor
16
iSerialNumber
1
0
Index of string descriptor
17
bNumConfigurations
1
01h
USB specification release number in binary coded decimal
One configuration only for DFU
DFU Configuration
Descriptor
This descriptor is identical to the standard configuration descriptor described in the USB DFU
specification version 1.0, with the exception that the bNumInterfaces field must contain the value
01h.
DFU Interface
Descriptor
This is the descriptor for the only interface available when operating in DFU mode. Therefore,
the value of the bInterfaceNumber field is always zero.
Table 4. DFU Mode Interface Descriptor
Offset
Field
Size
Value
0
bLength
1
09h
Size of this descriptor, in bytes
1
bDescriptorType
1
04h
INTERFACE descriptor type
2
bInterfaceNumber
1
00h
Number of this interface
3
bAlternateSetting
1
00h
Alternate setting(1)
4
bNumEndpoints
1
00h
Only the control pipe is used
5
bInterfaceClass
1
FEh
Application Specific Class Code
6
bInterfaceSubClass
1
01h
Device Firmware Upgrade Code
7
bInterfaceProtocol
1
00h
The device doesn’t use a class specific protocol on this interface
iInterface
1
00h
Index of the String descriptor for this interface
8
Note:
Description
1. Alternate settings can be used by an application to access additional memory segments. In this case, it is suggested that
each alternate setting employ a string descriptor to indicate the target memory segment; e.g., “EEPROM”. Details concerning other possible uses of alternate settings are beyond the scope of this document. However, their use is intentionally not
restricted because the authors anticipate that implementers will devise additional creative uses for alternate settings.
13
4287E–USB–04/08
DFU Functional
Descriptor
Table 5. DFU Functional Descriptor
Offset
Field
Size
Value
Description
0
bLength
1
07h
Size of this descriptor, in bytes
1
bDescriptorType
1
21h
DFU FUNCTIONAL descriptor type
DFU Attributes:
bit 7..3: reserved
2
bmAttributes
1
Bit mask
bit 2: device is able to communicate via USB after Manifestation
phase 1 = yes, 0 = no, must see bus reset
bit 1: bitCanUpload : upload capable 1 = yes, 0 = no
bit 0: bitCanDnload : download capable 1 = yes, 0 = no
Time in milliseconds that the device will wait after receipt of the
DFU_DETACH request.
3
wDetachTimeOut
2
Number
5
wTransferSize
2
Number
Command Description
If this time elapses without a USB reset, the device will terminate the
Reconfiguration phase and revert back to normal operation. This
represents the maximum time that the device can wait (depending on
its timers, ...). The Host may specify a shorter timeout in the
DFU_DETACH request.
Maximum number of bytes that the device can accept per controlwrite transaction
This protocol allows to:
•
Initiate the communication
•
Program the Flash or EEPROM Data
•
Read the Flash or EEPROM Data
•
Program Configuration Information
•
Read Configuration and Manufacturer Information
•
Erase the Flash
•
Start the application
Overview of the protocol is detailed in Appendix-A.
14
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Device Status
The Host employs the DFU_GETSTATUS request to facilitate synchronization with the device.
This status gives information on the execution of the previous request: in progress/OK/Fail/...
Get Status
bmRequestType
bRequest
wValue
wIndex
wLength
Data
1010 0001b
DFU_GETSTATUS (3)
Zero
Interface (4)
6
Status
0010 0001b
DFU_CLRSTATUS (4)
Zero
Interface (4)
Zero
none
The device responds to the DFU_GETSTATUS request with a payload packet containing the following data:
Table 6. DFU_GETSTATUS Response
Offset
Field
Size
Value
Description
0
bStatus
1
Numb
er
An indication of the status resulting from the
execution of the most recent request.
1
bwPollTimeOut
3
Numb
er
Minimum time in milliseconds that the host
should wait before sending a subsequent
DFU_GETSTATUS. The purpose of this field is to
allow the device to dynamically adjust the
amount of time that the device expects the host
to wait between the status phase of the next
DFU_DNLOAD and the subsequent solicitation
of the device’s status via DFU_GETSTATUS.
