AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader - Complete

Features
• Protocol
– CAN Used as Physical Layer
– 7 ISP CAN Identifiers
– Relocatable ISP CAN Identifiers
– Autobaud
• In-System Programming
– Read/Write Flash and EEPROM Memories
– Read Device ID
– Full-chip Erase
– Read/Write Configuration Bytes
– Security Setting From ISP Command
– Remote Application Start Command
• In-Application Programming/Self Programming
– Read/Write Flash and EEPROM Memories
– Read Device ID
– Block Erase
– Read/Write Configuration Bytes
– Bootloader Start
CAN
Microcontrollers
AT89C51CC03
CAN Bootloader
Description
This document describes the CAN bootloader functionalities as well as the CAN protocol to efficiently perform operations on the on-chip Flash (EEPROM) memories.
Additional information on the AT89C51CC03 product can be found in the
AT89C51CC03 datasheet and the AT89C51CC03 errata sheet available on the Atmel
web site.
The bootloader software package (source code and binary) currently used for production is available from the Atmel web site.
Bootloader Revision
Purpose of Modifications
Date
Revisions 1.0.0
First release
01/08/2003
Revisions 1.0.1
SBV > 0x7F00 bug fix
(no doc and specification change)
15/04/2004
Revision 1.0.4
Improvement of Autobaud detection.
04/01/2006
4251B–CAN–03/08
Functional
Description
The AT89C51CC03 Bootloader facilitates In-System Programming and In-Application
Programming.
In-System
Programming
Capability
In-System Programming allows the user to program or reprogram a microcontroller on-chip
Flash memory without removing it from the system and without the need of a pre-programmed
application.
The CAN bootloader can manage a communication with a host through the CAN network. It can
also access and perform requested operations on the on-chip Flash Memory.
In-Application
Programming or
Self Programming
Capability
In-Application Programming (IAP) allows the reprogramming of a microcontroller on-chip Flash
memory without removing it from the system and while the embedded application is running.
Block Diagram
This section describes the different parts of the bootloader. The figure below shows the on-chip
bootloader and IAP processes.
The CAN bootloader contains some Application Programming Interface routines named API routines allowing IAP by using the user’s firmware.
Figure 1. Bootloader Process Description
On Chip
User
Application
External host via the
CAN Protocol
Communication
IAP
User Call
Management
ISP Communication
Management
Flash Memory
Management
Flash
Memory
2
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
ISP Communication
Management
The purpose of this process is to manage the communication and its protocol between the onchip bootloader and an external device (host). The on-chip bootloader implements a CAN protocol (see Section “Protocol”). This process translates serial communication frames (CAN) into
Flash memory accesses (read, write, erase...).
User Call Management Several Application Program Interface (API) calls are available to the application program to
selectively erase and program Flash pages. All calls are made through a common interface (API
calls) included in the bootloader. The purpose of this process is to translate the application
request into internal Flash Memory operations.
Flash Memory
Management
This process manages low level accesses to the Flash memory (performs read and write
accesses).
Bootloader Configuration
Configuration and
Manufacturer
Information
The table below lists Configuration and Manufacturer byte information used by the bootloader.
This information can be accessed through a set of API or ISP commands.
Mnemonic
Description
Default Value
BSB
Boot Status Byte
FFh
SBV
Software Boot Vector
FCh
SSB
Software Security Byte
FFh
EB
Extra Byte
FFh
CANBT1
CAN Bit Timing 1
FFh
CANBT2
CAN Bit Timing 2
FFh
CANBT3
CAN Bit Timing 3
FFh
NNB
Node Number Byte
FFh
CRIS
CAN Re-locatable Identifier Segment
FFh
Manufacturer
58h
Id1: Family code
D7h
Id2: Product Name
FFh
Id3: Product Revision
FEh
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4251B–CAN–03/08
Mapping and Default
Value of Hardware
Security Byte
The 4 MSB of the Hardware Byte can be read/written by software (this area is called Fuse bits).
The 4 LSB can only be read by software and written by hardware in parallel mode (with parallel
programmer devices).
Bit Position
Note:
Security
Mnemonic
Default Value
Description
7
X2B
U
To start in x1 mode
6
BLJB
P
To map the boot area in code area between F800h-FFFFh
5
reserved
U
4
reserved
U
3
reserved
U
2
LB2
P
1
LB1
U
0
LB0
U
To lock the chip (see datasheet)
U: Unprogram = 1
P: Program = 0
The bootloader has Software Security Byte (SSB) to protect itself from user access or ISP
access.
The Software Security Byte (SSB) protects from ISP accesses. The command "Program Software Security Bit" can only write a higher priority level. There are three levels of security:
•
Level 0: NO_SECURITY (FFh)
This is the default level.
From level 0, one can write level 1 or level 2.
•
Level 1: WRITE_SECURITY (FEh)
In this level it is impossible to write in the Flash memory, BSB and SBV.
The Bootloader returns ID_ERROR message.
From level 1, one can write only level 2.
