ATmega48/88/168 Automotive - Complete

ATmega48/88/168 Automotive
8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 8Kbytes In-system
Programmable Flash
DATASHEET
Features
● High performance, low power AVR® 8-bit microcontroller
● Advanced RISC architecture
●
●
●
●
●
131 powerful instructions – most single clock cycle execution
32 8 general purpose working registers
Fully static operation
Up to 16MIPS throughput at 16MHz
On-chip 2-cycle multiplier
● Non-volatile program and data memories
● 4/8/16Kbytes of in-system self-programmable flash (ATmega48/88/168)
● Endurance: 75,000 write/erase cycles
● Optional boot code section with independent lock bits
● In-system programming by on-chip boot program
● True read-while-write operation
● 256/512/512 Bytes EEPROM (ATmega48/88/168)
● Endurance: 100,000 write/erase cycles
● 512/1K/1Kbyte internal SRAM (ATmega48/88/168)
● Programming lock for software security
● Peripheral features
● Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with separate prescaler and compare mode
● One 16-bit Timer/Counter with separate prescaler, compare mode, and capture
mode
● Real time counter with separate oscillator
● Six PWM channels
● 8-channel 10-bit ADC
● Programmable serial USART
● Master/slave SPI serial interface
● Byte-oriented 2-wire serial interface
● Programmable watchdog timer with separate on-chip oscillator
● On-chip analog comparator
● Interrupt and wake-up on pin change
● Special microcontroller features
●
●
●
●
Power-on reset and programmable brown-out detection
Internal calibrated oscillator
External and internal interrupt sources
Five sleep modes: Idle, ADC noise reduction, power-save, power-down, and
standby
7530K-AVR-07/14
● I/O and packages
● 23 programmable I/O lines
● Green/ROHS 32-lead TQFP and 32-pad QFN
● Operating voltage:
● 2.7 - 5.5V for ATmega48/88/168
● Temperature range:
● –40°C to 125°C
● Speed grade:
● ATmega48/88/168: 0 to 8MHz at 2.7 to 5.5V, 0 - 16MHz at 4.5 to 5.5V
● Low power consumption
● Active mode:
● 4MHz, 3.0V: 1.8mA
● Power-down mode:
● 5µA at 3.0V
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1.
Pin Configurations
Figure 1-1. Pinout ATmega48/88/168
PC2 (ADC2/PCINT10)
PC3 (ADC3/PCINT11)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA/PCINT12)
PC5 (ADC5/SCL/PCINT13)
PC6 (RESET/PCINT14)
PD0 (RXD/PCINT16)
PD2 (INT0/PCINT18)
32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
PD1 (TXD/PCINT17)
MLF Top View
PC2 (ADC2/PCINT10)
PC3 (ADC3/PCINT11)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA/PCINT12)
PC5 (ADC5/SCL/PCINT13)
PC6 (RESET/PCINT14)
PD0 (RXD/PCINT16)
PD1 (TXD/PCINT17)
PD2 (INT0/PCINT18)
TQFP Top View
32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
(PCINT19/OC2B/INT1) PD3
1
24
PC1 (ADC1/PCINT9)
(PCINT19/OC2B/INT1) PD3
1
24
PC1 (ADC1/PCINT9)
(PCINT20/XCK/T0) PD4
2
23
PC0 (ADC0/PCINT8)
(PCINT20/XCK/T0) PD4
2
23
PC0 (ADC0/PCINT8)
GND
3
22
ADC7
GND
3
22
ADC7
VCC
4
21
GND
VCC
4
21
GND
GND
5
20
AREF
GND
5
20
AREF
VCC
6
19
ADC6
VCC
6
19
ADC6
(PCINT6/XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6
7
18
AVCC
(PCINT6/XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6
7
18
AVCC
(PCINT7/XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7
8
17
PB5 (SCK/PCINT5)
(PCINT7/XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7
8
17
PB5 (SCK/PCINT5)
(PCINT4/MISO) PB4
(PCINT3/OC2A/MOSI) PB3
(PCINT2/SS/OC1B) PB2
(PCINT1/OC1A) PB1
(PCINT0/CLKO/ICP1) PD5
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
(PCINT23/AIN1) PD7
NOTE: Bottom pad should be soldered to ground.
(PCINT21/OC0B/T1) PD5
9
(PCINT22/OC0A/AIN0) PD6
(PCINT4/MISO) PB4
(PCINT3/OC2A/MOSI) PB3
(PCINT2/SS/OC1B) PB2
(PCINT1/OC1A) PB1
(PCINT0/CLKO/ICP1) PD5
(PCINT23/AIN1) PD7
(PCINT21/OC0B/T1) PD5
1.1
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
(PCINT22/OC0A/AIN0) PD6
9
Disclaimer
Typical values contained in this datasheet are based on simulations and characterization of other AVR® microcontrollers
manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values will be available after the device is characterized.
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2.
Overview
The Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR® enhanced RISC architecture.
By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 achieves throughputs approaching
1MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
2.1
Block Diagram
Figure 2-1. Block Diagram
GND
Watchdog
Timer
Watchdog
Oscillator
Oscillator
Circuits/
Clock
Generation
VCC
Power
Supervision
POR/ BOD
and
RESET
debugWIRE
Flash
SRAM
Program
Logic
AVR CPU
EEPROM
AVCC
AREF
DATA BUS
GND
8 bit T/C 0
16 bit T/C 1
A/D Conv.
8 bit T/C 2
Analog
Comp.
Internal
Bandgap
USART 0
SPI
TWI
PORT D (8)
PORT B (8)
PORT C (7)
2
6
RESET
XTAL[1 to 2]
PD[0 to 7]
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PB[0 to 7]
PC[0 to 6]
ADC[6 to 7]
The AVR® core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly
connected to the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction
executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times
faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.
The Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 provides the following features: 4K/8K/16Kbytes of in-system programmable flash with
read-while-write capabilities, 256/512/512 bytes EEPROM, 512/1K/1Kbytes SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general
purpose working registers, three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, a serial
programmable USART, a byte-oriented 2-wire serial interface, an SPI serial port, a 6-channel 10-bit ADC (8 channels in
TQFP and QFN packages), a programmable watchdog timer with internal oscillator, and five software selectable power
saving modes. The idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, USART, 2-wire serial interface, SPI
port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the
oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. In power-save mode, the asynchronous
timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC noise
reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except asynchronous timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during
ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This
allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption.
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The on-chip ISP flash allows the
program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory
programmer, or by an on-chip boot program running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any interface to download
the application program in the application flash memory. Software in the boot flash section will continue to run while the
application flash section is updated, providing true read-while-write operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with
in-system self-programmable flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 is a powerful microcontroller that
provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C
compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, in-circuit emulators, and evaluation kits.
2.2
Automotive Quality Grade
The ATmega48-15AZ, ATmega88-15AZ and ATmega168-15AZ have been developed and manufactured according to the
most stringent requirements of the international standard ISO-TS-16949 grade 1. This data sheet contains limit values
extracted from the results of extensive characterization (temperature and voltage). The quality and reliability of the
ATmega48-15AZ, ATmega88-15AZ and ATmega168-15AZ have been verified during regular product qualification as per
AEC-Q100.
As indicated in the ordering information paragraph (see Section 31. “Ordering Information” on page 296), the products are
available in three different temperature grades, but with equivalent quality and reliability objectives. Different temperature
identifiers have been defined as listed in Table 2-1.
Table 2-1.
Temperature Grade Identification for Automotive Products
Temperature
Temperature
Identifier
–40; +85
T
Similar to industrial temperature grade but with automotive quality
–40; +105
T1
Reduced automotive temperature range
–40; +125
Z
Full automotive temperature range
Comments
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2.3
Comparison Between ATmega48, ATmega88, and ATmega168
The Atmel® ATmega48, ATmega88 and ATmega168 differ only in memory sizes, boot loader support, and interrupt vector
sizes. Table 2-2 summarizes the different memory and interrupt vector sizes for the three devices.
Table 2-2.
Memory Size Summary
Device
Flash
EEPROM
RAM
Interrupt Vector Size
ATmega48
4Kbytes
256 Bytes
512 Bytes
1 instruction word/vector
ATmega88
8Kbytes
512 Bytes
1K Bytes
1 instruction word/vector
ATmega168
16Kbytes
512 Bytes
1K Bytes
2 instruction words/vector
ATmega88 and ATmega168 support a real read-while-write self-programming mechanism. There is a separate boot loader
section, and the SPM instruction can only execute from there. In ATmega48, there is no read-while-write support and no
separate boot loader section. The SPM instruction can execute from the entire flash.
2.4
Pin Descriptions
2.4.1
VCC
Digital supply voltage.
2.4.2
GND
Ground.
2.4.3
Port B (PB7..0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The port B output buffers have
symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, port B pins that are externally pulled
low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes
active, even if the clock is not running.
Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB6 can be used as input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the
internal clock operating circuit.
Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB7 can be used as output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
If the internal calibrated RC oscillator is used as chip clock source, PB7..6 is used as TOSC2..1 input for the asynchronous
Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR is set.
The various special features of port B are elaborated in Section 10.3.2 “Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 64 and
Section 6. “System Clock and Clock Options” on page 23.
2.4.4
Port C (PC5..0)
Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The PC5..0 output buffers have
symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled
low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes
active, even if the clock is not running.
2.4.5
PC6/RESET
If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as an I/O pin. Note that the electrical characteristics of PC6 differ from
those of the other pins of Port C.
If the RSTDISBL fuse is unprogrammed, PC6 is used as a reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum
pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 8-1 on page
40. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.
The various special features of port C are elaborated in Section 10.3.3 “Alternate Functions of Port C” on page 67.
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2.4.6
Port D (PD7..0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The port D output buffers have
symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, port D pins that are externally pulled
low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes
active, even if the clock is not running.
The various special features of port D are elaborated in Section 10.3.4 “Alternate Functions of Port D” on page 69.
2.4.7
AVCC
AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D converter, PC3..0, and ADC7..6. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if
the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. Note that PC6..4 use digital
supply voltage, VCC.
2.4.8
AREF
AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D converter.
2.4.9
ADC7..6 (TQFP and QFN Package Only)
In the TQFP and QFN package, ADC7..6 serve as analog inputs to the A/D converter. These pins are powered from the
analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels.
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3.
About Code Examples
This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. These code
examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors
include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C
compiler documentation for more details.
4.
AVR CPU Core
4.1
Introduction
This section discusses the AVR® core architecture in general. The main function of the CPU core is to ensure correct
program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories, perform calculations, control peripherals, and
handle interrupts.
4.2
Architectural Overview
Figure 4-1. Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
Data Bus 8-bit
Flash
Program
Memory
Program
Counter
Status and
Control
32 x 8
General
Purpose
Registers
Control Lines
Indirect Addressing
Instruction
Decoder
Direct Addressing
Instruction
Register
ALU
Interrupt
Unit
SPI
Unit
Watchdog
Timer
Analog
Comparator
I/O Module 1
Data
SRAM
I/O Module 2
I/O Module n
EEPROM
I/O Lines
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In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR® uses a Harvard architecture – with separate memories and
buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining. While one
instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. This concept enables instructions
to be executed in every clock cycle. The program memory is in-system reprogrammable flash memory.
