AT88RF1354 - Complete

Features
•
Compatible with all ISO/IEC 14443 Type B Compliant Cards,
Tags, and Transponders
•
High Performance 13.56 MHz RF Communications Interface
⎯ ISO/IEC 14443-2 Type B Compliant 106 Kbps Signaling
⎯ ISO/IEC 14443-3 Type B Compliant Frame and Data Format Internal
Transmitter Drives Antenna with No External Active Circuitry
⎯ Robust Receiver Demodulates and Decodes Type B Signals
•
Intelligent RF Reader Functions
⎯ ISO/IEC 14443-3 Type B Polling Function
⎯ Type B Frame Formatting and Decoding is Handled Internally
⎯ Internal CRC Generation and Error Detection
⎯ Adjustable Frame Wait Timing
13.56 MHz Type B
RF Reader
Specification
AT88RF1354
⎯ Internal Data Buffer
•
Two Serial Communication Interface Options
⎯ Two-Wire Interface (TWI) Slave Device with Clock Speed
up to 1 MHz
⎯ SPI Mode 0 Slave Device with Clock Speed up to 2 MHz
⎯ SPI or TWI Mode Selection with Interface Mode Select Pin
•
Compatible with 3.3 V and 5 V Microcontrollers
⎯ Supply Voltage: 3.0 to 3.6 Volts or 4.5 to 5.5 Volts
•
Package: 6 by 6 mm QFN, Green compliant (exceeds RoHS)
•
Industrial Operating Temperature: -40° to +85° C
Description
The AT88RF1354 is a smart, high performance ISO/IEC 14443 Type B RF Reader IC.
The AT88RF1354 communicates with RFID Transponders or Contactless Smartcards
using the industry standard ISO/IEC 14443-2 Type B signal modulation scheme and
ISO/IEC 14443-3 Type B frame format. Data is exchanged half duplex at a 106k bit
per second rate. A two byte CRC_B provides communication error detection
capability.
The AT88RF1354 is compatible with 3.3 V and 5 V host microcontrollers with two-wire
or SPI serial interfaces. In two-wire interface mode the AT88RF1354 operates as a
TWI slave and requires four microcontroller pins for data communication and
handshaking. In SPI interface mode the AT88RF1354 operates as a mode 0 SPI
slave and requires six microcontroller pins for data communication and handshaking.
To communicate with an RFID transponder the host microcontroller sends a data
packet for transmission over the RF communications channel, and receives the
response data packet that is received from the transponder over the RF
communications channel. AT88RF1354 performs all RF communication packet
formatting, decoding, and communication error checking. The host microcontroller is
not burdened with RF encoding, timing, or protocol functions since these tasks are all
performed by the AT88RF1354.
8547B–RFID–3/09
1.
Introduction
1.1.
Block Diagram
Figure 1.
Block Diagram
Filter
RFin
C6
Modulator
Transmit
Receive
ANT
SRAM
Vss_ANT
Command
and
Response
Logic
ANT Driver
Registers
PLL
CLKO
2
13.56 MHz
Xtal1
Xtal2
Serial Interface
ResetB
ISEL
Istat
SSB
SCK
SDI
SDO
ADDR
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
1.2.
System Diagram
Figure 2.
Communications in an RFID System
Host
Microcontroller
1.3.
Serial Interface
Reader IC
RF Communications
Card
Scope
This AT88RF1354 Specification document contains the electrical and mechanical specifications for the AT88RF1354
RF Reader IC. The AT88RF1354 Command Reference Guide document contains detailed command and register
specifications for the AT88RF1354 RF Reader. The AT88RF1354 Command Reference Guide is a reference for
software developers and embedded systems programmers using the AT88RF1354 Reader.
Reference Designs and additional technical information is available in AT88RF1354 Application Notes. The reference
designs described in the AT88RF1354 Application Notes include schematics, board designs, and a complete bill of
materials. Each reference design has been optimized for reliable, robust communications with cards and tags with
antenna dimensions within a specified size range. See www.atmel.com
1.4.
Conventions
ISO/IEC 14443 nomenclature is used in this document where applicable. The following terms and abbreviations are
utilized throughout this document. Additional terms are defined in the section in which they are used, or in
0.
Card:
A Contactless Smart Card or RFID Tag in proximity to the reader antenna.
Host:
The microcontroller connected to the serial interface of the reader IC.
PCD:
Proximity Coupling Device – is the host and reader with antenna.
PICC:
Proximity Integrated Circuit Card – is the tag/card containing an IC and antenna.
Reader: The AT88RF1354 IC with loop antenna and associated circuitry
RFU:
Reserved for Future Use – is any feature, memory location, or bit that is held as reserved for future
use by the ISO standards committee or by Atmel.
$ xx:
Hexadecimal Number – denotes a hex number “xx” (Most Significant Bit on left).
xxxx b:
Binary Number – denotes a binary number “xxxx” (Most Significant Bit on left).
See Atmel Application Note Understanding the Requirements of ISO/IEC 14443 for Type B Proximity Contactless
Identification Cards (doc 2056x) at www.atmel.com for detailed information regarding the ISO/IEC 14443 RF
communication protocol.
3
8547B–RFID–3/09
2.
Instruction Set
Table 1.
Instruction Set Sorted by Command Name
Command Name
Description
Code
Abort
Exit command in progress
$0D
Clear
Exit command in progress, Clear Buffer, Turn RF OFF
$0E
Poll Continuous
Poll Continuously for Type B PICCs
$02
Poll Single
Poll Once for Type B PICCs
$01
Read Buffer
Read Data Buffer
$08
Read Register
Read Configuration Register
$07
RF OFF
Turn off 13.56 MHz RF Field
$0B
RF ON
Turn on 13.56 MHz RF Field
$0A
Sleep
Activate standby mode
$0C
TX Data
Transmit data to PICC and receive the response
$03
Write Buffer
Write data buffer
$09
Write Register
Write configuration register
$06
All other command code values are not supported
The AT88RF1354 Command Reference Guide document contains all of the detailed information required by a software
developer or embedded systems programmer to use the AT88RF1354 Instruction Set. See www.atmel.com for the
AT88RF1354 Command Reference Guide (doc 5150x).
2.1.
RF Communication Commands
The RF ON Command and RF OFF Command are used to enable and disable the 13.56 MHz RF Field transmitter.
The RF Field is turned on at the beginning of a transaction and off at the end, since ISO/IEC 14443 cards and tags are
powered by the RF Field.
The Poll Continuous Command or Poll Single Command is used to search for ISO/IEC 14443 cards in the RF Field
using the standard REQB/WUPB and Slot-MARKER commands. These commands automatically perform the
time-slot polling function described in ISO/IEC 14443 part 3, and return the response from the first card found to the
host microcontroller.
All other RF communication is performed with the TX Data Command. The RF command and data bytes to be
transmitted are sent by the host microcontroller with the TX Data Command to AT88RF1354. The bytes received from
the host are formatted into a Type B standard frame and transmitted on the RF communications channel, along with
the CRC. When a response is received from the card, the response frame is decoded by AT88RF1354 and the
resulting bytes are stored in SRAM buffer memory. If a CRC or frame format error is detected in the response, then bits
are set in the Error Register (EREG). After the entire frame has been decoded by AT88RF1354, the host
microcontroller reads the TX Data Response over the serial interface.
2.2.
Reader Configuration Commands
The Read Register Command and Write Register Command are used to read and write the configuration and status
registers of the AT88RF1354. Both the Transmitter Register (TXC) and Receiver Register (RXC) must be configured
before any RF communication occurs.
The Sleep Command is used to put the AT88RF1354 into Standby Mode. In Standby Mode the internal circuitry is
placed in standby, and all internal clocks are stopped.
4
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
2.3.
Other Commands
The Abort Command can be used to interrupt a Poll Single, Poll Continuous, or TX Data operation that is in progress.
If a Poll Continuous Command is sent but there is no card in the field, then an Abort Command is used to interrupt the
infinite polling loop. All other commands will timeout if no response is received, so it is usually not necessary to use the
Abort Command to interrupt them.
The Clear Command is used to clear the configuration registers and place AT88RF1354 in a known initial state. The
Clear Command is usually the first command sent after the reader is powered on and reset.
The Read Buffer Command and Write Buffer Command can be used to read and write the SRAM buffer that is used to
store RF commands and RF responses. These commands are never required to be used during normal operation of
the AT88RF1354. However, these commands are helpful for testing the integrity of the serial communications channel
during system development.
5
8547B–RFID–3/09
3.
Register Summary
The AT88RF1354 Command Reference Guide document contains all of the detailed information required by a software
developer or embedded systems programmer to use the AT88RF1354 Register Set. See www.atmel.com for the
AT88RF1354 Command Reference Guide (doc 5150x).
Table 2.
Register set sorted by address.
Register
Name
Register
Address
Description
Register Type
CPR0_L
$00
(Default) Communication Protocol Register 0 - Low Byte
Read-only
CPR0_H
$01
(Default) Communication Protocol Register 0 - High Byte
Read-only
CPR1_L
$02
Communication Protocol Register 1 - Low Byte [RFU]
Read / Write
CPR1_H
$03
Communication Protocol Register 1 - High Byte
Read / Write
CPR2_L
$04
Communication Protocol Register 2 - Low Byte [RFU]
Read / Write
CPR2_H
$05
Communication Protocol Register 2 - High Byte
Read / Write
CPR3_L
$06
Communication Protocol Register 3 - Low Byte [RFU]
Read / Write
CPR3_H
$07
Communication Protocol Register 3 - High Byte
Read / Write
CPR4_L
$08
Communication Protocol Register 4 - Low Byte [RFU]
Read / Write
CPR4_H
$09
Communication Protocol Register 4 - High Byte
Read / Write
SREG
$0A
Status Register
Read-only
EREG
$0B
Error Register
Read-only
IDR
$0C
Hardware ID Register
PLL
$0D
PLL Output Configuration Register
Read / Write
TXC
$0E
Transmitter Register
Read / Write
RXC
$0F
Receiver Register
Read / Write
Read-only
All other register address values are not supported
6
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
The Register Memory Map in Table 3 shows the field names for each register bit. Read-only registers are colored
yellow. Read/Write registers are colored green. Any bit identified as RFU or Reserved for Future Use is reserved for
future definition by Atmel; these bits must always remain 0 b.
Table 3.
