AT42QT1050 - Preliminary

Atmel AT42QT1050
Five-channel QTouch® Touch Sensor IC
PRELIMINARY DATASHEET
Features
 Configurations:

Comms mode
 Number of Keys:

1 to 5 keys (or 1 to 4 keys plus a Guard Channel)
 Technology:

Patented spread-spectrum QTouchADC charge-transfer
 Key Outline Sizes:

6 mm × 6 mm or larger (panel thickness dependent); widely different sizes and
shapes possible
 Layers Required:

One
 Electrode Materials:

Etched copper; Silver; Carbon; Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)
 Panel Materials:

Plastic; Glass; Composites; Painted surfaces (low particle density metallic
paints possible)
 Panel Thickness:


Up to 10 mm glass (electrode size dependent)
Up to 5 mm plastic (electrode size dependent)
 Key Sensitivity:

Individually settable using simple commands over I2C interface
 Interface:

I2C slave mode (400 kHz). Discrete detection outputs
 Signal Processing:
Self-calibration
Auto-drift compensation
 Noise filtering
 Adjacent Key Suppression® (AKS®) – up to three groups possible


 Moisture Tolerance:

Increased moisture tolerance based on hardware design and firmware tuning
 Power Saving

Low Power (LP) mode supports both Low Power and Deep Sleep modes
 Power:

1.8 V to 5.5 V
 Package:


12-ball WLCSP RoHS-compliant IC
20-pin VQFN RoHS-compliant IC
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1.
Pinouts and Schematics
1.1
Pinout Configuration (WLCSP)
A1 corner
6 5 4 3 2 1
A
B
C
D
Bottom view
NC
NC
NC
KEY3
KEY4
Pinout Configuration (VQFN)
20
19
18
17
16
KEY2
1
15
SCL
NC
2
14
CHANGE
KEY1
3
13
RESET
KEY0
4
12
SDA
NC
5
7
8
9
VSS
VDD
11
10
ADDR_SEL
NC
6
NC
QT1050
NC
1.2
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1.3
Pin Descriptions (WLCSP)
Table 1-1.
Ball Listings (12-ball WLCSP)
Function
A1
KEY2
O
Key 2
Open
A3
KEY0
O
Key 0
Open
A5
KEY1
O
Key 1
Open
B2
KEY4
O
Key 4
Open
B4
VSS
P
Ground
–
B6
VDD
P
Power
–
C1
KEY3
O
Key 3
Open
C3
SCL
OD
Connect to I2C clock
Open
C5
SDA
OD
I2C data line
Open
D2
CHANGE
OD
CHANGE line for controlling the communications flow
Open
D4
RESET
I
RESET – has internal pull-up 60 k resistor
Open
D6
ADDR_SEL
I
I2C Address select. See “I2C Addresses” on page 12.
I
OD
Input only
Open-drain Output
Type
If Unused,
Connect To...
Ball
0
P
Description
–
Output only, push-pull
Ground or Power
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1.4
Pin Descriptions (VQFN)
Table 1-2.
Pin Listings (20-pin VQFN)
Function
1
KEY2
O
Key 2
2
NC
–
Not Connected
3
KEY1
O
Key 1
Open
4
KEY0
O
Key 0
Open
5
NC
–
Not Connected
–
6
NC
–
Not Connected
–
7
NC
–
Not Connected
–
8
VSS
P
Ground
–
9
VDD
P
Power
–
10
NC
–
Not Connected
–
11
ADDR_SEL
12
SDA
13
RESET
14
CHANGE
15
SCL
16
KEY4
17
Type
If Unused,
Connect To...
Pin
I
OD
I
OD
Open
–
2
I C Address select. See “I2C Addresses” on page 12.
–
I2C data line
Open
RESET – has internal pull-up 60 k resistor
Open
CHANGE line for controlling the communications flow
Open
2
Connect to I C clock
Open
O
Key 4
Open
KEY3
O
Key 3
Open
18
NC
–
Not Connected
–
19
NC
–
Not Connected
–
20
NC
–
Not Connected
–
I
OD
Input only
Open-drain Output
OD
Description
0
P
Output only, push-pull
Ground or Power
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1.5
Schematic
Figure 1-1. Typical Circuit (12-ball WLCSP)
Vdd
C1
Vss
Vdd
RSCL
RSDA
RCHG
B6
VDD
RRST
QT1050
C3
SCL
C5
SDA
D2
CHANGE
D4
RESET
D6
I2C ADDRESS SELECT
KEY4
SCL
SDA
KEY3
CHANGE
KEY2
RESET
KEY1
KEY0
B2
Rs4
C1
Rs3
A1
Rs2
A5
Rs1
A3
Rs0
K4
K3
K2
K1
K0
ADDR_SEL
VSS
B4
Note: It is important to place all Rs
components physically near the chip.
Vss
Figure 1-2. Typical Circuit (20-pin VQFN)
Vdd
C1
Vss
Vdd
RSCL
RSDA
SCL
SDA
CHANGE
RESET
I2C ADDRESS SELECT
RCHG
9
VDD
RRST
QT1050
15
12
14
13
11
10
18
19
20
KEY4
SCL
SDA
KEY3
CHANGE
KEY2
RESET
KEY1
KEY0
16
Rs4
17
Rs3
1
Rs2
3
Rs1
4
Rs0
K4
K3
K2
K1
K0
ADDR_SEL
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
7
6
5
Notes:
2
1. The central pad on the underside of the
chip is a Vss pin and should be connected to
ground. Do not put any other tracks
underneath the chip.
VSS
8
Vss
2. It is important to place all Rs components
physically near the chip.
Check the following sections for component values and settings for Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2:

Section 3.1 on page 10: Series resistors (Rs0 – Rs4)

Section 3.3 on page 10: LED traces

Section 3.5 on page 11: Power Supply (voltage levels)