4
bState
1
Numb
er
An indication of the state that the device is going
to enter immediately following transmission of
this response.
5
iString
1
Index
Index of status description in string table.
Table 7. bStatus values
Status
Value
Description
OK
0x00
No error condition is present
errTARGET
0x01
File is not targeted for use by this device
errFILE
0x02
File is for this device but fails some vendor-specific verification test
errWRITE
0x03
Device id unable to write memory
errERASE
0x04
Memory erase function failed
errCHECK_ERASED
0x05
Memory erase check failed
errPROG
0x06
Program memory function failed
errVERIFY
0x07
Programmed memory failed verification
errADDRESS
0x08
Cannot program memory due to received address that is out of range
errNOTDONE
0x09
Received DFU_DNLOAD with wLength = 0, but device does not think it has all the data yet.
errFIRMWARE
0x0A
Device’s firmware is corrupted. It cannot return to run-time operations
errVENDOR
0x0B
iString indicates a vendor-specific error
15
4287E–USB–04/08
Table 7. bStatus values (Continued)
Status
Value
Description
errUSBR
0x0C
Device detected unexpected USB reset signaling
errPOR
0x0D
Device detected unexpected power on reset
errUNKNOWN
0x0E
Something went wrong, but the device does not know what it was
errSTALLEDPK
0x0F
Device stalled an unexpected request
Table 8. bState Values
State
Value
Description
appIDLE
0
Device is running its normal application
appDETACH
1
Device is running its normal application, has received the DFU_DETACH
request, and is waiting for a USB reset
dfuIDLE
2
Device is operating in the DFU mode and is waiting for requests
dfuDNLOAD-SYNC
3
Device has received a block and is waiting for the Host to solicit the
status via DFU_GETSTATUS
dfuDNBUSY
4
Device is programming a control-write block into its non volatile memories
dfuDNLOAD-IDLE
5
Device is processing a download operation. Expecting DFU_DNLOAD
requests
Device has received the final block of firmware from the Host and is
waiting for receipt of DFU_GETSTATUS to begin the Manifestation phase
dfuMANIFEST-SYNC
6
or
device has completed the Manifestation phase and is waiting for receipt
of DFU_GETSTATUS.
Clear Status
16
dfuMANIFEST
7
Device is in the Manifestation phase.
dfuMANIFEST-WAITRESET
8
Device has programmed its memories and is waiting for a USB reset or a
power on reset.
dfuUPLOAD-IDLE
9
The device is processing an upload operation. Expecting DFU_UPLOAD
requests.
dfuERROR
10
An error has occurred. Awaiting the DFU_CLRSTATUS request.
Any time the device detects an error and reports an error indication status to the host in the
response to a DFU_GETSTATUS request, it enters the dfuERROR state. The device cannot
transition from the dfuERROR state, after reporting any error status, until after it has received a
DFU_CLRSTATUS request. Upon receipt of DFU_CLRSTATUS, the device sets a status of OK
and transitions to the dfuIDLE state. Only then is it able to transition to other states.
bmRequestType
bRequest
wValue
wIndex
wLength
Data
0010 0001b
DFU_CLRSTATUS (4)
Zero
Interface (4)
0
None
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Device State
DFU_ABORT request
Programming the
Flash or EEPROM
Data
This request solicits a report about the state of the device. The state reported is the current state
of the device with no change in state upon transmission of the response. The values specified in
the bState field are identical to those reported in DFU_GETSTATUS.
bmRequestType
bRequest
wValue
wIndex
wLength
Data
1010 0001b
DFU_GETSTATE (5)
Zero
Interface (4)
1
State
The DFU_ABORT request enables the device to exit from certain states and return to the
DFU_IDLE state. The device sets the OK status on receipt of this request. For more information,
see the corresponding state transition summary.
bmRequestType
bRequest
wValue
wIndex
wLength
Data
1010 0001b
DFU_ABORT (6)
Zero
Interface (4)
0
None
The firmware image is downloaded via control-write transfers initiated by the DFU_DNLOAD
class-specific request. The host sends between bMaxPacketSize0 and wTransferSize bytes to
the device in a control-write transfer. Following each downloaded block, the host solicits the
device status with the DFU_GETSTATUS request.