•
Level 2: RD_WR_SECURITY (FCh)
Level 2 forbids all read and write accesses to/from the Flash memory.
The Bootloader returns ID_ERROR message.
Only a full chip erase command can reset the software security bits.
4
Level 0
Level 1
Level 2
Flash/EEPROM
Any access allowed
Read only access allowed
All access not allowed
Fuse bit
Any access allowed
Read only access allowed
All access not allowed
BSB & SBV & EB
Any access allowed
Read only access allowed
All access not allowed
SSB
Any access allowed
Write level2 allowed
Read only access allowed
Manufacturer info
Read only access allowed
Read only access allowed
All access not allowed
Bootloader info
Read only access allowed
Read only access allowed
All access not allowed
Erase block
Allowed
Not allowed
Not allowed
Full chip erase
Allowed
Allowed
Allowed
Blank Check
Allowed
Allowed
Allowed
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Software Boot
Vector
The Software Boot Vector (SBV) forces the execution of a user bootloader starting at address
[SBV]00h in the application area (FM0).
The way to start this user bootloader is described in Section “Boot Process”.
CAN Bootloader
User Bootloader
FM1
[SBV]00h
Application
FM0
FLIP Software
Program
FLIP is a PC software program running under Windows 9x / NT / 2K / XP and LINUX that supports all Atmel Flash microcontroller and CAN protocol communication media.
Several CAN dongles are supported by FLIP (for Windows).
This free software program is available from the Atmel web site.
5
4251B–CAN–03/08
In-System
Programming
ISP allows the user to program or reprogram a microcontroller’s on-chip Flash memory through
the CAN network without removing it from the system and without the need of a pre-programmed application.
This section describes how to start the CAN bootloader and the higher level protocol over the
CAN.
Boot Process
Hardware Conditions
The bootloader can be activated in two ways:
•
Hardware conditions
•
Regular boot process
The Hardware conditions (EA = 1, PSEN = 0) during the RESET# falling edge force the on-chip
bootloader execution. In this way the bootloader can be carried out whatever the user Flash
memory content.
As PSEN is an output port in normal operating mode (running user application or bootloader
code) after reset, it is recommended to release PSEN after falling edge of reset signal. The hardware conditions are sampled at reset signal falling edge, thus they can be released at any time
when reset input is low.
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AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Regular Boot Process
bit E N B O O T in A U XR 1 R egister is
initialized w ith B LJ B inverted
Hardware
Boot Process
RESET
Y es
H ardw are
C ondition
ENBOOT = 1
P C = F 800h
F C O N = 00h
No
ENBO OT = 0
P C = 0000h
Y es
B LJB = 1
No
Software Boot Process
F C O N = 00h
ENBOOT = 1
P C = F 800h
F C O N = 0F h
Y es
No
S B V < F 8h
No
Y es
S ta rt A pp lica tio n
S tart U se r B o o tlo a d e r
S ta rt B o o tlo a d e r
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4251B–CAN–03/08
Physical Layer
CAN Controller
Initialization
The CAN is used to transmit information has the following configuration:
•
Standard Frame CAN format 2.0A (identifier 11-bit)
•
Frame: Data Frame
•
Baud rate: autobaud is performed by the bootloader
Two ways are possible to initialize the CAN controller:
•
Use the software autobaud
•
Use the user configuration stored in the CANBT1, CANBT2 and CANBT3
The selection between these two solutions is made with EB:
•
EB = FFh: the autobaud is performed.
•
EB not equal to FFh: the CANBT1:2:3 are used.
CANBT1:3 and EB can be modified by user through a set of API or with ISP commands.
The figure below describes the CAN controller flow.
Figure 2. CAN Controller Initialization
CAN controller
Initialization
EB = FFh
Yes
No
Read CANBT1 value
Read CANBT2 value
Read CANBT3 value
CANBTx = FFh
x=(1,3)
Yes
No
Configure the CAN
controller
Yes
CAN Error
Set the CAN controller in
autobaud mode
No
Autobaud ok
No
Yes
CAN macro
Initialized
8
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
CAN Autobaud
The table below shows the autobaud performance for a point to point connection in X1 mode.
8 MHz
11.059
MHz
12 MHz 16 MHz 20 MHz
22.1184
MHz
24 MHz 25 MHz 32 MHz 40 MHz
20 k
100 k
125 k
–
250 k
–
500 k
1M
Note:
CAN Autobaud
Limitation
–
–
–
‘–’ indicates an impossible configuration.
The CAN autobaud implemented in the bootloader is efficient only in point-to-point connection.
Because in a point to point connection, the transmit CAN message is repeated until a hardware
acknowledge is done by the receiver.
The bootloader can acknowledge an in-coming CAN frame only if a configuration is found.
This functionality is not guaranteed on a network with several CAN nodes.
9
4251B–CAN–03/08
Protocol
Generic CAN Frame
Description
Identifier
11-bit
Control
1 byte
Data
8 bytes max
•
Identifier:
Identifier identifies the frame (or message). Only the standard mode (11-bit) is used.