Section 4.2 on page 12: I2C Address selection

Section 4.4 on page 14: SDA, SCL pull-up resistors (RSDA, RSCL)

Section 2.7 on page 7: CHANGE pull-up resistor (RCHG)

Section 2.8.1 on page 7: RESET pull-up resistor (RRST)
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2.
Overview
2.1
Introduction
The AT42QT1050 (QT1050) is a QTouchADC sensor driver. The device can sense from one to five keys, dependent
on mode.
The QT1050 includes all signal processing functions necessary to provide stable sensing under a wide variety of
changing conditions, and the outputs are fully debounced. Only a few external parts are required for operation and
no external Cs capacitors are required.
The QT1050 modulates its bursts in a spread-spectrum fashion in order to heavily suppress the effects of external
noise, and to suppress RF emissions. The QT1050 uses a QTouchADC method of acquisition. This provides greater
noise immunity and eliminates the need for external sampling capacitors, allowing touch sensing using a single pin.
2.2
Comms Modes
The QT1050 operates in comms mode where a host can communicate with the device via an I2C bus. This allows
the user to configure settings for Threshold, Adjacent Key Suppression (AKS), Detect Integrator, Low Power (LP)
Mode, Guard Channel, and Max Time On for keys.
2.3
Keys
The QT1050 can have a minimum of one key and a maximum of five keys. These can be constructed in different
shapes and sizes. See “Features” on page 1 for the recommended dimensions.