The fast-access register file contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle access time. This
allows single-cycle arithmetic logic unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU operation, two operands are output from the
register file, the operation is executed, and the result is stored back in the register file – in one clock cycle.
Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for data space addressing – enabling
efficient address calculations. One of the these address pointers can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in
flash program memory. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register, described later in this section.
The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and a register. Single register
operations can also be executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic operation, the status register is updated to reflect
information about the result of the operation.
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to directly address the whole
address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format. Every program memory address contains a 16- or
32-bit instruction.
Program flash memory space is divided in two sections, the boot program section and the application program section. Both
sections have dedicated lock bits for write and read/write protection. The SPM instruction that writes into the application flash
memory section must reside in the boot program section.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address program counter (PC) is stored on the stack. The stack is
effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the stack size is only limited by the total SRAM size and
the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must initialize the SP in the reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are
executed). The stack pointer (SP) is read/write accessible in the I/O space. The data SRAM can easily be accessed through
the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture.
The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps.
A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional global interrupt enable bit in the status
register. All interrupts have a separate interrupt vector in the interrupt vector table. The interrupts have priority in accordance
with their interrupt vector position. The lower the interrupt vector address, the higher the priority.
The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as control registers, SPI, and other I/O functions.
The I/O memory can be accessed directly, or as the data space locations following those of the register file, 0x20 - 0x5F. In
addition, the ATmega48/88/168 has extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM where only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
4.3
ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit
The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the 32 general purpose working registers. Within a
single clock cycle, arithmetic operations between general purpose registers or between a register and an immediate are
executed. The ALU operations are divided into three main categories – arithmetic, logical, and bit-functions. Some
implementations of the architecture also provide a powerful multiplier supporting both signed/unsigned multiplication and
fractional format. See the “Instruction Set” section for a detailed description.
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4.4
Status Register
The status register contains information about the result of the most recently executed arithmetic instruction. This
information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform conditional operations. Note that the status register is
updated after all ALU operations, as specified in the instruction set reference. This will in many cases remove the need for
using the dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and more compact code.
The status register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored when returning from an
interrupt. This must be handled by software.
The AVR® status register – SREG – is defined as:
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SREG
• Bit 7 – I: Global Interrupt Enable
The global interrupt enable bit must be set for the interrupts to be enabled. The individual interrupt enable control is then
performed in separate control registers. If the global interrupt enable register is cleared, none of the interrupts are enabled
independent of the individual interrupt enable settings. The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an interrupt has occurred, and is
set by the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts. The I-bit can also be set and cleared by the application with the
SEI and CLI instructions, as described in the instruction set reference.
• Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage
The bit copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit
from a register in the register file can be copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a
register in the register file by the BLD instruction.
• Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag
The half carry flag H indicates a half carry in some arithmetic operations. half carry Is useful in BCD arithmetic. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N V
The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the negative flag N and the two’s complement overflow flag V. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag
The two’s complement overflow flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the “Instruction Set Description” for
detailed information.
• Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag
The negative flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for
detailed information.
• Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag
The zero flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed
information.
• Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag
The carry flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed
information.
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4.5
General Purpose Register File
The register file is optimized for the AVR® enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve the required performance and
flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the register file:
● One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
●
●
●
Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input
Figure 4-2 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.
Figure 4-2. AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers
7
0
Addr.
R0
0x00
R1
0x01
R2
0x02
…
R13
0x0D
General
R14
0x0E
Purpose
R15
0x0F
Working
R16
0x10
Registers
R17
0x11
…
R26
0x1A
X-register Low Byte
R27
0x1B
X-register High Byte
R28
0x1C
Y-register Low Byte
R29
0x1D
Y-register High Byte
R30
0x1E
Z-register Low Byte
R31
0x1F
Z-register High Byte
Most of the instructions operating on the register file have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle
instructions.
As shown in Figure 4-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first
32 locations of the user data space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory
organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any
register in the file.
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4.5.1
The X-register, Y-register, and Z-register
The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These registers are 16-bit address
pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described
in Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-3. The X-, Y-, and Z-registers
15
XH
XL
0
7
0
7
0
X-register
R27 (0x1B)
R26 (0x1A)
15
YH
YL
0
7
0
7
0
Y-register
R29 (0x1D)
R28 (0x1C)
15
ZH
ZL
0
7
0
7
0
Z-register
R31 (0x1F)
R30 (0x1E)
In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement, automatic increment, and
automatic decrement (see the instruction set reference for details).
4.6
Stack Pointer
The stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after
interrupts and subroutine calls. The stack pointer register always points to the top of the stack. Note that the stack is
implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a stack PUSH command
decreases the stack pointer.
The stack pointer points to the data SRAM stack area where the subroutine and interrupt stacks are located. This stack
space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled.
The stack pointer must be set to point above 0x0100, preferably RAMEND. The stack pointer is decremented by one when
data is pushed onto the stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed
onto the stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The stack pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the stack
with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the stack with return from subroutine RET
or return from interrupt RETI.
The AVR® stack pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is
implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only
SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH register will not be present.
Bit
Read/Write
Initial Value
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
SP15
SP14
SP13
SP12
SP11
SP10
SP9
SP8
SPH
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
SPL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND
RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND RAMEND
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4.7
Instruction Execution Timing
This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR® CPU is driven by the CPU
clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the chip. No internal clock division is used.
Figure 4-4 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the
fast-access register file concept. This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1MIPS per MHz with the corresponding
unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit.
Figure 4-4. The Parallel Instruction Fetches and Instruction Executions
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
1st Instruction Fetch
1st Instruction Execute
2nd Instruction Fetch
2nd Instruction Execute
3rd Instruction Fetch
3rd Instruction Execute
4th Instruction Fetch
Figure 4-5 shows the internal timing concept for the register file. In a single clock cycle an ALU operation using two register
operands is executed, and the result is stored back to the destination register.