•
Control:
Control contains the DLC information (number of data in Data field) 4-bit.
•
Data:
Data field consists of zero to eight bytes. The interpretation within the frame depends on the
Identifier field.
The CAN protocol manages directly using hardware a checksum and an acknowledge.
Note:
Command Description
To describe the ISP CAN Protocol, we use Symbolic name for Identifier, but default values are
given.
This protocol allows to:
•
Initiate the communication
•
Program the Flash or EEPROM Data
•
Read the Flash or EEPROM Data
•
Program Configuration Information
•
Read Configuration and Manufacturer Information
•
Erase the Flash
•
Start the application
Overview of the protocol is detailed in APPENDIX-1.
Several CAN message identifiers are defined to manage this protocol.
Identifier
Command Effect
Value
ID_SELECT_NODE
Open/Close a communication with a node
[CRIS]0h
ID_PROG_START
Start a Flash/EEPROM programming
[CRIS]1h
ID_PROG_DATA
Data for Flash/EEPROM programming
[CRIS]2h
ID_DISPLAY_DATA
Display data
[CRIS]3h
ID_WRITE_COMMAND
Write in XAF, or Hardware Byte
[CRIS]4h
ID_READ_COMMAND
Read from XAF or Hardware Byte and special data
[CRIS]5h
ID_ERROR
Error message from bootloader only
[CRIS]6h
It is possible to allocate a new value for CAN ISP identifiers by writing the byte CRIS with the
base value for the group of identifier.
The maximum value for CRIS is 7Fh and the default CRIS value is 00h.
10
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Figure 3. Identifier Remapping
CAN Identifiers
7FFh
CAN ISP identifiers
ID_error
ID_read_command
ID_write_command
ID_display_data
ID_prog_data
ID_prog_start
ID_select_node
Group of 7CAN messages
Used to manage CAN ISP
[CRIS]0h
000h
Communication
Initialization
The communication with a device (CAN node) must be opened prior to initiate any ISP
communication.
To open communication with the device, the Host sends a “connecting” CAN message
(Id_select_node) with the node number (NNB) passed in parameter.
If the node number passed is equal to FFh then the CAN bootloader accepts the communication
(Figure 4).
Otherwise the node number passed in parameter must be equal to the local Node Number (Figure 5).
Figure 4. First Connection
Interface board between PC
NNB = FFh (default value)
and CAN network
Host
Node 1
Figure 5. On Network Connection
NNB = 00h
Node 0
Interface board between PC
and CAN network
Host
NNB = 01h
Node 1 NNB = 03h
Node 3
NNB = n
Node n
Before opening a new communication with another device, the current device communication
must be closed with its connecting CAN message (Id_select_node).
11
4251B–CAN–03/08
Request From Host
Note:
Identifier
Length
data[0]
ID_SELECT_NODE
1
num_node
num_node is the NNB (Node Number Byte) to which the Host wants to talk to.T
Answers From
Bootloader
Note:
Identifier
Length
data[0]
ID_SELECT_NODE
2
boot_version
data[1]
Comment
00h
Communication close
01h
Communication open
data[0] contains the bootloader version.
If the communication is closed then all the others messages won’t be managed by bootloader.
Flow Description
Bootloader
Host
Send Select Node message
with node number in parameter
Id_select_node message
Wait Select Node
OR
node select = FFh
node select =
local node number
Time-out 10 ms
state com = com open
COMMAND ABORTED
State com = com open
State com = com closed
Read Bootloader Version
Wait Select Node
Id_select_node message
Send Bootloader Version
and state of communication
COMMAND FINISHED
COMMAND FINISHED
Example
identifier
HOST
BOOTLOADER
12
Id_select_node
Id_select_node
length
01
02
data
FF
01 01
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Programming the
Flash or EEPROM
Data
The flow described below shows how to program data in the Flash memory or in the EEPROM
data memory. This operation can be executed only with a device previously opened in
communication.
1. The first step is to indicate which memory area (Flash or EEPROM data) is selected and
the range address to program.
2. The second step is to transmit the data.
The bootloader programs on a page of 128 bytes basis when it is possible.
The host must take care that:
•
The data to program transmitted within a CAN frame are in the same page.
•
To transmit 8 data bytes in CAN message when it is possible
3. To start the programming operation, the Host sends a “start programming” CAN message
(Id_prog_start) with the area memory selected in data[0], the start address and the end
address passed in parameter.
Requests From Host
Identifier
Length
ID_PROG_START
5
data[0]
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
00h
address_start
address_end
01h
Note:
1. Data[0] chooses the area to program:
- 00h: Flash
- 01h: EEPROM data
2. Address_start gives the start address of the programming command.
3. Address_end gives the last address of the programming command.
Answers From
Bootloader
The device has two possible answers:
•
If the chip is protected from program access an “Error” CAN message is sent (see
Section “Error Message Description”).
•
Otherwise an acknowledge is sent.
Identifier
Length
ID_PROG_START
0
The second step of the programming operation is to send data to program.
