AT89S8253 - Complete

Features
• Compatible with MCS®51 Products
• 12K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Program Memory
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– SPI Serial Interface for Program Downloading
– Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
2K Bytes EEPROM Data Memory
– Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles
64-byte User Signature Array
2.7V to 5.5V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz (in x1 and x2 Modes)
Three-level Program Memory Lock
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
Nine Interrupt Sources
Enhanced UART Serial Port with Framing Error Detection and Automatic
Address Recognition
Enhanced SPI (Double Write/Read Buffered) Serial Interface
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
Programmable Watchdog Timer
Dual Data Pointer
Power-off Flag
Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Modes)
– Page Mode: 64 Bytes/Page for Code Memory, 32 Bytes/Page for Data Memory
Four-level Enhanced Interrupt Controller
Programmable and Fuseable x2 Clock Option
Internal Power-on Reset
42-pin PDIP Package Option for Reduced EMC Emission
Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option
8-bit
Microcontroller
with 12 Kbyte
Flash
AT89S8253
1. Description
The AT89S8253 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with
12K bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash program memory and 2K bytes of
EEPROM data memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51
instruction set and pinout. The on-chip downloadable Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface or by a
conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU
with downloadable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S8253 is a powerful
microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many
embedded control applications.
3286P–MICRO–3/10
The AT89S8253 provides the following standard features: 12K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash, 2K bytes of EEPROM, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, programmable watchdog timer,
two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector, four-level interrupt architecture, a full
duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S8253 is designed
with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable
power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters,
serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM
contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next external interrupt or hardware reset.
The on-board Flash/EEPROM is accessible through the SPI serial interface. Holding RESET
active forces the SPI bus into a serial programming interface and allows the program memory to
be written to or read from, unless one or more lock bits have been activated.
2. Pin Configurations
2.1
40P6 – 40-lead PDIP
(T2) P1.0
(T2 EX) P1.1
P1.2
P1.3
(SS) P1.4
(MOSI) P1.5
(MISO) P1.6
(SCK) P1.7
RST
(RXD) P3.0
(TXD) P3.1
(INT0) P3.2
(INT1) P3.3
(T0) P3.4
(T1) P3.5
(WR) P3.6
(RD) P3.7
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
VCC
P0.0 (AD0)
P0.1 (AD1)
P0.2 (AD2)
P0.3 (AD3)
P0.4 (AD4)
P0.5 (AD5)
P0.6 (AD6)
P0.7 (AD7)
EA/VPP
ALE/PROG
PSEN
P2.7 (A15)
P2.6 (A14)
P2.5 (A13)
P2.4 (A12)
P2.3 (A11)
P2.2 (A10)
P2.1 (A9)
P2.0 (A8)
44A – 44-lead TQFP
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
P1.4 (SS)
P1.3
P1.2
P1.1 (T2 EX)
P1.0 (T2)
NC
VCC
P0.0 (AD0)
P0.1 (AD1)
P0.2 (AD2)
P0.3 (AD3)
2.2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
P0.4 (AD4)
P0.5 (AD5)
P0.6 (AD6)
P0.7 (AD7)
EA/VPP
NC
ALE/PROG
PSEN
P2.7 (A15)
P2.6 (A14)
P2.5 (A13)
(WR) P3.6
(RD) P3.7
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
GND
(A8) P2.0
(A9) P2.1
(A10) P2.2
(A11) P2.3
(A12) P2.4
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
(MOSI) P1.5
(MISO) P1.6
(SCK) P1.7
RST
(RXD) P3.0
NC
(TXD) P3.1
(INT0) P3.2
(INT1) P3.3
(T0) P3.4
(T1) P3.5
2
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
44J – 44-lead PLCC
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
P0.4 (AD4)
P0.5 (AD5)
P0.6 (AD6)
P0.7 (AD7)
EA/VPP
NC
ALE/PROG
PSEN
P2.7 (A15)
P2.6 (A14)
P2.5 (A13)
(WR) P3.6
(RD) P3.7
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
NC
(A8) P2.0
(A9) P2.1
(A10) P2.2
(A11) P2.3
(A12) P2.4
(MOSI) P1.5
(MISO) P1.6
(SCK) P1.7
RST
(RXD) P3.0
NC
(TXD) P3.1
(INT0) P3.2
(INT1) P3.3
(T0) P3.4
(T1) P3.5
6
5
4
3
2
1
44
43
42
41
40
P1.4 (SS)
P1.3
P1.2
P1.1 (T2 EX)
P1.0 (T2)
NC
VCC
P0.0 (AD0)
P0.1 (AD1)
P0.2 (AD2)
P0.3 (AD3)
2.3
2.4
42PS6 – PDIP
RST
(RXD) P3.0
(TXD) P3.1
(INT0) P3.2
(INT1) P3.3
(T0) P3.4
(T1) P3.5
(WR) P3.6
(RD) P3.7
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
PWRGND
(A8) P2.0
(A9) P2.1
(A10) P2.2
(A11) P2.3
(A12) P2.4
(A13) P2.5
(A14) P2.6
(A15) P2.7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
P1.7 (SCK)
P1.6 (MISO)
P1.5 (MOSI)
P1.4 (SS)
P1.3
P1.2
P1.1 (T2EX)
P1.0 (T2)
VDD
PWRVDD
P0.0 (AD0)
P0.1 (AD1)
P0.2 (AD2)
P0.3 (AD3)
P0.4 (AD4)
P0.5 (AD5)
P0.6 (AD6)
P0.7 (AD7)
EA/VPP
ALE/PROG
PSEN
3. Pin Description
3.1
VCC
Supply voltage (all packages except 42-PDIP).
3.2
GND
Ground (all packages except 42-PDIP; for 42-PDIP GND connects only the logic core and the
embedded program/data memories).
3.3
VDD
Supply voltage for the 42-PDIP which connects only the logic core and the embedded program/data memories.
3.4
PWRVDD
Supply voltage for the 42-PDIP which connects only the I/O Pad Drivers. The application board
must connect both VDD and PWRVDD to the board supply voltage.
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3286P–MICRO–3/10
3.5
PWRGND
Ground for the 42-PDIP which connects only the I/O Pad Drivers. PWRGND and GND are
weakly connected through the common silicon substrate, but not through any metal links. The
application board must connect both GND and PWRGND to the board ground.
3.6
Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink six TTL
inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs.
Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses
to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups.
Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.
3.7
Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can
sink/source six TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the weak
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL,150 µA typical) because of the weak internal pull-ups.
Some Port 1 pins provide additional functions. P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the
timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX),
respectively. Furthermore, P1.4, P1.5, P1.6, and P1.7 can be configured as the SPI slave port
select, data input/output and shift clock input/output pins as shown in the following table.
Port Pin
Alternate Functions
P1.0
T2 (external count input to Timer/Counter 2), clock-out
P1.1
T2EX (Timer/Counter 2 capture/reload trigger and direction control)
P1.4
SS (Slave port select input)
P1.5
MOSI (Master data output, slave data input pin for SPI channel)
P1.6
MISO (Master data input, slave data output pin for SPI channel)
P1.7
SCK (Master clock output, slave clock input pin for SPI channel)
Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.
3.8
Port 2
Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can
sink/source six TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the weak
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL,150 µA typical) because of the weak internal pull-ups.
Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this
application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external
data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2
Special Function Register.
Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash
programming and verification.
4
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
3.9
Port 3
Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can
sink/source six TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the weak
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL,150 µA typical) because of the weak internal pull-ups.
Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.
Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S8253, as shown in the
following table.
Port Pin
Alternate Functions
P3.0
RXD (serial input port)
P3.1
TXD (serial output port)
P3.2
INT0 (external interrupt 0)(1)
P3.3
INT1 (external interrupt 1)(1)
P3.4
T0 (timer 0 external input)
P3.5
T1 (timer 1 external input)
P3.6
WR (external data memory write strobe)
P3.7
RD (external data memory read strobe)
Note:
3.10
1. All pins in ports 1 and 2 and almost all pins in port 3 (the exceptions are P3.2 INT0 and P3.3
INT1) have their inputs disabled in the Power-down mode. Port pins P3.2 (INT0) and P3.3
(INT1) are active even in Power-down mode (to be able to sense an interrupt request to exit
the Power-down mode) and as such still have their weak internal pull-ups turned on.
RST
Reset input. A high on this pin for at least two machine cycles while the oscillator is running
resets the device.
3.11
ALE/PROG
Address Latch Enable. ALE/PROG is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address (on
its falling edge) during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input
(PROG) during Flash programming.
In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be
used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory.
If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of the AUXR SFR at location 8EH. With
the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly
pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.
3.12
PSEN
Program Store Enable. PSEN is the read strobe to external program memory (active low).
When the AT89S8253 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated
twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to
external data memory.
5
3286P–MICRO–3/10
3.13
EA/VPP
External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch
code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however,
that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset.
EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt
programming enable voltage (V PP) during Flash programming when 12-volt programming is
selected.
3.14
XTAL1
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
3.15
XTAL2
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. XTAL2 should not drive a board-level clock without
a buffer.
4. Block Diagram
P0.0 - P0.7
P2.0 - P2.7
PORT 0 DRIVERS
PORT 2 DRIVERS
VCC
GND
EEPROM
RAM ADDR.
REGISTER
B
REGISTER
PORT 0
LATCH
RAM
PORT 2
LATCH
FLASH
PROGRAM
ADDRESS
REGISTER
STACK
POINTER
ACC
BUFFER
TMP2
TMP1
PC
INCREMENTER
ALU
INTERRUPT, SERIAL PORT,
AND TIMER BLOCKS
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PSW
PSEN
ALE/PROG
EA / VPP
TIMING
AND
CONTROL
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER
DUAL
DPTR
RST
WATCH
DOG
PORT 3
LATCH
PORT 1
LATCH
SPI
PORT
PROGRAM
LOGIC
OSC
PORT 3 DRIVERS
P3.0 - P3.7
6
PORT 1 DRIVERS
P1.0 - P1.7
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
5. Special Function Registers
A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space is shown in
Table 5-1.
Note that not all of the addresses are occupied, and unoccupied addresses may not be implemented on the chip. Read accesses to these addresses will generally return random data, and
write accesses will have an indeterminate effect.
User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations, since they may be used in future
products to invoke new features. In that case, the reset or inactive values of the new bits will
always be 0.
Table 5-1.
AT89S8253 SFR Map and Reset Values
0F8H
0F0H
0FFH
B
00000000
0F7H
0E8H
0E0H
0EFH
ACC
00000000
0E7H
0D8H
0DFH
0D0H
PSW
00000000
0C8H
T2CON
00000000
T2MOD
XXXXXX00
RCAP2L
00000000
RCAP2H
00000000
TL2
00000000
SPCR
00000100
0D7H
TH2
00000000
0CFH
0C0H
0C7H
SADEN
0B8H
IP
XX000000
0B0H
P3
11111111
0A8H
IE
0X000000
0A0H
P2
11111111
98H
SCON
00000000
90H
P1
11111111
88H
TCON
00000000
TMOD
00000000
TL0
00000000
TL1
00000000
TH0
00000000
TH1
00000000
AUXR
CLKREG
XXXXXXX0
XXXXXXX0
80H
P0
11111111
SP
00000111
DP0L
00000000
DP0H
00000000
DP1L
00000000
DP1H
00000000
SPDR
########
PCON
00XX0000
Note:
0BFH
00000000
IPH
XX000000
SADDR
00000000
SPSR
000XXX00
0B7H
0AFH
WDTRST
(Write Only)
WDTCON
0000 0000
SBUF
XXXXXXXX
0A7H
9FH
EECON
XX000011
97H
8FH
87H
# means: 0 after cold reset and unchanged after warm reset.
7
3286P–MICRO–3/10
5.1
Auxiliary Register
Table 5-2.
AUXR – Auxiliary Register
AUXR Address = 8EH
Reset Value = XXXX XXX0B
Not Bit Addressable
Bit
–
–
–
–
–
–
Intel_Pwd_Exit
DISALE
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
Intel_Pwd_Exit
When set, this bit configures the interrupt driven exit from power-down to resume execution on the rising edge of
the interrupt signal. When this bit is cleared, the execution resumes after a self-timed interval (nominal 2 ms)
referenced from the falling edge of the interrupt signal.
DISALE
When DISALE = 0, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency (except during MOVX when 1
ALE pulse is missing). When DISALE = 1, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
5.2
Clock Register
Table 5-3.
