AT89C2051 - Complete

Features
• Compatible with MCS®-51Products
• 2K Bytes of Reprogrammable Flash Memory
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
– Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
2.7V to 6V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
Two-level Program Memory Lock
128 x 8-bit Internal RAM
15 Programmable I/O Lines
Two 16-bit Timer/Counters
Six Interrupt Sources
Programmable Serial UART Channel
Direct LED Drive Outputs
On-chip Analog Comparator
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option
1. Description
8-bit
Microcontroller
with 2K Bytes
Flash
AT89C2051
The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with
2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM). The
device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology
and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set. By combining a
versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many
embedded control applications.
The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash, 128
bytes of RAM, 15 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt
architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analog comparator, on-chip oscillator
and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving
modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial
port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The power-down mode saves the
RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next
hardware reset.
0368H–MICRO–6/08
2. Pin Configuration
2.1
20-lead PDIP/SOIC
RST/VPP
(RXD) P3.0
(TXD) P3.1
XTAL2
XTAL1
(INT0) P3.2
(INT1) P3.3
(TO) P3.4
(T1) P3.5
GND
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
VCC
P1.7
P1.6
P1.5
P1.4
P1.3
P1.2
P1.1 (AIN1)
P1.0 (AIN0)
P3.7
3. Block Diagram
2
AT89C2051
0368H–MICRO–6/08
AT89C2051
4. Pin Description
4.1
VCC
Supply voltage.
4.2
GND
Ground.
4.3
Port 1
The Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. Port pins P1.2 to P1.7 provide internal pull-ups. P1.0
and P1.1 require external pull-ups. P1.0 and P1.1 also serve as the positive input (AIN0) and the
negative input (AIN1), respectively, of the on-chip precision analog comparator. The Port 1 output buffers can sink 20 mA and can drive LED displays directly. When 1s are written to Port 1
pins, they can be used as inputs. When pins P1.2 to P1.7 are used as inputs and are externally
pulled low, they will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming and verification.
4.4
Port 3
Port 3 pins P3.0 to P3.5, P3.7 are seven bi-directional I/O pins with internal pull-ups. P3.6 is
hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip comparator and is not accessible as a general-purpose I/O pin. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20 mA. When 1s are written to Port 3
pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3
pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.
Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C2051 as listed below:
Port Pin
Alternate Functions
P3.0
RXD (serial input port)
P3.1
TXD (serial output port)
P3.2
INT0 (external interrupt 0)
P3.3
INT1 (external interrupt 1)
P3.4
T0 (timer 0 external input)
P3.5
T1 (timer 1 external input)
Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.
4.5
RST
Reset input. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high. Holding the RST pin high for
two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.
Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or clock cycles.
4.6
XTAL1
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
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0368H–MICRO–6/08
4.7
XTAL2
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
5. Oscillator Characteristics
The XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can
be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 5-1. Either a quartz crystal or
ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2
should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 5-2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking
circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low
time specifications must be observed.
Figure 5-1.
Note:
C1, C2 = 30 pF ± 10 pF for Crystals
= 40 pF ± 10 pF for Ceramic Resonators
Figure 5-2.
4
Oscillator Connections
External Clock Drive Configuration
AT89C2051
0368H–MICRO–6/08
AT89C2051
6. Special Function Registers
A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space is shown in
the table below.
Note that not all of the addresses are occupied, and unoccupied addresses may not be implemented on the chip. Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random data, and
write accesses will have an indeterminate effect.
User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations, since they may be used in future
products to invoke new features. In that case, the reset or inactive values of the new bits will
always be 0.
Table 6-1.