Request From Host
Answers From
Bootloader
To send data to program, the Host sends a “programming data“ CAN message (Id_prog_data)
with up to 8 data by message and must wait for the answer of the device before sending the next
data to program.
Identifier
Length
data[0]
...
data[7]
ID_PROG_DATA
up to 8
x
...
x
The device has two possible answers:
•
If the device is ready to receive new data, it sends a “programming data” CAN message
(Id_prog_data) with the result Command_new passed in parameter.
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4251B–CAN–03/08
•
If the device has finished the programming, it sends a “programming data” CAN message
(Id_prog_data) with the result Command_ok passed in parameter.
Identifier
Length
ID_PROG_DATA
1
data[0]
Description
00h
Command ok
01h
Command fail
02h
Command new data
Flow Description
Bootloader
Host
Send prog_start message
with addresses
Id_prog_start message
Wait Prog start
OR
SSB = Level 0
Wait ERROR
COMMAND ABORTED
Wait ProgStart
Send prog_data message
with 8 datas
Id_error message
Send ERROR
Id_prog_start message
Send ProgStart
Id_prog_data message
Wait Data prog
Column Latch Full
All bytes received
Wait Programming
All bytes received
OR
Wait COMMAND_N
Id_prog_data message
Send COMMAND_NEW_DATA
Id_prog_data message
Wait COMMAND_OK
COMMAND FINISHED
14
Send COMMAND_OK
COMMAND FINISHED
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Example
Programming Data (write 55h from 0000h to 0008h in the flash)
identifier
control
data
HOST
BOOTLOADER
Id_prog_start
Id_prog_start
05
00
00
00
00 00
HOST
BOOTLOADER
HOST
BOOTLOADER
Id_prog_data
Id_prog_data
Id_prog_data
Id_prog_data
08
01
01
01
55
02
55
00
55
55 55 55
08
55
55
55
// command_new_data
// command_ok
Programming Data (write 55h from 0000h to 0008h in the flash), with SSB i
identifier
Id_prog_start
Id_error
HOST
BOOTLOADER
Reading the Flash or
EEPROM Data
control
04
01
data
00 00 00 08
00
// error_security
The flow described below allows the user to read data in the Flash memory or in the EEPROM
data memory. A blank check command on the Flash memory is possible with this flow.
This operation can be executed only with a device previously opened in communication.
To start the reading operation, the Host sends a “Display Data” CAN message (Id_display_data)
with the area memory selected, the start address and the end address passed in parameter.
The device splits into block of 8 bytes data to transfer to the Host if the number of data to display
is greater than 8 data bytes.
Requests from Host
Identifier
Length
data[0]
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
00h
ID_DISPLAY_DATA
5
01h
address_start
address_end
02h
Note:
1. Data[0] selects the area to read and the operation
- 00h: Display Flash
- 01h: Blank Check on the Flash
- 02h: Display EEPROM data
2. The address_start gives the start address to read.
3. The address_end gives the last address to read.
Answers from
Bootloader
The device has two possible answers:
•
If the chip is protected from read access a “Error” CAN message is sent (see Section “Error
Message Description”).
•
Otherwise:
for a display command the device start to send the data up to 8 by frame to the host. for a
blank check command the device send a result ok or the first address not erased.
Answer to a read command:
Identifier
Length
data[n]
ID_DISPLAY_DATA
n
x
15
4251B–CAN–03/08
Answer to a blank check command:
Identifier
Length
data[0]
data[1]
Description
0
-
-
Blank Check OK
ID_DISPLAY_DATA
2
address_start
Flow Description
Bootloader
Host
Send display_data message
with addresses or blank check
Id_display_data message
Wait Display Data
OR
SSB = Level2
Wait ERROR
Id_error message
Send ERROR
COMMAND ABORTED
Blank command
Read Data
All data read
nb max by frame
OR
Wait Data Display
Id_display_data message
Send DATA Read
Verify memory
All data read
All data read
COMMAND FINISHED
COMMAND FINISHED
Blank Check
OR
Wait COMMAND_KO
Id_display_data message
Send COMMAND_KO
COMMAND FINISHED
Wait COMMAND_OK
Id_display_data message
Send COMMAND_OK
COMMAND FINISHED
16
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Example
Display Data (from 0000h to 0008h)
HOST
BOOTLOADER
BOOTLOADER
identifier
control
Id_display_data
Id_display_data
Id_display_data
05
08
01
identifier
control
Id_display_data
Id_display_data
05
00
data
00
55
55
00
55
00 00 08
55 55 55
55
55
55
Blank Check
HOST
BOOTLOADER
Programming
Configuration
Information
data
01 00 00 00 08
// Command ok
The flow described below allows the user to program Configuration Information regarding the
bootloader functionality.
This operation can be executed only with a device previously opened in communication.
The Configuration Information can be divided in two groups:
•
Boot Process Configuration:
BSB
SBV
Fuse bits (BLJB and X2 bits) (see Section “Mapping and Default Value of Hardware Security
Byte”)
•
CAN Protocol Configuration:
BTC_1, BTC_2, BTC_3
SSB
EB
NNB
CRIS
Note:
The CAN protocol configuration bytes are taken into account only after the next reset.