1 to 5 keys (or 1 to 4 keys plus Guard Channel)
Unused keys should be disabled by setting the Detect Integrator (DI) to zero (see Section 5.10 on page 21).
The status register can be read to determine the touch status of the corresponding key. It is recommended using the
open-drain CHANGE line to detect when a change of status has occurred.
2.4
Moisture Tolerance
The presence of water (condensation, sweat, spilt water, and so on) on a sensor can alter the signal values
measured and thereby affect the performance of any capacitive device. The moisture tolerance of QTouch devices
can be improved by designing the hardware and fine-tuning the firmware following the recommendations in the
application note Atmel AVR3002: Moisture Tolerant QTouch Design (www.atmel.com/Images/doc42017.pdf).
2.5
Acquisition/Low Power Mode (LP)
There are 255 different acquisition times possible. These are controlled via the LP mode byte (see Section 5.11 on
page 22) which can be written to via I2C-compatible communication.
LP mode controls the intervals between acquisition measurements. Longer intervals consume lower power but have
an increased response time. During calibration, touch and during the detect integrator (DI) period, the LP mode is
temporarily set to LP mode 1 for a faster response.
The QT1050 operation is based on a fixed cycle time of approximately 8 ms. The LP mode setting indicates how
many of these periods exist per measurement cycle. For example, If LP mode = 1, there is an acquisition every cycle
(8 ms). If LP mode = 3, there is an acquisition every 3 cycles (24 ms). If a high Pulse/Scale (see Section 5.9 on page
19) setting is selected then the acquisition time may exceed 8 ms.
LP settings above mode 32 (512 ms) result in slower thermal drift compensation and should be avoided in
applications where fast thermal transients occur.
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2.6
Adjacent Key Suppression (AKS) Technology
The device includes the Atmel-patented Adjacent Key Suppression (AKS) technology, to allow the use of tightly
spaced keys on a keypad with no loss of selectability by the user.
There can be up to three AKS groups, implemented so that only one key in the group may be reported as being
touched at any one time. Once a key in a particular AKS group is in detect no other key in that group can go into
detect. Only when the key in detect goes out of detection can another key go into detect state.
The keys which are members of the AKS groups can be set (see Section 5.9 on page 19). Keys outside the group
may be in detect simultaneously.
Note:
2.7
When multiple keys in an AKS group are touched then a key must be fully out of detect before the next key
will report touch. So effectively a break-before-make operation.
CHANGE Line
The CHANGE line is active low and signals when there is a change of state in the Detection or Input key status
bytes. It is cleared (allowed to float high) when the host reads the status bytes.
If the status bytes change back to their original state before the host has read the status bytes (for example, a touch
followed by a release), the CHANGE line will be held low. In this case, a read to any memory location will clear the
CHANGE line.
The CHANGE line is open-drain and should be connected via a 47 k resistor to Vdd. It is necessary for minimum
power operation as it ensures that the QT1050 can sleep for as long as possible. Communications wake up the
QT1050 from sleep causing a higher power consumption if the part is randomly polled.
Note:
The CHANGE line is pulled low 100 ms after power-up or reset.
2.8
Types of Reset
2.8.1
External Reset
An external reset logic line can be used, if desired, fed into the RESET pin. This pin should be pulled up by a 100 k
resistor to Vdd.
2.8.2
Soft Reset
The host can cause a device reset by writing 0x80 to the RESET / Calibrate byte. This soft reset triggers the internal
watchdog timer on a 125 ms interval. After 125 ms the device resets and wakes again.
The device NACKs any attempts to communicate with it during the first 30 ms of its initialization period.
2.9
Calibration
Writing a non-zero value to low 7-bits of the RESET / Calibrate byte will force a recalibration at any time. This can be
useful to clear out a stuck key condition after a prolonged period of uninterrupted detection.
Note:
2.10
A calibrate command clears all key status bits and the overflow bit (until it is checked on the next cycle).
Guard Channel
A guard channel to help prevent false detection is available. This is programmable for comms mode.
Guard channel keys should be more sensitive than the other keys (physically bigger). Because the guard channel
key is physically bigger it becomes more susceptible to noise so it has higher Oversampling (see Section 5.9 on
page 19) and a lower Threshold (see Section 5.8 on page 19) than the other keys.
A channel set as the guard channel (there can only be one) is prioritised when the filtering of keys going into detect
is taking place. So if a normal key is filtering into touch (touch present but DI has not been reached) and the key set
as the guard key begins filtering in, then the normal key filter is reset and the guard key filters in first.
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Figure 2-1. Guard Channel Example
Guard channel
2.11
Signal Processing
2.11.1 Detect Threshold
The device detects a touch when the signal has crossed a threshold level and remained there for a specified number
of counts (see Section 5.10 on page 21). This can be altered on a key-by-key basis using the key threshold I2Ccompatible commands.
The reference level has the ability to adjust itself slowly in accordance with the drift compensation mechanism.
The drift mechanism will drift toward touch at a rate of 160 ms × 18 = 2.88 seconds and away from touch at a rate of
160 ms × 6 = 0.96 seconds. The 160 ms is based on 20 × 8 ms cycles. If the cycle time exceeds 8 ms then the
overall times will be extended to match.
2.11.2 Detect Integrator
The device features a fast detection integrator counter (DI filter), which acts to filter out noise at the small expense of
a slower response time. The DI filter requires a programmable number of consecutive samples confirmed in
detection before the key is declared to be touched. The minimum number for the DI filter is 2. Settings of 1 for the DI
also defaults to 2. Setting a DI of 0 disables the corresponding key.
The signal value which can be read in RAM is a filtered signal value. Using the Fast In option (Bit 6 of address 60)
the chip can be made to enter fast mode (LPM = 1) when a raw signal reading is detected above threshold. This
would allow the chip to react quicker to a touch in cases where a high LPM setting is being used.
Note:
If the circuit is in a noisy environment this could have the effect of causing the chip to enter fast mode more
often than is necessary.
The DI is also implemented when a touch is removed. There is also a Fast Out DI option. When bit 5 of Address 60
is set the key filters out with an integrator of 4.
2.11.3 Cx Limitations
The recommended range for key capacitance Cx is 1 pF – 30 pF. Larger values of Cx will give reduced sensitivity.
2.11.4 Max On Duration
If an object or material obstructs the sense pad the signal may rise enough to create a detection, preventing further