Figure 4-5.
Single Cycle ALU Operation
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
Total Execution Time
Register Operands Fetch
ALU Operation Execute
Result Write Back
4.8
Reset and Interrupt Handling
The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate reset vector each have a separate
program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic
one together with the global interrupt enable bit in the status register in order to enable the interrupt. Depending on the
program counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when boot lock bits BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This
feature improves software security. See the Section 25. “Memory Programming” on page 242 for details.
The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the reset and interrupt vectors. The complete
list of vectors is shown in Section 9. “Interrupts” on page 48. The list also determines the priority levels of the different
interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the priority level. RESET has the highest priority, and next is INT0 – the
external interrupt request 0. The interrupt vectors can be moved to the start of the boot flash section by setting the IVSEL bit
in the MCU control register (MCUCR). Refer to Section 9. “Interrupts” on page 48 for more information. The reset vector can
also be moved to the start of the boot flash section by programming the BOOTRST fuse, see
Section 24. “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and ATmega168” on page 229.
When an interrupt occurs, the global interrupt enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled. The user software can
write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine.
The I-bit is automatically set when a return from interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed.
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There are basically two types of interrupts. The first type is triggered by an event that sets the interrupt flag. For these
interrupts, the program counter is vectored to the actual interrupt vector in order to execute the interrupt handling routine,
and hardware clears the corresponding interrupt flag. Interrupt flags can also be cleared by writing a logic one to the flag bit
position(s) to be cleared. If an interrupt condition occurs while the corresponding interrupt enable bit is cleared, the interrupt
flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the flag is cleared by software. Similarly, if one or more
interrupt conditions occur while the global interrupt enable bit is cleared, the corresponding interrupt flag(s) will be set and
remembered until the global interrupt enable bit is set, and will then be executed by order of priority.
The second type of interrupts will trigger as long as the interrupt condition is present. These interrupts do not necessarily
have interrupt flags. If the interrupt condition disappears before the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt will not be triggered.
When the AVR® exits from an interrupt, it will always return to the main program and execute one more instruction before
any pending interrupt is served.
Note that the status register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine, nor restored when returning from
an interrupt routine. This must be handled by software.
When using the CLI instruction to disable interrupts, the interrupts will be immediately disabled. No interrupt will be executed
after the CLI instruction, even if it occurs simultaneously with the CLI instruction. The following example shows how this can
be used to avoid interrupts during the timed EEPROM write sequence.
Assembly Code Example
in
cli
sbi
sbi
out
r16, SREG
EECR, EEMPE
EECR, EEPE
SREG, r16
; store SREG value
; disable interrupts during timed sequence
; start EEPROM write
; restore SREG value (I-bit)
C Code Example
char cSREG;
cSREG = SREG;
/* store SREG value */
/* disable interrupts during timed sequence */
_CLI();
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE); /* start EEPROM write */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
SREG = cSREG; /* restore SREG value (I-bit) */
When using the SEI instruction to enable interrupts, the instruction following SEI will be executed before any pending
interrupts, as shown in this example.
Assembly Code Example
sei
; set Global Interrupt Enable
sleep
; enter sleep, waiting for interrupt
; note: will enter sleep before any pending interrupt(s)
C Code Example
__enable_interrupt(); /* set Global Interrupt Enable */
__sleep(); /* enter sleep, waiting for interrupt */
/* note: will enter sleep before any pending interrupt(s) */
4.8.1
Interrupt Response Time
The interrupt execution response for all the enabled AVR interrupts is four clock cycles minimum. After four clock cycles the
program vector address for the actual interrupt handling routine is executed. During this four clock cycle period, the program
counter is pushed onto the stack. The vector is normally a jump to the interrupt routine, and this jump takes three clock
cycles. If an interrupt occurs during execution of a multi-cycle instruction, this instruction is completed before the interrupt is
served. If an interrupt occurs when the MCU is in sleep mode, the interrupt execution response time is increased by four
clock cycles. This increase comes in addition to the start-up time from the selected sleep mode.
A return from an interrupt handling routine takes four clock cycles. During these four clock cycles, the program counter (two
bytes) is popped back from the stack, the stack pointer is incremented by two, and the I-bit in SREG is set.
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5.
AVR ATmega48/88/168 Memories
This section describes the different memories in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168. The AVR® architecture has two main
memory spaces, the data memory and the program memory space. In addition, the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 features an
EEPROM memory for data storage. All three memory spaces are linear and regular.
5.1
In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory
The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 contains 4/8/16K bytes on-chip in-system reprogrammable flash memory for program storage.
Since all AVR instructions are 16 or 32 bits wide, the flash is organized as 2/4/8K x 16. For software security, the flash
program memory space is divided into two sections, boot loader section and application program section in Atmel
ATmega88 and ATmega168. ATmega48 does not have separate boot loader and application program sections, and the
SPM instruction can be executed from the entire flash. See SELFPRGEN description in Section 23.4.1 “Store Program
Memory Control and Status Register – SPMCSR” on page 225 and Section 24.5.1 “Store Program Memory Control and
Status Register – SPMCSR” on page 233 for more details.
The flash memory has an endurance of at least 75,000 write/erase cycles. The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 program counter
(PC) is 11/12/13 bits wide, thus addressing the 2/4/8K program memory locations. The operation of boot program section
and associated boot lock bits for software protection are described in detail in Section 23. “Self-Programming the Flash,
ATmega48” on page 223 and Section 24. “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and
ATmega168” on page 229. Section 25. “Memory Programming” on page 242 contains a detailed description on flash
programming in SPI- or parallel programming mode.
Constant tables can be allocated within the entire program memory address space (see the LPM – load program memory
instruction description).