To start the programming operation, the Host sends a “write” CAN message
(Id_write_command) with the area selected, the value passed in parameter.
Take care that the Program Fuse bit command programs the 4 Fuse bits at the same time.
17
4251B–CAN–03/08
Requests From Host
Identifier
Length
data[0]
3
data[1]
01h
data[2]
Description
00h
write value in BSB
01h
write value in SBV
05h
write value in SSB
06h
write value in EB
1Ch
value
write value in BTC_1
ID_WRITE_COMMAND
3
02h
1Dh
write value in BTC_2
1Eh
write value in BTC_3
1Fh
write value in NNB
20h
write value in CRIS
00h
value
write value in Fuse bits
The device has two possible answers:
Answers From
Bootloader
•
If the chip is protected from program access a “Error” CAN message is sent (see
Section “Error Message Description”).
•
Otherwise an acknowledge “Command ok“ is sent.
Identifier
Length
data[0]
Description
ID_WRITE_COMMAND
1
00h
Command ok
Flow Description
Bootloader
Host
Send Write_Command
Id_write_com message
OR
Wait ERROR_SECURITY
Wait Write_Command
NO_SECURITY
Id_error message
Send ERROR_SECURITY
COMMAND ABORTED
Write Data
Wait COMMAND_OK
Id_write_com message
COMMAND FINISHED
18
Send COMMAND_OK
COMMAND FINISHED
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Example
Write BSB at 88h
identifier
control
data
HOST
Id_write_command
03
01
00
BOOTLOADER
Id_write_command
01
00
// command_ok
88
Write Fuse bit at Fxh
identifier
Reading Configuration
Information or
Manufacturer
Information
data
control
HOST
Id_write_command
02
02
F0
BOOTLOADER
Id_write_command
01
00
// command_ok
The flow described below allows the user to read the configuration or manufacturer information.
This operation can be executed only with a device previously opened in communication.
To start the reading operation, the Host sends a “Read command” CAN message
(Id_read_command) with the information selected passed in data field.
Requests From Host
Identifier
Length
2
data[0]
00h
ID_READ_COMMAND
2
2
01h
02h
data[1]
Description
00h
Read Bootloader version
01h
Read Device ID1
02h
Read Device ID2
00h
Read BSB
01h
Read SBV
05h
Read SSB
06h
Read EB
1Ch
Read BTC_1
1Dh
Read BTC_2
1Eh
Read BTC_3
1Fh
Read NNB
20h
Read CRIS
30h
Read Manufacturer Code
31h
Read Family Code
60h
Read Product Name
61h
Read Product Revision
00h
Read HSB (Fuse bits)
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4251B–CAN–03/08
The device has two possible answers:
Answers From
Bootloader
•
If the chip is protected from read access an “Error” CAN message is sent (see Section “Error
Message Description”).
•
Otherwise:
the device answers with a Read Answer CAN message (Id_read_command).
Identifier
Length
data[n]
ID_READ_COMMAND
1
value
Flow Description
Bootloader
Host
Send read_com message
Id_read_com message
Wait Read_Com
OR
RD_WR_SECURITY
Wait ERROR_SECURITY
Id_error message
Send ERROR_SECURITY
COMMAND ABORTED
Read Data
Id_read_com message
Wait Value of data
Send Data read
COMMAND FINISHED
COMMAND FINISHED
Example
Read Bootloader Version
identifier
control
data
Id_read_command
Id_read_command
02
01
identifier
control
HOST
Id_read_command
02
01
01
BOOTLOADER
Id_read_command
01
F5
// SBV = F5h
identifier
control
HOST
Id_read_command
01
02
BOOTLOADER
Id_read_command
01
F0
HOST
BOOTLOADER
00
55
00
// Bootloader version 55h
Read SBV
data
Read Fuse bit
20
data
// Fuse bit = F0h
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Erasing the Flash
The flow described below allows the user to erase the Flash memory.
This operation can be executed only with a device previously opened in communication.
Two modes of Flash erasing are possible:
•
Full Chip erase
•
Block erase
The Full Chip erase command erases the whole Flash (64 Kbytes) and sets some Configuration
Bytes at their default values:
•
BSB = FFh
•
SBV = FFh
•
SSB = FFh (NO_SECURITY)
The Block erase command erases only a part of the Flash.
Three Blocks are defined in the AT89C51CC03:
•
block0 (From 0000h to 1FFFh)
•
block1 (From 2000h to 3FFFh)
•
block2 (From 4000h to 7FFFh)
•
block3 (From 8000h to BFFFh)
•
block4 (From C000h to FFFFh)
•
To start the erasing operation, the Host sends a “write” CAN message (Id_write_command).