As described in the USB DFU Specification, "Firmware images for specific devices are, by definition, vendor specific. It is therefore required that target addresses, record sizes, and all other
information relative to supporting an upgrade are encapsulated within the firmware image file. It
is the responsibility of the device manufacturer and the firmware developer to ensure that their
devices can consume these encapsulated data. With the exception of the DFU file suffix, the
content of the firmware image file is irrelevant to the host."
Firmware image:
•
32 bytes: Command
•
X bytes: X is the number of byte (00h) added before the first significative byte of the
firmware. The X number is calculated to align the beginning of the firmware with the flash
page. X = start_address [32]. For example, if the start address is 00AFh (175d), X = 175 [32]
= 15.
•
The firmware
•
The DFU Suffix on 16 Bytes.
Table 9. DFU File Suffix
Offset
Field
Size
Value
Description
The CRC of the entire file, excluding dwCRC
-0
dwCRC
4
Number
-4
bLength
1
16
-5
ucDfuSignature
3
The length of this DFU suffix including dwCRC
5 : 44h
6 : 46h
The unique DFU signature field
7 : 55h
-8
bcdDFU
2
-10
idVendor
2
BCD
0100h
ID
DFU specification number
The vendor ID associated with this file. Either FFFFh
or must match device’s vendor ID
17
4287E–USB–04/08
Offset
Field
Size
Value
Description
-12
idProduct
2
ID
The product ID associated with this file. Either FFFFf
or must match the device’s product ID
-14
bcdDevice
2
BCD
The release number of the device associated with
this file. Either FFFFh or a BCD firmware release or
version number
Request From Host
bmRequestType
bRequest
wValue
wIndex
wLength
Data
0010 0001b
DFU_DNLOAD (1)
wBlock
Interface (4)
Length
Firmware
Write Command
Command
Identifier
data[0]
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
00h
Id_prog_start
01h
Description
Init FLASH programming
start_address
01h
end_address
Init EEPROM
programming
The write command is 6 bytes long. In order to reach the USB specification of the Control type
transfers, the write command is completed with 26 (= 32 - 6) non-significant bytes. The total
length of the command is then 32 bytes, which is the length of the Default Control Endpoint.
Firmware
The firmware can now be downloaded to the device. In order to be in accordance with the Flash
page size (128 bytes), X non-significant bytes are added before the first byte to program. The X
number is calculated to align the beginning of the firmware with the Flash page. X =
start_address [32]. For example, if the start address is 00AFh (175d), X = 175 [32] = 15.
DFU Suffix
The DFU suffix of 16 bytes are added just after the last byte to program. This suffix is reserved
for future use.
18
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Figure 7. Example of Firmware Download Zero Length DFU_DNLOAD Request
SETUP
DFU_DNLOAD
OUT
Prog_Start + (EP0 fifo length - 6) x 00h
OUT
X offset bytes + Firmware Packet 1
OUT
Firmware Packet 2
OUT
Firmware Packet n + DFU suffix
IN
ZLP
The Host sends a DFU_DNLOAD request with the wLength field cleared to 0 to the device to
indicate that it has completed transferring the firmware image file. This is the final payload
packet of a download operation.
This operation should be preceded by a Long Jump address specification using the corresponding Flash command.
Answers from
Bootloader
After each program request, the Host can request the device state and status by sending a
DFU_GETSTATUS message.
If the device status indicates an error, the host can send a DFU_CLRSTATUS request to the
device.
19
4287E–USB–04/08
Reading the Flash
or EEPROM Data
The flow described below allows the user to read data in the Flash memory or in the EEPROM
data memory. A blank check command on the Flash memory is possible with this flow.
This operation is performed in 2 steps:
1. DFU_DNLOAD request with the read command (6 bytes)
2. DFU_UPLOAD request which correspond to the immediate previous command.
First Request from Host
The Host sends a DFU Download request with a Display command in the data field.