Register Memory Map
Description
Register
Name
Register
Address
CPR0_L
$00
CPR0_H
$01
CPR1_L
$02
CPR1_H
$03
CPR2_L
$04
CPR2_H
$05
CPR3_L
$06
CPR3_H
$07
CPR4_L
$08
CPR4_H
$09
SREG
$0A
RF
POR
CD
EREG
$0B
CRC
FRAME
BYTE
IDR
$0C
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reserved for future use
FWI
RFU
Reserved for future use
FWI
RFU
Reserved for future use
FWI
RFU
Reserved for future use
FWI
RFU
Reserved for future use
FWI
RFU
RFU
TIME
COL
SPE
RFU
ID
PLL
$0D
SL!
TXC
$0E
TXP
RXC
$0F
SL0
ENB
RS1
RFU
RS0
ML
G
SS
All other register address values are not supported
3.1.
Communications Protocol Registers
AT88RF1354 contains five 16 bit Communication Protocol Registers for configuration of the RF communication
protocol. Each register contains a high byte (CPRx_H) and a low byte (CPRx_L). The CPRx_H registers are used to
configure the Frame Wait Time. The CPRx_L registers are currently unused (Reserved for Future Use) and must
remain set to $00.
CPR0 is a read-only register containing the default ISO/IEC 14443 communication protocol settings. The Poll Single
and Poll Continuous Commands always use CPR0 to configure the RF channel during polling.
CPR1, CPR2, CPR3, and CPR4 are available for configuration of RF channel for the TX Data Command. Each TX
Data Command contains a field that selects the CPR register to be used, so frame wait time is independently
configured on each command. If different timeout settings are written to each CPRx register, then the application
developer can use an appropriate timeout for each TX Data Command sent, minimizing the time required to recover
when no response is received on the RF communication channel.
7
8547B–RFID–3/09
3.2.
Status Registers
AT88RF1354 contains three read-only registers that provide status information. The operational status of the IC is
contained in the SREG Register; by reading this register it can be determined if the RF Field is on and if the analog
circuits are fully powered up. The RF communication errors flags are stored in EREG; these flags are also returned in
the response of RF communication commands.
The IDR Register contains the hardware ID revision of the die; all die manufactured with the same design contain
identical IDR Register values. If the die design is changed, then IDR is updated.
3.3.
Configuration Registers
Three registers control the configuration of the receiver, transmitter, and CLKO pin. The gain and noise immunity of the
receiver is controlled by the RXC Register. The transmit power and modulation index are controlled by the TXC
Register. The PLL Register controls the CLKO pin frequency, the CLKO output enable, and standby mode control bits.
8
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
4.
Pin List
Pin
Name
Description
Type
1
VCC_ANT
Power for Transmitter and Antenna Drive Circuits
Power
2
VSS_ANT
Ground for Transmitter and Antenna Drive Circuits
Ground
3
ANT
Antenna Driver
Output
4
Xtal1
Crystal Pin 1
5
Xtal2
Crystal Pin 2
6
C5
Bypass Capacitance
7
Test1
VSS by Customer
8
CLKO
Programmable Clock Output from PLL
9
ResetB
Reset Bar from Microcontroller
Input
10
ISEL
Select Serial Interface Mode (SPI or TWI)
Input
11
TestD
No Connect by customer
12
Istat
Serial Interface Status (Handshaking Signal)
13
SSB
SPI Interface "Slave Select"
Input
14
SCK
Serial Data Clock (SPI and TWI)
Input
15
SDI
SPI Serial Data Input or TWI Serial Data Input/Output
16
Test2
VSS by Customer
TEST input
17
Test3
VSS by Customer
TEST input
18
N.C.
Not Used
19
SDO
SPI Serial Data Output
20
ADDR
TWI Device Address Select
21
C1
Bypass Capacitance
Output
22
VSS
Ground
Power
23
VSSA
Ground
Power
24
VCC
Power for I/O Buffers, digital and analog circuits
Power
25
C4
Bypass Capacitance
Output
26
C2
Bypass Capacitance
Output
27
C3
Bypass Capacitance
Output
28
N.C.
Not used
29
C7
Bypass Capacitance
30
N.C.
Not used
31
TestR
No Connect by customer
32
RFin
Input to RF receiver
33
N.C.
Not used
34
Rmod
VSS _ANT by customer
35
C6
Bypass Capacitance
36
N.C.
Not used
Xtal Buffer
Output
TEST input
Output
I/O
Output
I/O
Output
Input
Output
Analog Out
Input
Analog TEST
Output
9
8547B–RFID–3/09
4.1.
Power and Ground Pin Descriptions
4.1.1. VCC [24]
Supply Voltage for I/O buffers, digital, and analog circuits. VCC voltage must match the microcontroller I/O voltage
since all digital I/O levels are referenced to VCC
Two VCC bypass capacitors must be connected between the VCC pin and VSS. A 15 nF capacitor with SRF of 32 MHz
must be placed within 3 mm of the package. A 2.2 uF capacitor should also be placed within 3 cm of the package.
Ceramic capacitors with X5R or X7R dielectric and a working voltage of 10 volts minimum should be used.
4.1.2. VSS [22]
Digital ground. Ground for I/O buffers and digital circuits. For maximum performance the digital ground plane must be
separated from the analog ground plane (VSSA) and the antenna ground plane (VSS_ANT) by a minimum of 20 mils.
4.1.3. VSSA [23]
Analog ground. Ground for analog circuits. For maximum performance the VSSA ground plane should connect to the
VSS ground plane at only a single point within 1 cm of pins 22 and 23. VSSA should not be connected directly to
VSS_ANT.
4.1.4. VCC_ANT [1]
Antenna supply voltage. Powers the transmitter and antenna drive circuits.
Two VCC_ANT bypass capacitors must be connected between the VCC_ANT pin and VSS_ANT. A 15 nF capacitor with
SRF of 32 MHz must be placed within 3 mm of
the package and a 2.2 uF capacitor must be placed within 5 mm
of the package. Ceramic capacitors with X5R or X7R dielectric and a working voltage of 10 volts minimum should be
used.
4.1.5. VSS_ANT [2]
Antenna ground. High current return path for transmitter and antenna drive circuit current. For maximum performance
the VSS_ANT ground plane should connect to VSS at only a single point near the power filters at the edge of the reader
circuit block.
4.1.6. QFN Package Thermal Pad [ePad]
Ground for the die substrate. Must be connected directly to the VSS digital ground plane with multiple vias. The package
thermal pad must be soldered to a thermal pad on the board as described in Appendix D to dissipate heat generated in
the die.
Warning: If VSS, VSSA, VSS_ANT, and ePad are tied to a single monolithic ground plane, then transmitter noise will be
injected into the receiver circuit. Likewise, if VCC and VCC_ANT are tied to one monolithic power plane, then
transmitter noise will be injected into the receiver circuit. These PCB configurations will significantly reduce
the communication performance of the reader (reducing the communication distance).
10
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
4.2.
Digital Pin Descriptions
4.2.1. ADDR [20]
TWI device address select input pin. Selects between two TWI device addresses as shown in Table 4.
communication mode this pin should be connected to Vss.
Table 4.
In SPI
TWI Device Address
TWI Device Address
ADDR Pin
Bit 0
TWI_R
TWI_W
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
VSS
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
$51
$50
VCC
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
$D5
$D4
All other values are NOT supported
4.2.2. CLKO [8]
Clock Out pin. The PLL register selects the frequency of the clock which is output on this pin for use by external circuits.
The default CLKO frequency is 1.978 MHz. If the clock is not needed, then the CLKO output should be disabled by
programming the ENB bit of the PLL register to one.
Table 5.
CLKO Output Frequency Options
Bit 1
Bit 0
CLKo Frequency
0
0
1.978 MHz
0
1
3.955 MHz
1
0
7.910 MHz
1
1
15.82 MHz
4.2.3. ISEL [10]
Interface Select input pin. Selects TWI communications when low. SPI communication mode 0 is selected when high.
See Appendix A and Appendix B for more details.
4.2.4. Istat [12]
Interface Status output pin. Istat is the serial interface handshaking signal. A high level on Istat indicates that a byte of
data is ready to read from the serial interface port. A low level on Istat indicates that the serial interface buffer is empty.
Note:
Use of Istat for serial communications control is mandatory, and the AT88RF1354 will not accept
commands from the host microcontroller when Istat is high.
4.2.5. ResetB [9]
Reset Bar input pin. A low on ResetB causes the device to reset. ResetB must be pulled high by the host
microcontroller and/or by an external resistor to VCC when the device is in use.
4.2.6. SCK [14]
Serial Clock input pin. In both SPI and TWI serial communication modes this pin is used as the serial interface clock.
4.2.7. SDI [15]
Serial Data In pin. In SPI communication mode this pin functions as the serial data input. In TWI communication mode
this pin functions as the serial data I/O.
11
8547B–RFID–3/09
4.2.8. SDO [19]
Serial Data Out pin. In SPI communication mode this pin functions as the serial data output. In TWI communication
mode this pin is not used.
4.2.9. SSB [13]
SPI Slave Select Bar input pin. In SPI communication mode this pin functions as the slave select input. In TWI
communication mode this pin is not used and should be connected to VSS.
4.3.
RF Pin Descriptions
4.3.1. ANT [3]
Antenna driver. The 13.56 MHz carrier frequency is generated by ANT and is shaped into a sine wave by external
passive circuitry.
4.3.2. C6 [35]
C6 Antenna bypass capacitor pin. The C6 pin provides power to the antenna circuits and modulates the power level for
communications.
4.3.3. RFin [32]
RF input pin. RFin is the input to the receiver. A resistor/capacitor filter is used to limit the peak to peak voltage on this
pin to a safe level. See the AT88RF1354 reference design for appropriate component values.
4.4.
Analog Pin Descriptions
4.4.1. C1 [21]
C1 bypass capacitor pin. Bypass capacitance of 0.33 uF for the digital circuits must be connected between the C1 pin
and VSS. This capacitor must be placed within 3 mm of the package. Any 0.33 uF ceramic capacitor with X5R or X7R
dielectric and a working voltage of 10 volts minimum may be used.
4.4.2. C2 [26]
C2 bypass capacitor pin. Bypass capacitance of 47 nF for the analog circuits must be connected between the C2 pin
and VSSA. This capacitor must be placed within 3 mm of the package. Any 47 nF ceramic capacitor with X5R or X7R
dielectric and a working voltage of 10 volts minimum may be used.
4.4.3. C3 [27]
C3 bypass capacitor pin. Bypass capacitance of 47 nF for the analog circuits must be connected between the C3 pin
and VSSA. This capacitor must be placed within 3 mm of the package. Any 47 nF ceramic capacitor with X5R or X7R
dielectric and a working voltage of 10 volts minimum may be used.