Requests From Host
Identifier
ID_WRITE_COMMAND
Answers From
Bootloader
Length
data[0]
2
data[1]
Description
00h
Erase block0 (0k to 8k)
20h
Erase block1 (8k to 16k)
40h
Erase block2 (16k to 32k)
80h
Erase block3 (32k to 48k)
C0h
Erase block4 (48k to 64k)
FFh
Full chip erase
00h
As the Program Configuration Information flows, the erase block command has two possible
answers:
•
If the chip is protected from program access an “Error” CAN message is sent (see
Section “Error Message Description”).
•
Otherwise an acknowledge is sent.
The full chip erase is always executed whatever the Software Security Byte value is.
On a full chip erase command an acknowledge “command ok” is sent.
Identifier
Length
data[0]
Description
ID_WRITE_COMMAND
1
00h
Command ok
21
4251B–CAN–03/08
Example
Full Chip Erase
HOST
BOOTLOADER
Starting the
Application
identifier
control
Id_write_command
Id_write_command
02
01
data
00
00
FF
// command_ok
The flow described below allows to start the application directly from the bootloader upon a specific command reception.
This operation can be executed only with a device previously opened in communication.
Two options are possible:
•
Start the application with a reset pulse generation (using watchdog).
When the device receives this command the watchdog is enabled and the bootloader enters
a waiting loop until the watchdog resets the device.
Take care that if an external reset chip is used the reset pulse in output may be wrong and in
this case the reset sequence is not correctly executed.
•
Start the application without reset
A jump at the address 0000h is used to start the application without reset.
To start the application, the Host sends a “start application” CAN message (Id_write_command)
with the corresponding option passed in parameter.
Requests From Host
Identifier
Length
data[0]
2
ID_WRITE_COMMAND
data[2]
data[3]
00h
-
-
Description
Start Application with a reset pulse
generation
03h
4
Answer From
Bootloader
data[1]
01h
Start Application with a jump at
“address”
address
No answer is returned by the device.
Example
Start application
HOST
BOOTLOADER
Error Message
Description
22
identifier
control
Id_write_command
No answer
04
data
03
01 00 00
The error message is implemented to report when an action required is not possible.
•
At the moment only the security error is implemented and only the device can answer this
kind of CAN message (Id_error).
Identifier
Length
data[0]
Description
ID_ERROR
1
00h
Software Security Error
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
In-Application
Programming/S
elf
Programming
The IAP allows to reprogram a microcontroller on-chip Flash memory without removing it from
the system and while the embedded application is running.
The user application can call Application Programming Interface (API) routines allowing IAP.
These API are executed by the bootloader.
To call the corresponding API, the user must use a set of Flash_api routines which can be linked
with the application.
Example of Flash_api routines are available on the Atmel web site on the software package:
C Flash Drivers for the AT89C51CC03CA for Keil Compilers
The flash_api routines on the package work only with the CAN bootloader.
The flash_api routines are listed in APPENDIX-2.
API Call
Process
The application selects an API by setting the 4 variables available when the flash_api library is
linked to the application.
These four variables are located in RAM at fixed address:
•
api_command: 1Ch
•
api_value: 1Dh
•
api_dph: 1Eh
•
api_dpl: 1Fh
All calls are made through a common interface “USER_CALL” at the address FFC0h.
The jump at the USER_CALL must be done by LCALL instruction to be able to comeback in the
application.
Before jump at the USER_CALL, the bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register must be set.
Constraints
The interrupts are not disabled by the bootloader.
Interrupts must be disabled by user prior to jump to the USER_CALL, then re-enabled when
returning.
Interrupts must also be disabled before accessing EEPROM Data then re-enabled after.
The user must take care of hardware watchdog before launching a Flash operation.
For more information regarding the Flash writing time see the AT89C51CC03 datasheet.
23
4251B–CAN–03/08
API Commands
Read/Program Flash
and EEPROM Data
Memory
Several types of APIs are available:
•
Read/Program Flash and EEPROM Data memory
•
Read Configuration and Manufacturer Information
•
Program Configuration Information
•
Erase Flash
•
Start bootloader
All routines to access EEPROM Data are managed directly from the application without using
bootloader resources.
To read the Flash memory the bootloader is not involved.
For more details on these routines see the AT89C51CC03 Datasheet sections “Program/Code
Memory” and “EEPROM Data Memory”
Two routines are available to program the Flash:
–
__api_wr_code_byte
–
__api_wr_code_page
•
The application program load the column latches of the Flash then call the
__api_wr_code_byte or __api_wr_code_page see datasheet in section “Program/Code
Memory”.
•
Parameter settings
API Name
api_command
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
0Dh
-
-
-
__api_wr_code_byte
__api_wr_code_page
•
instruction: LCALL FFC0h.