SETUP
DFU_DNLOAD
OUT
Display_Data (6 bytes)
IN
ZLP
Command
Identifier
data[0]
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
00h
Id_display_data
03h
01h
Description
Display FLASH Data
start_address
02h
end_address
Blank Check in FLASH
Display EEPROM Data
Second Request from
Host
The Host sends a DFU Upload request.
Answers from the
Device
The device send to the Host the firmware from the specified start address to the end address.
20
SETUP
DFU_UPLOAD
IN
Firmware Packet 1
IN
Firmware Packet 2
IN
Firmware Packet n
OUT
ZLP
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Answers from the
Device to a Blank Check
Command
Programming
Configuration
Information
The Host controller send a GET_STATUS request to the device. Once internal blank check has
been completed, the device sends its status.
•
If the device status is “OK”:
the device memory is then blank and the device waits the next Host request.
•
If the device status is “errCHECK_ERASED”:
the device memory is not blank. The device waits for an DFU_UPLOAD request to send the
first address where the byte is not 0xFF.
The flow described below allows the user to program Configuration Information regarding the
bootloader functionality.
•
Boot Process Configuration:
–
BSB
–
SBV
–
P1_CF, P3_CF and P4_CF
–
Fuse bits (BLJB, X2 and OSCON bits) (see section “Mapping and Default Value of
Hardware Security Byte”)
Take care that the Program Fuse bit command programs the 4 Fuse bits at the same time.
Request from Host
To start the programming operation, the Host sends DFU_DNLOAD request with the Write command in the data field (6 bytes).
DFU_DNLOAD
SETUP
Write_command (6 bytes)
OUT
ZLP
IN
Command
Identifier
data[0]
01h
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
Description
00h
Write value in BSB
01h
Write value in SBV
02h
Write P1_CF
03h
Value
Write P3_CF
Id_write_command
04h
02h
Answers From
Bootloader
04h
Write P4_CF
05h
Write value in SSB
06h
Write value in EB
00h
Value
Write value in Fuse
(HSB)
The device has two possible answers to a DFU_GETSTATUS request:
•
If the chip is protected from program access, a “err_WRITE” status is returned to the Host.
•
Otherwise, the device status is “OK“.
21
4287E–USB–04/08
Reading Configuration
Information or
Manufacturer
Information
The flow described below allows the user to read the configuration or manufacturer information.
Requests From Host
To start the programming operation, the Host sends DFU_DNLOAD request with the Read command in the data field (2 bytes).
DFU_DNLOAD
SETUP
Read_command (2 bytes)
OUT
ZLP
IN
Command
Identifier
data[0]
00h
Id_read_command
05h
01h
02h
22
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
Description
00h
Read Bootloader Version
01h
Read Device boot ID1
02h
Read Device boot ID2
00h
Read BSB
01h
Read SBV
02h
Read P1_CF
03h
Read P3_CF
04h
Read P4_CF
05h
Read SSB
06h
Read EB
30h
Read Manufacturer Code
31h
Read Family Code
60h
Read Product Name
61h
Read Product Revision
00h
Read HWB
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Answers from
Bootloader
The device has two possible answers to a DFU_GETSTATUS request:
•
If the chip is protected from program access, an “err_VENDOR” status is returned to the
Host.
•
Otherwise, the device status is “OK“. The Host can send a DFU_UPLOAD request to the
device in order the value of the requested field.
DFU_UPLOAD
SETUP
Byte value (1 byte)
IN
ZLP
OUT
Erasing the Flash
The flow described below allows the user to erase the Flash memory.
Two modes of Flash erasing are possible:
•
Full Chip erase
•
Block erase
The Full Chip erase command erases the whole Flash (32 Kbytes) and sets some Configuration
Bytes at their default values:
•
BSB = FFh
•
SBV = FFh
•
SSB = FFh (NO_SECURITY)
The Block erase command erases only a part of the Flash.
Three Blocks are defined in the AT89C5131A:
Request from Host
•
block0 (From 0000h to 1FFFh)
•
block1 (From 2000h to 3FFFh)
•
block2 (From 4000h to 7FFFh)
To start the erasing operation, the Host sends a DFU_DNLOAD request with a Write Command
in the data field (2 bytes).