4.4.4. C4 [25]
C4 bypass capacitor pin. Bypass capacitance of 0.33 uF for the analog circuits must be connected between the C4 pin
and VSSA. This capacitor must be placed within 3 mm of the package. Any 0.33 uF ceramic capacitor with X5R or X7R
dielectric and a working voltage of 10 volts minimum may be used.
4.4.5. C5 [6]
C5 bypass capacitor pin. Bypass capacitance of 0.33 uF for the digital circuits must be connected between the C5 pin
and VSS. This capacitor must be placed within 3 mm of the package. Any 0.33 uF ceramic capacitor with X5R or X7R
dielectric and a working voltage of 10 volts minimum may be used.
12
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
4.4.6. C7 [29]
C7 bypass capacitor pin. Bypass capacitance of 47 nF for the analog circuits must be connected between the C7 pin
and VSSA. This capacitor must be placed within 3 mm of the package. Any 47 nF ceramic capacitor with X5R or X7R
dielectric and a working voltage of 10 volts minimum may be used.
4.4.7. Xtal1 [4]
Crystal pin 1. A 13.56 MHz crystal must be connected between Xtal1 and Xtal2.
4.4.8. Xtal2 [5]
Crystal pin 2. A 13.56 MHz crystal must be connected between Xtal1 and Xtal2.
4.5.
Test Pin Descriptions
4.5.1. Test1 [7]
Test input pin 1. This pin must be connected to VSS on the board to prevent the IC from entering test mode.
4.5.2. Test2 [16]
Test input pin 2. This pin must be connected to VSS on the board to prevent the IC from entering test mode.
4.5.3. Test3 [17]
Test input pin 3. This pin must be connected to VSS on the board to prevent the IC from entering test mode.
4.5.4. TestD [11]
Test output pin D. This test output must be left open by the user.
4.5.5. TestR [31]
Test output pin R. This test output must be left open by the user.
4.5.6. Rmod [34]
Test pin Rmod. This pin must be connected to VSS _Ant on the board.
4.6.
Other Pins
4.6.1. N.C. [18, 28, 30, 33, 36]
No Connect pins. These package pins are not used and can be left open by the user.
13
8547B–RFID–3/09
5.
5.1.
Typical Application
Operating Principle
Contactless RF smart cards operating at 13.56 Mhz are powered by and communicate with the reader via inductive
coupling of the reader antenna to the card antenna. The two loop antennas effectively form a transformer.
An alternating magnetic field is produced by sinusoidal current flowing thru the reader antenna loop. When the card
enters the alternating magnetic field, an alternating current (AC) is induced in the card loop antenna. The PICC
integrated circuit contains a rectifier and power regulator to convert the AC to direct current (DC) to power the
integrated circuit.
The reader amplitude modulates the RF field to send information to the card. The PICC contains a demodulator to
convert the amplitude modulation to digital signals. The data from the reader is clocked in, decoded and processed by
the integrated circuit.
The card communicates with the reader by modulating the load on the card antenna, which also modulates the load on
the reader antenna. ISO/IEC 14443 PICCs use a 847.5 khz subcarrier for load modulation, which allows the reader to
filter the subcarrier frequency off of the reader antenna and decode the data.
Figure 3.
The card antenna and reader antenna effectively form a transformer
IC
READER
14
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
5.2.
Application
In a typical application the AT88RF1354 reader circuitry and the loop antenna are integrated on a single four layer
printed circuit board. The host microcontroller and power supply may reside on the same PCB, or on a separate PCB
depending on the application requirements.
The passive components required for the reader IC to function are placed in a small area immediately surrounding the
QFN package for optimum RF circuit performance. The PCB loop antenna is placed a minimum of 1 inch away from all
other metal, including the reader circuit ground and power planes, to minimize distortion of the magnetic field which
reduces RF communication performance. A typical loop antenna is designed for an inductance of 800 to 1600
nanohenries, DC resistance of 0.1 to 0.3 ohms, low parasitic capacitance, and includes a matching electric field shield.
Whether the power supply and microcontroller are integrated in the same board or are on a different board, power
filtering is included at the edge of the reader circuit ground and power planes to isolate the reader from in-band system
noise and to protect the host microcontroller from reader generated noise. The reader ground and power planes must
be isolated from the balance of the system to prevent current loops from forming which will interfere with RF tag
performance.
Layout of both the reader circuitry and loop antenna are critical, and are beyond the scope of this document. See the
reference designs in the AT88RF1354 Application Notes for layout and circuit recommendations.
Figure 4.
Typical AT88RF1354 Reader board layout
Power Supply
Microcontroller
Circuit
Reader
Circuit
Loop
Antenna
15
8547B–RFID–3/09
6.
Electrical Characteristics
6.1.
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Operating Temperature (case temp).........−40°C to +85°C
*Notice:
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage
to the device. This is a stress rating only and
functional operation of the device at these or any
other condition beyond those indicated in the
operational sections of this specification is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect device
reliability.
Warning:
This product package includes an integrated
(exposed thermal pad) heatsink that must be
soldered to the printed circuit board; failure to
adequately heatsink this product will affect device
reliability.
Storage Temperature (case temp) .........−65°C to + 150°C
Power Dissipation .................................................. 2 Watts
Maximum Operating Voltage (VCC) ...................... 6.0 Volts
Maximum Operating Voltage (VCC _ANT) ............ 6.0 Volts
DC Current: VCC Pin ...............................................100 mA
DC Current: VCC _ANT Pin.....................................300 mA
HBM ESD................................................ 2000 V minimum
6.2.
DC Characteristics
6.2.1. Operating Voltage
TC = -40° to +85° C (unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Parameter
VCC
Supply voltage
VCC_ANT
Note:
16
Supply voltage, antenna driver
Condition
Min
Nominal
Max
Units
5 Volt Digital interface
4.5
5.0
5.5
V
3.3 Volt Digital Interface
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
High Output Power
4.5
5.0
5.5
V
Low Output Power
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
1. Power is required to be applied to both VCC and VCC_ANT within the specified operating voltage ranges. If
power is not applied to both the VCC pin and the VCC_ANT pin the device will be permanently damaged.
2. VCC and VCC_ANT are not required to be set to the same voltage.
3. VSS, VSSA, VSS _ANT, and the ePad must all be externally connected to ground or the device will be
permanently damaged.
4. AT88RF1354 does not support hot swapping or hot plugging. Connecting or disconnecting this device to a
system while power is energized can cause permanent damage to AT88RF1354.
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
6.2.2. Digital I/O Characteristics
TC = -40° to +85° C (unless otherwise noted)(1)
Symbol
VCC = 3.0 to 3.6 V
Condition
Min
Typical
VCC = 4.5 to 5.5 V
Max
Min
Typical
Max
Units
VIL
Input Low Voltage
-0.5
0.3VCC
-0.5
0.3VCC
V
VIH
Input High Voltage
0.7VCC
VCC +0.5
0.7VCC
VCC +0.5
V
VOL1
Output Low Voltage
(SDI pin TWI mode only)
0
0.4
0
0.4
V
RSDA
I/O pin Pull-up Resistor (2) (3)
TWI mode, SCK = 100kHz
1.0
4.0
1.7
8.0
kOhm
TWI mode, SCK = 1 MHz
1.0
2.0
1.7
3.3
kOhm
RRST
ResetB Pull-up Resistor (3)
RPU
Input Pull-up Resistor (3)
Unused input pin
RPD
Input Pull-down Resistor (3)
Unused input pin
Note:
6.3.
Parameter
VCC = max
IOL = 3
mA
10
10
kOhm
10
10
kOhm
0
0
kOhm
1. Typical values at 25° C. Maximum values are characterized values and not test limits in production.
2. Optimum pull-up resistance is dependent on the total capacitance of the TWI serial interface bus.
3. This parameter is not tested. Values are based on characterization and/or simulation data.
AC Characteristics
6.3.1. System and Reset Timing
TC = -40° to +85° C (unless otherwise noted)(1)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
fSCK
Serial Interface Clock Frequency
tRST
Minimum pulse width on ResetB Pin
tOSC
Crystal Oscillator start-up time
tRF_ON
RF Enable time (2) (3)
tRF_OFF
RF Disable time (2) (3)
Note:
(3)
VCC = 3.0 to 3.6 V
Min
Typical
Max
VCC = 4.5 to 5.5 V
Min
Typical
Max
Units
TWI mode
1.0
1.0
MHz
SPI mode
2.0
2.0
MHz
500
At power-up
500
uS
1000
1000
uS
From end of command to RF 90% power
4.5
1.8
uS
From end of command to RF 10% power
1.7
1.7
uS
1. Typical values at 25° C. Maximum values are characterized values and not test limits in production.
2. RF performance is dependent on the reader circuit design, PCB layout, and component specifications.
RF timing values in table are measured on an Atmel reference design.
3. This parameter is not tested. Values are based on characterization and/or simulation data.
17
8547B–RFID–3/09
6.3.2. TWI Mode Timing
TC = -40° to +85° C VCC = 3.0 to 3.6 V or 4.5 to 5.5 V (unless otherwise noted)(1)
Symbol
Parameter
tHIGH
SCK High pulse width
tLOW
tSU;DAT
Condition
100 kHz Operation
Min
Typical
Max
1 MHz Operation
Min
Typical
Max
Units
4.0
0.4
uS
SCK Low pulse width
4.7
0.5
uS
Setup time, Data
250
25
nS
tHD;DAT
Hold time, Data
300
30
nS
tSU;STA
Setup time, Start condition
1000
100
nS
tHD;STA
Hold time, Start condition
1000
100
nS
tSU;STO
Setup time, Stop Condition
1000
100
nS
tr
Rise Time of SCK and SDA
(4)
tf
Fall time of SCK and SDA
Cb
Bus Capacitance for each bus line (4)
Note:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1000
(4)
100
nS
300
30
nS
400
100
pF
Typical values at 25° C. Maximum values are characterized values and not test limits in production.
Production test is performed with 50% duty cycle clock at 1 MHz.
Timing limits for clock frequencies less than 1 MHz are scaled with the clock frequency.
This parameter is not tested. Values are based on characterization and/or simulation data.
6.3.3. SPI Mode Timing
TC = -40° to +85° C (unless otherwise noted)(1)
Symbol
Condition
VCC = 3.0 to 3.6 V
Min
Typical
Max
VCC = 4.5 to 5.5 V
Min
Typical
Max
Units
tHIGH
SCK High pulse width
See 11 in Figure 5.