operation. To prevent this, the sensor includes a timer which monitors detections. If a detection exceeds the timer
setting the sensor performs a key recalibration. This is known as the Max On duration feature and is set to
approximately 30s in standalone mode.
This feature can be changed by setting a value in the range 1 – 255 (160 ms – 40,800 ms) in steps of 160 ms. A
setting of 0 disables the Max On Duration recalibration feature.
Note:
If bit 4 of address 60 is clear then a recalibration of all keys occurs on Max On Duration, otherwise individual
key recalibration occurs.
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2.11.5 Positive Recalibration
If a key signal jumps in the negative direction (with respect to its reference) by more than the Positive Recalibration
setting (25% of threshold or minimum 4 counts), then a recalibration of that key takes place.
2.11.6 Drift Hold Time
Drift Hold Time (DHT) is used to restrict drift on all keys while one or more keys are activated. DHT restricts the
drifting on all keys until approximately four seconds after all touches have been removed.
This feature is particularly useful in cases of high-density keypads where touching a key or hovering a finger over the
keypad would cause untouched keys to drift, and therefore create a sensitivity shift, and ultimately inhibit touch
detection.
2.11.7 Hysteresis
Hysteresis is fixed at 12.5% of the Detect Threshold. When a key enters a detect state once the DI count has been
reached, the NTHR value is changed by a small amount (12.5% of NTHR) in the direction away from touch. This is
done to alter hysteresis and so makes it less likely a key will dither in and out of detect. NTHR is restored once the
key drops out of detect.
Note:
There is a minimum value for hysteresis of 2 so a threshold of 2 or less should never be selected.
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3.
Wiring and Parts
3.1
Rs Resistors
Series resistors Rs (Rs0 – Rs4) are in line with the electrode connections and should be used to limit electrostatic
discharge (ESD) currents and to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI). Series resistors are recommended for
noise reduction. They should be approximately 4.7 k to 20 k each. Care should be taken in this case that the
sensor keys are fully charged. The Charge Share Delay time may need to be increased (see Section 5.15 on page
24). Each count increase will extend the charge pulse by approximately 2.5 µs.
For improved Conducted Immunity as increased Rs resistor is recommended. With an increased series resistor, the
RC time constant formed in combination with sensor capacitance will slow down the charge transfer settling process.
In order to obtain stable and repeatable results, it is important to ensure proper settling process. For an overview of
charge transfer pulses and method to observe good and bad charge pulses using an oscilloscope, refer to the
‘Charge transfer’ section in the Atmel Touch Sensor Design Guide. In order to achieve good charge pulses, the
firmware parameter to control the charge transfer time should be increased.
In the case of the QT1050 this is the Charge Share Delay byte. This setting increases the Charge Share time by
approx 2.5 µs for every count increase.
3.2
Conducted Immunity
Although most applications do not require a high level of immunity to conducted noise, certain industry sectors have
defined standards for EMC compliance. When using capacitive touch interfaces in such environments, it is important
to understand the implications of conducted noise and how to mitigate the effects through careful design.
Capacitive touch applications are generally not affected by common-mode noise until human interaction takes place.
This is because the power supply lines maintain a stable difference between Vdd and Vss and as no return path is
provided to the noise source reference (usually earth), the circuit functions normally.
For further information, refer to: Atmel AVR3000: QTouch Conducted Immunity Application Note.
3.3
LED Traces and Other Switching Signals
Digital switching signals near the sense lines induce transients into the acquired signals, deteriorating the signal-tonoise (SNR) performance of the device. Such signals should be routed away from the sensing traces and electrodes,
or the design should be such that these lines are not switched during the course of signal acquisition (bursts).
LED terminals which are multiplexed or switched into a floating state, and which are within, or physically very near, a
key (even if on another nearby PCB) should be bypassed to either Vss or Vdd with at least a 10 nF capacitor. This is
to suppress capacitive coupling effects which can induce false signal shifts. The bypass capacitor does not need to
be next to the LED, in fact it can be quite distant. The bypass capacitor is noncritical and can be of any type.
LED terminals which are constantly connected to Vss or Vdd do not need further bypassing.
3.4
PCB Cleanliness
Modern no-clean flux is generally compatible with capacitive sensing circuits.
CAUTION: If a PCB is reworked in any way, it is highly likely that the behavior of the no-clean flux will change.
This can mean that the flux changes from an inert material to one that can absorb moisture and dramatically
affect capacitive measurements due to additional leakage currents. If so, the circuit can become erratic and
exhibit poor environmental stability.
If a PCB is reworked in any way, clean it thoroughly to remove all traces of the flux residue around the capacitive
sensor components. Dry it thoroughly before any further testing is conducted.
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3.5
Power Supply
See Section 6.2 on page 25 for the power supply range. If the power supply fluctuates slowly with temperature, the
device tracks and compensates for these changes automatically with only minor changes in sensitivity. If the supply
voltage drifts or shifts quickly, the drift compensation mechanism is not able to keep up, causing sensitivity
anomalies or false detections.
The usual power supply considerations with QT™ parts apply to the device. The power should be clean and come
from a separate regulator if possible. However, this device is designed to minimize the effects of unstable power, and
except in extreme conditions should not require a separate Low Dropout (LDO) regulator.
CAUTION: A regulator IC shared with other logic can result in erratic operation and is not advised.
A single ceramic 0.1 µF bypass capacitor, with short traces, should be placed very close to the power pins of
the IC. Failure to do so can result in device oscillation, high current consumption and erratic operation.
It is assumed that a larger bypass capacitor (such as 1 µF) is somewhere else in the power circuit; for example, near
the regulator.
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4.
I2C Communications
4.1
I2C Protocol
4.1.1
Protocol
The I2C protocol is based around access to an address table (see Table 5-1 on page 15) and supports multi-byte
reads and writes. The maximum clock rate is 400 kHz.
See Section A. on page 32 for an overview of I2C bus operation.
4.1.2
Signals
The I2C interface requires two signals to operate:

SDA - Serial Data

SCL - Serial Clock
A third line, CHANGE, is used to signal when the device has seen a change in the status byte:

4.2
CHANGE: Open-drain, active low when any capacitive key has changed state since the last I2C-compatible
read. After reading the two status bytes, this pin floats (high) again if it is pulled up with an external resistor. If
the status bytes change back to their original state before the host has read the status bytes (for example, a
touch followed by a release), the CHANGE line is held low. In this case, a read to any memory location clears
the CHANGE line.
I2C Addresses
There are two selectable I2C addresses of 0x41 and 0x46. Pulling the ADDR_SEL pin (D6) low on power up sets
I2C address of 0x41 while pulling this pin high on power up sets I2C address of 0x46.
4.3
Data Read/Write
4.3.1
Writing Data to the Device
The sequence of events required to write data to the device is:
Host to Device
S
SLA+W
Table 4-1.
A
MemAddress
Device Tx to Host
A
Data
A
P
Description of Write Data Bits
Key
Description
S
START condition
SLA+W
Slave address plus write bit
A
Acknowledge bit
MemAddress
Target memory address within device
Data
Data to be written
P
Stop condition
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1.
The host initiates the transfer by sending the START condition.
2.
The host follows this by sending the slave address of the device together with the WRITE bit.
3.
The device sends an ACK.
4.
The host then sends the memory address within the device to which it wishes to write.
5.
The device sends an ACK if the write address is in the range 0x00 – 0x7F, otherwise it sends a NACK.
6.
The host transmits one or more data bytes; each is acknowledged by the device (unless trying to write to an
invalid address).
7.
If the host sends more than one data byte, they are written to consecutive memory addresses.
8.
The device automatically increments the target memory address after writing each data byte.
9.
After writing the last data byte, the host should send the STOP condition.
Note: the host should not try to write to addresses outside the range 0x20 to 0x3F because this is the limit of the
device internal memory addresses.
4.3.2
Reading Data From the Device
The sequence of events required to read data from the device is:
Host to Device
S
SLA+W
A
Data 1
A
Device Tx to Host
MemAddress A P
Data 2
S
SLA+R
A
Data n
A
A
P
1.
The host initiates the transfer by sending the START condition.
2.
The host follows this by sending the slave address of the device together with the WRITE bit.
3.
The device sends an ACK.
4.
The host then sends the memory address within the device it wishes to read from.
5.
The device sends an ACK if the address to be read from is less than 0x80, otherwise it sends a NACK.
6.
The host must then send a STOP and a START condition followed by the slave address again but this time
accompanied by the READ bit.
Note:
7.
Alternatively, instead of step 6, a repeated START can be sent so the host does not need to relinquish
control of the bus.
The device returns an ACK, followed by a data byte.
8.
The host must return either an ACK or NACK.
9.
Note:
1.
If the host returns an ACK, the device subsequently transmits the data byte from the next address. Each
time a data byte is transmitted, the device automatically increments the internal address. The device
continues to return data bytes until the host responds with a NACK.
2.
If the host returns a NACK, it should then terminate the transfer by issuing the STOP condition. A
repeated START can also be used instead of STOP condition.
The device resets the internal address to the location indicated by the memory address sent to it previously.
Therefore, there is no need to send the memory address again when reading from the same location.
Reading the 16-bit reference and signal values is not an atomic operation; reading the first byte of a 16-bit
value does not lock the other byte. As a result glitches in the reported value may be seen as values increase
from 255 to 256, or decrease from 256 to 255.
Use of a Repeated START to terminate a read-transfer is also supported.
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4.4
SDA, SCL
The I2C-compatible bus transmits data and clock with SDA and SCL respectively. They are open-drain; that is, I2Ccompatible master and slave devices can only drive these lines low or leave them open. The termination resistors
pull the line up to Vdd if no I2C-compatible device is pulling it down.
The pull-up resistors commonly range from 1 k to 10 k and should be chosen so that the rise times on SDA and
SCL meet the I2C-compatible specifications (300 ns maximum).
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5.
Setups
5.1
Introduction
The device calibrates and processes signals using a number of algorithms specifically designed to provide for high
survivability in the face of adverse environmental challenges. User-defined Setups are employed to alter these
algorithms to suit each application. These Setups are loaded into the device over the I2C serial interfaces.
Note:
Table 5-1.
Setups are volatile and will revert to defaults on power up or reset. I2C address pointer is initialized to
location 0.
Internal Register Address Allocation
Address
Use
0x00
Chip ID
0x01
Firmware Version
0x02
Detection status
0x03
Key status
0x04 – 0x05
Reserved
0x06 – 0x07
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CHIP ID
CALIBRATE OVERFLOW
Reserved
Key 4
R
MINOR VERSION
MAJOR VERSION
R/W
R
–
–
–
–
–
TOUCH
R
Key 3
Key 2
Reserved
Key 1
Key 0
Reserved
R
Reserved
R
Key signal 0
Key signal 0 (MSByte) – Key signal 0 (LSByte)
R
0x08 – 0x09
Key signal 1
Key signal 1 (MSByte) – Key signal 1 (LSByte)
R
0x0A – 0x0B
Reserved
Reserved
R
0x0C – 0x0D
Key signal 2
Key signal 2 (MSByte) – Key signal 2 (LSByte)
R
0x0E – 0x0F
Key signal 3
Key signal 3 (MSByte) – Key signal 3 (LSByte)
R
0x10 – 0x11
Key signal 4
Key signal 4 (MSByte) – Key signal 4 (LSByte)
R
0x12 – 0x13
Reserved
Reserved
R
0x14 – 0x15
Reference data 0
Reference data 0 (MSByte) – Reference data 0 (LSByte)
R
0x16 – 0x17
Reference data 1
Reference data 1 (MSByte) – Reference data 1 (LSByte)
R
0x18 – 0x19
Reserved
Reserved
R
0x1A – 0x1B
Reference data 2
Reference data 2 (MSByte) – Reference data 2 (LSByte)
R
0x1C – 0x1D
Reference data 3
Reference data 3 (MSByte) – Reference data 3 (LSByte)
R
0x1E – 0x1F
Reference data 4
Reference data 4 (MSByte) – Reference data 4 (LSByte)
R
Reserved
R
0x20
Reserved
0x21
NTHR key 0
Negative Threshold level for key 0
R/W
0x22
NTHR key 1
Negative Threshold level for key 1
R/W
0x23
Reserved
Reserved
R/W
0x24
NTHR key 2
Negative Threshold level for key 2
R/W
0x25
NTHR key 3
Negative Threshold level for key 3
R/W
0x26
NTHR key 4
Negative Threshold level for key 4