CLKREG – Clock Register
CLKREG Address = 8FH
Reset Value = XXXX XXX0B
Not Bit Addressable
Bit
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
X2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
X2
When X2 = 0, the oscillator frequency (at XTAL1 pin) is internally divided by 2 before it is used as the device system
frequency.
When X2 = 1, the divider by 2 is no longer used and the XTAL1 frequency becomes the device system frequency. This
enables the user to choose a 6 MHz crystal instead of a 12 MHz crystal, for example, in order to reduce EMI.
5.3
SPI Registers
Control and status bits for the Serial Peripheral Interface are contained in registers SPCR (see
Table 14-1 on page 25) and SPSR (see Table 14-2 on page 26). The SPI data bits are contained
in the SPDR register. In normal SPI mode, writing the SPI data register during serial data transfer sets the Write Collision bit (WCOL) in the SPSR register. In enhanced SPI mode, the SPDR
is also write double-buffered because WCOL works as a Write Buffer Full Flag instead of being a
collision flag. The values in SPDR are not changed by Reset.
5.4
Interrupt Registers
The global interrupt enable bit and the individual interrupt enable bits are in the IE register. In
addition, the individual interrupt enable bit for the SPI is in the SPCR register. Four priorities can
be set for each of the six interrupt sources in the IP and IPH registers.
IPH bits have the same functions as IP bits, except IPH has higher priority than IP. By using IPH
in conjunction with IP, a priority level of 0, 1, 2, or 3 may be set for each interrupt.
8
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
5.5
Dual Data Pointer Registers
To facilitate accessing both internal EEPROM and external data memory, two banks of 16-bit
Data Pointer Registers are provided: DP0 at SFR address locations 82H - 83H and DP1 at 84H
- 85H. Bit DPS = 0 in SFR EECON selects DP0 and DPS = 1 selects DP1. The user should
ALWAYS initialize the DPS bit to the appropriate value before accessing the respective Data
Pointer Register.
5.6
Power Off Flag
The Power Off Flag (POF), located at bit_4 (PCON.4) in the PCON SFR. POF, is set to “1” during power up. It can be set and reset under software control and is not affected by RESET.
6. Data Memory – EEPROM and RAM
The AT89S8253 implements 2K bytes of on-chip EEPROM for data storage and 256 bytes of
RAM. The upper 128 bytes of RAM occupy a parallel space to the Special Function Registers.
That means the upper 128 bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are physically
separate from SFR space. When an instruction accesses an internal location above address
7FH, the address mode used in the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper
128 bytes of RAM or the SFR space. Instructions that use direct addressing access the SFR
space.For example, the following direct addressing instruction accesses the SFR at location
0A0H (which is P2).
MOV 0A0H, #data
Instructions that use indirect addressing access the upper 128 bytes of RAM. For example, the
following indirect addressing instruction, where R0 contains 0A0H, accesses the data byte at
address 0A0H, rather than P2 (whose address is 0A0H).
MOV @R0, #data
Note that stack operations are examples of indirect addressing, so the upper 128 bytes of data
RAM are available as stack space.
The on-chip EEPROM data memory is selected by setting the EEMEN bit in the EECON register
at SFR address location 96H. The EEPROM address range is from 000H to 7FFH. MOVX
instructions are used to access the EEPROM. To access off-chip data memory with the MOVX
instructions, the EEMEN bit needs to be set to “0”.
During program execution mode (using the MOVX instruction) there is an auto-erase capability
at the byte level. This means that the user can update or modify a single EEPROM byte location
in real-time without affecting any other bytes.
The EEMWE bit in the EECON register needs to be set to “1” before any byte location in the
EEPROM can be written. User software should reset EEMWE bit to “0” if no further EEPROM
write is required. EEPROM write cycles in the serial programming mode are self-timed and typically take 4 ms. The progress of EEPROM write can be monitored by reading the RDY/BSY bit
(read-only) in SFR EECON. RDY/BSY = 0 means programming is still in progress and RDY/BSY
= 1 means an EEPROM write cycle is completed and another write cycle can be initiated. Bit
EELD in EECON controls whether the next MOVX instruction will only load the write buffer of the
EEPROM or will actually start the programming cycle. By setting EELD, only load will occur.
Before the last MOVX in a given page of 32 bytes, EELD should be cleared so that after the last
MOVX the entire page will be programmed at the same time. This way, 32 bytes will only require
4 ms of programming time instead of 128 ms required in single byte programming.
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3286P–MICRO–3/10
In addition, during EEPROM programming, an attempted read from the EEPROM will fetch the
byte being written with the MSB complemented. Once the write cycle is completed, true data are
valid at all bit locations.
6.1
Memory Control Register
The EECON register contains control bits for the 2K bytes of on-chip data EEPROM. It also contains the control bit for the dual data pointer.
Table 6-1.
EECON – Data EEPROM Control Register
EECON Address = 96H
Reset Value = XX00 0011B
Not Bit Addressable
Bit
–
–
EELD
EEMWE
EEMEN
DPS
RDY/BSY
WRTINH
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
EELD
EEPROM data memory load enable bit. Used to implement Page Mode Write. A MOVX instruction writing into the data
EEPROM will not initiate the programming cycle if this bit is set, rather it will just load data into the volatile data buffer of
the data EEPROM memory. Before the last MOVX, reset this bit and the data EEPROM will program all the bytes
previously loaded on the same page of the address given by the last MOVX instruction.
EEMWE
EEPROM data memory write enable bit. Set this bit to 1 before initiating byte write to on-chip EEPROM with the MOVX
instruction. User software should set this bit to 0 after EEPROM write is completed.
EEMEN
Internal EEPROM access enable. When EEMEN = 1, the MOVX instruction with DPTR will access on-chip EEPROM
instead of external data memory if the address used is less than 2K. When EEMEN = 0 or the address used is ≥ 2K,
MOVX with DPTR accesses external data memory.
DPS
Data pointer register select. DPS = 0 selects the first bank of data pointer register, DP0, and DPS = 1 selects the
second bank, DP1.
RDY/BSY
RDY/BSY (Ready/Busy) flag for the data EEPROM memory. This is a read-only bit which is cleared by hardware during
the programming cycle of the on-chip EEPROM. It is also set by hardware when the programming is completed. Note
that RDY/BSY will be cleared long after the completion of the MOVX instruction which has initiated the programming
cycle.
WRTINH
WRTINH (Write Inhibit) is a READ-ONLY bit which is cleared by hardware when Vcc is too low for the programming cycle
of the on-chip EEPROM to be executed. When this bit is cleared, an ongoing programming cycle will be aborted or a
new programming cycle will not start.
Figure 6-1.
Data EEPROM Write Sequence
EEMEN
EEMWE
EELD
MOVX DATA
RDY/BSY
10
0
1
2
3
30
31
~ 4 ms
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
7. Power-On Reset
A Power-On Reset (POR) is generated by an on-chip detection circuit. The detection level is
nominally 1.4V. The POR is activated whenever VCC is below the detection level. The POR circuit can be used to trigger the start-up reset or to detect a supply voltage failure in devices
without a brown-out detector. The POR circuit ensures that the device is reset from power-on.
When VCC reaches the Power-on Reset threshold voltage, the POR delay counter determines
how long the device is kept in POR after VCC rise, nominally 2 ms. The POR signal is activated
again, without any delay, when VCC falls below the POR threshold level. A Power-On Reset (i.e.
a cold reset) will set the POF flag in PCON.
Figure 7-1.
Power-up and Brown-out Detection Sequence
VCC
Min V CC Level 2.7V
BOD Level 2.3V
POR Level 1.4V
t
POR
t
2.4V
XTAL1
1.2V
t
WRTINH
t
Internal
RESET
tPOR
(2 ms)
tPOR
(2 ms)
t
0
7.1
Memory Brown-out Protection
The AT89S8253 has an on-chip Brown-out Detection (BOD) circuit for monitoring the VCC level
during operation by comparing it to a fixed trigger level of nominally 2.2V (2.4V max). The purpose of the BOD is to ensure that if VCC fails or dips, the Flash or EEPROM memories cannot be
erased/written at voltages too low for programming. At powerup the VCC level must pass the
BOD threshold before execution starts. When VCC decreases to a value below the trigger level,
the WRTINH bit in EECON is activated and futher programming of the Flash/EEPROM is
restricted. When VCC increases above the trigger level, the BOD delay counter blocks programming until after the timeout period has expired in approximately 2 ms. The BOD does not reset
the system as shown in Figure 7-1. To protect the system from errors induced by incorrect execution at lower voltages an external BOD circuit may be required.
11
3286P–MICRO–3/10
8. Programmable Watchdog Timer
The programmable Watchdog Timer (WDT) counts instruction cycles. The prescaler bits, PS0,
PS1 and PS2 in SFR WDTCON are used to set the period of the Watchdog Timer from 16K to
2048K instruction cycles. The available timer periods are shown in Table 8-1. The WDT time-out
period is dependent upon the external clock frequency.
The WDT is disabled by Power-on Reset and during Power-down mode. When WDT times out
without being serviced or disabled, an internal RST pulse is generated to reset the CPU. See
Table 8-1 for the WDT period selections.
Table 8-1.
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period Selection
WDT Prescaler Bits
12
PS2
PS1
PS0
Period (Nominal for
FCLK = 12 MHz)
0
0
0
16 ms
0
0
1
32 ms
0
1
0
64 ms
0
1
1
128 ms
1
0
0
256 ms
1
0
1
512 ms
1
1
0
1024 ms
1
1
1
2048 ms
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
8.1
Watchdog Control Register
The WDTCON register contains control bits for the Watchdog Timer (shown in Table 8-2).
Table 8-2.
WDTCON – Watchdog Control Register
WDTCON Address = A7H
Reset Value = 0000 0000B
Not Bit Addressable
PS2
PS1
PS0
WDIDLE
DISRTO
HWDT
WSWRST
WDTEN
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit
Symbol
Function
PS2
PS1
PS0
Prescaler bits for the watchdog timer (WDT). When all three bits are cleared to 0, the watchdog timer has a nominal
period of 16K machine cycles, (i.e. 16 ms at a XTAL frequency of 12 MHz in normal mode or 6 MHz in x2 mode). When
all three bits are set to 1, the nominal period is 2048K machine cycles, (i.e. 2048 ms at 12 MHz clock frequency in
normal mode or 6 MHz in x2 mode).
WDIDLE
Enable/disable the Watchdog Timer in IDLE mode. When WDIDLE = 0, WDT continues to count in IDLE mode. When
WDIDLE = 1, WDT freezes while the device is in IDLE mode.
DISRTO
Enable/disable the WDT-driven Reset Out (WDT drives the RST pin). When DISRTO = 0, the RST pin is driven high
after WDT times out and the entire board is reset. When DISRTO = 1, the RST pin remains only as an input and the
WDT resets only the microcontroller internally after WDT times out.
HWDT
Hardware mode select for the WDT. When HWDT = 0, the WDT can be turned on/off by simply setting or clearing
WDTEN in the same register (this is the software mode for WDT). When HWDT = 1, the WDT has to be set by writing
the sequence 1EH/E1H to the WDTRST register (with address 0A6H) and after being set in this way, WDT cannot be
turned off except by reset, warm or cold (this is the hardware mode for WDT). To prevent the hardware WDT from
resetting the entire device, the same sequence 1EH/E1H must be written to the same WDTRST SFR before the
timeout interval.
WSWRST
Watchdog software reset bit. If HWDT = 0 (i.e. WDT is in software controlled mode), when set by software, this bit resets
WDT. After being set by software, WSWRST is reset by hardware during the next machine cycle. If HWDT = 1, this bit
has no effect, and if set by software, it will not be cleared by hardware.
WDTEN
Watchdog software enable bit. When HWDT = 0 (i.e. WDT is in software-controlled mode), this bit enables WDT when
set to 1 and disables WDT when cleared to 0 (it does not reset WDT in this case, but just freezes the existing counter
state). If HWDT = 1, this bit is READ-ONLY and reflects the status of the WDT (whether it is running or not).
Figure 8-1.