200
200
nS
tLOW
SCK Low pulse width
See 11 in Figure 5
200
200
nS
tSETUP
MOSI (SDI) Setup to SCK High
See 13 in Figure 5
10
20
nS
tHOLD
MOSI (SDI) Hold after SCK High
See 14 in Figure 5
100
100
nS
tVALID
SCK Low to MISO (SDO) Valid
See 15 in Figure 5
tSSBW
SCK Low to SSB High (3)
See 16 in Figure 5
tSSBO
SSB Low to MISO (SDO) Out
See 9 in Figure 5
tr
Rise time of all signals
(3)
(3)
tf
Fall time of all signals
tTRIO
SSB High to MISO (SDO) Tristate
Note:
18
Parameter
15
nS
20
15
nS
15
1600
See 12 in Figure 5
1600
See 12 in Figure 5
See 17 in Figure 5
15
20
10
nS
1600
nS
1600
nS
10
nS
1. Typical values at 25° C. Maximum values are characterized values and not test limits in production.
2. Production test is performed with 50% duty cycle clock at 1 MHz.
3. This parameter is not tested. Values are based on characterization and/or simulation data.
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Figure 5.
SPI Interface timing requirements
6.3.4. CLKO Output Timing
TC = -40° to +85° C (unless otherwise noted)(1)
Symbol
fCLKO
Parameter
CLKO Output Frequency (2)
CLKO Duty Cycle
Note:
Condition
VCC = 3.0 to 3.6 V
Min
Typical
Max
VCC = 4.5 to 5.5 V
Min
Typical
Max
Units
PLL Reg RS1 = 0 b RS2 = 0 b
1.978
1.978
MHz
PLL Reg RS1 = 0 b RS2 = 1 b
3.955
3.955
MHz
PLL Reg RS1 = 1 b RS2 = 0 b
7.910
7.910
MHz
PLL Reg RS1 = 1 b RS2 = 1 b
15.820
15.820
MHz
50.0
50.0
%
1. Typical values at 25° C. Values are based on characterization and are not tested.
2. Operating Frequency is dependent on the reader circuit design, PCB layout, and component specifications.
An Atmel reference design with 13.560 MHz 50 ppm crystal was used to characterize this parameter.
19
8547B–RFID–3/09
7.
Typical Characteristics
The performance of AT88RF1354 is dependent on the reader circuit, the loop antenna design, the board layout, the
specifications of the passive components, the quality of the supply voltages, the quality of the ground, the electrical
noise in the system, and how the reader circuit is connected to the other system components. The specifications that
are affected by these factors are included in this section as typical characteristics since they cannot be guaranteed in
all situations.
It is recommended that AT88RF1354 be used exactly as described in the reference designs in the AT88RF1354
Application Notes. Each reference design has been optimized for reliable, robust communications with cards and tags
with antenna dimensions within a specified size range. The reference designs described in the AT88RF1354
Application Notes include schematics, board designs, and a complete bill of materials. Gerber files of the PCB layout
are available.
Atmel does not provide applications engineering support for customer implementations that deviate from the reference
designs; it is strongly recommended that the AT88RF1354 reference designs be implemented exactly as provided. Any
modification to the board layout or deviation from the bill of materials will impact both electrical performance and
radiated emissions.
7.1.
Supply Current
TC = -40° to +85° C (unless otherwise noted)(1)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
VCC and VCC_ANT =
3.0 to 3.6 V
Min Typical
ICC
Power Supply Current
ICC_ANT
Note:
7.2.
Power Supply Current
VCC and VCC_ANT =
4.5 to 5.5 V
Max
Min
Typical
Units
Max
Idle, No SCK clock, CLKO Disabled
10
15
mA
Idle, RF Disabled
1
2
mA
200
250
mA
Idle, RF Enabled (TXP = 1 b)
1. Typical values at Tc = 35° C. Values are based on characterization and are not tested.
2. The total D.C. supply current is ICC + ICC_ANT
3. Supply current is dependent on the reader circuit design, PCB layout, and component specifications.
All values in table measured on an Atmel reference design.
4. ICC_ANT current increases rapidly when the RF ON Command is sent. The rate of ICC_ANT current
change is the slew rate.
Standby Current
TC = -40° to +85° C (unless otherwise noted)(1)
Symbol
ISB
Power Supply Standby Current
ISB_ANT
Note:
20
Parameter
Power Supply Standby Current
Condition
Standby, CLKO Disabled, OSC and PLL Enabled
VCC and VCC_ANT =
3.0 to 3.6 V
VCC and VCC_ANT
= 4.5 to 5.5 V
Min Typical
10
Min Typical
15
Max
Units
Max
mA
Standby, CLKO Enabled, OSC and PLL Enabled
2
3
mA
Standby, CLKO Disabled, OSC and PLL Enabled
1
2
mA
1. Typical values at Tc = 35° C. Values are based on characterization and are not tested.
2. Total power supply standby current is ISB + ISB_ANT
3. The Sleep Command is sent to enter standby mode. All serial interface signals must remain unchanged to
remain in standby mode.
4. PLL Register bits control standby mode options: ENB controls CLKO, SL1 controls PLL, SL2 controls
OSC (crystal oscillator)
5. Supply current is dependent on the reader circuit design, PCB layout, and component specifications. All
values in table measured on an Atmel reference design.
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
7.3.
RF Characteristics
7.3.1. Transmitter Characteristics
(1)
Tc = -40° to +85° C (unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Parameter
fc
Carrier Frequency
Condition
(3)
RF Enabled
(4)
M.I.
Field Modulation Index
Min
Typical
Max
Units
13.553
13.560
13.567
MHz
8
11
14
percent
14443-2 9.1.2
RF Enabled, Transmitting Data
ISO / IEC Standard
14443-2 6.1
ETU
Elementary Time Unit
RF Enabled, Transmitting Data
9.4346
9.4395
9.4444
uS
14443-2 9.1.1
EGT
Extra Guard Time
RF Enabled, Transmitting Data
0
0
0
uS
14443-3 7.1.2
Note:
1. Typical values at Tc = 35° C. Values are based on characterization and are not tested.
2. Performance is dependent on the reader circuit design, PCB layout, and component specifications. All
values in table measured on an Atmel reference design.
3. Operating Frequency is dependent on the reader circuit design, PCB layout, and component specifications.
An Atmel reference design with 13.560 MHz 50 ppm crystal was used to characterize this parameter.
4. Modulation Index is determined by the ML bit setting in the TXC register.
5. Unmodulated Magnetic Field strength is different for each reader antenna and reader board design. See
AT88RF1354 Application Notes.
7.3.2. Receiver Characteristics
TC = -40° to +85° C (unless otherwise noted)(1)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
ETU
Elementary Time Unit
RF Enabled, Receiving Data
EGT
Extra Guard Time
RF Enabled, Receiving Data
BW
Receiver Bandwidth
Note:
Min
Typical
Max
9.4346 9.4395 9.4444
0.0
19.0
1.0
Units
ISO / IEC Standard
uS
14443-2 9.1.1
uS
14443-3 7.1.2
MHz
1. Typical values at Tc = 35° C. Values are based on characterization and are not tested.
2. Performance is dependent on the reader circuit design, PCB layout, and component specifications.
All values in table measured on an Atmel reference design.
21
8547B–RFID–3/09
8.
Mechanical
8.1.
Thermal Characteristics
The AT88RF1354 QFN package thermal characteristics were modeled and characterized by Amkor with JEDEC
standard methods using a multilayer JEDEC test board with nine thermal vias on the PCB thermal pad. ψJB is 12.1
°C/W and θJA is 30.9 °C/W for this package.
Since ψJB measures the heat transfer between the QFN package and the PC board, it is more relevant than θJA. θJA
measures heat transfer between the QFN and stagnant air.
8.2.
Moisture Sensitivity
The AT88RF1354 QFN package is qualified to JEDEC MSL3.
8.3.
Composition
The AT88RF1354 QFN package is a lead-free and halogen-free green package.
22
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8.4.
Package Drawing
23
8547B–RFID–3/09
9.
Ordering Information
AT88RF1354 is available in the 6 mm by 6 mm 36 pin QFN package only. Standard delivery format is bulk, in trays.
Tape & reel is also available.
Ordering Code
9.1.
Package
Temperature Range
AT88RF1354-ZU
36 pin QFN thermal package, 6 x 6 mm, Green (exceeds RoHS), in Trays
Industrial (-40° C to 85° C)
AT88RF1354-ZU-T
36 pin QFN thermal package, 6 x 6 mm, Green (exceeds RoHS), Tape & Reel
Industrial (-40° C to 85° C)
Sample Ordering Information
AT88RF1354 samples are available in the 6 mm by 6 mm 36 pin QFN package.
Ordering Code
AT88RF1354-ZU
24
Package
36 pin QFN thermal package, 6 x 6 mm, Green (exceeds RoHS)
Temperature Range
Industrial (-40° C to 85° C)
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Appendix A. The ISO/IEC 14443 Type B RF Signal Interface
The ISO 14443 specifications refer to cards. In this section, the reader can interchange the terms “card,” “tag,” and
“transponder.”
A.1.
RF Signal Interface
The AT88RF1354 RF communications interface is compliant with the ISO/IEC 14443 part 2 and part 3 Type B signaling
requirements when used exactly as described in the AT88RF1354 reference design application notes. Type B
signaling utilizes a 10 % amplitude modulation of the RF field for communication from the reader to the card with NRZ
encoded data. Communication from card to reader utilizes BPSK load modulation of an 847.5 khz subcarrier with NRZL encoded data. The 13.56 MHz RF magnetic field is continuously on for Type B communications.
A.2.
Data Format
Data communication between the card and reader is performed using an LSB first data format. Each byte of data is
transmitted with a 0b start bit and a 1b stop bit as shown in Figure A-1. The stop bit, start bit, and each data bit are
each one elementary time unit (ETU) in length (9.4395 microseconds).
Each byte transmission consists of a start bit, 8 data bits (LSB first), and a stop bit. Each byte may be separated from
the next byte by extra guard time (EGT). The EGT may be zero or a fraction of an ETU. EGT cannot exceed 19
microseconds for data transmitted by the PICC. EGT for data transmitted by the AT88RF1354 PCD is zero ETUs. The
position of each bit is measured relative to the falling edge of the start bit.
Figure A-1.
Byte transmission format requirements for Type B communications.
One byte transmission is 10 ETUs long plus EGT
Start
Byte Format
LSB
b0
MSB
b1
b2
b3
b4
b5
b6
Stop
EGT
b7
All bit timing is measured from the falling edge of the start bit.
Bit transitions should occur within (n ± 0.125) ETU of thefalling edge of start bit.
EGT is 0 - 57 mS for PCD transmissions.
Despite the fact that data transmissions occur LSB first, all of the commands, data, and CRC bytes in ISO/IEC 14443
and in this specification are listed in the conventional manner, with MSB on the left and LSB on the right.
A.3.