R/W
0x27
Reserved
Reserved
R/W
0x28
Key 0 Pulse Scale
Pulse for Key 0
Scale for Key 0
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Table 5-1.
Internal Register Address Allocation
Address
Use
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Pulse for Key 1
Bit 1
Bit 0
Scale for Key 1
R/W
0x29
Key 1 Pulse Scale
R/W
0x2A
Reserved
0x2B
Key 2 Pulse Scale
Pulse for Key 2
Scale for Key 2
R/W
0x2C
Key 3 Pulse Scale
Pulse for Key 3
Scale for Key 3
R/W
0x2D
Key 4 Pulse Scale
Pulse for Key 4
Scale for Key 4
R/W
0x2E
Reserved
0x2F
DI key 0
Detection integrator counter for key 0
AKS for key 0
R/W
0x30
DI key 1
Detection integrator counter for key 1
AKS for key 1
R/W
0x31
Reserved
0x32
DI key 2
Detection integrator counter for key 2
AKS for key 2
R/W
0x33
DI key 3
Detection integrator counter for key 3
AKS for key 3
R/W
0x34
DI key 4
Detection integrator counter for key 4
AKS for key 4
R/W
Reserved
R/W
Reserved
R/W
Reserved
R/W
0x35 – 0x3B
Charge Share
Delay
Charge Share Delay
R/W
0x3C
FI / FO / MO /
Guard No
FastIn / FastOutDI / Max Cal / Guard Channel
R/W
0x3D
LPM
Low Power (LP) Mode
R/W
0x3E
Max On Duration
Maximum On Duration
R/W
0x3F
RESET / Calibrate
Calibrate
R/W
5.2
RESET
Address 0x00: Chip ID
Table 5-2.
Address
0x00
Chip ID
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
CHIP ID
CHIP ID: The chip ID. The value stored in this address is always 0x46.
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5.3
Address 0x01: Firmware Version
Table 5-3.
Address
Firmware Version
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
MAJOR VERSION
0x01
b1
b0
MINOR VERSION
MAJOR VERSION: This shows the major version of the firmware represented using 4-bits b0 to b3.
MINOR VERSION: This shows the minor version of the firmware represented using 4-bits b4 to b7.
5.4
Address 0x02: Detection Status
Table 5-4.
Detection Status
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0x02
CALIBRATE
OVERFLOW
–
–
–
–
–
TOUCH
CALIBRATE: This bit is set during a calibration sequence.
OVERFLOW: This bit is set if the time to acquire all key signals exceeds 8 ms.
TOUCH: This bit is set if any keys are in detect.
5.5
Address 0x03: Key Status
Table 5-5.
Key Status
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0x03
Reserved
Key 4
Key 3
Key 2
Reserved
Key 1
Key 0
Reserved
KEY0 – 4: bits 1, 2, and 4 to 6 indicate which keys are in detection, if any. Touched keys report as 1, untouched or
disabled keys report as 0.
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5.6
Address 0x04 – 0x11: Key Signals
Table 5-6.
Key Signals
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
0x04 – 0x05
RESERVED
0x06
MSByte of KEY SIGNAL for Key 0
0x07
LSByte of KEY SIGNAL for Key 0
0x08
MSByte of KEY SIGNAL for Key 1
0x09
LSByte of KEY SIGNAL for Key 1
0x0A – 0x0B
RESERVED
0x0C – 0x11
MSByte/LSByte of KEY SIGNAL for Keys 2 – 4
b1
b0
KEY SIGNAL: addresses 0x04 – 0x11 allow key signals to be read for each key, starting with key 0. There are two
bytes of data for each key. These are the 16-bit key signals which are accessed as two 8-bit bytes, stored MSByte
first. These addresses are read-only.
5.7
Address 0x12 – 0x1F: Reference Data
Table 5-7.
Reference Data
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
0x12 – 0x13
RESERVED
0x14
MSByte of REFERENCE DATA for Key 0
0x15
LSByte of REFERENCE DATA for Key 0
0x16
MSByte of REFERENCE DATA for Key 1
0x17
LSByte of REFERENCE DATA for Key 1
0x18 – 0x19
RESERVED
0x1A – 0x1F
MSByte/LSByte of REFERENCE DATA for Keys 2 – 4
b0
REFERENCE DATA: addresses 0x12 – 0x1F allow reference data to be read for each key, starting with key 0.
There are two bytes of data for each key. These are the 16-bit reference data for each key which is accessed as two
8-bit bytes, stored MSByte first. These addresses are read-only.
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5.8
Address 0x20 – 0x26: Negative Threshold (NTHR)
Table 5-8.
NTHR
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
0x20
RESERVED
0x21
NEGATIVE THRESHOLD for Key 0
0x22
NEGATIVE THRESHOLD for Key 1
0x23
RESERVED
0x24 – 0x26
NEGATIVE THRESHOLD for Keys 2 – 4
b1
b0
NTHR Keys 0 – 4: these 8-bit values set the threshold value for each key to register a detection.
Default: 20 counts
Note:
5.9
Do not use a setting of 0 as this causes a key to go into detection when its signal is equal to its reference.
Addresses 0x27 – 0x2D: Pulse/Scale for Keys
Table 5-9.
Address
Controls for Keys
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
RESERVED
0x27
0x28
PULSE for Key 0
SCALE for Key 0
0x29
PULSE for Key 1
SCALE for Key 1
RESERVED
0x2A
0x2B
PULSE for Key 2
SCALE for Key 2
0x2C
PULSE for Key 3
SCALE for Key 3
0x2D
PULSE for Key 4
SCALE for Key 4
PULSE/SCALE: The PULSE/SCALE settings are used to set up a proximity key. The proximity key is set up by
configuring a PULSE/SCALE setting for each key via an I2C bus.
These bits represent two numbers; the low nibble is SCALE, high nibble is PULSE.
Each acquisition cycle consists signal accumulation and signal averaging. PULSE determines the number of
measurements accumulated, SCALE the averaging factor.
The SCALE factor (averaging factor) for the accumulated signal is an exponent of 2.
PULSE is the number of measurements accumulated and is an exponent of 2.
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For example:
Oversampling is used to enhance the resolution of the Analog-to-Digital-Converter (ADC). Oversampling theory says that for each additional bit of resolution, n, the signal must be oversampled four times (or 22 × n.) If
two bits of addition resolution are required then the pulse setting would be 4 (42 = 24). If 3-bits of additional
resolution are required the Pulse setting would be 6 (43 = 26). Here the result of each ADC pulse measurement is taken and added to the last.
The oversampling theory also states that this accumulated result must be scaled back by a factor of 2n. This
will be the Scale value. The signal value will be scaled to 16-bits in cases where a sufficiently high enough
scale factor has not been set.
Table 5-10 shows some of the recommended oversampling settings.
Table 5-10. Oversample for n Bits
Sample
n
Note:
Scaling
n
Bits Gained (n)
4
2
n
…
…
…
1
1
0 (Pulse = 0x00 / Scale = 0x00)
4
2
1 (Pulse = 0x02 / Scale = 0x01)
16
4
2 (Pulse = 0x04 / Scale = 0x02)
64
8
3 (Pulse = 0x06 / Scale = 0x03)
256
16
4 (Pulse = 0x08 / Scale = 0x04)
1024
32
5 (Pulse = 0x0A / Scale = 0x05)
4096
64
6 (Pulse = 0x0C / Scale = 0x06)
16384
128
7 (Pulse = 0x0E / Scale = 0x07)
Other settings are possible but the Pulse value should never be more than six higher than the Scale setting
as the signal result is stored in a 16-bit variable.
Consideration should be taken on the overall effect on timing when setting Pulse values. A single pulse takes