Software Mode – Watchdog Timer Sequence
WDTEN
HW
HW
WSWRST
SW Writes a 1
SW
13
3286P–MICRO–3/10
9. Timer 0 and 1
Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89S8253 operate the same way as Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the
AT89S51 and AT89S52. For more detailed information on the Timer/Counter operation, please
click on the document link below:
http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/DOC4316.PDF
10. Timer 2
Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter that can operate as either a timer or an event counter. The
type of operation is selected by bit C/T2 in the SFR T2CON (see Table 10-2 on page 15). Timer
2 has three operating modes: capture, auto-reload (up or down counting), and baud rate generator. The modes are selected by bits in T2CON, as shown in Table 10-2.
Timer 2 consists of two 8-bit registers, TH2 and TL2. In the Timer function, the TL2 register is
incremented every machine cycle. Since a machine cycle consists of 12 oscillator periods, the
count rate is 1/12 of the oscillator frequency.
In the Counter function, the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0 transition at its corresponding external input pin, T2. In this function, the external input is sampled during S5P2 of
every machine cycle. When the samples show a high in one cycle and a low in the next cycle,
the count is incremented. The new count value appears in the register during S3P1 of the cycle
following the one in which the transition was detected. Since two machine cycles (24 oscillator
periods) are required to recognize a 1-to-0 transition, the maximum count rate is 1/24 of the
oscillator frequency. To ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes, the
level should be held for at least one full machine cycle.
Table 10-1.
14
Timer 2 Operating Modes
RCLK + TCLK
CP/RL2
TR2
MODE
0
0
1
16-bit Auto-reload
0
1
1
16-bit Capture
1
X
1
Baud Rate Generator
X
X
0
(Off)
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
Table 10-2.
T2CON – Timer/Counter 2 Control Register
T2CON Address = 0C8H
Reset Value = 0000 0000B
Bit Addressable
Bit
TF2
EXF2
RCLK
TCLK
EXEN2
TR2
C/T2
CP/RL2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
TF2
Timer 2 overflow flag set by a Timer 2 overflow and must be cleared by software. TF2 will not be set when either
RCLK = 1 or TCLK = 1.
EXF2
Timer 2 external flag set when either a capture or reload is caused by a negative transition on T2EX and EXEN2 = 1.
When Timer 2 interrupt is enabled, EXF2 = 1 will cause the CPU to vector to the Timer 2 interrupt routine. EXF2 must be
cleared by software. EXF2 does not cause an interrupt in up/down counter mode (DCEN = 1).
RCLK
Receive clock enable. When set, causes the serial port to use Timer 2 overflow pulses for its receive clock in serial port
Modes 1 and 3. RCLK = 0 causes Timer 1 overflows to be used for the receive clock.
TCLK
Transmit clock enable. When set, causes the serial port to use Timer 2 overflow pulses for its transmit clock in serial port
Modes 1 and 3. TCLK = 0 causes Timer 1 overflows to be used for the transmit clock.
EXEN2
Timer 2 external enable. When set, allows a capture or reload to occur as a result of a negative transition on T2EX if
Timer 2 is not being used to clock the serial port. EXEN2 = 0 causes Timer 2 to ignore events at T2EX.
TR2
Start/Stop control for Timer 2. TR2 = 1 starts the timer.
C/T2
Timer or counter select for Timer 2. C/T2 = 0 for timer function. C/T2 = 1 for external event counter (falling edge
triggered).
CP/RL2
Capture/Reload select. CP/RL2 = 1 causes captures to occur on negative transitions at T2EX if EXEN2 = 1. CP/RL2 = 0
causes automatic reloads to occur when Timer 2 overflows or negative transitions occur at T2EX when EXEN2 = 1. When
either RCLK or TCLK = 1, this bit is ignored and the timer is forced to auto-reload on Timer 2 overflow.
10.1
Timer 2 Registers
Control and status bits are contained in registers T2CON (see Table 10-2) and T2MOD (see
Table 10-3) for Timer 2. The register pair (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) are the Capture/Reload registers
for Timer 2 in 16-bit capture mode or 16-bit auto-reload mode.
10.2
Capture Mode
In the capture mode, two options are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2 is
a 16-bit timer or counter which upon overflow sets bit TF2 in T2CON. This bit can then be used
to generate an interrupt. If EXEN2 = 1, Timer 2 performs the same operation, but a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX also causes the current value in TH2 and TL2 to be captured into
RCAP2H and RCAP2L, respectively. In addition, the transition at T2EX causes bit EXF2 in
T2CON to be set. The EXF2 bit, like TF2, can generate an interrupt. The capture mode is illustrated in Figure 10-1.
15
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Figure 10-1. Timer 2 in Capture Mode
÷12
OSC
C/T2 = 0
TH2
TL2
TF2
OVERFLOW
CONTROL
TR2
C/T2 = 1
CAPTURE
T2 PIN
RCAP2H RCAP2L
TRANSITION
DETECTOR
TIMER 2
INTERRUPT
T2EX PIN
EXF2
CONTROL
EXEN2
10.3
Auto-reload (Up or Down Counter)
Timer 2 can be programmed to count up or down when configured in its 16-bit auto-reload
mode. This feature is invoked by the DCEN (Down Counter Enable) bit located in the SFR
T2MOD (see Table 10-3). Upon reset, the DCEN bit is set to 0 so that timer 2 will default to
count up. When DCEN is set, Timer 2 can count up or down, depending on the value of the
T2EX pin.
Table 10-3.
T2MOD – Timer 2 Mode Control Register
T2MOD Address = 0C9H
Reset Value = XXXX XX00B
Not Bit Addressable
Bit
–
–
–
–
–
–
T2OE
DCEN
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
–
Not implemented, reserved for future use.
T2OE
Timer 2 Output Enable bit.
DCEN
When set, this bit allows Timer 2 to be configured as an up/down counter.
Figure 10-2 shows Timer 2 automatically counting up when DCEN = 0. In this mode, two options
are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2 counts up to 0FFFFH and then sets
the TF2 bit upon overflow. The overflow also causes the timer registers to be reloaded with the
16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L. The values in RCAP2H and RCAP2L are preset by software. If EXEN2 = 1, a 16-bit reload can be triggered either by an overflow or by a 1-to-0
transition at external input T2EX. This transition also sets the EXF2 bit. Both the TF2 and EXF2
bits can generate an interrupt if enabled.
Setting the DCEN bit enables Timer 2 to count up or down, as shown in Figure 10-3. In this
mode, the T2EX pin controls the direction of the count. A logic 1 at T2EX makes Timer 2 count
up. The timer will overflow at 0FFFFH and set the TF2 bit. This overflow also causes the 16-bit
16
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L to be reloaded into the timer registers, TH2 and TL2,
respectively.
A logic 0 at T2EX makes Timer 2 count down. The timer underflows when TH2 and TL2 equal
the values stored in RCAP2H and RCAP2L. The underflow sets the TF2 bit and causes 0FFFFH
to be reloaded into the timer registers.
The EXF2 bit toggles whenever Timer 2 overflows or underflows and can be used as a 17th bit
of resolution. In this operating mode, EXF2 does not flag an interrupt.
Figure 10-2. Timer 2 in Auto Reload Mode (DCEN = 0)
Figure 10-3.
Timer 2 Auto Reload Mode (DCEN = 1 Timer 2 Auto Reload Mode (DCEN = 1)
17
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Figure 10-4. Timer 2 in Baud Rate Generator Mode
TIMER 1 OVERFLOW
÷2
"0"
"1"
NOTE: OSC. FREQ. IS DIVIDED BY 2, NOT 12
SMOD1
OSC
÷2
C/T2 = 0
"1"
TH2
"0"
TL2
RCLK
CONTROL
TR2
÷16
Rx
CLOCK
C/T2 = 1
"1"
"0"
T2 PIN
TCLK
RCAP2H RCAP2L
TRANSITION
DETECTOR
÷ 16
T2EX PIN
EXF2
Tx
CLOCK
TIMER 2
INTERRUPT
CONTROL
EXEN2
11. Baud Rate Generator
Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate generator by setting TCLK and/or RCLK in T2CON (Table
10-2). Note that the baud rates for transmit and receive can be different if Timer 2 is used for the
receiver or transmitter and Timer 1 is used for the other function. Setting RCLK and/or TCLK
puts Timer 2 into its baud rate generator mode, as shown in Figure 10-4.
The baud rate generator mode is similar to the auto-reload mode, in that a rollover in TH2
causes the Timer 2 registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in registers RCAP2H and
RCAP2L, which are preset by software.
The baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by Timer 2’s overflow rate according to the following equation.
2 Overflow RateModes 1 and 3 Baud Rates = Timer
----------------------------------------------------------16
The Timer can be configured for either timer or counter operation. In most applications, it is configured for timer operation (CP/T2 = 0). The timer operation is different for Timer 2 when it is
used as a baud rate generator. Normally, as a timer, it increments every machine cycle (at 1/12
the oscillator frequency). As a baud rate generator, however, it increments every state time (at
1/2 the oscillator frequency). The baud rate formula is given below.
Modes
1 and 3- = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Oscillator Frequency
-------------------------------------Baud Rate
32 × [ 65536 – ( RCAP2H,RCAP2L ) ]
where (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the content of RCAP2H and RCAP2L taken as a 16-bit unsigned
integer.
18
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
Timer 2 as a baud rate generator is shown in Figure 10-4. This figure is valid only if RCLK or
TCLK = 1 in T2CON. Note that a rollover in TH2 does not set TF2 and will not generate an interrupt. Note too, that if EXEN2 is set, a 1-to-0 transition in T2EX will set EXF2 but will not cause a
reload from (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) to (TH2, TL2). Thus when Timer 2 is in use as a baud rate generator, T2EX can be used as an extra external interrupt.
Note that when Timer 2 is running (TR2 = 1) as a timer in the baud rate generator mode, TH2 or
TL2 should not be read from or written to. Under these conditions, the Timer is incremented
every state time, and the results of a read or write may not be accurate. The RCAP2 registers
may be read but should not be written to, because a write might overlap a reload and cause
write and/or reload errors. The timer should be turned off (clear TR2) before accessing the Timer
2 or RCAP2 registers.
12. Programmable Clock Out
A 50% duty cycle clock can be programmed to come out on P1.0, as shown in Figure 12-1. This
pin, besides being a regular I/O pin, has two alternate functions. It can be programmed to input
the external clock for Timer/Counter 2 or to output a 50% duty cycle clock ranging from 61 Hz to
4 MHz (for a 16 MHz operating frequency).
To configure the Timer/Counter 2 as a clock generator, bit C/T2 (T2CON.1) must be cleared and
bit T2OE (T2MOD.1) must be set. Bit TR2 (T2CON.2) starts and stops the timer.
The clock-out frequency depends on the oscillator frequency and the reload value of Timer 2
capture registers (RCAP2H, RCAP2L), as shown in the following equation.
Oscillator Frequency
Clock Out Frequency = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 × [ 65536 – ( RCAP2H,RCAP2L ) ]
In the clock-out mode, Timer 2 rollovers will not generate an interrupt. This behavior is similar to
when Timer 2 is used as a baud-rate generator. It is possible to use Timer 2 as a baud-rate generator and a clock generator simultaneously. Note, however, that the baud-rate and clock-out
frequencies cannot be determined independently from one another since they both use
RCAP2H and RCAP2L.
Figure 12-1. Timer 2 in Clock-out Mode
19
3286P–MICRO–3/10
13. UART
The UART in the AT89S8253 operates the same way as the UART in the AT89S51 and
AT89S52. For more detailed information on the UART operation, please click on the document
link below:
http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/DOC4316.PDF
13.1
Enhanced UART
In addition to all of its usual modes, the UART can perform framing error detection by looking for
missing stop bits, and automatic address recognition. The UART also fully supports multiprocessor communication as does the standard 80C51 UART.
When used for framing error detect, the UART looks for missing stop bits in the communication.
A missing bit will set the FE bit in the SCON register. The FE bit shares the SCON.7 bit with SM0
and the function of SCON.7 is determined by PCON.6 (SMOD0). If SMOD0 is set then SCON.7
functions as FE. SCON.7 functions as SM0 when SMOD0 is cleared. When used as FE,
SCON.7 can only be cleared by software.
13.1.1
Automatic Address Recognition
Automatic Address Recognition is a feature which allows the UART to recognize certain
addresses in the serial bit stream by using hardware to make the comparisons. This feature
saves a great deal of software overhead by eliminating the need for the software to examine
every serial address which passes by the serial port. This feature is enabled by setting the SM2
bit in SCON. In the 9-bit UART modes, mode 2 and mode 3, the Receive Interrupt flag (RI) will
be automatically set when the received byte contains either the “Given” address or the
“Broadcast” address. The 9-bit mode requires that the 9th information bit is a 1 to indicate that
the received information is an address and not data.