AT89C2051 SFR Map and Reset Values
0F8H
0F0H
0FFH
B
00000000
0F7H
0E8H
0E0H
0EFH
ACC
00000000
0E7H
0D8H
0D0H
0DFH
PSW
00000000
0D7H
0C8H
0CFH
0C0H
0C7H
0B8H
IP
XXX00000
0BFH
0B0H
P3
11111111
0B7H
0A8H
IE
0XX00000
0AFH
0A0H
0A7H
98H
SCON
00000000
90H
P1
11111111
88H
TCON
00000000
80H
SBUF
XXXXXXXX
9FH
97H
TMOD
00000000
TL0
00000000
TL1
00000000
SP
00000111
DPL
00000000
DPH
00000000
TH0
00000000
TH1
00000000
8FH
PCON
0XXX0000
87H
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0368H–MICRO–6/08
7. Restrictions on Certain Instructions
The AT89C2051 and is an economical and cost-effective member of Atmel’s growing family of
microcontrollers. It contains 2K bytes of Flash program memory. It is fully compatible with the
MCS-51 architecture, and can be programmed using the MCS-51 instruction set. However,
there are a few considerations one must keep in mind when utilizing certain instructions to program this device.
All the instructions related to jumping or branching should be restricted such that the destination
address falls within the physical program memory space of the device, which is 2K for the
AT89C2051. This should be the responsibility of the software programmer. For example, LJMP
7E0H would be a valid instruction for the AT89C2051 (with 2K of memory), whereas LJMP 900H
would not.
7.1
Branching Instructions
LCALL, LJMP, ACALL, AJMP, SJMP, JMP @A+DPTR – These unconditional branching
instructions will execute correctly as long as the programmer keeps in mind that the destination
branching address must fall within the physical boundaries of the program memory size (locations 00H to 7FFH for the 89C2051). Violating the physical space limits may cause unknown
program behavior.
CJNE [...], DJNZ [...], JB, JNB, JC, JNC, JBC, JZ, JNZ – With these conditional branching
instructions the same rule above applies. Again, violating the memory boundaries may cause
erratic execution.
For applications involving interrupts the normal interrupt service routine address locations of the
80C51 family architecture have been preserved.
7.2
MOVX-related Instructions, Data Memory
The AT89C2051 contains 128 bytes of internal data memory. Thus, in the AT89C2051 the stack
depth is limited to 128 bytes, the amount of available RAM. External DATA memory access is
not supported in this device, nor is external PROGRAM memory execution. Therefore, no MOVX
[...] instructions should be included in the program.
A typical 80C51 assembler will still assemble instructions, even if they are written in violation of
the restrictions mentioned above. It is the responsibility of the controller user to know the physical features and limitations of the device being used and adjust the instructions used
correspondingly.
8. Program Memory Lock Bits
On the chip are two lock bits which can be left unprogrammed (U) or can be programmed (P) to
obtain the additional features listed in the Table 8-1.
Table 8-1.
Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)
Program Lock Bits
Note:
6
LB1
LB2
Protection Type
1
U
U
No program lock features
2
P
U
Further programming of the Flash is disabled
3
P
P
Same as mode 2, also verify is disabled
1. The Lock Bits can only be erased with the Chip Erase operation.
AT89C2051
0368H–MICRO–6/08
AT89C2051
9. Idle Mode
In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on-chip peripherals remain active. The
mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled
interrupt or by a hardware reset.
The P1.0 and P1.1 should be set to “0” if no external pull-ups are used, or set to “1” if
external pull-ups are used.
It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally
resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal
reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but
access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a
port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle
should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory.
10. Power-down Mode
In the power-down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that invokes power-down
is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain their
values until the power-down mode is terminated. The only exit from power-down is a hardware
reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-chip RAM. The reset should not be
activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active long
enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize.
The P1.0 and P1.1 should be set to “0” if no external pull-ups are used, or set to “1” if
external pull-ups are used.
11. Programming The Flash
The AT89C2051 is shipped with the 2K bytes of on-chip PEROM code memory array in the
erased state (i.e., contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. The code memory array is programmed one byte at a time. Once the array is programmed, to re-program any non-blank byte,
the entire memory array needs to be erased electrically.
Internal Address Counter: The AT89C2051 contains an internal PEROM address counter
which is always reset to 000H on the rising edge of RST and is advanced by applying a positive
going pulse to pin XTAL1.
Programming Algorithm: To program the AT89C2051, the following sequence is
recommended.