Timing diagrams for instruction fetch and execution are presented in Section 4.7 “Instruction Execution Timing” on page 13.
Figure 5-1. Program Memory Map, ATmega48
Program Memory
0x0000
Application Flash Section
0x7FFF
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Figure 5-2. Program Memory Map, ATmega88 and ATmega168
Program Memory
0x0000
Application Flash Section
Boot Flash Section
0x3FFF/0x7FFF
5.2
SRAM Data Memory
Figure 5-3 shows how the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 SRAM Memory is organized.
The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the
64 locations reserved in the opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM,
only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
The lower 768/1280/1280 data memory locations address both the register file, the I/O memory, extended I/O memory, and
the internal data SRAM. The first 32 locations address the register file, the next 64 location the standard I/O memory, then
160 locations of extended I/O memory, and the next 512/1024/1024 locations address the internal data SRAM.
The five different addressing modes for the data memory cover: Direct, indirect with displacement, indirect, indirect with
pre-decrement, and indirect with post-increment. In the register file, registers R26 to R31 feature the indirect addressing
pointer registers.
The direct addressing reaches the entire data space.
The indirect with displacement mode reaches 63 address locations from the base address given by the Y- or Z-register.
When using register indirect addressing modes with automatic pre-decrement and post-increment, the address registers X,
Y, and Z are decremented or incremented.
The 32 general purpose working registers, 64 I/O registers, 160 extended I/O registers, and the 512/1024/1024 bytes of
internal data SRAM in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 are all accessible through all these addressing modes. The register file
is described in Section 4.5 “General Purpose Register File” on page 11.
Figure 5-3. Data Memory Map
Data Memory
32 Registers
0x0000 - 0x001F
64 I/O Registers
0x0020 - 0x005F
160 Ext I/O Registers
0x0060 - 0x00FF
Internal SRAM
(512/1024/1024 x 8)
0x0100
0x02FF/0x04FF/0x08FF
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5.2.1
Data Memory Access Times
This section describes the general access timing concepts for internal memory access. The internal data SRAM access is
performed in two clkCPU cycles as described in Figure 5-4.
Figure 5-4. On-chip Data SRAM Access Cycles
T1
T2
T3
clkCPU
Address
Compute Address
Address valid
Data
Write
WR
Data
Read
RD
Memory Access Instruction
5.3
Next Instruction
EEPROM Data Memory
The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 contains 256/512/512 bytes of data EEPROM memory. It is organized as a separate data
space, in which single bytes can be read and written. The EEPROM has an endurance of at least 100,000 write/erase
cycles. The access between the EEPROM and the CPU is described in the following, specifying the EEPROM address
registers, the EEPROM data register, and the EEPROM control register.
Section 25. “Memory Programming” on page 242 contains a detailed description on EEPROM programming in SPI or
parallel programming mode.
5.3.1
EEPROM Read/Write Access
The EEPROM access registers are accessible in the I/O space.
The write access time for the EEPROM is given in Table 5-2 on page 19. A self-timing function, however, lets the user
software detect when the next byte can be written. If the user code contains instructions that write the EEPROM, some
precautions must be taken. In heavily filtered power supplies, VCC is likely to rise or fall slowly on power-up/down. This
causes the device for some period of time to run at a voltage lower than specified as minimum for the clock frequency used.
See Section 5.3.5 “Preventing EEPROM Corruption” on page 21 for details on how to avoid problems in these situations.
In order to prevent unintentional EEPROM writes, a specific write procedure must be followed. Refer to the description of the
EEPROM control register for details on this.
When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four clock cycles before the next instruction is executed. When the
EEPROM is written, the CPU is halted for two clock cycles before the next instruction is executed.
5.3.2
The EEPROM Address Register – EEARH and EEARL
Bit
Read/Write
Initial Value
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
EEAR8
EEARH
EEAR7
EEAR6
EEAR5
EEAR4
EEAR3
EEAR2
EEAR1
EEAR0
EEARL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
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• Bits 15..9 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bits 8..0 – EEAR8..0: EEPROM Address
The EEPROM address registers – EEARH and EEARL specify the EEPROM address in the 256/512/512 bytes EEPROM
space. The EEPROM data bytes are addressed linearly between 0 and 255/511/511. The initial value of EEAR is undefined.
A proper value must be written before the EEPROM may be accessed.
EEAR8 is an unused bit in ATmega48 and must always be written to zero.
5.3.3
The EEPROM Data Register – EEDR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
MSB
0
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EEDR
• Bits 7..0 – EEDR7.0: EEPROM Data
For the EEPROM write operation, the EEDR register contains the data to be written to the EEPROM in the address given by
the EEAR register. For the EEPROM read operation, the EEDR contains the data read out from the EEPROM at the address
given by EEAR.
5.3.4
The EEPROM Control Register – EECR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
EEPM1
EEPM0
EERIE
EEMPE
EEPE
EERE
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
X
X
0
0
X
0
EECR
• Bits 7..6 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bits 5, 4 – EEPM1 and EEPM0: EEPROM Programming Mode Bits
The EEPROM programming mode bit setting defines which programming action that will be triggered when writing EEPE. It
is possible to program data in one atomic operation (erase the old value and program the new value) or to split the erase and
write operations in two different operations. The programming times for the different modes are shown in Table 5-1. While
EEPE is set, any write to EEPMn will be ignored. During reset, the EEPMn bits will be reset to 0b00 unless the EEPROM is
busy programming.
Table 5-1.
EEPROM Mode Bits
EEPM1
EEPM0
Programming Time
Operation
0
0
3.4 ms
Erase and write in one operation (atomic operation)
0
1
1.8 ms
Erase only
1
0
1.8 ms
Write only
1
1
–
Reserved for future use
• Bit 3 – EERIE: EEPROM Ready Interrupt Enable
Writing EERIE to one enables the EEPROM ready interrupt if the I bit in SREG is set. Writing EERIE to zero disables the
interrupt. The EEPROM ready interrupt generates a constant interrupt when EEPE is cleared.