The 8-bit mode is called mode 1. In this mode the RI flag will be set if SM2 is enabled and the
information received has a valid stop bit following the 8 address bits and the information is either
a Given or Broadcast address.
Mode 0 is the Shift Register mode and SM2 is ignored.
Using the Automatic Address Recognition feature allows a master to selectively communicate
with one or more slaves by invoking the given slave address or addresses. All of the slaves may
be contacted by using the Broadcast address. Two special Function Registers are used to
define the slave’s address, SADDR, and the address mask, SADEN. SADEN is used to define
which bits in the SADDR are to be used and which bits are “don’t care”. The SADEN mask can
be logically ANDed with the SADDR to create the “Given” address which the master will use for
addressing each of the slaves. Use of the Given address allows multiple slaves to be recognized
while excluding others. The following examples will help to show the versatility of this scheme:
Slave 0
SADDR = 1100 0000
SADEN = 1111 1101
Given
Slave 1
= 1100 00X0
SADDR = 1100 0000
SADEN = 1111 1110
Given
20
= 1100 000X
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
In the previous example SADDR is the same and the SADEN data is used to differentiate
between the two slaves. Slave 0 requires a 0 in bit 0 and it ignores bit 1. Slave 1 requires a 0 in
bit 1 and bit 0 is ignored. A unique address for slave 0 would be 1100 0010 since slave 1
requires a 0 in bit 1. A unique address for slave 1 would be 1100 0001 since a 1 in bit 0 will
exclude slave 0. Both slaves can be selected at the same time by an address which has bit 0 = 0
(for slave 0) and bit 1 = 0 (for slave 1). Thus, both could be addressed with 1100 0000.
In a more complex system the following could be used to select slaves 1 and 2 while excluding
slave 0:
Slave 0
SADDR = 1100 0000
SADEN = 1111 1001
Given
Slave 1
= 1100 0XX0
SADDR = 1110 0000
SADEN = 1111 1010
Given
Slave 2
= 1110 0X0X
SADDR = 1110 0000
SADEN = 1111 1100
Given
= 1110 00XX
In the previous example the differentiation among the 3 slaves is in the lower 3 address bits.
Slave 0 requires that bit 0 = 0 and it can be uniquely addressed by 1110 0110. Slave 1 requires
that bit 1 = 0 and it can be uniquely addressed by 1110 and 0101. Slave 2 requires that bit 2 = 0
and its unique address is 1110 0011. To select Slaves 0 and 1 and exclude Slave 2, use
address 1110 0100, since it is necessary to make bit 2 = 1 to exclude slave 2.
The Broadcast Address for each slave is created by taking the logical OR of SADDR and
SADEN. Zeros in this result are trended as don’t-cares. In most cases, interpreting the don’tcares as ones, the broadcast address will be FF hexadecimal.
Upon reset SADDR (SFR address 0A9H) and SADEN (SFR address 0B9H) are loaded with 0s.
This produces a given address of all “don’t cares” as well as a Broadcast address of all “don’t
cares”. This effectively disables the Automatic Addressing mode and allows the microcontroller
to use standard 80C51-type UART drivers which do not make use of this feature.
21
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Table 13-1.
PCON – Power Control Register
PCON Address = 87H
Reset Value = 00xx 0000B
Bit Addressable
SMOD1
SMOD0
–
POF
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
SMOD1
Double Baud Rate bit. Doubles the baud rate of the UART in Modes 1, 2, or 3.
SMOD0
Frame Error Select. When SMOD0 = 1, SCON.7 is SM0. When SMOD0 = 1, SCON.7 is FE. Note that FE will be set after
a frame error regardless of the state of SMOD0.
POF
Power Off Flag. POF is set to “1” during power up (i.e. cold reset). It can be set or reset under software control and is not
affected by RST (i.e. warm reset).
GF1, GF0
General-purpose Flags
PD
Power-down bit. Setting this bit activates power-down operation.
IDL
Idle Mode bit. Setting this bit activates Idle mode operation
Table 13-2.
SCON – Serial Port Control Register
SCON Address = 98H
Reset Value = 0000 0000B
Bit Addressable
SM0/FE
Bit
7
(SMOD0 = 0/1)
SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
T1
RI
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(1)
Symbol
Function
FE
Framing error bit. This bit is set by the receiver when an invalid stop bit is detected. The FE bit is not cleared by valid
frames but should be cleared by software. The SMOD0 bit must be set to enable access to the FE bit. FE will be set
regardless of the state of SMOD0.
SM0
Serial Port Mode Bit 0, (SMOD0 must = 0 to access bit SM0)
Serial Port Mode Bit 1
SM1
Baud Rate(2)
SM0
SM1
Mode
Description
0
0
0
shift register
fosc/12
0
1
1
8-bit UART
variable
1
0
2
9-bit UART
fosc/64 or fosc/32
1
1
3
9-bit UART
variable
SM2
Enables the Automatic Address Recognition feature in modes 2 or 3. If SM2 = 1 then Rl will not be set unless the received
9th data bit (RB8) is 1, indicating an address, and the received byte is a Given or Broadcast Address. In mode 1, if SM2 =
1 then Rl will not be activated unless a valid stop bit was received, and the received byte is a Given or Broadcast Address.
In Mode 0, SM2 should be 0.
REN
Enables serial reception. Set by software to enable reception. Clear by software to disable reception.
TB8
The 9th data bit that will be transmitted in modes 2 and 3. Set or clear by software as desired.
RB8
In modes 2 and 3, the 9th data bit that was received. In mode 1, if SM2 = 0, RB8 is the stop bit that was received. In mode
0, RB8 is not used.
TI
Transmit interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in mode 0, or at the beginning of the stop bit in the
other modes, in any serial transmission. Must be cleared by software.
RI
Receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in mode 0, or halfway through the stop bit time in the
other modes, in any serial reception (except see SM2). Must be cleared by software.
22
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
Notes:
1. SMOD0 is located at PCON.6.
2. fosc = oscillator frequency.
14. Serial Peripheral Interface
The serial peripheral interface (SPI) allows high-speed synchronous data transfer between the
AT89S8253 and peripheral devices or between multiple AT89S8253 devices. The AT89S8253
SPI features include the following:
• Full-Duplex, 3-Wire Synchronous Data Transfer
• Master or Slave Operation
• Maximum Bit Frequency = f/4 (f/2 if in x2 Clock Mode)
• LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer
• Four Programmable Bit Rates in Master Mode
• End of Transmission Interrupt Flag
• Write Collision Flag Protection
• Double-Buffered Receive
• Double-Buffered Transmit (Enhanced Mode only)
• Wakeup from Idle Mode (Slave Mode only)
The interconnection between master and slave CPUs with SPI is shown in Figure 14-1. The four
pins in the interface are Master-In/Slave-Out (MISO), Master-Out/Slave-In (MOSI), Shift Clock
(SCK), and Slave Select (SS). The SCK pin is the clock output in master mode, but is the clock
input in slave mode. The MSTR bit in SPCR determines the directions of MISO and MOSI. Also
notice that MOSI connects to MOSI and MISO to MISO. In master mode, SS/P1.4 is ignored and
may be used as a general-purpose input or output. In slave mode, SS must be driven low to
select an individual device as a slave. When SS is driven high, the slave’s SPI port is deactivated and the MOSI/P1.5 pin can be used as a general-purpose input.
Figure 14-1. SPI Master-Slave Interconnection
MSB
MASTER
LSB
MISO MISO
8-BIT SHIFT REGISTER
MSB
SLAVE
LSB
8-BIT SHIFT REGISTER
MOSI MOSI
SPI
CLOCK GENERATOR
SCK
SS
SCK
SS
VCC
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3286P–MICRO–3/10
Figure 14-2. SPI Block Diagram
S
LSB
S
8-BIT SHIFT REGISTER
READ DATA BUFFER
DIVIDER
÷4÷16÷64÷128
WRITE DATA BUFFER(1)
CLOCK
SPI CLOCK (MASTER)
S
CLOCK
LOGIC
MOSI
P1.5
SCK
1.7
M
SPR0
SELECT
SPI STATUS REGISTER
DORD
SPR0
SPR1
CPHA
CPOL
MSTR
SPE
DORD
8
SPIE
MSTR
SPE
WCOL
SPI CONTROL
SPE
SS
P1.4
MSTR
SPR1
PIN CONTROL LOGIC
MSB
SPIF
MISO
P1.6
M
M
OSCILLATOR
SPI CONTROL REGISTER
8
8
SPI INTERRUPT INTERNAL
REQUEST
DATA BUS
Note:
1. The Write Data Buffer is only used in enhanced SPI mode.
The SPI has two modes of operation: normal (non-buffered write) and enhanced (buffered
write). In normal mode, writing to the SPI data register (SPDR) of the master CPU starts the SPI
clock generator and the data written shifts out of the MOSI pin and into the MOSI pin of the slave
CPU. Transmission may start after an initial delay while the clock generator waits for the next full
bit slot of the specified baud rate. After shifting one byte, the SPI clock generator stops, setting
the end of transmission flag (SPIF) and transferring the received byte to the read buffer (SPDR).
If both the SPI interrupt enable bit (SPIE) and the serial port interrupt enable bit (ES) are set, an
interrupt is requested. Note that SPDR refers to either the write data buffer or the read data buffer, depending on whether the access is a write or read. In normal mode, because the write
buffer is transparent (and a write access to SPDR will be directed to the shift buffer), any attempt
to write to SPDR while a transmission is in progress will result in a write collision with WCOL set.
However, the transmission will still complete normally, but the new byte will be ignored and a
new write access to SPDR will be necessary.
Enhanced mode is similar to normal mode except that the write buffer holds the next byte to be
transmitted. Writing to SPDR loads the write buffer and sets WCOL to signify that the buffer is
full and any further writes will overwrite the buffer. WCOL is cleared by hardware when the buffered byte is loaded into the shift register and transmission begins. If the master SPI is currently
idle, i.e. if this is the first byte, then after loading SPDR, transmission of the byte starts and
WCOL is cleared immediately. While this byte is transmitting, the next byte may be written to
SPDR. The Load Enable flag (LDEN) in SPSR can be used to determine when transmission has
started. LDEN is asserted during the first four bit slots of a SPI transfer. The master CPU should
first check that LDEN is set and that WCOL is cleared before loading the next byte. In enhanced
mode, if WCOL is set when a transfer completes, i.e. the next byte is available, then the SPI
immediately loads the buffered byte into the shift register, resets WCOL, and continues transmission without stopping and restarting the clock generator. As long as the CPU can keep the
write buffer full in this manner, multiple bytes may be transferred with minimal latency between
bytes.
24
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
Table 14-1.
SPCR – SPI Control Register
SPCR Address = D5H
Reset Value = 0000 0100B
Not Bit Addressable
Bit
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
SPIE
SPI interrupt enable. This bit, in conjunction with the ES bit in the IE register, enables SPI interrupts: SPIE = 1 and ES = 1
enable SPI interrupts. SPIE = 0 disables SPI interrupts.
SPE
SPI enable. SPI = 1 enables the SPI channel and connects SS, MOSI, MISO and SCK to pins P1.4, P1.5, P1.6, and P1.7.
SPI = 0 disables the SPI channel.
DORD
Data order. DORD = 1 selects LSB first data transmission. DORD = 0 selects MSB first data transmission.
MSTR
Master/slave select. MSTR = 1 selects Master SPI mode. MSTR = 0 selects slave SPI mode.
CPOL
Clock polarity. When CPOL = 1, SCK is high when idle. When CPOL = 0, SCK of the master device is low when not
transmitting. Please refer to figure on SPI clock phase and polarity control.
CPHA
Clock phase. The CPHA bit together with the CPOL bit controls the clock and data relationship between master and slave.
Please refer to figure on SPI clock phase and polarity control.
SPR0
SPR1
SPI clock rate select. These two bits control the SCK rate of the device configured as master. SPR1 and SPR0 have no
effect on the slave. The relationship between SCK and the oscillator frequency, FOSC., is as follows:
SPR1SPR0SCK
00f/4 (f/2 in x2 mode)
01f/16 (f/8 in x2 mode)
10f/64 (f/32 in x2 mode)
11f/128 (f/64 in x2 mode)
Notes:
1. Set up the clock mode before enabling the SPI: set all bits needed in SPCR except the SPE bit, then set SPE.
2. Enable the master SPI prior to the slave device.
3. Slave echoes master on next Tx if not loaded with new data.
25
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Table 14-2.