Command
Identifier
Id_write_command
04h
data[0]
00h
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
Description
00h
Erase block0 (0K to 8K)
20h
Erase block1 (8K to 16K)
40h
Erase block2 (16K to 32K)
FFh
Full chip Erase (bits at
FFh)
23
4287E–USB–04/08
Answers from
Bootloader
The device has two possible answers to a DFU_GETSTATUS request:
•
If the chip is protected from program access, a “err_WRITE” status is returned to the Host.
•
Otherwise, the device status is “OK“.
The full chip erase is always executed whatever the Software Security Byte value is.
Starting the
Application
The flow described below allows to start the application directly from the bootloader upon a specific command reception.
Two options are possible:
•
Start the application with a reset pulse generation (using watchdog).
When the device receives this command the watchdog is enabled and the bootloader enters
a waiting loop until the watchdog resets the device.
Take care that if an external reset chip is used the reset pulse in output may be wrong and in
this case the reset sequence is not correctly executed.
•
Start the application without reset
A jump at the address 0000h is used to start the application without reset.
To start the application, the Host sends a DFU_DNLOAD request with the specified application
start type in the data field (3 or 5bytes).
This request is immediately followed by a second DFU_DNLOAD request with no data field to
start the application with one of the 2 options.
Request From Host
DFU_UPLOAD
SETUP
Jump Option (3 or 5 Bytes)
IN
OUT
ZLP
SETUP
DFU_UPLOAD
Command
Identifier
data[0]
Id_write_command
04h
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
00h
data[4]
Description
Hardware reset
03h
01h
address
LJMP address
Answer from Bootloader No answer is returned by the device.
24
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
In-Application
Programming/S
elf
Programming
The IAP allows to reprogram a microcontroller on-chip Flash memory without removing it from
the system and while the embedded application is running.
The user application can call Application Programming Interface (API) routines allowing IAP.
These API are executed by the bootloader.
To call the corresponding API, the user must use a set of Flash_api routines which can be linked
with the application.
Example of Flash_api routines are available on the Atmel web site on the software package:
C Flash Drivers for the AT89C5131A for Keil® Compilers
The flash_api routines on the package work only with the USB bootloader.
The flash_api routines are listed in APPENDIX-B.
API Call
Process
The application selects an API by setting the 4 variables available when the flash_api library is
linked to the application.
These four variables are located in RAM at fixed address:
•
api_command: 1Ch
•
api_value: 1Dh
•
api_dph: 1Eh
•
api_dpl: 1Fh
All calls are made through a common interface “USER_CALL” at the address FFC0h.
The jump at the USER_CALL must be done by LCALL instruction to be able to comeback in the
application.
Before jump at the USER_CALL, the bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register must be set.
Constraints
The interrupts are not disabled by the bootloader.
Interrupts must be disabled by user prior to jump to the USER_CALL, then re-enabled when
returning.
Interrupts must also be disabled before accessing EEPROM data then re-enabled after.
The user must take care of hardware watchdog before launching a Flash operation.
For more information regarding the Flash writing time see the AT89C5131A datasheet.
25
4287E–USB–04/08
API Commands
Read/Program Flash
and EEPROM Data
Memory
Several types of APIs are available:
•
Read/Program Flash and EEPROM Data Memory
•
Read Configuration and Manufacturer Information
•
Program Configuration Information
•
Erase Flash
•
Start Bootloader
All routines to access EEPROM data are managed directly from the application without using
bootloader resources.
To read the Flash memory the bootloader is not involved.
For more details on these routines see the AT89C5131A datasheet sections “Program/Code
Memory” and “EEPROM Data Memory”
Two routines are available to program the Flash:
–
__api_wr_code_byte
–
__api_wr_code_page
•
The application program load the column latches of the Flash then calls the
__api_wr_code_byte or __api_wr_code_page see datasheet in section “Program/Code
Memory”.
•
Parameter settings
API Name
__api_wr_code_byte
__api_wr_code_page
•
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
0Dh
instruction: LCALL FFC0h.