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• Bit 2 – EEMPE: EEPROM Master Write Enable
The EEMPE bit determines whether setting EEPE to one causes the EEPROM to be written. When EEMPE is set, setting
EEPE within four clock cycles will write data to the EEPROM at the selected address If EEMPE is zero, setting EEPE will
have no effect. When EEMPE has been written to one by software, hardware clears the bit to zero after four clock cycles.
See the description of the EEPE bit for an EEPROM write procedure.
• Bit 1 – EEPE: EEPROM Write Enable
The EEPROM write enable signal EEPE is the write strobe to the EEPROM. When address and data are correctly set up,
the EEPE bit must be written to one to write the value into the EEPROM. The EEMPE bit must be written to one before a
logical one is written to EEPE, otherwise no EEPROM write takes place. The following procedure should be followed when
writing the EEPROM (the order of steps 3 and 4 is not essential):
1. Wait until EEPE becomes zero.
2.
Wait until SELFPRGEN in SPMCSR becomes zero.
3.
Write new EEPROM address to EEAR (optional).
4.
Write new EEPROM data to EEDR (optional).
5.
Write a logical one to the EEMPE bit while writing a zero to EEPE in EECR.
6.
Within four clock cycles after setting EEMPE, write a logical one to EEPE.
The EEPROM can not be programmed during a CPU write to the flash memory. The software must check that the flash
programming is completed before initiating a new EEPROM write. Step 2 is only relevant if the software contains a boot
loader allowing the CPU to program the flash. If the flash is never being updated by the CPU, step 2 can be omitted. See
Section 24. “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and ATmega168” on page 229 for
details about boot programming.
Caution:
An interrupt between step 5 and step 6 will make the write cycle fail, since the EEPROM master write enable
will time-out. If an interrupt routine accessing the EEPROM is interrupting another EEPROM access, the EEAR
or EEDR register will be modified, causing the interrupted EEPROM access to fail. It is recommended to have
the global interrupt flag cleared during all the steps to avoid these problems.
When the write access time has elapsed, the EEPE bit is cleared by hardware. The user software can poll this bit and wait
for a zero before writing the next byte. When EEPE has been set, the CPU is halted for two cycles before the next instruction
is executed.
• Bit 0 – EERE: EEPROM Read Enable
The EEPROM read enable signal EERE is the read strobe to the EEPROM. When the correct address is set up in the EEAR
register, the EERE bit must be written to a logic one to trigger the EEPROM read. The EEPROM read access takes one
instruction, and the requested data is available immediately. When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four cycles
before the next instruction is executed.
The user should poll the EEPE bit before starting the read operation. If a write operation is in progress, it is neither possible
to read the EEPROM, nor to change the EEAR register.
The calibrated oscillator is used to time the EEPROM accesses. Table 5-2 lists the typical programming time for EEPROM
access from the CPU.
Table 5-2.
EEPROM Programming Time
Symbol
Number of Calibrated RC Oscillator Cycles
Typical Programming Time
EEPROM write (from
CPU)
26,368
3.3ms
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The following code examples show one assembly and one C function for writing to the EEPROM. The examples assume
that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling interrupts globally) so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these
functions. The examples also assume that no Flash Boot Loader is present in the software. If such code is present, the
EEPROM write function must also wait for any ongoing SPM command to finish.
Assembly Code Example
EEPROM_write:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic
EECR,EEPE
rjmp
EEPROM_write
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out
EEARH, r18
out
EEARL, r17
; Write data (r16) to Data Register
out
EEDR,r16
; Write logical one to EEMPE
sbi
EECR,EEMPE
; Start eeprom write by setting EEPE
sbi
EECR,EEPE
ret
C Code Example
void EEPROM_write(unsigned int uiAddress, unsigned char ucData)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address and Data Registers */
EEAR = uiAddress;
EEDR = ucData;
/* Write logical one to EEMPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE);
/* Start eeprom write by setting EEPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
}
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The next code examples show assembly and C functions for reading the EEPROM. The examples assume that interrupts
are controlled so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions.
Assembly Code Example
EEPROM_read:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic
EECR,EEPE
rjmp
EEPROM_read
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out
EEARH, r18
out
EEARL, r17
; Start eeprom read by writing EERE
sbi
EECR,EERE
; Read data from Data Register
in
r16,EEDR
ret
C Code Example
unsigned char EEPROM_read(unsigned int uiAddress)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address register */
EEAR = uiAddress;
/* Start eeprom read by writing EERE */
EECR |= (1<<EERE);
/* Return data from Data Register */
return EEDR;
}
5.3.5
Preventing EEPROM Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the EEPROM data can be corrupted because the supply voltage is too low for the CPU and the
EEPROM to operate properly. These issues are the same as for board level systems using EEPROM, and the same design
solutions should be applied.
An EEPROM data corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First, a regular write sequence to
the EEPROM requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly,
if the supply voltage is too low.
EEPROM data corruption can easily be avoided by following this design recommendation:
Keep the AVR® RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can be done by enabling the
internal brown-out detector (BOD). If the detection level of the internal BOD does not match the needed detection level, an
external low VCC reset protection circuit can be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the write
operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
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5.4
I/O Memory
The I/O space definition of the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 is shown in Section “” on page 285.
All Atmel ATmega48/88/168 I/Os and peripherals are placed in the I/O space. All I/O locations may be accessed by the
LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions, transferring data between the 32 general purpose working registers and the I/O
space. I/O registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In
these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions. Refer to the instruction set
section for more details. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used.