SPSR – SPI Status Register
SPSR Address = AAH
Reset Value = 000X XX00B
Not Bit Addressable
Bit
SPIF
WCOL
LDEN
–
–
–
DISSO
ENH
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
SPIF
SPI interrupt flag. When a serial transfer is complete, the SPIF bit is set and an interrupt is generated if SPIE = 1 and ES
= 1. The SPIF bit is cleared by reading the SPI status register followed by reading/writing the SPI data register.
WCOL
When ENH = 0: Write collision flag. The WCOL bit is set if the SPI data register is written during a data transfer. During
data transfer, the result of reading the SPDR register may be incorrect, and writing to it has no effect. The WCOL bit (and
the SPIF bit) are cleared by reading the SPI status register followed by reading/writing the SPI data register.
When ENH = 1: WCOL works in Enhanced mode as Tx Buffer Full. Writing during WCOL = 1 in enhanced mode will
overwrite the waiting data already present in the Tx Buffer. In this mode, WCOL is no longer reset by the SPIF reset but
is reset when the write buffer has been unloaded into the serial shift register.
LDEN
Load enable for the Tx buffer in enhanced SPI mode.
When ENH is set, it is safe to load the Tx Buffer while LDEN = 1 and WCOL = 0. LDEN is high during bits 0 - 3 and is low
during bits 4 - 7 of the SPI serial byte transmission time frame.
DISSO
Disable slave output bit.
When set, this bit causes the MISO pin to be tri-stated so more than one slave device can share the same interface with
a single master. Normally, the first byte in a transmission could be the slave address and only the selected slave should
clear its DISSO bit.
ENH
Enhanced SPI mode select bit. When ENH = 0, SPI is in normal mode, i.e. without write double buffering.
When ENH = 1, SPI is in enhanced mode with write double buffering. The Tx buffer shares the same address with the
SPDR register.
Table 14-3.
SPDR – SPI Data Register
SPDR Address = 86H
Reset Value = 00H (after cold reset)
unchanged (after warm reset)
Not Bit Addressable
Bit
26
SPD7
SPD6
SPD5
SPD4
SPD3
SPD2
SPD1
SPD0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
Figure 14-3. SPI Shift Register Diagram
7
Serial In
Serial Master
8
2:1
MUX
D
Serial Slave
2:1
MUX
Q
LATCH
D
Q
Serial Out
LATCH
CLK
CLK
8
Parallel Master
Transmit
Byte
Parallel Slave
(Write Buffer)
8
D
(Read Buffer)
8
Q
LATCH
D
Q
8
Receive
Byte
LATCH
CLK
CLK
The CPHA (Clock PHAse), CPOL (Clock POLarity), and SPR (Serial Peripheral clock Rate =
baud rate) bits in SPCR control the shape and rate of SCK. The two SPR bits provide four possible clock rates when the SPI is in master mode. In slave mode, the SPI will operate at the rate of
the incoming SCK as long as it does not exceed the maximum bit rate. There are also four possible combinations of SCK phase and polarity with respect to the serial data. CPHA and CPOL
determine which format is used for transmission. The SPI data transfer formats are shown in
Figure 14-4 and Figure 14-5. To prevent glitches on SCK from disrupting the interface, CPHA,
CPOL, and SPR should be set up before the interface is enabled, and the master device should
be enabled before the slave device(s).
Table 14-4.
SPI Master Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
tCLCL
Oscillator Period
41.6
ns
tSCK
Serial Clock Cycle Time
4tCLCL
ns
tSHSL
Clock High Time
tSCK/2 - 25
ns
tSLSH
Clock Low Time
tSCK/2 - 25
ns
tSR
Rise Time
25
ns
tSF
Fall Time
25
ns
tSIS
Serial Input Setup Time
10
ns
tSIH
Serial Input Hold Time
10
ns
tSOH
Serial Output Hold Time
10
ns
tSOV
Serial Output Valid Time
35
ns
27
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Table 14-5.
SPI Slave Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
tCLCL
Oscillator Period
41.6
ns
tSCK
Serial Clock Cycle Time
4tCLCL
ns
tSHSL
Clock High Time
1.5 tCLCL - 25
ns
tSLSH
Clock Low Time
1.5 tCLCL - 25
ns
tSR
Rise Time
25
ns
tSF
Fall Time
25
ns
tSIS
Serial Input Setup Time
10
ns
tSIH
Serial Input Hold Time
10
ns
tSOH
Serial Output Hold Time
10
ns
tSOV
Serial Output Valid Time
35
ns
tSOE
Output Enable Time
10
ns
tSOX
Output Disable Time
25
ns
tSSE
Slave Enable Lead Time
4 tCLCL +50
ns
tSSD
Slave Disable Lag Time
0
ns
Figure 14-4. SPI Master Timing (CPHA = 0)
SS
tSCK
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
tSR
tSHSL
tSLSH
tSLSH
tSHSL
tSF
tSIS
tSIH
MISO
tSOH
tSOV
MOSI
28
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
Figure 14-5. SPI Slave Timing (CPHA = 0)
SS
tSR
tSCK
tSSE
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
SCK
(CPOL= 1)
tSHSL
tSLSH
tSLSH
tSHSL
tSOV
tSOE
tSSD
tSF
tSOX
tSOH
MISO
tSIS
tSIH
MOSI
Figure 14-6. SPI Master Timing (CPHA = 1)
SS
tSCK
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
tSF
tSHSL
tSLSH
tSLSH
tSHSL
tSR
tSIS
tSIH
MISO
tSOV
tSOH
MOSI
Figure 14-7. SPI Slave Timing (CPHA = 1)
SS
tSCK
tSSE
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
tSR
tSF
tSHSL
tSLSH
tSLSH
tSHSL
tSOE
tSOV
tSOH
tSSD
tSOX
MISO
tSIS
tSIH
MOSI
29
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Figure 14-8. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 0
Note:
*Not defined but normally MSB of character just received
Figure 14-9. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 1
SCK CYCLE #
(FOR REFERENCE)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SCK (CPOL = 0)
SCK (CPOL = 1)
MOSI
(FROM MASTER)
MISO
(FROM SLAVE)
*
MSB
6
5
4
3
2
1
MSB
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
LSB
SS (TO SLAVE)
Note:
*Not defined but normally LSB of previously transmitted character
15. Interrupts
The AT89S8253 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1),
three timer interrupts (Timers 0, 1, and 2), and the serial port interrupt. These interrupts are all
shown in Figure 15-1.
Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a
bit in Special Function Register IE. IE also contains a global disable bit, EA, which disables all
interrupts at once.
Note that Table 15-1 shows that bit position IE.6 is unimplemented. User software should not
write a 1 to this bit position, since it may be used in future AT89 products.
Timer 2 interrupt is generated by the logical OR of bits TF2 and EXF2 in register T2CON. Neither of these flags is cleared by hardware when the service routine is vectored to. In fact, the
service routine may have to determine whether it was TF2 or EXF2 that generated the interrupt,
and that bit will have to be cleared in software.
The serial interrupt is the logical OR of bits RI and TI in register SCON and also bit SPIF in
SPSR (if SPIE in SPCR is set). None of these flags is cleared by hardware when the service routine is vectored to. The service routine may have to determine whether the UART or SPI
generated the interrupt.
The Timer 0 and Timer 1 flags, TF0 and TF1, are set at S5P2 of the cycle in which the timers
overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the next cycle. However, the Timer 2 flag,
TF2, is set at S2P2 and is polled in the same cycle in which the timer overflows.
30
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
Interrupt
Source
Vector Address
System Reset
RST or POR
0000H
External Interrupt 0
IE0
0003H
Timer 0 Overflow
TF0
000BH
External Interrupt 1
IE1
0013H
Timer 1 Overflow
TF1
001BH
Serial Port
RI or TI or SPIF
0023H
Table 15-1.
Interrupt Enable (IE) Register
IE Address = A8H
Reset Value = 0X00 0000B
Bit Addressable
EA
–
ET2
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
Enable Bit = 1 enables the interrupt, 0 disables the interrupt.
Symbol
Position
Function
EA
IE.7
Disables all interrupts. If EA = 0, no interrupt is acknowledged. If EA = 1, each interrupt source is individually
enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable bit.
–
IE.6
Reserved.
ET2
IE.5
Timer 2 interrupt enable bit.
ES
IE.4
SPI and UART interrupt enable bit.
ET1
IE.3
Timer 1 interrupt enable bit.
EX1
IE.2
External interrupt 1 enable bit.
ET0
IE.1
Timer 0 interrupt enable bit.
EX0
IE.0
External interrupt 0 enable bit.
User software should never write 1s to reserved bits, because they may be used in future AT89 products.
Table 15-2.
IP – Interrupt Priority Register
IP = B8H
Reset Value = XX00 0000B
Bit Addressable
Bit
–
–
PT2
PS
PT1
PX1
PT0
PX0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
PT2
Timer 2 Interrupt Priority Low
PS
Serial Port Interrupt Priority Low
PT1
Timer 1 Interrupt Priority Low
PX1
External Interrupt 1 Priority Low
PT0
Timer 0 Interrupt Priority Low
PX0
External Interrupt 0 Priority Low
31
3286P–MICRO–3/10
.
Table 15-3.
IPH – Interrupt Priority High Register
IPH = B7H
Reset Value = XX00 0000B
Not Bit Addressable
Bit
–
–
PT2H
PSH
PT1H
PX1H
PT0H
PX0H
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Function
PT2H
Timer 2 Interrupt Priority High
PSH
Serial Port Interrupt Priority High
PT1H
Timer 1 Interrupt Priority High
PX1H
External Interrupt 1 Priority High
PT0H
Timer 0 Interrupt Priority High
PX0H
External Interrupt 0 Priority High
Figure 15-1. Interrupt Sources
32
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
16. Oscillator Characteristics
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier that can be
configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 16-1 (A) and (B). Either a quartz
crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. For frequencies above 16MHz it is recommended that
C1 be replaced with R1 for improved startup performance. Note that the internal structure of the
devices adds about 10 pF of capacitance to both XTAL1 and XTAL2. The total capacitance on
XTAL1 or XTAL2, including the external load capacitor (C1/C2) plus internal device load, board
trace and crystal loadings, should not exceed 20 pF. Figure 16-2, 16-3, 16-4 and 16-5 illustrate
the relationship between clock loading and the respective resulting clock amplitudes.
Figure 16-1. Oscillator Connections
C2
C2
~10 pF
~10 pF
C1
R1
~10 pF
~10 pF
(A) Low Frequency
Note:
(B) High Frequency
C1, C2 = 0–10 pF for Crystals
= 0–10 pF for Ceramic Resonators
R1
= 4–5 MΩ
Figure 16-2. Quartz Crystal Clock Source (A)
Quartz Crystal Clock Input
XTAL1 Amplitude (V)
6
C1=C2=0pF
5
C1=C2=5pF
C1=C2=10pF
4
3
2
1
0
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
Frequency (MHz)
33
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Figure 16-3. Quartz Crystal Clock Source (B)
Quartz Crystal Clock Input
XTAL1 Amplitude (V)
7
C2=0pF
6
C2=5pF
5
C2=10pF
4
R1=4MΩ
3
2
1
0
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 16-4. Ceramic Resonator Clock Source (A)
Ceramic Resonator Clock Input
XTAL1 Amplitude (V)
6
C1=C2=0pF
5
C1=C2=5pF
C1=C2=10pF
4
3
2
1
0
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
Frequency (MHz)
34
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
Figure 16-5. Ceramic Resonator Clock Source (B)
Ceramic Resonator Clock Input
XTAL1 Amplitude (V)
7
C2=0pF
6
C2=5pF
5
C2=10pF
4
R1=4MΩ
3
2
1
0
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
Frequency (MHz)
To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while
XTAL1 is driven, as shown in Figure 16-6.
Figure 16-6. External Clock Drive Configuration
17. Idle Mode
In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on-chip peripherals remain active. This
mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled
interrupt or by a hardware reset.
Note that when idle mode is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset
algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but
access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a
port pin when idle mode is terminated by a reset, the instruction following the one that invokes
idle mode should not write to a port pin or to external memory.