Note:
26
api_command
No special resources are used by the bootloader during this operation
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Read Configuration
and Manufacturer
Information
•
Parameter settings
API Name
api_command
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
__api_rd_HSB
08h
00h
return HSB
__api_rd_BSB
05h
00h
return BSB
__api_rd_SBV
05h
01h
return SBV
__api_rd_P1_CF
05h
02h
return P1_CF
__api_rd_P3_CF
05h
03h
return P3_CF
__api_rd_P4_CF
05h
04h
return P4_CF
__api_rd_SSB
05h
05h
return SSB
__api_rd_EB
05h
06h
return EB
__api_rd_manufacturer
05h
30h
return
manufacturer id
__api_rd_device_id1
05h
31h
return id1
__api_rd_device_id2
05h
60h
return id2
__api_rd_device_id3
05h
61h
return id3
__api_rd_bootloader_version
0Eh
00h
return value
•
Instruction: LCALL FFC0h.
•
At the complete API execution by the bootloader, the value to read is in the api_value
variable.
Note:
No special resources are used by the bootloader during this operation
27
4287E–USB–04/08
Program
Configuration
Information
•
Parameter settings
API Name
•
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
(HSB & BFh) |
__api_clr_BLJB
07h
__api_set_BLJB
07h
__api_clr_X2
07h
__api_set_X2
07h
__api_clr_OSCON1
07h
__api_set_OSCON1
07h
__api_clr_OSCON0
07h
__api_set_OSCON0
07h
__api_wr_BSB
04h
00h
value to write
__api_wr_SBV
04h
01h
value to write
__api_wr_P1_CF
04h
02h
value to write
__api_wr_P3_CF
04h
03h
value to write
__api_wr_P4_CF
04h
04h
value to write
__api_wr_SSB
04h
05h
value to write
__api_wr_EB
04h
06h
value to write
40h
HSB & BFh
(HSB & 7Fh) |
80h
HSB & 7Fh
(HSB & DFh) |
20h
HSB & DFh
(HSB & EFh) |
10h
HSB & EFh
instruction: LCALL FFC0h.
Notes:
Erasing the Flash
api_command
1. See in the T89C51CC01 datasheet the time that a write operation takes.
2. No special resources are used by the bootloader during these operations.
The AT89C5131A Flash memory is divided in several blocks:
Block 0: from address 0000h to 1FFFh
Block 1: from address 2000h to 3FFFh
Block 2: from address 4000h to 7FFFh
These three blocks contain 128 pages.
•
Parameter settings
API Name
•
api_command
api_dph
__api_erase_block0
00h
00h
__api_erase_block1
00h
20h
__api_erase_block2
00h
40h
api_value
instruction: LCALL FFC0h.
Notes:
28
api_dpl
1. See the AT89C5131A datasheet for the time that a write operation takes and this time must
multiply by the number of pages.
2. No special resources are used by the bootloader during these operations.
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Starting the
Bootloader
This routine allows to start at the beginning of the bootloader as after a reset. After calling this
routine the regular boot process is performed and the communication must be opened before
any action.