When addressing I/O registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The
Atmel ATmega48/88/168 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64
location reserved in opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the
ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses
should never be written.
Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVR® the CBI and SBI
instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status flags. The
CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
The I/O and peripherals control registers are explained in later sections.
5.4.1
General Purpose I/O Registers
The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 contains three general purpose I/O registers. These registers can be used for storing any
information, and they are particularly useful for storing global variables and status flags. General purpose I/O registers within
the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI, CBI, SBIS, and SBIC instructions.
5.4.2
General Purpose I/O Register 2 – GPIOR2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
MSB
5.4.3
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
7
6
5
MSB
0
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
GPIOR1
General Purpose I/O Register 0 – GPIOR0
Bit
7
6
5
MSB
22
GPIOR2
General Purpose I/O Register 1 – GPIOR1
Bit
5.4.4
0
LSB
0
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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GPIOR0
6.
System Clock and Clock Options
6.1
Clock Systems and their Distribution
Figure 6-1 presents the principal clock systems in the AVR® and their distribution. All of the clocks need not be active at a
given time. In order to reduce power consumption, the clocks to modules not being used can be halted by using different
sleep modes, as described in Section 7. “Power Management and Sleep Modes” on page 33. The clock systems are detailed
below.
Figure 6-1. Clock Distribution
Asynchronous
Timer/Counter
General I/O
Modules
ADC
CPU Core
RAM
Flash and
EEPROM
clkADC
clkI/O
clkCPU
AVR Clock
Control Unit
clkASY
clkFLASH
System Clock
Prescaler
Reset Logic
Source clock
6.1.1
External Clock
Watchdog clock
Watchdog
Oscillator
Clock
Multiplexer
Timer/Counter
Oscillator
Watchdog Timer
Crystal
Oscillator
Low-frequency
Crystal Oscillator
Calibrated RC
Oscillator
CPU Clock – clkCPU
The CPU clock is routed to parts of the system concerned with operation of the AVR core. Examples of such modules are
the general purpose register file, the status register and the data memory holding the stack pointer. Halting the CPU clock
inhibits the core from performing general operations and calculations.
6.1.2
I/O Clock – clkI/O
The I/O clock is used by the majority of the I/O modules, like Timer/Counters, SPI, and USART. The I/O clock is also used by
the external interrupt module, but note that some external interrupts are detected by asynchronous logic, allowing such
interrupts to be detected even if the I/O clock is halted. Also note that start condition detection in the USI module is carried
out asynchronously when clkI/O is halted, TWI address recognition in all sleep modes.
6.1.3
Flash Clock – clkFLASH
The flash clock controls operation of the flash interface. The flash clock is usually active simultaneously with the CPU clock.
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6.1.4
Asynchronous Timer Clock – clkASY
The asynchronous timer clock allows the asynchronous Timer/Counter to be clocked directly from an external clock or an
external 32kHz clock crystal. The dedicated clock domain allows using this Timer/Counter as a real-time counter even when
the device is in sleep mode.
6.1.5
ADC Clock – clkADC
The ADC is provided with a dedicated clock domain. This allows halting the CPU and I/O clocks in order to reduce noise
generated by digital circuitry. This gives more accurate ADC conversion results.
6.2
Clock Sources
The device has the following clock source options, selectable by flash fuse bits as shown below. The clock from the selected
source is input to the AVR® clock generator, and routed to the appropriate modules.
Table 6-1.
Note:
6.2.1
1.
Device Clocking Options Select(1)
Device Clocking Option
CKSEL3..0
Low power crystal oscillator
1111 - 1000
Full swing crystal oscillator
0111 - 0110
Low frequency crystal oscillator
0101 - 0100
Internal 128kHz RC 0scillator
0011
Calibrated Internal RC 0scillator
0010
External clock
0000
Reserved
For all fuses “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
0001
Default Clock Source
The device is shipped with internal RC oscillator at 8.0MHz and with the fuse CKDIV8 programmed, resulting in 1.0MHz
system clock. The startup time is set to maximum and time-out period enabled.
(CKSEL = “0010”, SUT = “10”, CKDIV8 = “0”). The default setting ensures that all users can make their desired clock source
setting using any available programming interface.
6.2.2
Clock Startup Sequence
Any clock source needs a sufficient VCC to start oscillating and a minimum number of oscillating cycles before it can be
considered stable.
To ensure sufficient VCC, the device issues an internal reset with a time-out delay (tTOUT) after the device reset is released by
all other reset sources. Section 8. “System Control and Reset” on page 38 describes the start conditions for the internal
reset. The delay (tTOUT) is timed from the watchdog oscillator and the number of cycles in the delay is set by the SUTx and
CKSELx fuse bits. Th e selectable delays are shown in Table 6-2. The frequency of the watchdog oscillator is voltage
dependent as shown in Section “” on page 285.
Table 6-2.
Number of Watchdog Oscillator Cycles
Typ Time-out (VCC = 5.0V)
24
Number of Cycles
0ms
0ms
0
4.1ms
4.3ms
4K (4,096)
65ms
69ms
8K (8,192)
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Typ Time-out (VCC = 3.0V)
Main purpose of the delay is to keep the AVR® in reset until it is supplied with minimum VCC. The delay will not monitor the
actual voltage and it will be required to select a delay longer than the VCC rise time. If this is not possible, an internal or
external brown-out detection circuit should be used. A BOD circuit will ensure sufficient VCC before it releases the reset, and
the time-out delay can be disabled. Disabling the time-out delay without utilizing a brown-out detection circuit is not
recommended.
The oscillator is required to oscillate for a minimum number of cycles before the clock is considered stable. An internal ripple
counter monitors the oscillator output clock, and keeps the internal reset active for a given number of clock cycles. The reset
is then released and the device will start to execute. The recommended oscillator start-up time is dependent on the clock
type, and varies from 6 cycles for an externally applied clock to 32K cycles for a low frequency crystal.