Note:
Read Configuration
and Manufacturer
Information
24
•
No special resources are used by the bootloader during this operation
Parameter settings
API Name
api_command
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
__api_rd_HSB
08h
-
00h
return HSB
__api_rd_BSB
05h
-
00h
return BSB
__api_rd_SBV
05h
-
01h
return SBV
__api_rd_SSB
05h
-
05h
return SSB
__api_rd_EB
05h
-
06h
return EB
__api_rd_CANBTC1
05h
-
1Ch
return CANBTC1
__api_rd_CANBTC2
05h
-
1Dh
return CANBTC2
__api_rd_CANBTC3
05h
-
1Eh
return CANBTC3
__api_rd_NNB
05h
-
1Fh
return NNB
__api_rd_CRIS
05h
-
20h
return CRIS
__api_rd_manufacturer
05h
-
30h
return
manufacturer id
__api_rd_device_id1
05h
-
31h
return id1
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
API Name
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
__api_rd_device_id2
05h
-
60h
return id2
__api_rd_device_id3
05h
-
61h
return id3
__api_rd_bootloader_version
0Eh
-
00h
return value
•
Instruction: LCALL FFC0h.
•
At the complete API execution by the bootloader, the value to read is in the api_value
variable.
Note:
Program
Configuration
Information
api_command
•
No special resources are used by the bootloader during this operation
Parameter settings
API Name
•
api_command
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
__api_clr_BLJB
07h
-
-
__api_set_BLJB
07h
-
-
__api_clr_X2
07h
-
-
__api_set_X2
07h
-
-
HSB & 7Fh
__api_wr_BSB
04h
-
00h
value to write
__api_wr_SBV
04h
-
01h
value to write
__api_wr_SSB
04h
-
05h
value to write
__api_wr_EB
04h
-
06h
value to write
__api_wr_CANBTC1
04h
-
1Ch
value to write
__api_wr_CANBTC2
04h
-
1Dh
value to write
__api_wr_CANBTC3
04h
-
1Eh
value to write
__api_wr_NNB
04h
-
1Fh
value to write
__api_wr_CRIS
04h
-
20h
value to write
(HSB & BFh) |
40h
HSB & BFh
(HSB & 7Fh) |
80h
instruction: LCALL FFC0h.
Note:
1. See in the AT89C51CC03 datasheet the time that a write operation takes.
2. No special resources are used by the bootloader during these operations
Erasing the Flash
The AT89C51CC03 Flash memory is divided in several blocks:
Block 0: from address 0000h to 1FFFh
Block 1: from address 2000h to 3FFFh
Block 2: from address 4000h to 7FFFh
Block 3: from address 8000h to BFFFh
Block 4: from address C000h to FFFFh
These five blocks contain 256 pages.
25
4251B–CAN–03/08
•
Parameter settings
API Name
•
api_command
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
__api_erase_block0
00h
00h
-
-
__api_erase_block1
00h
20h
-
__api_erase_block2
00h
40h
-
__api_erase_block3
00h
80h
-
__api_erase_block4
00h
C0h
-
-
instruction: LCALL FFC0h.
Note:
1. See the AT89C51CC03 datasheet for the time that a write operation takes and this time must
multiply by the number of pages.
2. No special resources are used by the bootloader during these operations
Starting the
Bootloader
There are two start bootloader routines possible:
This routine allows to start at the beginning of the bootloader as after a reset. After calling this
routine the regular boot process is performed and the communication must be opened before
any action.
•
No special parameter setting
•
Set bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register
•
instruction: LJUMP or LCALL at address F800h
This routine allows to start the bootloader with the CAN bit configuration of the application and
start with the state "communication open". That means the bootloader will return the message
“id_select_node” with the field com port open.
26
•
No special parameter setting
•
Set bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register
•
instruction: LJUMP or LCALL at address FF00h
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Appendix-1
Table 1. Summary of Frames from Host
Identifier
Id_select_node
(CRIS:0h)
Id_prog_start
(CRIS:1h)
Id_prog_data
(CRIS:2h)
length
data[0]
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
1
num node
-
-
-
-
00h
5
(CRIS:3h)
end_address
01h
Init EEPROM programming
n
5
data[0:8]
01h
Data to program
Display Flash Data
start_address
end_address
Blank Check in Flash
02h
2
Open / Close communication
Init Flash programming
start_address
00h
Id_display_data
Description
Display EEPROM Data
00h
-
-
-