Frame Format
Data transmitted by the PCD or PICC is sent as frames. The frame consists of the start of frame (SOF), several bytes
of information, and the end of frame (EOF). The SOF and EOF requirements are shown in Figure A-2.
25
8547B–RFID–3/09
Figure A-2.
Start of Frame (SOF) and End of Frame (EOF) format requirement
2 to 3 ETUs "1"s
Start
10 to 11 ETUs of "0"s
Start of Frame
b1
First Byte
Total start of frame length is 12 to 14 ETUs.
10 to 11 ETUs of "0"s
End of Frame
Last Byte
A.4.
b0
Total end of frame length is 10 to 11 ETUs.
Reader Data Transmission
The unmodulated 13.56 Mhz carrier signal amplitude which is transmitted when the reader is idle is defined as logical
“1”, while the modulated signal level is defined as logical “0”. A frame transmitted by the reader consists of SOF,
several bytes of data, a 2 byte CRC_B, and the EOF.
Figure A-3.
Format of a frame transmitted by the reader to the card.
No Modulation ("1"s)
Command, Data, and CRC_B
SOF
A.5.
Data Transmission
No Modulation ("1"s)
EOF
Card Data Transmission
The PICC waits silently for a command from the PCD after being activated by the RF field. After receiving a valid
command from the PCD, the PICC is allowed to turn on the subcarrier only if it intends to transmit a complete response
frame. The PICC response consists of TR1, SOF, several bytes of data followed by a 2 byte CRC_B, and the EOF.
The subcarrier is turned off no later than 2 ETUs after the EOF. Figure A-4. show the PICC frame format.
26
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
When the subcarrier is turned on it remains unmodulated for a time period known as the synchronization time (TR1).
The phase of the subcarrier during TR1 defines a logical one and permits the reader demodulator to lock on to the
subcarrier signal. The subcarrier remains on until after the EOF transmission is complete.
Figure A-4.
Subcarrier Off
Format of a frame transmitted by the PICC to the reader.
Subcarrier On
TR1
A.6.
Transmit Data and CRC_B
SOF
Data Transmission
Subcarrier Off
EOF
Response Timing
After the PICC receives a command from the PCD, it is not permitted to transmit a subcarrier during the guard time
(TR0). The minimum guard time is 8 ETUs for all command responses. The maximum guard time is defined by the
frame waiting time (FWT), except for the ATQB response (response to REQB or Slot MARKER polling commands)
which has a maximum TR0 of 32 ETUs.
Figure A-5.
ISO/IEC 14443 response timing requirements for the card.
Reader/Writer
CRC
Unmodulated Carrier
EOF
TR0
PICC (Chip)
Subcarrier OFF
TR1
Subcarrier ON
No Modulation
Data
SOF
Response
The FWT is the maximum time that a PICC requires to begin a response. The PICC transmits a parameter in the ATQB
response to the polling command that tells the reader the worst case FWT. The PCD is not permitted to modulate the
RF field while waiting for a PICC to respond to a command. Modulation of the RF field during a PICC memory read or
write operation may corrupt the operation or cause reset of the PICC.
A.7.
CRC Error Detection
A 2 byte CRC_B is required in each frame transmitted by the PICC or PCD to permit transmission error detection. The
CRC_B is calculated on all of the command and data bytes in the frame. The SOF, EOF, start bits, stop bits, and EGT
are not included in the CRC_B calculation. The two byte CRC_B follows the data bytes in the frame.
27
8547B–RFID–3/09
Figure A-6.
Location of the two CRC_B bytes within a frame.
SOF
K Data Bytes
CRC1
CRC2
EOF
The CRC_B polynomial is defined in ISO/IEC 14443 and ISO/IEC 13239 as x16 + x12 + x5 + x0. This is a hex polynomial
of $1021. The initial value of the register used for the CRC_B calculation is all ones ($FFFF). When receiving
information from the PICC, the AT88RF1354 reader automatically computes the CRC on the incoming command, data,
and CRC bytes. When transmitting data the AT88RF1354 reader automatically computes the CRC on the outgoing
data packet, and inserts it prior to the end of frame. Any CRC error detected by AT88RF1354 is reported to the host
microcontroller.
A.8.
Modulation Index
The Modulation Index of the PCD generated magnetic field is measured by placing a calibration coil or wire loop near
the PCD antenna. Connect this loop to a high impedance oscilloscope probe and measure the amplitude modulation
(ASK) waveform as shown in Figure A-7. The PCD amplitude Modulation Index is defined in ISO/IEC 14443 part 2 as
the M.I. = (A - B) / (A + B). For Type B operation the PCD modulation index is required to be between 8 % and 14 %.
If the PCD modulation is less than 8 % then the PICC receiver will not successfully decode the transmissions.
Excessive modulation reduces the power available to the PICC and may cause it to reset.
Figure A-7.
Measurement of the PCD Amplitude Modulation Index.
B
Modulation Index =
(A - B)
(A + B)
A
A = Unmodulated Signal Amplitude
where:
Modulation Depth =
A.9.
B
A
B = Modulated Signal Amplitude
Magnetic Field Strength
ISO/IEC 14443 part 2 defines the minimum and maximum operating magnetic field strength as Hmin and Hmax. A
credit card sized (ID-1) PICC is required to operate at all magnetic field strengths between Hmin = 1.5 A/m rms and
Hmax = 7.5 A/m rms. The PCD is not allowed to generate magnetic fields in excess of Hmax = 7.5 A/m rms. The PICC
is not required to function outside the operating envelope defined by Hmin and Hmax.
The magnetic field strength requirements of ISO/IEC 14443 part 2 apply only to systems utilizing ID-1 size PICCs,
which have an antenna area of approximately 3000 square millimeters. The magnetic field strength required to operate
28
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
tags with antennas larger than ID-1 is less than the limits specified in the standard. For tags with antennas smaller than
ID-1 size, a higher magnetic field strength is required. The field strength required is inversely proportional to the area of
the tag antenna.
See amendment 4 to ISO/IEC 10373-6 for the definition of an ID-1 “Class 1” PICC antenna. Any PICC antenna falling
within the “Class 1” dimensions is considered an ID-1 antenna for the purpose of this specification. PCD antennas for
ISO/IEC 14443 have not been standardized by the WG8 working group responsible for ISO/IEC 14443 because PCD
performance requirements are application specific.
Magnetic field strength is measured with a single turn antenna coil. For ID-1 cards the test method and measurement
coil are described in ISO/IEC 10373-6 section 6. For larger or smaller tags the measurement coil must be sized
similarly to the tag for the magnetic field strength to be relevant. Measurements with coils larger or smaller than the
PICC antenna dimensions are misleading since they do not measure the magnetic flux that the PICC antenna will
actually see.
Warning: Exposure to magnetic fields in excess of 30 A/m rms may be hazardous to your health.
A.10. Communication Range and Interoperability
The ISO/IEC 14443 standards do not guarantee that any compliant PCD will operate with any compliant PICC. The
standards define the communication interface between a card and reader for contactless smartcard applications. This
interface definition allows the industry to develop compliant card or tag products that can communicate with compliant
readers. The standards reduce development cost and technical risk for manufacturers and users of the protocol. Cards
from multiple manufacturers can communicate with readers from other manufacturers.
The ISO/IEC 14443 standards do not specify or guarantee the distance over which a compliant PICC will communicate
with a compliant PCD. The magnetic field strength requirements described in Appendix A.9 defines the operating
envelope of ID-1 PICCs and allows the PCD manufacturer to measure and specify the volume surrounding the reader
antenna where the ID-1 PICC operating requirements are satisfied. In other words, the developer of a reader for ID-1
cards is expected to specify the operating volume where all requirements of the standard have been met so that the
customer knows if the reader is appropriate for the application.
Since ISO/IEC 14443 explicitly defines the field strength and other requirements for ID-1 cards it is easy for the reader
manufacturer and the system developer to discuss the operating characteristics of a system for ID-1 cards using the
requirements in the standards.
Unfortunately there are no corresponding definitions of the operating conditions for PICCs that are smaller or larger
than the ID-1 format.
A reliable ISO/IEC 14443 system uses PICCs and PCDs matched to the application, with appropriately sized antennas.
Small tags will not operate reliably with large reader antennas. Large tags will not operate reliably with small reader
antennas. If the tag and reader antennas are the same size, then the tag will not operate correctly at close range due to
excessive mutual inductance.
Discussion of the numerous factors impacting the performance of ISO/IEC 14443 systems is beyond the scope of this
document. One rule of thumb estimates that the reliable operating range of a tag is approximately equal to the outside
diameter of the tag antenna when the tag and reader antennas are parallel and the antenna centers are aligned. This
rule assumes that the reader antenna is larger than the tag antenna, but is appropriately sized, and that the reader has
no significant design flaws.
29
8547B–RFID–3/09
Appendix B. The SPI Serial Interface
The SPI Interface mode is selected by shorting the ISEL pin to VCC. Six microcontroller pins are required to operate
AT88RF1354 in SPI mode. The ISTAT signal is used for handshaking between the microcontroller and RF reader.
B.1.
SPI Interface
The AT88RF1354 SPI interface operates as a slave device in SPI mode 0. In SPI mode 0 the polarity and phase of the
serial clock in relation to the data is as follows:
SCK is low when IDLE.
Incoming data on SDI is sampled on the positive edge of SCK.
Outgoing data on SDO is setup on the negative edge of SCK. (The host microcontroller samples SDO on the positive
edge of SCK)
When SSB is high, the device will ignore any SCK and SDI signals. SDO tri-states when SSB is high to prevent SPI
bus contention in systems where the SPI bus is shared with other devices.
ISTAT reports the serial interface status to the microcontroller.
Figure B-1.
Serial Interface wiring to SPI Microcontroller
VCC
Microcontroller
(SPI Master)
ISEL
SCK
SCK
MOSI
SDI
MISO
SDO
SSB
SSB
input
Istat
output
ResetB
AT88RF1354
Reader IC
(SPI Slave)
A high level on the ISTAT pin signals the host microcontroller that a byte of data is ready to be read from the
AT88RF1354 serial interface. If another byte is immediately available on the serial port, ISTAT will go low for 150 uS,
then return high. ISTAT will remain high until the last bit of the byte is read, when it will return low. All data must be
clocked out of the AT88RF1354 before it can receive a command.
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13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Appendix C. The TWI Serial Interface
The TWI Interface mode is selected by shorting the ISEL pin to VSS. Four microcontroller pins are required to operate
AT88RF1354 in TWI mode. TWI ACK polling is not supported; the ISTAT signal is used for handshaking between the
microcontroller and RF reader.
C.1.