approximately 90 µs to complete. As all keys are acquired sequentially a high-bit gain setting will add considerably to
the time taken to acquire all channels.
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Figure 5-1. Pulse and Scale Settings
Defaults:
PULSE0 – PULSE3 = 0
SCALE0 – SCALE3 = 0
5.10
Address 0x2E – 0x34: Detection Integrator (DI) / AKS
Table 5-11. Detection Integrator / AKS
Address
0x2E
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
RESERVED
0x2F
DETECTION INTEGRATOR for Key 0
AKS for Key 0
0x30
DETECTION INTEGRATOR for Key 1
AKS for Key 1
0x31
0x32 – 0x34
RESERVED
DETECTION INTEGRATOR for Keys 2 – 4
AKS for Keys 2 – 4
DETECTION INTEGRATOR: bits 2 to 7 of addresses 0x2E – 0x34 allow the DI level to be set for each key. This 6bit value controls the number of consecutive measurements that must be confirmed as having passed the key
threshold before that key is registered as being in detect. The minimum value for the DI filter is 2. Settings of 1 for the
DI defaults to 2 because a minimum of two consecutive measurements must be confirmed. Setting a DI of 0 disables
the corresponding key.
Default: 4
AKS 0 – 4: these bits control which keys are included in an AKS group. There can be up to three groups, each
containing any number of keys (up to the maximum allowed for the mode).
Each key can have a value between 0 and 3, which assigns it to an AKS group of that number. A key may only go
into detect when no other key in its AKS group is already in detect. A value of 0 means the key is not in any AKS
group.
Default: 0x00
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5.11
Address 0x35 – 0x3B: Charge Share Delay
Table 5-12. Charge Share Delay
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
0x35
RESERVED
0x36
CSD0
0x37
CSD1
0x38
RESERVED
0x39
CSD2
0x3A
CSD3
0x3B
CSD4
b2
b1
b0
b1
b0
Prolongs the charge-transfer period of signal acquisition by 2.5 µs per count.
Allows full charge-transfer for keys with heavy Rs / Cx loading.
Range: 0 – 255
Default: 0
5.12
Address 0x3C: FastIn / FastOutDI / Max Cal / Guard Channel
Table 5-13. FastIn / FastOutDI / Max Cal / Guard Channel
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
0x3C
–
FI
FO
MAX
CAL
b3
b2
GUARD CHANNEL
FI: Fast In options – when bit 6 is set then chip will enter fast mode whenever an unfiltered signal value is detected.
FO: Fast Out DI – when bit 5 is set then a key filters out with an integrator of 4. Could have a DI in of 100 but filter out
with DI of 4 (global setting for all keys).
MAX CAL: if this bit is clear then all keys recalibrate after a Max On Duration timeout, otherwise only the key with the
incorrect timing gets recalibrated.
GUARD CHANNEL: bits 0 – 3 are used to set a key as the guard channel (which gets priority filtering). Valid values
are 0 – 4, with any larger value disabling the guard key feature.
Default: 0x00
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5.13
Address 0x3D: Low Power (LP) Mode
Table 5-14. Low Power Mode
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
LP MODE
0x3D
LP MODE: this 8-bit value determines the number of 8 ms intervals between key measurements. Longer intervals
between measurements yield a lower power consumption but at the expense of a slower response to touch.
0
Power Down
1
8 ms
2
16 ms
3
24 ms
4
32 ms
n
(n × 8) ms
254
2.032 s
255
2.040 s
Default: 2 (16 ms between key acquisitions)
A setting of 0 for LP mode puts the chip in Power-Down (Deep Sleep) mode.
To wake the device from Power-Down mode, a non-zero LP setting should be written to this address. The QT1050
can also be reset during power-down mode by writing 1 to bit 7 of address 0x3F.
5.14
Address 0x3E: Max On Duration
Table 5-15. Max On Duration
Address
0x3E
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
MAX ON DURATION
MAX ON DURATION: this is a 8-bit value which determines how long any key can be in touch before it recalibrates
itself.
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A value of 0 turns Max On Duration off.
0
Off
1
160 ms
2
320 ms
3
480 ms
4
640 ms
n
(n × 160) ms
255
40.8s
Default: 180 (160 ms × 180 = 28.8 s)
5.15
Address 0x3F: RESET / Calibrate
Table 5-16. RESET / Calibrate
Address
b7
0x3F
RESET
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
CALIBRATE
RESET: Writing a 1 to bit 7 of this address triggers the device to reset.
CALIBRATE: Writing any non-zero value into the CALIBRATE field triggers the device to start a calibration cycle.
The CALIBRATE flag in the detection status register is set when the calibration begins and clears when the
calibration has finished.
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6.
Specifications
6.1
Absolute Maximum Specifications
Parameter
Specification
Vdd
–0.5 to +6 V
Maximum continuous pin current, any control or drive pin
±10 mA
Short circuit duration to ground, any pin
infinite
Short circuit duration to Vdd, any pin
infinite
Voltage forced onto any pin
–0.5 V to (Vdd + 0.5) V
CAUTION: Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Specifications may cause permanent
damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at these or other
conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum specification conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
6.2
6.3
Recommended Operating Conditions
Parameter
Specification
Operating temperature
–40oC to +85oC
Storage temperature
–65oC to +150oC
Vdd
+1.8 V to 5.5 V
Supply ripple+noise
±25 mV
Cx load capacitance per key
1 to 30 pF
DC Specifications
Vdd = 3.3 V, Cs = 10 nF, load = 5 pF, 32 ms default sleep, Ta( Ambient Temperature)= recommended range,
unless otherwise noted
Parameter
Description
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Units
Vil
Low input logic level
–0.5
–
0.2 × Vdd
V
Vih
High input logic level
0.7 × Vdd
–
Vdd + 0.5
V
Vol
Low output voltage
–
–
0.6
V
Voh
High output voltage
Vdd – 0.7 V
–
–
V
–
–
±1
µA
Iil
Input leakage current
Notes
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Power Consumption Measurements
Table 6-1.
Supply current (µA) – 5 channels enabled; Pulse = 0 / Scale = 0
Supply Voltage
LPM
5
4.2
3.6
3.3
3
2.5
2
1.8
0
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
1
910
640
530
480
410
360
300
280
2
820
560
460
410
370
310
300
280
3
780
540
440
390
360
300
260
240
4
670
505
415
375
345
290
245
230
5
650
500
410
370
340
285
240
220
255
600
470
390
350
320
270
230
210
Figure 6-1. Power Consumption
5 Channels Enabled
Vdd = 5 V
Vdd = 3.3 V
Vdd = 2 V
Vdd = 4.2 V
Vdd = 3.0 V
Vdd = 1.8 V
Vdd = 3.6 V
Vdd = 2.5 V
1000
900
800
700
Current (uA)
6.4
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
255
LP Mode
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6.5
Timing Specifications
Parameter
Description
Min
Typ
Max
Units