1. Power-up sequence:
Apply power between VCC and GND pins
Set RST and XTAL1 to GND
2. Set pin RST to “H”
Set pin P3.2 to “H”
3. Apply the appropriate combination of “H” or “L” logic
levels to pins P3.3, P3.4, P3.5, P3.7 to select one of the programming operations
shown in the PEROM Programming Modes table.
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0368H–MICRO–6/08
To Program and Verify the Array:
4. Apply data for Code byte at location 000H to P1.0 to P1.7.
5. Raise RST to 12V to enable programming.
6. Pulse P3.2 once to program a byte in the PEROM array or the lock bits. The byte-write
cycle is self-timed and typically takes 1.2 ms.
7. To verify the programmed data, lower RST from 12V to logic “H” level and set pins P3.3
to P3.7 to the appropriate levels. Output data can be read at the port P1 pins.
8. To program a byte at the next address location, pulse XTAL1 pin once to advance the
internal address counter. Apply new data to the port P1 pins.
9. Repeat steps 6 through 8, changing data and advancing the address counter for the
entire 2K bytes array or until the end of the object file is reached.
10. Power-off sequence:
set XTAL1 to “L”
set RST to “L”
Turn VCC power off
Data Polling: The AT89C2051 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a write cycle. During
a write cycle, an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written data on P1.7. Once the write cycle has been completed, true data is valid on all outputs, and
the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated.
Ready/Busy: The Progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output
signal. Pin P3.1 is pulled low after P3.2 goes High during programming to indicate BUSY. P3.1 is
pulled High again when programming is done to indicate READY.
Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed code data can be read
back via the data lines for verification:
1. Reset the internal address counter to 000H by bringing RST from “L” to “H”.
2. Apply the appropriate control signals for Read Code data and read the output data at
the port P1 pins.
3. Pulse pin XTAL1 once to advance the internal address counter.
4. Read the next code data byte at the port P1 pins.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the entire array is read.
The lock bits cannot be verified directly. Verification of the lock bits is achieved by observing that
their features are enabled.
Chip Erase: The entire PEROM array (2K bytes) and the two Lock Bits are erased electrically
by using the proper combination of control signals and by holding P3.2 low for 10 ms. The code
array is written with all “1”s in the Chip Erase operation and must be executed before any nonblank memory byte can be re-programmed.
Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 000H, 001H, and 002H, except that P3.5 and P3.7 must be pulled to
a logic low. The values returned are as follows.
(000H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel
(001H) = 21H indicates 89C2051
8
AT89C2051
0368H–MICRO–6/08
AT89C2051
12. Programming Interface
Every code byte in the Flash array can be written and the entire array can be erased by using
the appropriate combination of control signals. The write operation cycle is self-timed and once
initiated, will automatically time itself to completion.
Most major worldwide programming vendors offer support for the Atmel AT89 microcontroller
series. Please contact your local programming vendor for the appropriate software revision.
13. Flash Programming Modes
Mode
RST/VPP
Write Code Data(1)(3)
P3.2/PROG
12V
Read Code Data(1)
H
H
P3.3
P3.4
P3.5
P3.7
L
H
H
H
L
L
H
H
Bit - 1
12V
H
H
H
H
Bit - 2
12V
H
H
L
L
H
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
Write Lock
Chip Erase
Read Signature Byte
Notes:
(2)
12V
H
H
1. The internal PEROM address counter is reset to 000H on the rising edge of RST and is advanced by a positive pulse at
XTAL1 pin.