Erase block0 (0k to 8k)
20h
-
-
-
Erase block1 (8k to 16k)
40h
-
-
-
Erase block2 (16k to 32k)
80h
-
-
-
Erase block3 (32k to 48k)
C0h
-
-
-
Erase block4 (48k to64k)
FFh
-
-
-
Full chip Erase
00h
-
-
Write value in BSB
01h
-
-
Write value in SBV
05h
-
-
Write value in SSB
06h
-
-
Write value in EB
-
-
Write BTC_1
1Dh
-
-
Write BTC_2
1Eh
-
-
Write BTC_3
1Fh
-
-
Write NNB
20h
-
-
Write CRIS
00h
Id_write_command
(CRIS:4h)
3
3
01h
02h
2
1Ch
value
00h
value
-
-
Write value in Fuse (HWB)
00h
-
-
-
Start Application with Hardware
Reset
-
Start Application by LJMP address
03h
4
01h
address
27
4251B–CAN–03/08
Table 1. Summary of Frames from Host (Continued)
Identifier
length
2
data[0]
00h
Id_read_command
(CRIS:5h)
2
2
01h
02h
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
Description
00h
-
-
-
Read Bootloader Version
01h
-
-
-
Read Device ID1
02h
-
-
-
Read Device ID2
00h
-
-
-
Read BSB
01h
-
-
-
Read SBV
05h
-
-
-
Read SSB
06h
-
-
-
Read EB
30h
-
-
-
Read Manufacturer Code
31h
-
-
-
Read Family Code
60h
-
-
-
Read Product Name
61h
-
-
-
Read Product Revision
1Ch
-
-
-
Read BTC_1
1Dh
-
-
-
Read BTC_2
1Eh
-
-
-
Read BTC_3
1Fh
-
-
-
Read NNB
20h
-
-
-
Read CRIS
00h
-
-
-
Read HSB
Table 2. Summary of Frames from Target (Bootloader)
Identifier
Id_select_node
(CRIS:0h)
Id_prog_start
(CIRS:1h)
Id_prog_data
(CRIS:2h)
length
data[0]
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
Boot
version
00h
-
-
-
communication close
2
01h
-
-
-
communication open
-
-
-
-
-
Command ok
00h
-
-
-
-
Command ok
01h
-
-
-
-
Command fail
02h
-
-
-
-
Command New Data
0
1
n
Id_display_data
(CRIS:3h)
0
2
Id_write_command
(CIRS:4h)
Id_read_command
(CRIS:5h)
28
n data (n = 0 to 8)
-
-
first address not blank
1
00h
1
Value
-
Description
Data read
-
-
-
Blank Check ok
-
-
-
Blank Check fail
-
-
-
Command ok
-
-
-
Read Value
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Table 2. Summary of Frames from Target (Bootloader) (Continued)
Identifier
Id_error
(CRIS:6h)
length
data[0]
data[1]
data[2]
data[3]
data[4]
Description
1
00h
-
-
-
-
Software Security Error
29
4251B–CAN–03/08
Appendix-2
Table 3. API Summary
Function Name
Bootloader
Execution
api_command
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
__api_rd_code_byte
no
__api_wr_code_byte
yes
0Dh
-
-
-
__api_wr_code_page
yes
0Dh
-
-
-
__api_erase block0
yes
00h
00h
-
-
__api_erase block1
yes
00h
20h
-
-
__api_erase block2
yes
00h
40h
-
-
__api_erase block3
yes
00h
80h
-
-
__api_erase block4
yes
00h
C0h
-
-
__api_rd_HSB
yes
08h
-
00h
return value
__api_clr_BLJB
yes
07h
-
-
(HSB & BFh) | 40h
__api_set_BLJB
yes
07h
-
-
HSB & BFh
__api_clr_X2
yes
07h
-
-
(HSB & 7Fh) | 80h
__api_set_X2
yes
07h
-
-
HSB & 7Fh
__api_rd_BSB
yes
05h
-
00h
return value
__api_wr_BSB
yes
04h
-
00h
value
__api_rd_SBV
yes
05h
-
01h
return value
__api_wr_SBV
yes
04h
-
01h
value
__api_erase_SBV
yes
04h
-
01h
FFh
__api_rd_SSB
yes
05h
-
05h
return value
__api_wr_SSB
yes
04h
-
05h
value
__api_rd_EB
yes
05h
-
06h
return value
__api_wr_EB
yes
04h
-
06h
value
__api_rd_CANBTC1
yes
05h
-
1Ch
return value
__api_wr_CANBTC1
yes
04h
-
1Ch
value
__api_rd_CANBTC2
yes
05h
-
1Dh
return value
__api_wr_CANBTC2
yes
04h
-
1Dh
value
__api_rd_CANBTC3
yes
05h
-
1Eh
return value
__api_wr_CANBTC3
yes
04h
-
1Eh
value
__api_rd_NNB
yes
05h
-
1Fh
return value
__api_wr_NNB
yes
04h
-
1Fh
value
__api_rd_CRIS
yes
05h
-
20h
return value
__api_wr_CRIS
yes
04h
-
20h
value
30
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
4251B–CAN–03/08
AT89C51CC03 CAN Bootloader
Table 3. API Summary
Bootloader
Execution
api_command
api_dph
api_dpl
api_value
__api_rd_manufacturer
yes
05h
-
30h
return value
__api_rd_device_id1
yes
05h
-
31h
return value
__api_rd_device_id2
yes
05h
-
60h
return value
__api_rd_device_id3
yes
05h
-
61h
return value
__api_rd_bootloader_version
yes
0Eh
-
00h
return value
__api_eeprom_busy
no
-
-
-
-
__api_rd_eeprom_byte
no
-
-
-
-
__api_wr_eeprom_byte
no
-
-
-
-
__api_start_bootloader
no
-
-
-
-
__api_start_isp
no
-
-
-
-
Function Name
31
4251B–CAN–03/08
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4251B–CAN–03/08
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