35
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Table 17-1.
Status of External Pins During Idle and Power-down Modes
Mode
Program Memory
ALE
PSEN
PORT0
PORT1
PORT2
PORT3
Idle
Internal
1
1
Data
Data
Data
Data
Idle
External
1
1
Float
Data
Address
Data
Power-down
Internal
0
0
Data
Data
Data
Data
Power-down
External
0
0
Float
Data
Data
Data
18. Power-down Mode
In the power-down mode, the oscillator is stopped and the instruction that invokes power-down
is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain their
values until the power-down mode is terminated. Exit from power-down can be initiated either by
a hardware reset or by an enabled external interrupt. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not
change the on-chip RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal
operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and
stabilize.
To exit power-down via an interrupt, external interrupt pin P3.2 or P3.3 must be kept low for at
least the specified required crystal oscillator start up time. Afterwards, the interrupt service routine starts at the rising edge of the external interrupt pin if the SFR bit AUXR.1 is set. If AUXR.1
is reset (cleared), execution starts after a self-timed interval of 2 ms (nominal) from the falling
edge of the external interrupt pin. The user should not attempt to enter (or re-enter) the powerdown mode for a minimum of 4 µs until after one of the following conditions has occurred: Start
of code execution (after any type of reset), or Exit from power-down mode.
19. Program Memory Lock Bits
The AT89S8253 has three lock bits that can be left unprogrammed (U) or can be programmed
(P) to obtain the additional features listed in Table 19-1. When lock bit 1 is programmed, the
logic level at the EA pin is sampled and latched during reset. If the device is powered up without
a reset, the latch initializes to a random value and holds that value until reset is activated. The
latched value of EA must agree with the current logic level at that pin in order for the device to
function properly. Once programmed, the lock bits can only be unprogrammed with the Chip
Erase operation in either the parallel or serial modes.
Table 19-1.
Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)
Program Lock Bits
1
LB2
LB3
Protection Type
U
U
U
No internal memory lock feature.
2
P
U
U
MOVC instructions executed from external program memory are
disabled from fetching code bytes from internal memory. EA is sampled
and latched on reset and further programming of the Flash memory
(parallel or serial mode) is disabled.
3
P
P
U
Same as Mode 2, but parallel or serial verify are also disabled.
4
P
P
P
Same as Mode 3, but external execution is also disabled.
Note:
36
LB1
1. U = Unprogrammed; P = Programmed
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
20. Programming the Flash and EEPROM
Atmel’s AT89S8253 Flash microcontroller offers 12K bytes of In-System reprogrammable Flash
code memory and 2K bytes of EEPROM data memory.
The AT89S8253 is normally shipped with the on-chip Flash code and EEPROM data memory
arrays in the erased state (i.e. contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. This device supports a parallel programming mode and a serial programming mode. The serial programming
mode provides a convenient way to reprogram the AT89S8253 inside the user’s system. The
parallel programming mode is compatible with conventional third-party Flash or EPROM
programmers.
The code and data memory arrays are mapped via separate address spaces in the parallel and
serial programming modes: 0000H to 2FFFH for code memory and 000H to 7FFH for data
memory.
The code and data memory arrays in the AT89S8253 are programmed byte-by-byte or by page
in either programming mode. To reprogram any non-blank byte in the parallel or serial mode, the
user needs to invoke the Chip Erase operation first to erase both arrays since there is no built-in
auto-erase capability.
Parallel Programming Algorithm: To program and verify the AT89S8253 in the parallel programming mode, the following sequence is recommended (see Figure 26-1):
1. Power-up sequence:
a. Apply power between VCC and GND pins.
b.
Set RST pin to “H”.
c.
Apply a 3 MHz to 24 MHz clock to XTAL1 pin and wait for at least 10 ms.
2. Set PSEN pin to “L”
a. ALE pin to “H”
b.
EA pin to “H” and all other pins to “H”.
3. Raise EA/VPP to 12V to enable Flash programming, erase or verification. Enable the
P3.0 pull-up (10 KΩ typical) for RDY/BSY operation.
4. Apply the appropriate combination of “H” or “L” logic levels to pins P3.3, P3.4, P3.5,
P3.6, P3.7 to select one of the programming operations shown in the Flash Programming Modes table.
5. Apply the desired byte address to pins P1.0 to P1.7 and P2.0 to P2.5.
a. Apply data to pins P0.0 to P0.7 for write code operation.
6. Pulse ALE/PROG once to load a byte in the code memory array, the data memory
array, or the lock bits.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6, changing the address and data for up to 64 bytes in the code
memory page or 32 bytes in the data memory (EEPROM) page. When loading a page
with individual bytes, the interval between consecutive byte loads should be no longer
than 150 µs. Otherwise the device internally times out and assumes that the page load
sequence is completed, rejecting any further loads before the page programming
sequence has finished. This timing restriction also applies to Page Write of the 64-byte
User Row.
8. After the last byte of the current page has been loaded, wait for 5 ms or monitor the
RDY/BUSY pin until it transitions high. The page write cycle is self-timed and typically
takes less than 5 ms.
9. To verify the last byte of the page just programmed, bring pin P3.4 to “L” and read the
programmed data at pins P0.0 to P0.7.
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3286P–MICRO–3/10
10. Repeat steps 4 through 7 changing the address and data for the entire array or until the
end of the object file is reached.
11. Power-off sequence:
a. Tri-state the address and data inputs.
b.
Disable the P3.0 pullup used for RDY/BUSY operation.
c.
Set XTAL1 to “L”.
d. Set RST and EA pins to “L”.
e. Turn VCC power off.
Data Polling: The AT89S8253 features DATA Polling to indicate the end of any programming
cycle. During a write cycle in the parallel or serial programming mode, an attempted read of the
last loaded byte will result in the complement of the written datum on P0.7 (parallel mode), and
on the MSB of the serial output byte on MISO (serial mode). Once the write cycle has been completed, true data are valid on all outputs, and the next cycle may begin. DATA Polling may begin
any time after a write cycle has been initiated.
Ready/Busy: The progress of byte programming in the parallel programming mode can also be
monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. Pin P3.0 is pulled Low after ALE goes High during
programming to indicate BUSY. P3.0 is pulled High again when programming is done to indicate
READY. P3.0 needs an external pullup (typical 10 KΩ) when functioning as RDY/BSY.
Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed, the programmed Code or
Data byte can be read back via the address and data lines for verification. The state of the lock
bits can also be verified directly in the parallel and serial programming modes.
Chip Erase: Both Flash and EEPROM arrays are erased electrically at the same time. In the
parallel programming mode, Chip Erase is initiated by using the proper combination of control
signals. The code and data arrays are written with all “1”s during the Chip Erase operation. The
User Row will also be erased if the UsrRowProEn fuse (Fuse3) = 0 (enabled state).
In the serial programming mode, a chip erase operation is initiated by issuing the Chip Erase
instruction. In this mode, Chip Erase is self-timed and also takes about 8 ms.
During Chip Erase, a serial read from any address location will return 00H at the data outputs.
Serial Programming Fuse: A programmable fuse is available to disable Serial Programming if
the user needs maximum system security. The Serial Programming Fuse can be disabled via
both the Parallel/Serial Programming Modes, but can only be enabled via the Parallel mode.
The AT89S8253 is shipped with the Serial Programming Mode enabled.
Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 030H and 031H, except that P3.6 and P3.7 must be pulled to a logic
low. The values returned are as follows:
(030H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel
(031H) = 73H indicates AT89S8253
38
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
21. Programming Interface
Every code byte in the Flash and EEPROM arrays can be written, and the entire array can be
erased, by using the appropriate combination of control signals. The write operation cycle is selftimed and once initiated, will automatically time itself to completion.
Most worldwide major programming vendors offer support for the Atmel AT89 microcontroller
series. Please contact your local programming vendor for the appropriate software revision.
22. Serial Downloading
Both the code and data memory arrays can be programmed using the serial SPI bus while RST
is pulled to VCC. The serial interface consists of pins SCK, MOSI (input) and MISO (output). After
RST is set high, the Programming Enable instruction must be executed first before other operations can be executed.
The Chip Erase operation turns the content of every memory location in both the Code and Data
arrays into FFH.
The code and data memory arrays have separate address spaces:
0000H to 2FFFH for code memory and 000H to 7FFH for data memory.
Either an external system clock is supplied at pin XTAL1 or a crystal needs to be connected
across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2. The maximum serial clock (SCK) frequency should be less than
1/16 of the crystal frequency. With a 24 MHz oscillator clock, the maximum SCK frequency is
1.5 MHz.
23. Serial Programming Algorithm
To program and verify the AT89S8253 in the serial programming mode, the following sequence
is recommended:
1. Power-up sequence:
a. Apply power between VCC and GND pins.
b.
Set RST pin to “H”.
If a crystal is not connected across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2, apply a 3 MHz to 12 MHz clock to
XTAL1 pin and wait for at least 10 ms with RST pin high and P1.7 (SCK) low.
2. Enable serial programming by sending the Programming Enable serial instruction to pin
MOSI/P1.5. The frequency of the shift clock supplied at pin SCK/P1.7 needs to be less
than the CPU clock at XTAL1 divided by 16.
3. The code or data array is programmed one byte or one page at a time by supplying the
address and data together with the appropriate Write instruction. The write cycle is selftimed and typically takes less than 4.0 ms at 5V.
4. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read instruction which returns the
content at the selected address at serial output MISO/P1.6.
5. At the end of a programming session, RST can be set low to commence normal
operation.
Power-off sequence (if needed):
1. Set XTAL1 to “L” (if a crystal is not used).
2. Set RST to “L”.
3. Turn VCC power off.
39
3286P–MICRO–3/10
24. Serial Programming Instruction
The Instruction Set for Serial Programming follows a 4-byte protocol and is shown in Table 24-1.
Table 24-1.
Serial Programming Instruction Set
xxxx xxxx
Enable Serial Programming while
RST is high
1010 1100
100x xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
Chip Erase both the 12K and 2K
memory arrays
Write Program Memory
(Byte Mode)
0100 0000
xx
D3
D2
D1
D0
Write data to Program Memory –
Byte Mode
Read Program Memory
(Byte Mode)
0010 0000
xx
D3
D2
D1
D0
Read data from Program Memory –
Byte Mode
Write Program Memory
(Page Mode)
0101 0000
xx
Read Program Memory
(Page Mode)
0011 0000
xx
Write Data Memory
(Byte Mode)
1100 0000
xxxx x
Read Data Memory
(Byte Mode)
1010 0000
xxxx x
Write Data Memory
(Page Mode)
1101 0000
xxxx x
Read Data Memory
(Page Mode)
1011 0000
xxxx x
Write User Fuses
1010 1100
0001
0 0000
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
Read data from Data Memory
– Page Mode (32 bytes)
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx x
Read back current status of the lock
bits (a programmed lock bit reads
back as a “0”)
0100 0010
xxxx xxxx
xx
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
0010 0010
xxxx xxxx
xx
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
0101 0010
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
0011 0010
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
0010 1000
xxxx xxxx
xx
LB3
LB2
LB1
xxxx xxxx
A3
A2
A1
A0
Byte 0 ... Byte 63
D3
D2
D1
D0
Byte 0 ... Byte 63
D7
D6
D5
D4
Read ATMEL Sgn. Byte
Read back status of user fuse bits
A3
A2
A1
A0
xxxx
Write the lock bits (write a “0” to
lock)
A3
A2
A1
A0
Read User Sgn. Page
D3
D2
D1
D0
Byte 0 ... Byte 31
A5
A4
Write User Sgn. Page
D3
D2
D1
D0
Write data to Data Memory – Page
Mode (32 bytes)
xxxx xxxx
A5
A4
Read User Sgn. Byte
Read data from Data Memory – Byte
Mode
Byte 0 ... Byte 31
Read Lock Bits
Write User Sgn. Byte
Write data to Data Memory
– Byte Mode
A5
A4
0010 0100
Read data from Program Memory –
Page Mode (64 bytes)
xxxx xxxx
Write Lock Bits
LB3
LB2
LB1
1110 0
Byte 0 ... Byte 63
Write user fuse bits (refer to next
page for the fuse definitions)
Read User Fuses
1010 1100
Write data to Program Memory –
Page Mode (64 bytes)
D7
D6
D5
D4
A3
A2
A1
A0
A3
A2
A1
A0
0 0000
Operation
Byte 0 ... Byte 63
D7
D6
D5
D4
A3
A2
A1
A0
A7
A6
A5
A4
A7
A6
A7
A6
A7
A6
A5
A7
A6
A5
A4
A7
A6
A5
A4
00 0000
A7
A6
A5
A11
A10
A9
A8
A11
A10
A9
A8
A11
A10
A9
A8
A10
A9
A8
A10
A9
A8
A10
A9
A8
A10
A9
A8
A13
A12
A13
A12
xxxx xxxx
00 0000
FUSE4
FUSE3
FUSE2
FUSE1
0010 0001
A13
A12
Chip Erase
FUSE4
FUSE3
FUSE2
FUSE1
Programming Enable
Byte n
D7
D6
D5
D4
xxxx xxxx
A3
A2
A1
A0
Byte 4
0101 0011
A7
A6
A5
A4
Byte 3
1010 1100
A11
A10
A9
A8
Byte 2
A13
A12
Byte 1
D7
D6
D5
D4
Instruction Format
Instruction
Read Signature Byte
After Reset signal is high, SCK should be low for at least 64 system clocks before it goes high to clock in the enable data
bytes. No pulsing of Reset signal is necessary. SCK should be no faster than 1/16 of the system clock at pin XTAL1.