2. Chip Erase requires a 10 ms PROG pulse.
3. P3.1 is pulled Low during programming to indicate RDY/BSY.
9
0368H–MICRO–6/08
Figure 13-1. Programming the Flash Memory
PP
Figure 13-2. Verifying the Flash Memory
10
AT89C2051
0368H–MICRO–6/08
AT89C2051
14. Flash Programming and Verification Characteristics
TA = 0°C to 70°C, VCC = 5.0 ± 10%
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
VPP
Programming Enable Voltage
11.5
12.5
V
IPP
Programming Enable Current
250
µA
tDVGL
Data Setup to PROG Low
1.0
µs
tGHDX
Data Hold after PROG
1.0
µs
tEHSH
P3.4 (ENABLE) High to VPP
1.0
µs
tSHGL
VPP Setup to PROG Low
10
µs
tGHSL
VPP Hold after PROG
10
µs
tGLGH
PROG Width
1
tELQV
ENABLE Low to Data Valid
tEHQZ
Data Float after ENABLE
tGHBL
110
µs
1.0
µs
1.0
µs
PROG High to BUSY Low
50
ns
tWC
Byte Write Cycle Time
2.0
ms
tBHIH
RDY/BSY\ to Increment Clock Delay
1.0
µs
tIHIL
Increment Clock High
200
ns
Note:
1.
0
Only used in 12-volt programming mode.
15. Flash Programming and Verification Waveforms
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0368H–MICRO–6/08
16. Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Operating Temperature ................................. -55°C to +125°C
*NOTICE:
Storage Temperature ..................................... -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on Any Pin
with Respect to Ground .....................................-1.0V to +7.0V
Maximum Operating Voltage ............................................ 6.6V
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and
functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions beyond those indicated in the
operational sections of this specification is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect device
reliability.
DC Output Current...................................................... 25.0 mA
17. DC Characteristics
TA = -40°C to 85°C, VCC = 2.7V to 6.0V (unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Parameter
VIL
Input Low-voltage
VIH
Input High-voltage
VIH1
Input High-voltage
Condition
(Except XTAL1, RST)
(XTAL1, RST)
(1)
VOL
Output Low-voltage
(Ports 1, 3)
VOH
Output High-voltage
(Ports 1, 3)
Min
Max
Units
-0.5
0.2 VCC - 0.1
V
0.2 VCC + 0.9
VCC + 0.5
V
0.7 VCC
VCC + 0.5
V
0.5
V
IOL = 20 mA, VCC = 5V
IOL = 10 mA, VCC = 2.7V
IOH = -80 μA, VCC = 5V ± 10%
2.4
V
IOH = -30 μA
0.75 VCC
V
IOH = -12 μA
0.9 VCC
V
IIL
Logical 0 Input Current
(Ports 1, 3)
VIN = 0.45V
-50
µA
ITL
Logical 1 to 0 Transition Current
(Ports 1, 3)
VIN = 2V, VCC = 5V ± 10%
-750
µA
ILI
Input Leakage Current
(Port P1.0, P1.1)
0 < VIN < VCC
±10
µA
VOS
Comparator Input Offset Voltage
VCC = 5V
20
mV
VCM
Comparator Input Common
Mode Voltage
0
VCC
V
RRST
Reset Pull-down Resistor
50
300
kΩ
CIO
Pin Capacitance
10
pF
15/5.5
mA
Idle Mode, 12 MHz, VCC = 6V/3V
P1.0 & P1.1 = 0V or VCC
5/1
mA
VCC = 6V, P1.0 & P1.1 = 0V or VCC
100
µA
VCC = 3V, P1.0 & P1.1 = 0V or VCC
20
µA
Test Freq. = 1 MHz, TA = 25°C
Active Mode, 12 MHz, VCC = 6V/3V
Power Supply Current
ICC
Power-down Mode(2)
Notes:
12
1. Under steady state (non-transient) conditions, IOL must be externally limited as follows:
Maximum IOL per port pin: 20 mA
Maximum total IOL for all output pins: 80 mA
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater
than the listed test conditions.