DI setting × 8
–
LP mode +
(DI setting × 8)
ms
Under host control
162
180
198
kHz
Modulated spreadspectrum (chirp)
Can be longer if burst
very long
TR
Response time
FQT
Sample frequency
TD
Power-up delay to
operate/calibration time
–
<230
–
ms
FI2C
I2C clock rate
–
–
400
kHz
FM
Burst modulation percentage
–
±8
–
%
RP
RESET pulse width
5
–
–
µs
Notes
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Mechanical Dimensions
6.6.1
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AT42QT1050 [PRELIMINARY DATASHEET]
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6.6.2
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6.7
Marking
6.7.1
AT42QT1050 – 12-ball WLCSP
Shortened Part Number
(AT42QT1050-UUR)
'17' = Code Revision 1.7 Released
150-UU
17XYYWW
LLLLLLLL
'X' = Assembly location
code (Variable Text)
YYWW = Date code
(variable text)
Assembly Lot Number
(variable text)
A1
Identification
6.7.2
AT42QT1050 – 20-pin VQFN
Pin 1
Identification
Shortened Part Number
(AT42QT1050-MMH / -MMHR)
150
MH R17
'17' =
Code Revision
1.7 Released
'X' = Assembly location
code (Variable Text)
X
YWW = Date code (variable text)
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6.8
Part Number
Part Number
Description
AT42QT1050-UUR
12-ball 1.555x1.403 mm WLCSP RoHS compliant IC - Tape and reel
AT42QT1050-MMH
20-pad 3x3 mm VQFN RoHS compliant IC
AT42QT1050-MMHR
20-pad 3x3 mm VQFN RoHS compliant IC - Tape and reel
The part number comprises:
AT = Atmel
42 = Touch Business Unit
QT = Charge-transfer technology
1050 = (1) Keys only (05) number of channels (0) variant number
UU = WLCSP package
MMH = VQFN package
R = Tape and reel
6.9
Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL)
MSL Rating
Peak Body Temperature
Specifications
MSL3
260oC
IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020
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Appendix A. I2C Operation
A.1
Interface Bus
The device communicates with the host over an I2C bus. The following sections give an overview of the bus; more
detailed information is available from www.i2C-bus.org. Devices are connected to the I2C bus as shown in Figure A1. Both bus lines are connected to Vdd via pull-up resistors. The bus drivers of all I2C devices must be open-drain
type. This implements a wired AND function that allows any and all devices to drive the bus, one at a time. A low
level on the bus is generated when a device outputs a zero.
Figure A-1.
I2C Interface Bus
Vdd
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
A.2
Transferring Data Bits
Each data bit transferred on the bus is accompanied by a pulse on the clock line. The level of the data line must be
stable when the clock line is high; the only exception to this rule is for generating START and STOP conditions.
Figure A-2.
Data Transfer
SDA
SCL
Data Stable
Data Stable
Data Change
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A.3
START and STOP Conditions
The host initiates and terminates a data transmission. The transmission is initiated when the host issues a START
condition on the bus, and is terminated when the host issues a STOP condition. Between the START and STOP
conditions, the bus is considered busy. As shown in Figure A-3, START and STOP conditions are signaled by
changing the level of the SDA line when the SCL line is high.
Figure A-3.
START and STOP Conditions
SDA
SCL
START
A.4
STOP
Address Byte Format
All address bytes are 9 bits long, consisting of 7 address bits, one READ/WRITE control bit and an acknowledge bit.
If the READ/WRITE bit is set, a read operation is performed, otherwise a write operation is performed. When the
device recognizes that it is being addressed, it will acknowledge by pulling SDA low in the ninth SCL (ACK) cycle. An
address byte consisting of a slave address and a READ or a WRITE bit is called SLA+R or SLA+W, respectively.
The most significant bit of the address byte is transmitted first. The address sent by the host must be consistent with
that selected with the option jumpers.
Figure A-4.
Address Byte Format
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
7
8
9
SDA
SCL
START
1
2
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A.5
Data Byte Format
All data bytes are 9 bits long, consisting of 8 data bits and an acknowledge bit. During a data transfer, the host
generates the clock and the START and STOP conditions, while the receiver is responsible for acknowledging the
reception. An acknowledge (ACK) is signaled by the receiver pulling the SDA line low during the ninth SCL cycle. If
the receiver leaves the SDA line high, a NACK is signaled.
Figure A-5.
Data Byte Format
Data MSB
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
Aggregate
SDA
SDA from
Transmitter
SDA from
Receiver
SCL from
Master
1
2
7
Data Byte
SLA+R/W
A.6
Stop or Next
Data Byte
Combining Address and Data Bytes into a Transmission
A transmission consists of a START condition, an SLA+R/W, one or more data bytes and a STOP condition. The
wired ANDing of the SCL line is used to implement handshaking between the host and the device. The device
extends the SCL low period by pulling the SCL line low whenever it needs extra time for processing between the
data transmissions.
Note: Each write or read cycle must end with a stop condition. The device may not respond correctly if a cycle is
terminated by a new start condition.
Figure A-6 shows a typical data transmission. Note that several data bytes can be transmitted between the
SLA+R/W and the STOP.
Figure A-6.
Byte Transmission
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
7
8
9
Data MSB
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
SDA
SCL
1
START
1
2
SLA+RW
2
7
Data Byte
STOP
A.7
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Associated Documents

QTAN0079 – Buttons, Sliders, and Wheels Sensors Design Guide

QTAN0087 – Proximity Design Guide

Atmel AVR3000: QTouch Conducted Immunity Application Note
Revision History
Revision Number
Revision AX – February 2012
Revision BX – February 2012
Revision CX – August 2012
Revision DX – January 2013
Revision EX – March 2013
Revision FX- January 2014
History

Preliminary release of document for code revision X.X

Addition of Charge Share Delay field

Changes to RESET field

Addition of selectable I2C Address

Other minor changes

Added VQFN package

Amended power consumption figures and chart

Added Timing Specification

Added Part Marking drawings

Amended Specifications in Section 6.7.1 and 6.7.2

Amended information on Chip ID and Firmware versions in
Section 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3

Amended Section 2.11.2

Removed QS Number from Section 6.8

Other minor changes
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35
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