For Page Read/Write, the data always starts from byte 0 to 31 or 63. After the command byte and upper address byte are
latched, each byte thereafter is treated as data until all 32 or 64 bytes are shifted in/out. Then the next instruction will be
ready to be decoded.
40
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
25. Flash and EEPROM Parallel Programming Modes
ALE
Mode
Serial Prog. Modes
Chip Erase
(1)
(2)
(3)(4)(5)
Address
P2.5:0,
P1.7:0
EA
P3.3
P3.4
P3.5
P3.6
P3.7
Data I/O
P0.7:0
1.0 µs
12V
H
L
H
L
L
X
X
RST
PSEN
H
h
h
H
L
Page Write
12K Code
H
L
1.0 µs
12V
L
H
H
H
H
DI
ADDR
Read
12K Code
H
L
H
12V
L
L
H
H
H
DO
ADDR
Page Write
2K Data
H
L
1.0 µs
12V
L
H
L
H
H
DI
ADDR
Read
2K Data
H
L
H
12V
L
L
L
H
H
DO
ADDR
D0 = 0
X
D1 = 0
X
Bit - 3
D2 = 0
X
Bit - 1
D0
X
D1
X
D2
X
(3)(4)(6)
Bit - 1
Write Lock Bits
(2)(4)
Bit - 2
Read Lock Bits
Bit - 2
H
H
L
L
1.0 µs
H
12V
12V
H
H
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
L
Bit - 3
(3)(4)(5)
Page Write
User Row
H
L
1.0 µs
12V
H
L
H
H
H
DI
0 - 3FH
Read
User Row
H
L
H
12V
L
L
H
L
H
DO
0 - 3FH
Read
Sig. Row
H
L
H
12V
L
L
H
L
L
DO
0 - 3FH
SerialPrgEn
D0 = 0
X
SerialPrgDis
D0 = 1
X
x2 ClockEn
D1 = 0
X
D1 = 1
X
UsrRowPrgEn
D2 = 0
X
UsrRowPrgDis
D2 = 1
X
External Clock En
D3 = 0
X
Crystal Clock En
D3 = 1
X
SerialPrg (Fuse1)
D0
X
x2 Clock (Fuse2)
D1
X
D2
X
D2
X
}
}
}
}
Fuse1
Fuse2
Write
Fuse(2)(4)(7)
x2 ClockDis
H
L
1.0 µs
12V
L
H
H
L
H
Fuse3
Fuse4
Read Fuse
UsrRow Prg
H
L
H
12V
H
H
H
L
(Fuse3)
Clock Select
(Fuse4)
Notes:
H
1. See detailed timing for Serial Programming Mode.
2. Internally timed for 8.0 ms.
3. Internally timed for 8.0 ms. Programming begins 150 µs (minimum) after the last write pulse.
4. P3.0 is pulled low during programming to indicate RDY/BSY
5. 1 to 64 bytes can be programmed at a time per page.
6. 1 to 32 bytes can be programmed at a time per page.
7. Fuse Definitions:
Fuse1 (Serial Programming Fuse): This fuse enables/disables the serial programming mode (ISP).
Fuse2 (x2 Mode Selection Fuse): This fuse enables/disables the internal x2 clock mode.
41
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Fuse3 (User Row Access Fuse): This fuse enables/disables writing to the programmable user row.
Fuse4 (Clock Selection Fuse): This fuse selects between an external clock source and a quartz crystal as the clock input.
Programming the Flash/EEPROM Memory (Parallel Mode)
VCC
VCC
AT89S8253
A0 - A7
ADDR.
0000H/37FFH
AT89S8253
PGM
DATA
P0
P2.0 - P2.5
A8 - A13
P3.3
P3.6
P2.0 - P2.5
P3.3
P3.4
SEE FLASH
PROGRAMMING
MODES TABLE
P3.5
VCC
P1
PGM
DATA
P0
A8 - A13
PROG
ALE
P3.4
SEE FLASH
PROGRAMMING
MODES TABLE
A0 - A7
ADDR.
0000H/37FFH
VCC
P1
ALE
PROG
P3.5
P3.6
P3.7
P3.7
XTAL2
VPP
EA
EA
VPP
3-24 MHz
XTAL1
GND
P3.0
RDY/BSY
(USE 10K
PULLUP)
RST
VIH
3-24 MHz
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
PSEN
Oscillator Bypass
Fuse (Fuse4) Off
XTAL1
GND
P3.0
RDY/BSY
(USE 10K
PULLUP)
RST
VIH
PSEN
Oscillator Bypass
Fuse (Fuse4) On
Figure 25-2. Verifying the Flash/EEPROM Memory (Parallel Mode)
VCC
VCC
AT89S8253
ADDR.
0000H/37FFH
A0 - A7
A8 - A13
SEE FLASH
PROGRAMMING
MODES TABLE
P1
P2.0 - P2.5
P3.3
P3.4
AT89S8253
VCC
P0
ALE
PGM DATA
(USE 10K
PULLUPS)
ADDR.
0000H/37FFH
A0 - A7
A8 - A13
VI H
SEE FLASH
PROGRAMMING
MODES TABLE
P3.5
P3.6
P3.7
P1
VCC
P2.0 - P2.5
P0
P3.3
P3.4
PGM DATA
(USE 10K
PULLUPS)
ALE
VI H
EA
VPP
RST
VI H
P3.5
P3.6
P3.7
XTAL2
EA
VPP
XTAL1
RST
VI H
3-24 Mhz
GND
PSEN
Oscillator Bypass
Fuse (Fuse4) Off
3-24 MHz
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
XTAL1
GND
PSEN
Oscillator Bypass
Fuse (Fuse4) On
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
Figure 25-3. Flash/EEPROM Serial Downloading
2.7V to 5.5V
2.7V to 5.5V
AT89S8253
AT89S8253
VCC
VCC
INSTRUCTION
INPUT
P1.5/MOSI
INSTRUCTION
INPUT
P1.5/MOSI
DATA OUTPUT
P1.6/MISO
DATA OUTPUT
P1.6/MISO
CLOCK IN
P1.7/SCK
CLOCK IN
P1.7/SCK
XTAL2
3-24 MHz
XTAL1
RST
GND
Oscillator Bypass
Fuse (Fuse4) Off
VIH
3-24 MHz
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
XTAL1
RST
VIH
GND
Oscillator Bypass
Fuse (Fuse4) On
43
3286P–MICRO–3/10
26. Flash Programming and Verification Characteristics – Parallel Mode
TA = 20°C to 30°C, VCC = 4.0V to 5.5V
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
VPP
Programming Enable Voltage
11.5
12.5
V
IPP
Programming Enable Current
1.0
mA
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
24
MHz
tPWRUP
Power On to RST High
tRHX
3
(1)
10
µs
RST High to XTAL Start
10
µs
tOSTL
Oscillator Settling Time
10
ms
tHSTL
High Voltage Settling Time
10
µs
tMSTP
Mode Setup to PROG Low
1
µs
tASTP
Address Setup to PROG Low
1
µs
tDSTP
Data Setup to PROG Low
1
µs
tPGW
PROG Width
1
µs
tAHLD
Address Hold after PROG
1
µs
tDHLD
Data Hold after PROG
1
µs
tBLT
Byte Load Period
1
tPHBL
PROG High to BUSY Low
(2)
150
µs
256
µs
4.5
ms
tWC
Write Cycle Time
tMHLD
Mode Hold After BUSY Low
tVFY
Address to Data Verify Valid
tPSTP
PROG Setup to VPP High
10
µs
tPHLD
PROG Hold after VPP Low
10
µs
tPLX
PROG Low to XTAL Halt
1
µs
tXRL
XTAL Halt to RST Low
1
µs
RST Low to Power Off
1
µs
tPWRDN
Notes:
10
µs
1
µs
1. Power On occurs once VCC reaches 2.4V.
2. 9 ms if Chip Erase.
44
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
3286P–MICRO–3/10
P3.0
(RDY/BSY)
PORT 0
P1.0...P1.7
and P2.0...P2.5
P3.3...P3.7
ALE/PROG
EA/VPP
PSEN
XTAL 1
RST
VCC
tPSTP
tOSTL
tRHX
tPWRUP
tHSTL
tDSTP
tASTP
tPGW
DATA0
ADDR0
tMSTP
Running at 3 MHz
DATA1
ADDR1
tDHLD
tAHLD
tBLT
tPHBL
tWC
tMHLD
tVFY
DATA1
ADDR1
DATA0
ADDR0
tMSTP
tPHLD
tPLX
tXRL
tPWRDN
AT89S8253
Figure 26-1. Flash/EEPROM Programming and Verification Waveforms – Parallel Mode
45
27. Serial Downloading Waveforms (SPI Mode 1 −−> CPOL = 0, CPHA = 1)
7
6
4
5
3
2
1
0
SERIAL DATA INPUT
MOSI/P1.5
MSB
LSB
MSB
LSB
SERIAL DATA OUTPUT
MISO/P1.6
SCK/P1.7
28. Serial Programming Characteristics
Figure 28-1. Serial Programming Timing
Change
Outputs
Sample
Inputs
t SLSH
t SHSL
SCK
t OVSL
t SHOX
MOSI
MISO
t SHIV
Table 28-1.
Serial Programming Characteristics, TA = -40° C to 85° C, VCC = 2.7V - 5.5V (Unless Otherwise Noted)
Symbol
Parameter
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
tCLCL
Oscillator Period
tSHSL
SCK Pulse Width High
8 tCLCL
ns
tSLSH
SCK Pulse Width Low
8 tCLCL
ns
tOVSL
MOSI Setup to SCK Low
tCLCL
ns
tSHOX
MOSI Hold after SCK Low
2 tCLCL
ns
tSHIV
SCK High to MISO Valid
tERASE
Chip Erase Instruction Cycle Time
tSWC
Serial Page Write Cycle Time
46
Min
Max
Units
3
24
MHz
41.6
33.3
ns
10
Typ
16
32
ns
9
ms
4.5
ms
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
29. Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Operating Temperature.................................. -55°C to +125°C
*NOTICE:
Storage Temperature ..................................... -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on Any Pin
with Respect to Ground .....................................-1.0V to +7.0V
Maximum Operating Voltage ............................................ 6.6V
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and
functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions beyond those indicated in the
operational sections of this specification is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect device
reliability.