TWI Interface
The AT88RF1354 2-wire serial interface (TWI) operates as a slave device. The TWI interface allows the device to
share a common 2-wire data bus with other compatible devices. The bus consists of a serial clock (SCK) and a serial
data (SDA / SDI) line. The serial clock is generated by the TWI bus master. Serial data bytes are transmitted bidirectionally on the SDA / SDI line, most significant bit first, synchronized to the SCK. The ISTAT signal reports the
serial interface status to the microcontroller.
Figure C-1.
Serial Interface Wiring to TWI Microcontroller
VSS
Microcontroller
ISEL
SCK
SCK
SDA
SDI
(TWI Master)
N.C.
SDO
N.C.
SSB
input
Istat
output
ResetB
AT88RF1354
Reader IC
(TWI Slave)
A high level on the ISTAT pin signals the host microcontroller that a byte of data is ready to be read from the
AT88RF1354 serial interface. If another byte is immediately available on the serial port, ISTAT will go low for 150 uS,
then return high. ISTAT will remain high until the last bit of the byte is read, when it will return low.
Data on the SDA / SDI line is sampled by the receiving device when the SCK clock is high. Data is allowed to be
changed by the transmitting device only when the SCK clock is low. All data must be clocked out of the AT88RF1354
before it can receive a command.
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8547B–RFID–3/09
C.2.
TWI Device Address
The TWI device address is selected with the ADDR address select pin of the AT88RF1354.
Figure C-2.
ADDR Pin
TWI Device Address
TWI Device Address
TWI_R
TWI_W
0
$51
$50
0
$D5
$D4
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
VSS
0
1
0
1
0
0
VCC
1
1
0
1
0
1
All other values are NOT supported
The AT88RF1354 device requires an 8-bit device address word following a start condition to enable the chip for a read
or write operation. The device address word consists of a 7 bit address followed by a read/write select bit. The write bit
should be set when sending command packets to AT88RF1354. The read bit should be set when retrieving response
packets from AT88RF1354.
Upon a successful compare of the device address, the AT88RF1354 will pull the SDI output low for 1 bit period,
sending a TWI ACK bit. If an address compare is unsuccessful, the device will return to an idle state and the SDA / SDI
line will remain pulled up by the external pull-up resistor, effectively sending a TWI NACK bit.
The AT88RF1354 ignores TWI communication packets that do not begin with a matching device address. This allows
other TWI devices to share the bus with the AT88RF1354 reader IC.
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13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Appendix D. QFN Package Mounting Guidelines
D.1.
Introduction
This Appendix provides PCB designers with a set of guidelines for successful board mounting of Atmel’s QFN
MicroLeadFrame ® package. The QFN package is a near chip scale plastic encapsulated package with a copper
leadframe substrate. This is a leadless package where electrical contact to the PCB is made by soldering the lands on
the bottom surface of the package to the PCB, instead of the conventional formed perimeter leads. The ePad
technology enhances the thermal and electrical properties of the package. The exposed die attach paddle on the
bottom efficiently conducts heat to the PCB and provides a stable ground through down bonds and electrical
connections through conductive die attach material.
D.2.
Surface Mount Considerations for QFN Packages
For devices to perform at their peak, special considerations are needed to properly design the board and to mount the
package. For enhanced thermal, electrical, and board level performance, the exposed pad on the package needs to be
soldered to the board using a corresponding thermal pad on the board. Furthermore, for proper heat conduction
through the board, thermal vias need to be incorporated in the PCB in the thermal pad region. The PCB footprint
design needs to be considered from dimensional tolerances due to the package, PCB, and the assembly factors. A
number of factors may have a significant effect on mounting the QFN package on the board and the quality of the
solder joints.
Some of these factors include: amount of solder paste coverage in the thermal pad region, stencil design for peripheral
and thermal pad region, type of vias, board thickness, copper thickness, lead finish on the package, surface finish on
the board, type of solder paste, and reflow profile. This appendix provides the guidelines for this purpose. It should be
emphasized that this is just a guideline to help the user in developing the proper board design and surface mount
process. Actual studies as well as development effort maybe needed to optimize the process as per user's surface
mount practices and requirements.
Figure D-1.
AT88RF1354 6x6 mm QFN package
A
A1
A2
b
A3
D2
E2
3
2
1
L
N
PIN#1 ID
R0.20
e
C
BOTTOM VIEW
SEATING
PLANE
SIDE VIEW
33
8547B–RFID–3/09
D.3.
PCB Design Guidelines
As shown in Figure D-1. the lands on the package bottom side are rectangular in shape with rounded edges on the
inside. Since the package does not have any solder balls, the electrical connection between the package and the board
is made by printing the solder paste on the board and reflowing it after the component placement. In order to form
reliable solder joints, special attention is needed in designing the board pad pattern and the solder paste printing.
D.3.1. Perimeter Pads Design
Typically the PCB pad pattern for a package is designed based on guidelines developed within a company or by
following industry standards such as IPC-SM-782. However, since the QFN is a new package and the industry
guidelines have not been developed yet for a PCB pad pattern design, the development of proper design
considerations may require some experimental trials.
IPC’s methodology is used here for designing the PCB pad pattern. However, because of the exposed die paddle and
the package lands on the bottom side of the package, certain constraints are added to IPC’s methodology. The pad
pattern developed here includes considerations for lead and package tolerances.
D.3.2. Thermal Pad and Via Design
The QFN package is designed to provide superior thermal performance. This is partly achieved by incorporating an
exposed die paddle on the bottom surface of the package. However, in order to take full advantage of this feature, the
PCB must have features to effectively conduct heat away from the package. This can be achieved by incorporating a
thermal pad and thermal vias on the PCB. While a thermal pad provides a solderable surface on the top surface of the
PCB (to solder the package die paddle on the board), the thermal vias are needed to provide a thermal path to the
inner and bottom layers of the PCB to remove the heat.
Normally, the size of the thermal pad should at least match the exposed die paddle size. However, depending upon the
die paddle size, this size needs to be modified in some cases to avoid solder bridging between the thermal pad and the
perimeter pads. The thermal pad design on the board should be based on the exposed paddle area, excluding the ring
area.
In order to effectively transfer heat from the top metal layer of the PCB to the inner and bottom layers, thermal vias
need to be incorporated into the thermal pad design. The number of thermal vias will depend on the application, the
power dissipation, and the electrical requirements. It is recommended that an array of thermal vias should be
incorporated at a 1.0 to 1.2 mm pitch with a via diameter of 0.3 to 0.33 mm. For optimum heat transfer it is
recommended that a minimum of nine vias be placed in the thermal pad, and a 1 ounce copper thickness be used on
all PCB layers on AT88RF1354 readers.
D.3.3. Solder Masking Consideration
The pads on the printed circuit board are either solder mask defined (SMD) or non solder mask defined (NSMD). Since
the copper etching process has tighter control than the solder masking process, NSMD pads are preferred over SMD
pads. Also, NSMD pads with the solder mask opening larger than the metal pad size improves the reliability of the
solder joints, as solder is allowed to wrap around the sides of the metal pads. For these reasons, the NSMD pad is
recommended for perimeter lands.
The solder mask opening should be 120 to 150 microns larger than the pad size resulting in 60 to 75 micron clearance
between the copper pad and the solder mask. This allows for solder mask registration tolerances, which are typically
between 50 to 65 microns, depending upon the board fabricators' capabilities. Typically each pad on the PCB should
have its own solder mask opening with a web of solder mask between the two adjacent pads. Since the web has to be
at least 75 microns in width for the solder mask to stick to the PCB surface, each pad can have its own solder mask
opening for a lead pitch of 0.5 mm or higher. However, for finer pitch parts, not enough space is available for the solder
mask web in between the pads. In such cases, it is recommended to use the “trench” type solder mask opening where
a big opening is designed around all the pads on each side of the package with no solder mask in between the pads,
as shown in Figure D-2. It should also be noted that the inner edge of the solder mask should be rounded, especially
for the corner leads to allow for enough solder mask web in the corner area.
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8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Figure D-2.
Solder mask definition for perimeter lands.
Solder Mask
0.5 mm and Higher Pitch Parts
0.4 mm Pitch Parts
For the cases where the thermal land dimensions are close to the theoretical maximum discussed above, it is
recommended that the thermal pad area should be solder mask defined in order to avoid any solder bridging between
the thermal pad and the perimeter pads. The mask opening should be 100 microns smaller than the thermal land size
on all four sides. This will guarantee a 25 micron solder mask overlap even for the worse case misregistration.
D.4.
Board Mounting Guidelines
Due to the small lead surface area and the sole reliance on the printed solder paste on the PCB surface, care must be
taken to form reliable solder joints for QFN packages. This is further complicated by the large thermal pad underneath
the package and its proximity to the inner edges of the leads. Although the pad pattern design suggested above might
help in eliminating some of the surface mounting problems, special considerations are needed in the stencil design and
the paste printing for both the perimeter and the thermal pads. Since the surface mount process varies from company
to company, careful process development is recommended. The following provides some guidelines for the stencil
design based on Atmel’s experience in the surface mounting of QFN packages.
D.4.1. Stencil Design for Perimeter Pads
Optimum and reliable solder joints on the perimeter pads should have about 50 to 75 microns (2 to 3 mils) standoff
height and a good side fillet on the outside. A joint with good stand-off height but no or low fillet will have reduced life
but may meet the application requirement. The first step in achieving good standoff is the solder paste stencil design
for the perimeter pads. The stencil aperture opening should be designed so that maximum paste release is achieved.
This is typically accomplished by considering the following two ratios:
─ Area Ratio
─ Aspect Ratio
=
=
Area of Aperture Opening / Aperture Wall Area
Aperture width / Stencil Thickness
For rectangular aperture openings, as required for this package, these ratios are given as:
─ Area Ratio
─ Aspect Ratio
=
=
LW / 2T(L+W)
W/T
Where L and W are the aperture length and width, and T is stencil thickness. For optimum paste release the area and
the aspect ratios should be greater than 0.66 and 1.5 respectively. It is recommended that the stencil aperture should
be 1:1 to the PCB pad sizes as both the area and the aspect ratio targets are easily achieved by this aperture. The
opening can be reduced for a lead pullback option because of the reduction of the solderable area on the package.
The stencil should be laser cut and electro polished. The polishing helps in smoothing the stencil walls which results in
a better paste release. It is also recommended that the stencil aperture tolerances should be tightly controlled,
especially for 0.5mm pitch and finer devices, as these tolerances can effectively reduce the aperture size.