•
No special parameter setting
•
Set bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register
•
instruction: LJUMP or LCALL at address F400h
29
4287E–USB–04/08
Appendix-A
Table 10. Summary of Frames from Host
Command Identifier
data[0]
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
Description
Id_prog_start
00h
01h
01h
Init EEPROM programming
00h
Display FLASH Data
Id_display_data
03h
Init FLASH programming
start_address
01h
end_address
start_address
end_address
02h
Blank Check in FLASH
Display EEPROM Data
00h
Erase block0 (0K to 8K)
20h
Erase block1 (8K to 16K)
40h
Erase block2 (16K to 32K)
FFh
Full chip Erase (bits at FFh)
00h
Write value in BSB
01h
Write value in SBV
02h
Write P1_CF
00h
Id_write_command
04h
01h
02h
03h
Value
Write P3_CF
04h
Write P4_CF
05h
Write value in SSB
06h
Write value in EB
00h
Value
Write value in Fuse (HSB)
00h
Hardware reset
03h
01h
30
address
LJMP address
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Table 10. Summary of Frames from Host (Continued)
Command Identifier
data[0]
00h
Id_read_command
05h
01h
02h
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
Description
00h
Read Bootloader Version
01h
Read Device boot ID1
02h
Read Device boot ID2
00h
Read BSB
01h
Read SBV
02h
Read P1_CF
03h
Read P3_CF
04h
Read P4_CF
05h
Read SSB
06h
Read EB
30h
Read Manufacturer Code
31h
Read Family Code
60h
Read Product Name
61h
Read Product Revision
00h
Read HWB
Table 11. DFU Class-specific Requests
bmRequestType
bRequest
wValue
wIndex
wLength
Data
0010 0001b
DFU_DETACH (0)
wTimeout
Interface (4)
Zero
none
0010 0001b
DFU_DNLOAD (1)
wBlock
Interface (4)
Length
Firmware
1010 0001b
DFU_UPLOAD (2)
wBlock
Interface (4)
Length
Firmware
1010 0001b
DFU_GETSTATUS (3)
Zero
Interface (4)
6
Status
0010 0001b
DFU_CLRSTATUS (4)
Zero
Interface (4)
Zero
none
1010 0001b
DFU_GETSTATE (5)
Zero
Interface (4)
1
State
0010 0001b
DFU_ABORT (6)
Zero
Interface (4)
Zero
none
Table 12. USB Parameters
Parameter
Atmel
Vendor ID
0x03EB
Product ID
0x2FFD
Release Number
0x0000
Table 13. Hardware Security Byte (HSB)
7
6
5
4
X2
BLJB
OSCON1
OSCON0
3
2
1
0
LB2
LB1
LB0
31
4287E–USB–04/08
Appendix-2
Table 14. API Summary
Function Name
Bootloader
Execution
api_command
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
00h
return value
__api_rd_code_byte
no
__api_wr_code_byte
yes
0Dh
__api_wr_code_page
yes
0Dh
__api_erase block0
yes
00h
00h
__api_erase block1
yes
00h
20h
__api_erase block2
yes
00h
40h
__api_rd_HSB
yes
08h
__api_clr_BLJB
yes
07h
(HSB & BFh) | 40h
__api_set_BLJB
yes
07h
HSB & BFh
__api_clr_X2
yes
07h
(HSB & 7Fh) | 80h
__api_set_X2
yes
07h
HSB & 7Fh
__api_clr_OSCON1
yes
07h
(HSB & DFh) | 20h
__api_set_OSCON1
yes
07h
HSB & DFh
__api_clr_OSCON0
yes
07h
(HSB & EFh) | 10h
__api_set_OSCON0
yes
07h
HSB & EFh
__api_rd_BSB
yes
05h
00h
return value
__api_wr_BSB
yes
04h
00h
value
__api_rd_SBV
yes
05h
01h
return value
__api_wr_SBV
yes
04h
01h
value
__api_erase_SBV
yes
04h
01h
FFh
__api_rd_P1_CF
yes
05h
02h
return value
__api_wr_P1_CF
yes
04h
02h
value
__api_rd_P3_CF
yes
05h
03h
return value
__api_wr_P3_CF
yes
04h
03h
value
__api_rd_P4_CF
yes
05h
04h
return value
__api_wr_P4_CF
yes
04h
04h
value
__api_rd_SSB
yes
05h
05h
return value
__api_wr_SSB
yes
04h
05h
value
__api_rd_EB
yes
05h
06h
return value
__api_wr_EB
yes
04h
06h
value
__api_rd_manufacturer
yes
05h
30h
return value
__api_rd_device_id1
yes
05h
31h
return value
32
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
4287E–USB–04/08
AT89C5131A USB Bootloader
Table 14. API Summary (Continued)
Bootloader
Execution
api_command
__api_wr_code_page
yes
01h
__api_rd_device_id2
yes
__api_rd_device_id3
Function Name
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
05h
60h
return value
yes
05h
61h
return value
__api_rd_bootloader_version
yes
0Eh
00h
return value
__api_eeprom_busy
no
__api_rd_eeprom_byte
no
__api_wr_eeprom_byte
no
__api_start_bootloader
no
__api_start_isp
no
33
4287E–USB–04/08
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4287E–USB–04/08
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