DC Output Current...................................................... 15.0 mA
30. DC Characteristics
The values shown in this table are valid for TA = -40°C to 85°C and VCC = 2.7 to 5.5V, unless otherwise noted
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min
Max
VIL
Input Low-voltage
(Except EA, XTAL1, RST, Port 0)
-0.5V
0.2 VCC - 0.1V
VIL1
Input Low-voltage
(EA, XTAL1, RST, Port 0)
-0.5V
0.3 VCC
VIH
Input High-voltage
(Except EA, XTAL1, RST, Port 0)
0.5 VCC
VCC + 0.5V
VIH1
Input High-voltage
(EA, XTAL1, RST, Port 0)
0.7 VCC
VCC + 0.5V
(1)
VOL
Output Low-voltage
VOH
Output High-voltage
When Weak Pull Ups are Enabled
(Ports 1, 2, 3, ALE, PSEN)
IOL = 10 mA, VCC = 4.0V, TA = 85°C
0.5V
IOH = -60 µA, TA = 85°C
2.4V
IOH = -25 µA, TA = 85°C
0.75 VCC
IOH = -10 µA, TA = 85°C
0.9 VCC
IOH = -40 mA, TA = 85°C
2.4V
Output High-voltage
When Strong Pull Ups are Enabled
(Port 0 in External Bus Mode, P1, 2, 3,
ALE, PSEN)
IOH = -25 mA, TA = 85°C
0.75 VCC
IOH = -10 mA, TA = 85°C
0.9 VCC
IIL
Logical 0 Input Current (Ports 1, 2, 3)
VIN = 0.45V, VCC = 5.5V, TA = -40°C
-50 µA
ITL
Logical 1 to 0 Transition Current (Ports
1, 2, 3)
VIN = 2V, VCC = 5.5V, TA = -40°C
-352 µA
ILI
Input Leakage Current (Port 0, EA)
0.45V< VIN < VCC
±10 µA
RRST
Reset Pull-down Resistor
CIO
Pin Capacitance
VOH1
Power Supply Current
ICC
Power-down Mode(2)
Notes:
50 KΩ
150 KΩ
Test Freq. = 1 MHz, TA = 25°C
10 pF
Active Mode, 12 MHz, VCC = 5.5V, TA = -40°C
10 mA
Idle Mode, 12 MHz, VCC = 5.5V, TA = -40°C
3.5 mA
VCC = 5.5V, TA = -40°C
100 µA
VCC = 4.0V, TA = -40°C
20 µA
1. Under steady state (non-transient) conditions, IOL must be externally limited as follows:
Maximum IOL per port pin: 10 mA,
Maximum IOL per 8-bit port:15 mA,
Maximum total IOL for all output pins: 71 mA
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater
than the listed test conditions.
2. Minimum VCC for Power-down is 2V.
47
3286P–MICRO–3/10
31. AC Characteristics
The values shown in this table are valid for TA = -40°C to 85°C and VCC = 2.7 to 5.5V, unless otherwise noted.
Under operating conditions, load capacitance for Port 0, ALE/PROG, and PSEN = 100 pF; load capacitance for all other
outputs = 80 pF.
31.1
External Program and Data Memory Characteristics
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
tLHLL
ALE Pulse Width
2tCLCL - 12
ns
tAVLL
Address Valid to ALE Low
tCLCL - 12
ns
tLLAX
Address Hold after ALE Low
tCLCL - 16
ns
tLLIV
ALE Low to Valid Instruction In
tLLPL
ALE Low to PSEN Low
tCLCL - 12
ns
tPLPH
PSEN Pulse Width
3tCLCL - 12
ns
tPLIV
PSEN Low to Valid Instruction In
tPXIX
Input Instruction Hold after PSEN
tPXIZ
Input Instruction Float after PSEN
tPXAV
PSEN to Address Valid
tAVIV
Address to Valid Instruction In
tPLAZ
PSEN Low to Address Float
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
6tCLCL
ns
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
6tCLCL
ns
tRLDV
RD Low to Valid Data In
tRHDX
Data Hold after RD
tRHDZ
Data Float after RD
2tCLCL - 20
ns
tLLDV
ALE Low to Valid Data In
8tCLCL - 50
ns
tAVDV
Address to Valid Data In
9tCLCL - 50
ns
tLLWL
ALE Low to RD or WR Low
3tCLCL - 24
3tCLCL
ns
tAVWL
Address to RD or WR Low
4tCLCL - 12
ns
tQVWX
Data Valid to WR Transition
2tCLCL - 24
ns
tQVWH
Data Valid to WR High
8tCLCL - 24
ns
tWHQX
Data Hold after WR
2tCLCL - 24
ns
tRLAZ
RD Low to Address Float
tWHLH
RD or WR High to ALE High
tCLCL - 10
tWHAX
Address Hold after RD or WR High
tCLCL - 10
48
Min
Max
Units
0
24
MHz
4tCLCL - 50
3tCLCL - 50
-10
ns
ns
ns
tCLCL - 20
tCLCL - 4
ns
ns
5tCLCL - 50
ns
20
ns
5tCLCL - 50
0
ns
ns
0
ns
tCLCL + 20
ns
ns
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
32. External Program Memory Read Cycle
33. External Data Memory Read Cycle
49
3286P–MICRO–3/10
34. External Data Memory Write Cycle
35. External Clock Drive Waveforms
36. External Clock Drive
VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V
Symbol
Parameter
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
tCLCL
Clock Period
tCHCX
Min
Max
Units
0
24
MHz
41.6
ns
High Time
12
ns
tCLCX
Low Time
12
ns
tCLCH
Rise Time
5
ns
tCHCL
Fall Time
5
ns
50
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
37. Serial Port Timing: Shift Register Mode Test Conditions
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
38. Shift Register Mode Timing Waveforms
39. AC Testing Input/Output Waveforms(1)
Note:
1. AC Inputs during testing are driven at VCC - 0.5V for a logic 1 and 0.45V for a logic 0. Timing measurements are made at VIH
min. for a logic 1 and VIL max. for a logic 0.
40. Float Waveforms(1)
51
3286P–MICRO–3/10
41. ICC Test Condition, Active Mode, All Other Pins are Disconnected
VCC
ICC
VCC
RST
VCC
P0
EA
XTAL2
(NC)
CLOCK SIGNAL
XTAL1
VSS
42. ICC Test Condition, Idle Mode, All Other Pins are Disconnected
VCC
ICC
VCC
RST
VCC
P0
EA
XTAL2
(NC)
CLOCK SIGNAL
XTAL1
VSS
43. Clock Signal Waveform for ICC Tests in Active and Idle Modes,
tCLCH = tCHCL = 5 ns
VCC - 0.5V
0.45V
0.7 VCC
tCHCX
0.2 VCC - 0.1V
tCHCL
tCLCH
tCHCX
tCLCL
44. ICC Test Condition, Power-down Mode, All Other Pins are Disconnected,
VCC = 2V to 5.5V
VCC
ICC
RST
VCC
P0
EA
(NC)
XTAL2
XTAL1
VSS
52
AT89S8253
VCC
AT89S8253
45. ICC (Active Mode) Measurements
o
AT89S8253 ICC Active @ 25 C
With Internal Clock Oscillator
x1 Mode
ICC Active (mA)
4.00
3.50
3.0V
3.00
4.0V
2.50
5.0V
2.00
1.50
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Frequency (MHz)
o
AT89S8253 ICC Active @ 90 C
With Internal Clock Oscillator
x1 Mode
ICC Active (mA)
4.00
3.50
3.0V
3.00
4.0V
2.50
5.0V
2.00
1.50
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Frequency (MHz)
53
46. ICC (Idle Mode) Measurements
AT89S8253 ICC Idle vs. Frequency, T = 25°C
With Internal Clock Oscillator
x1 Mode
3
ICC (mA)
2.5
2
Vcc=3V
Vcc=4V
1.5
Vcc=5V
1
0.5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Frequency (MHz)
47. ICC (Power Down Mode) Measurements
AT89S8253 ICC in Power-down
ICC Pwd (uA)
2.5
2
0 deg C
1.5
25 deg C
1
90 deg C
0.5
0
1
2
3
4
VCC (V)
54
AT89S8253
5
6
7
AT89S8253
48. Ordering Information
48.1
Green Package (Pb/Halide-free)
Speed
(MHz)
24
Power
Supply
2.7V to 5.5V
Ordering Code
Package
AT89S8253-24AU
AT89S8253-24JU
AT89S8253-24PU
AT89S8253-24PSU
44A
44J
40P6
42PS6
Operation Range
Industrial
(-40° C to 85° C)
Package Type
44A
44-lead, Thin Plastic Gull Wing Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
44J
44-lead, Plastic J-leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC)
40P6
40-lead, 0.600" Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP)
42PS6
42-lead, 0.600" Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP)
55
3286P–MICRO–3/10
49. Package Information
49.1
44A – TQFP
PIN 1
B
PIN 1 IDENTIFIER
E1
e
E
D1
D
C
0˚~7˚
A1
A2
A
L
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
Notes:
1. This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-026, Variation ACB.
2. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion. Allowable
protrusion is 0.25 mm per side. Dimensions D1 and E1 are maximum
plastic body size dimensions including mold mismatch.
3. Lead coplanarity is 0.10 mm maximum.
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
1.20
A1
0.05
–
0.15
A2
0.95
1.00
1.05
D
11.75
12.00
12.25
D1
9.90
10.00
10.10
E
11.75
12.00
12.25
E1
9.90
10.00
10.10
B
0.30
–
0.45
C
0.09
–
0.20
L
0.45
–
0.75
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
0.80 TYP
10/5/2001
R
56
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
44A, 44-lead, 10 x 10 mm Body Size, 1.0 mm Body Thickness,
0.8 mm Lead Pitch, Thin Profile Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
DRAWING NO.
REV.
44A
B
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
49.2
44J – PLCC
1.14(0.045) X 45˚
PIN NO. 1
1.14(0.045) X 45˚
0.318(0.0125)
0.191(0.0075)
IDENTIFIER
E1
D2/E2
B1
E
B
e
A2
D1
A1
D
A
0.51(0.020)MAX
45˚ MAX (3X)
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
Notes:
1. This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-018, Variation AC.
2. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion.
Allowable protrusion is .010"(0.254 mm) per side. Dimension D1
and E1 include mold mismatch and are measured at the extreme
material condition at the upper or lower parting line.
3. Lead coplanarity is 0.004" (0.102 mm) maximum.
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
4.191
–
4.572
A1
2.286
–
3.048
A2
0.508
–
–
D
17.399
–
17.653
D1
16.510
–
16.662
E
17.399
–
17.653
E1
16.510
–
16.662
D2/E2
14.986
–
16.002
B
0.660
–
0.813
B1
0.330
–
0.533
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
1.270 TYP
10/04/01
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
44J, 44-lead, Plastic J-leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC)
DRAWING NO.
REV.
44J
B
57
3286P–MICRO–3/10
49.3
40P6 – PDIP
D
PIN
1
E1
A
SEATING PLANE
A1
L
B
B1
e
E
0º ~ 15º
C
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
REF
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
4.826
A1
0.381
–
–
D
52.070
–
52.578
E
15.240
–
15.875
E1
13.462
–
13.970
B
0.356
–
0.559
B1
1.041
–
1.651
L
3.048
–
3.556
C
0.203
–
0.381
eB
15.494
–
17.526
SYMBOL
eB
Notes:
1. This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-011, Variation AC.
2. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold Flash or Protrusion.
Mold Flash or Protrusion shall not exceed 0.25 mm (0.010").
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
2.540 TYP
09/28/01
R
58
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
40P6, 40-lead (0.600"/15.24 mm Wide) Plastic Dual
Inline Package (PDIP)
DRAWING NO.
40P6
REV.
B
AT89S8253
3286P–MICRO–3/10
AT89S8253
49.4
42PS6 – PDIP
D
PIN
1
E1
A
SEATING PLANE
A1
L
B
B1
e
E
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = Inch)
C
eC
eB
Notes: 1. This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-020, Variation AB.
2. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold Flash or Protrusion.
Mold Flash or Protrusion shall not exceed 0.25 mm (0.010").
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
0.200
A1
0.020
–
–
D
1.440
1.450
1.460
E
0.600
–
0.630
E1
0.500
0.540
0.570
B
0.015
0.018
0.022
B1
0.035
0.040
0.045
L
0.100
0.130
0.140
C
0.009
0.010
0.015
eB
–
–
0.730
eC
0.000
–
0.060
SYMBOL
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
0.70 TYP
11/3/06
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
42PS6, 42-lead (Shrink 0.070"/0.600” Row Space)
Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP)
DRAWING NO.
42PS6
REV.
B
59
3286P–MICRO–3/10
Headquarters
International
Atmel Corporation
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
USA
Tel: 1(408) 441-0311
Fax: 1(408) 487-2600
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BP 309
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France
Tel: (33) 1-30-60-70-00
Fax: (33) 1-30-60-71-11
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Japan
Tel: (81) 3-3523-3551
Fax: (81) 3-3523-7581
Technical Support
[email protected]
Sales Contact
www.atmel.com/contacts
Product Contact
Web Site
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Literature Requests
www.atmel.com/literature
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3286P–MICRO–3/10
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