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8547B–RFID–3/09
D.4.2. Stencil Design for Thermal Pad
In order to effectively remove the heat from the package and to enhance the electrical performance, the die paddle
needs to be soldered to the PCB thermal pad, preferably with minimum voids. However, eliminating voids may not be
possible because of the presence of thermal vias and the large size of the thermal pad for larger size packages. Also,
out gassing occurs during the reflow process which may cause defects (splatter, solder balling) if the solder paste
coverage is too big. Therefore, it is recommended that smaller multiple openings in the stencil should be used instead
of one big opening for printing the solder paste on the thermal pad region. This will typically result in 50 to 80% solder
paste coverage. As shown in Figure D-3. some of the ways to achieve these levels of coverage.
Figure D-3.
Thermal pad stencil design for 7x7 mm and 10x10 QFN packages
1.5 mm Dia. Circles
@ 1.6 mm Pitch
Coverage: 37%
1.35 x 1.35 mm Squares
@ 1.65 mm Pitch
Coverage: 68%
1.0 mm Dia. Circles
@ 1.2 mm Pitch
Coverage: 50%
1.35 x 1.35mm Squares
@ 1.5 mm Pitch
Coverage: 81%
D.4.3. Via Types and Solder Voiding
Voids within the solder joints under the exposed pad can have an adverse effect on high speed and RF applications as
well as on the thermal performance. As the QFN package incorporates a large center pad, controlling solder voiding
within this region can be difficult. Voids within this ground plane can increase the current path of the circuit. The
maximum size for a void should be less than the via pitch within the plane. This recommendation would assure that any
via would not be rendered ineffectual based on any void increasing the current path beyond the distance to the next
available via.
With regards to the voids in the thermal pad region, it should be emphasized that the presence of these voids is not
expected to result in degradation of the thermal and the electrical performance. No loss in thermal performance is
predicted from the thermal simulation of the smaller multiple voids covering up to 50% of the thermal pad area. It
should also be noted that voids in the thermal pad region do not impact the reliability of the perimeter solder joints.
Although the percentage of voids may not be a big concern, large voids in the thermal pad area should be avoided. In
order to control these voids, solder masking may be required for the thermal vias to prevent solder wicking inside the
via during reflow, thus displacing the solder away from the interface between the package die paddle and the thermal
pad on the PCB. There are different methods employed within the industry for this purpose, such as “via tenting” (from
the top or bottom side) using dry film solder mask, “via plugging” with liquid photoimagible (LPI) solder mask from the
bottom side, or “via encroaching”. These options are depicted in Figure D-4. In case of via tenting, the solder mask
diameter should be 100 microns larger than the via diameter.
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13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Figure D-4.
Solder Mask Options for Thermal Vias
Via Tenting
from Top
Via Tenting
from Bottom
Via Plugging
from Bottom
Via Encroached
from Bottom
All of these options have pros and cons when mounting the QFN package on the board. While via tenting from the top
side may result in smaller voids, the presence of the solder mask on the top side of the board may hinder proper paste
printing. On the other hand, both via tenting from bottom or via plugging from bottom may result in larger voids due to
out-gassing covering more than two vias. Finally, encroached vias allow the solder to wick inside the vias and reduce
the size of the voids. However, it also results in lower standoff of the package, which is controlled by the solder
underneath the exposed pad. Figure D-5. shows representative x-rays of QFN packages mounted on the boards with
the different via treatments.
Encroached via, depending on the board thickness and the amount of solder printed underneath the exposed pad, may
also result in solder protruding from the other side of the board. Note that the vias are not completely filled with solder,
suggesting that solder wets down the via walls until the ends are plugged. This protrusion is a function of the PCB
thickness, the amount of paste coverage in the thermal pad region, and the surface finish of the PCB. Atmel’s
experience is that this protrusion can be avoided by using a lower volume of the solder paste and reduced reflow peak
temperature. If solder protrusion cannot be avoided, the QFN components may have to be assembled on the top side
(or final pass) assembly, as the protruded solder will impede acceptable solder paste printing on the other side of the
PCB.
Figure D-5.
X-ray showing Voids in Thermal Pad Solder Joint
Vias Tented
from Top
Vias Tented
from Bottom
Via Plugged
from Bottom
Via Encroached
from Bottom
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8547B–RFID–3/09
D.4.4. Stencil Thickness and Solder Paste
A stencil thickness of 0.125 mm is recommended for 0.4 and 0.5 mm pitch parts. A laser-cut, stainless steel stencil is
recommended with electro-polished trapezoidal walls to improve the paste release. Since not enough space is
available underneath the part after reflow, it is recommended that the “No Clean”, Type 3 paste be used for mounting
QFN packages. Nitrogen purge is also recommended during the reflow.
D.4.5. Solder Joint Standoff Height and Fillet Formation
The solder joint standoff is a direct function of the amount of paste coverage on the thermal pad and the type of vias
used for QFNs with the exposed pad at the bottom. Board mounting studies sponsored by Amkor ® have clearly
shown that the package standoff increases by increasing the paste coverage and by using plugged vias in the thermal
pad region. This is shown in Figure D-6. below.
The standoff height varies by the amount of solder that wets or flows into the PTH via. The encroached via provides an
easy path for solder to flow into the PTH and decreases the package standoff height while the plugged via impedes the
flow of solder into the via due to the plugged via's closed barrel end. In addition, the number of vias and their finished
hole size will also influence the standoff height for encroached via design. The standoff height is also affected by the
paste type, the reactivity of the solder paste used during assembly, the PCB thickness, the copper thickness, the
surface finish, and the reflow profile.
To achieve 50 micron thick solder joints, which help in improving the board level reliability, it is recommended that that
the solder paste coverage be at least 50% for the plugged vias and 75% for the encroached via types.
The peripheral solder joint fillets formation is also driven by multiple factors. It should be realized that only the bottom
surface of the leads are plated with solder and not the ends. The bare Cu on the side of the leads may oxidize if the
packages are stored in an uncontrolled environment. It is, however, possible that a solder fillet will be formed
depending on the solder paste (flux) used and the level of oxidation.
Figure D-6.
Standoff height as a function of via type and paste coverage.
Standoff Height as a function of Via Type & Center Pad Solder Paste Coverage
3.25
3
2.75
2.5
2.25
2
1.75
1.5
1.25
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
0
Standoff
Height
(mils)
PLUGGED PLUGGED ENCROACH ENCROACH PLUGGED
VIA @ 37% VIA @67% VIA @ 37% VIA @67 % VIA @ 50%
PASTE
PASTE
PASTE
Paste
PASTE
COVERAGE Coverage
Coverage
Coverage
Coverage
48 IO
38
48 IO
48 IO
48 IO
68 IO
PLUGGED ENCROACH ENCROACH
VIA @ 81% VIA @ 50% VIA @ 81%
PASTE
PASTE
PASTE
Coverage
Coverage
Coverage
68 IO
68 IO
68 IO
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
The fillet formation is also a function of the PCB land size, the printed solder volume, and the package standoff height.
Since there is only limited solder available, higher standoff (controlled by the paste coverage on the thermal pad) may
not leave enough solder for fillet formation. Conversely, if the standoff is too low, large convex shape fillets may form.
This is shown in Figure D-7. Since center pad coverage and via type were shown to have the greatest impact on the
standoff height, the volume of solder necessary to create optimum fillet varies. The package standoff height and the
PCB pads size will establish the required volume.
Figure D-7.
Solder fillet shape for various standoff heights
37% Paste Coverage, Plugged Via,
1.4 mil Standoff
37% Paste coverage, Encroached Via,
0.6 mil Standoff
50% Paste Coverage, Plugged Via,
2.9 mil Standoff
81% Paste Coverage, Encroached Via,
2.1 mil Standoff
Large PCB Pads, 81% Paste Coverage,
Plugged Vias
Small PCB Pads, 81% Paste Coverage,
Plugged Vias
39
8547B–RFID–3/09
D.4.6. Reflow Profile
The reflow profile and the peak temperature have a strong influence on void formation. Amkor has conducted
experiments with the different reflow profiles (ramp-to-peak vs. ramp-hold-ramp), the peak reflow temperatures, and the
times above liquidus using Alpha Metal’s UP78 solder paste. Some of the representative profiles are shown in Figure
D-8. Generally, it is found that the 37% paste coverage, plugged via, voids in the thermal pad region for the plugged
vias reduce as the peak reflow temperature is increased from 210 °C to 215-220 °C. For the encroached vias, it is
found that the solder extrusion from the bottom side of the board reduces as the reflow temperature is reduced.
Figure D-8.
D.5.
Various QFN solder reflow profiles.
Ramp-Soak-Spike – 210°C Peak
Ramp-Spike – 210°C Peak
Ramp-Soak-Spike – 215°C Peak
Ramp-Spike – 220°C Peak
Assembly Process Flow
Figure D-9. shows the typical process flow for mounting surface mount packages to printed circuit boards. The same
process can be used for mounting the QFNs without any modifications. It is important to include the post print and the
post reflow inspection, especially during the process development. The volume of paste printed should be measured
either by 2D or 3D techniques. The paste volume should be around 80 to 90% of the stencil aperture volume to indicate
a good paste release. After reflow, the mounted package should be inspected in the transmission x-ray for the
presence of voids, solder balling, or other defects. Cross-sectioning may also be required to determine the fillet shape,
size and the joint standoff height during process development. Typical reflow profiles for no-clean solder paste are
shown in Figure D-9.
Since the actual reflow profile depends on the solder paste being used and the board density, Atmel does not
recommend a specific profile. However, the temperature should not exceed the maximum temperature the package is
qualified for according to the moisture sensitivity level. The time above the liquidus temperature should be around 60
seconds and the ramp rate during preheat should be 3 °C/second or lower.
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13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Figure D-9.
Typical PCB mounting process flow.
Solder Paste Printing
REFLOW
Post Print Inspection
Post Reflow Inspection
(Visual/X-ray)
Component Placement
Rework & Touch Up
Pre Reflow Inspection
D.6.
Rework Guidelines
Since solder joints are not fully exposed in the case of QFNs, any retouch is limited to the side fillet. For defects
underneath the package, the whole package has to be removed. Rework of the QFN packages can be a challenge due
to their small size. In most applications, the QFNs will be mounted on smaller, thinner, and denser PCBs that introduce
further challenges due to the handling and the heating issues. Since reflow of the adjacent parts is not desirable during
rework, the proximity of other components may further complicate this process. Because of the product dependent
complexities, the following only provides a guideline and a starting point for the development of a successful rework
process for these packages.
The rework process involves the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Component Removal
Site Redress
Solder Paste Application,
Component Placement, and
Component Attachment.
These steps are discussed in the following in more detail. Prior to any rework, it is strongly recommended that the PCB
assembly be baked for at least 4 hours at 125 °C to remove any residual moisture from the assembly.