2. Minimum VCC for Power-down is 2V.
AT89C2051
0368H–MICRO–6/08
AT89C2051
18. External Clock Drive Waveforms
19. External Clock Drive
VCC = 2.7V to 6.0V
Symbol
Parameter
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
tCLCL
Clock Period
tCHCX
VCC = 4.0V to 6.0V
Min
Max
Min
Max
0
12
0
24
Units
MHz
83.3
41.6
ns
High Time
30
15
ns
tCLCX
Low Time
30
15
ns
tCLCH
Rise Time
20
20
ns
tCHCL
Fall Time
20
20
ns
()
20. Serial Port Timing: Shift Register Mode Test Conditions
VCC = 5.0V ± 20%; Load Capacitance = 80 pF
12 MHz Osc
Max
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
Min
tXLXL
Serial Port Clock Cycle Time
1.0
12 tCLCL
µs
tQVXH
Output Data Setup to Clock Rising Edge
700
10 tCLCL-133
ns
tXHQX
Output Data Hold after Clock Rising Edge
50
2 tCLCL-117
ns
tXHDX
Input Data Hold after Clock Rising Edge
0
0
ns
tXHDV
Clock Rising Edge to Input Data Valid
700
Min
Max
10 tCLCL-133
Units
ns
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0368H–MICRO–6/08
21. Shift Register Mode Timing Waveforms
22. AC Testing Input/Output Waveforms(1)
Note:
1. AC Inputs during testing are driven at VCC - 0.5V for a logic 1 and 0.45V for a logic 0. Timing measurements are made at VIH
min. for a logic 1 and VIL max. for a logic 0.
23. Float Waveforms(1)
Note:
14
1. For timing purposes, a port pin is no longer floating when a 100 mV change from load voltage occurs. A port pin begins to
float when 100 mV change from the loaded VOH/VOL level occurs.
AT89C2051
0368H–MICRO–6/08
AT89C2051
24. ICC (Active Mode) Measurements
AT89C2051
TYPICAL ICC - ACTIVE (85°C)
20
Vcc=6.0V
I 15
C
C 10
Vcc=5.0V
Vcc=3.0V
m
A
5
0
0
6
12
18
24
FREQUENCY (MHz)
25. ICC (Idle Mode) Measurements
AT89C2051
TYPICAL ICC - IDLE (85°C)
3
Vcc=6.0V
I
C 2
C
Vcc=5.0V
m 1
A
Vcc=3.0V
0
0
3
6
9
12
FREQUENCY (MHz)
26. ICC (Power Down Mode) Measurements
AT89C2051
TYPICAL ICC vs. VOLTAGE- POWER DOWN (85°C)
20
I 15
C
C 10
µ
A
5
0
3.0V
4.0V
5.0V
6.0V
Vcc VOLTAGE
Notes:
1. XTAL1 tied to GND
2. P.1.0 and P1.1 = VCC or GND
3. Lock bits programmed
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0368H–MICRO–6/08
27. Ordering Information
27.1
Green Package Option (Pb/Halide-free)
Speed
(MHz)
Power
Supply
12
24
Ordering Code
Package
Operation Range
2.7V to 6.0V
AT89C2051-12PU
AT89C2051-12SU
20P3
20S
Industrial
(-40° C to 85° C)
4.0V to 6.0V
AT89C2051-24PU
AT89C2051-24SU
20P3
20S
Industrial
(-40° C to 85° C)
Package Type
20P3
20-lead, 0.300” Wide, Plastic Dual In-line Package (PDIP)
20S
20-lead, 0.300” Wide, Plastic Gull Wing Small Outline (SOIC)
16
AT89C2051
0368H–MICRO–6/08
AT89C2051
28. Package Information
28.1
20P3 – PDIP
D
PIN
1
E1
A
SEATING PLANE
A1
L
B
B1
e
E
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
C
eC
eB
Notes:
1. This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-001, Variation AD.
2. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold Flash or Protrusion.
Mold Flash or Protrusion shall not exceed 0.25 mm (0.010").
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
5.334
A1
0.381
–
–
D
24.892
–
26.924
E
7.620
–
8.255
E1
6.096
–
7.112
B
0.356
–
0.559
B1
1.270
–
1.551
L
2.921
–
3.810
C
0.203
–
0.356
eB
–
–
10.922
eC
0.000
–
1.524
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
2.540 TYP
1/23/04
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
20P3, 20-lead (0.300"/7.62 mm Wide) Plastic Dual
Inline Package (PDIP)
DRAWING NO.
20P3
REV.
D
17
0368H–MICRO–6/08
28.2
18
20S – SOIC
AT89C2051
0368H–MICRO–6/08
Headquarters
International
Atmel Corporation
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
USA
Tel: 1(408) 441-0311
Fax: 1(408) 487-2600
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