D.6.1. Component Removal
The first step in removal of the component is the reflow of the solder joints attaching the component to the board.
Ideally, the reflow profile for the part removal should be the same as the one used for the part attachment. However,
the time above liquidus can be reduced as long as the reflow is complete.
In the removal process, it is recommended that the board should be heated from the bottom side using convective
heaters and hot gas or air should be used on the top side of the component. Special nozzles should be used to direct
the heating in the component area and the heating of adjacent components should be minimized. Excessive airflow
should also be avoided since this may cause the package to skew. Air velocity of 15-20 liters per minute is a good
starting point.
Once the joints have reflowed, the vacuum lift-off should be automatically engaged during the transition from the reflow
to cool down. Because of their small size the vacuum pressure should be kept below 15 inches of Hg. This will allow
the component not to be lifted off if all joints have not been reflowed and avoid pad damage.
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8547B–RFID–3/09
D.6.2. Site Redress
After the component has been removed, the site needs to be cleaned properly. It is best to use a combination of a
blade-style conductive tool and a desoldering braid. The width of the blade should be matched to the maximum width of
the footprint and the blade temperature should be low enough not to cause any damage to the circuit board. Once the
residual solder has been removed, the lands should be cleaned with a solvent. The solvent is usually specific to the
type of paste used in the original assembly and the paste manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed.
D.6.3. Solder Paste Printing
Because of their small size and the fine pitches, solder paste deposition for the QFNs requires extra care. However, a
uniform and precise deposition can be achieved if a miniature stencil specific to the component is used. The stencil
aperture should be aligned with the pads under 50 to 100X magnification. The stencil should then be lowered onto the
PCB and the paste should be deposited with a small metal squeegee blade. Alternatively, the mini stencil can be used
to print paste on the package side. A 125 microns thick stencil with the aperture size and shape same as the package
land should be used. Also, no-clean flux should be used, as small standoff of the QFNs does not leave much room for
cleaning.
D.6.4. Component Placement
QFN packages are expected to have superior self-centering ability due to their small mass and the placement of this
package should be similar to that of BGAs. As the leads are on the underside of the package, a split-beam optical
system should be used to align the component on the board. This will form an image of leads overlaid on the mating
footprint and aid in proper alignment. Again, the alignment should be done at 50 to 100X magnification. The placement
machine should have the capability of allowing fine adjustments in the X, Y, and the rotational axes.
D.6.5. Component Attachment
The reflow profile developed during original attachment or removal should be used to attach the new component.
Since all reflow profile parameters have already been optimized, using the same profile will eliminate the need for
thermocouple feedback and will reduce operator dependencies.
D.7.
Summary
Successful use of the AT88RF1354 QFN package requires careful development of the PCB and the manufacturing
process. This appendix contains guidelines to assist the design and manufacturing engineers in optimizing the PC
board and processes. These guidelines include:
─
─
─
─
─
─
─
─
─
D.8.
PCB thermal pad sized to match the package thermal pad.
1 ounce copper thickness on all layers for optimum heat transfer.
Nine or more thermal vias in the PCB thermal pad for heat transfer.
SMD solder masking of thermal pad.
NSMD solder masking of pads for package pins.
50 to 75 micron solder joint standoff height.
Laser-cut, electro-polished 0.125 mm stainless steel stencil.
No Clean, Type 3 solder paste.
Hot gas rework process.
Disclaimer
These are only general guidelines Atmel received from its package vendor. Atmel does not make direct
recommendation for board design nor does it take legal liability and responsibility for the information in this appendix.
Please refer to the IPC website for more information regarding board design and processing.
42
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Appendix E. Terms and Abbreviations
A
Unmodulated PCD field amplitude. Used in modulation index calculation.
A/m
Amperes per Meter. Units of magnetic field strength.
AC
Alternating Current.
ACK
Acknowledge response, indicates success of the requested operation.
AFI
Application Family Identifier. Used during Type B anticollision.
APP
Application bytes. Data field in ATQB polling response.
ASK
Amplitude Shift Keying modulation. PCD data transmission signaling format.
ATQB Answer to Request Type B. The response to a polling command.
ATTRIB PICC Selection Command, Type B.
B
Modulated PCD field amplitude. Used in modulation index calculation.
C
Capacitance.
°C
Celsius temperature.
°C/W
Degrees Celsius per Watt. Heat transfer.
Card
A PICC with loop antenna in a card or other RFID tag form.
CID
Card ID. The 4 bit code used to identify a PICC in the Active state.
CPR
Communication Protocol Register.
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check = 16 bit RF Communication Error Detection Code.
CRC_B Cyclic Redundancy Check, Type B.
CRF
CryptoRF® . Atmel ISO/IEC 14443 Type B secure transponder IC family.
EEPROM
Nonvolatile memory.
EGT
Extra Guard Time.
EOF
End of Frame.
ePad
Exposed thermal pad on surface mount package.
ETU
Elementary Time Unit = 128 carrier cycles (9.4395 uS nominal).
fc
Carrier Frequency = 13.56 MHz nominal.
Fo
Resonant Frequency.
fs
Subcarrier Frequency = fc/16 = 847.5 kHz nominal.
FWI
Frame Waiting Time Integer. Protocol bits communicating the PICC FWT time.
FWT
Frame Waiting Time. Maximum time the PCD must wait for a PICC response.
H
Magnetic field.
Hg
Mercury.
Hmin
Minimum unmodulated operating magnetic field strength.
Hmax Maximum unmodulated operating magnetic field strength.
Host
The microcontroller connected to the AT88RF1354 serial interface.
I
Current.
IC
Integrated Circuit.
ID
Identification.
IEC
International Electrotechnical Commission. www.iec.ch
ISO
International Organization for Standardization. www.iso.org
kbps
KiloBits Per Second.
kHz
KiloHertz.
L
Inductance.
L
Length.
LSB
Least Significant Bit.
MHz
MegaHertz.
M.I.
PCD Modulation Index. Calculated as (A – B)/(A + B)
mm
MilliMeter.
mS
MilliSecond.
μS
MicroSecond
MSB
Most Significant Bit.
MLF
MicroLeadFrame®. Amkor QFN style package.
mV
MilliVolt.
N
Variable for the Number of anticollision slots.
NACK Not Acknowledge Response, Indicates failure of the requested operation
43
8547B–RFID–3/09
N.C.
NRZ-L
nS
NSMD
PARAM
PCB
PCD
PICC
PUPI
QFN
R
RAM
Reader
RF
RFU
rms
ROM
RW
S
S
SMD
SPI
SRAM
SRF
t
T
Tag
TBD
TR0
TR1
TR2
TWI
Type B
V
W
WG8
WUPB
44
No Connect.
Non-Return to Zero (L for Level) data encoding. PICC data transmission coding.
NanoSecond.
No Solder Mask Defined.
A byte containing option codes or variables.
Printed Circuit Board.
Proximity Coupling Device. The RF reader/writer and antenna.
Proximity Integrated Circuit Card. The card/tag containing the IC and antenna.
Pseudo Unique PICC Identifier. ID for anticollision.
Surface mount package style.
Random number selected by PICC during anticollision.
Random Access Memory. Volatile memory.
The AT88RF1354 with antenna and associated circuitry.
Radio Frequency.
Reserved for Future Use. Any feature or bit reserved by ISO or by Atmel.
Root Mean Square.
Read Only Memory.
REQB/WUPB command selection code.
Seconds.
Slot Number. A code sent to the PICC with Slot-MARKER command.
Solder Mask Defined.
Serial Peripheral Interface. Serial communication protocol.
Static Random Access Memory. Volatile memory.
Self-Resonant Frequency. A capacitor acts as an AC short at the SRF frequency.
Time.
Thickness.
A PICC with loop antenna attached in a non-plastic credit card form.
To Be Determined. Requirement or value is not yet defined.
Guard Time per ISO/IEC 14443-2.
Synchronization Time per ISO/IEC 14443-2.
PICC to PCD frame delay time (per ISO/IEC 14443-3 Amendment 1).
Two-Wire Interface. Serial communication protocol.
RF communication protocol defined by ISO/IEC 14443 standards.
Volts.
Width.
ISO/IEC Working Group eight. Develops standards for contactless smartcards.
Wake Up command, Type B.
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Appendix F.
Standards and Reference Documents
International Standards
AT88RF1354 is designed to comply with the applicable requirements of the following ISO/IEC standards for Type B
PCDs operating at the standard 106 kbps data rate.
ISO/IEC 10373-6:2001 Identification Cards – Test Methods – Part 6: Proximity Cards
ISO/IEC 14443-2:2001 Identification Cards – Contactless Integrated Circuit(s) Cards – Proximity Cards – Part 2: Radio
Frequency Power and Signal Interface
ISO/IEC 14443-3:2001 Identification Cards – Contactless Integrated Circuit(s) Cards – Proximity Cards – Part 3:
Initialization and Anticollision
ISO/IEC 14443-3:2001 Identification Cards – Contactless Integrated Circuit(s) Cards – Proximity Cards – Part 4:
Transmission Protocols
ISO/IEC standards are available at www.ansi.org, www.iso.org, and from your national standards organization. The
ISO/IEC 14443 and ISO/IEC 10373 standards were developed by the WG8 committee (www.wg8.de).
References
AT88RF1354 User Guide: AT88RF1354 13.56 MHz Type B RF Command Reference Guide.
(Available at www.atmel.com)
Document 5150x
Atmel Application Note: Understanding the Requirements of ISO/IEC 14443 for Type B Proximity Contactless
Identification Cards. Document 2056x (Available at www.atmel.com)
CryptoRF Ordering Codes: CryptoRF and Secure RF Standard Product Offerings. Document 5047x (Available at
www.atmel.com)
45
8547B–RFID–3/09
Appendix G. Errata
G.1.
ATD88RF1354 with IDR Hardware Revision Register: $10
Pre-production version, not fully qualified.
The SDO pin does not tri-state when SSB is high or when ISEL is low. This causes bus contention in SPI systems and
prevents any other device from operating on an SPI bus which is connected to ATD88RF1354.
Does not meet the 2000 V minimum HBM ESD requirement.
G.2.
AT88RF1354 with IDR Hardware Revision Register: $11
No errata.
46
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
8547B–RFID–3/09
13.56 MHz Type B RF Reader Specification
Appendix H. Revision History
Table 6.
Revision History
Doc. Rev.
Date
Comments
8547B
03/2009
Update sections 8, 9, 10, 11, Appendix B, and Appendix G.
8547A
09/2008
Initial document release.
47
8547B–RFID–3/09
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8547B–RFID–3/09
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