The start-up sequence for the clock includes both the time-out delay and the start-up time when the device starts up from
reset. When starting up from power-save or power-down mode, VCC is assumed to be at a sufficient level and only the
start-up time is included.
6.3
Low Power Crystal Oscillator
Pins XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an
on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 6-2. Either a quartz crystal or a ceramic resonator may be used.
This crystal oscillator is a low power oscillator, with reduced voltage swing on the XTAL2 output. It gives the lowest power
consumption, but is not capable of driving other clock inputs, and may be more susceptible to noise in noisy environments. In
these cases, refer to the Section 6.4 “Full Swing Crystal Oscillator” on page 26.
C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the capacitors depends on the
crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial
guidelines for choosing capacitors for use with crystals are given in Table 6-3. For ceramic resonators, the capacitor values
given by the manufacturer should be used.
Figure 6-2. Crystal Oscillator Connections
C2
XTAL2
C1
XTAL1
GND
The low power oscillator can operate in three different modes, each optimized for a specific frequency range. The operating
mode is selected by the fuses CKSEL3..1 as shown in Table 6-3 on page 25.
Table 6-3.
Notes:
Low Power Crystal Oscillator Operating Modes(3)
Frequency Range(1) (MHz)
CKSEL3..1
Recommended Range for Capacitors C1 and C2 (pF)
0.4 - 0.9
100(2)
–
0.9 - 3.0
101
12 - 22
3.0 - 8.0
110
12 - 22
1.
8.0 - 16.0
111
The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.
12 - 22
2.
This option should not be used with crystals, only with ceramic resonators.
3.
If 8MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 fuse can be
programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. It must be ensured that the resulting divided clock
meets the frequency specification of the device.
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The CKSEL0 fuse together with the SUT1..0 fuses select the start-up times as shown in Table 6-4.
Table 6-4.
Start-up Times for the Low Power Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
Oscillator Source / Power
Conditions
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
CKSEL0
SUT1..0
Ceramic resonator, fast rising
power
258CK
14CK + 4.1ms(1)
0
00
Ceramic resonator, slowly rising
power
258CK
14CK + 65ms(1)
0
01
Ceramic resonator, BOD enabled
1KCK
14CK(2)
0
10
Ceramic resonator, fast rising
power
1KCK
14CK + 4.1ms(2)
0
11
Ceramic resonator, slowly rising
power
1KCK
14CK + 65ms(2)
1
00
Crystal oscillator, BOD enabled
16KCK
14CK
1
01
Crystal oscillator, fast rising power
16KCK
14CK + 4.1ms
1
10
Crystal oscillator, slowly rising
16KCK
14CK + 65ms
1
11
power
Notes: 1. These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and
only if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These options are not suitable for
crystals.
2.
6.4
These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability at start-up.
They can also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and if
frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
Full Swing Crystal Oscillator
Pins XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an
on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 6-2 on page 25. Either a quartz crystal or a ceramic resonator may be used.
This crystal oscillator is a full swing oscillator, with rail-to-rail swing on the XTAL2 output. This is useful for driving other clock
inputs and in noisy environments. The current consumption is higher than the Section 6.3 “Low Power Crystal Oscillator” on
page 25. Note that the full swing crystal oscillator will only operate for VCC = 2.7 to 5.5V.
C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the capacitors depends on the
crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial
guidelines for choosing capacitors for use with crystals are given in Table 6-6 on page 27. For ceramic resonators, the
capacitor values given by the manufacturer should be used.
The operating mode is selected by the fuses CKSEL3..1 as shown in Table 6-5.
Table 6-5.
Full Swing Crystal Oscillator operating modes(2)
Frequency Range(1) (MHz)
Notes:
1.
2.
26
CKSEL3..1
Recommended Range for Capacitors C1 and C2 (pF)
0.4 - 20
011
The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.
12 - 22
If 8MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 fuse can be
programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. It must be ensured that the resulting divided clock
meets the frequency specification of the device.
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Figure 6-3. Crystal Oscillator Connections
C2
XTAL2
C1
XTAL1
GND
Table 6-6.
Start-up Times for the Full Swing Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
Oscillator Source / Power
Conditions
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
CKSEL0
SUT1..0
Ceramic resonator, fast rising
power
258CK
14CK + 4.1ms(1)
0
00
Ceramic resonator, slowly rising
power
258CK
14CK + 65ms(1)
0
01
Ceramic resonator, BOD enabled
1KCK
14CK(2)
0
10
Ceramic resonator, fast rising
power
1KCK
14CK + 4.1ms(2)
0
11
Ceramic resonator, slowly rising
power
1KCK
14CK + 65ms(2)
1
00
Crystal Oscillator, BOD enabled
16KCK
14CK
1
01
Crystal Oscillator, fast rising
power
16KCK
14CK + 4.1ms
1
10
Crystal Oscillator, slowly rising
16KCK
14CK + 65ms
1
11
power
Notes: 1. These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and
only if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These options are not suitable for
crystals.
2.
These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability at start-up.
They can also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and if
frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
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6.5
Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator
The device can utilize a 32.768kHz watch crystal as clock source by a dedicated low frequency crystal Oscillator. The crystal
should be connected as shown in Figure 6-2 on page 25. When this oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by
the SUT fuses and CKSEL0 as shown in Table 6-7.
Table 6-7.
Start-up Times for the Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
SUT1..0
BOD enabled
1KCK
0
00
Fast rising power
1KCK
14CK + 4.1ms(1)
0
01
1KCK
(1)
0
10
0
11
Slowly rising power
14CK
CKSEL0
(1)
14CK + 65ms
Reserved
Note:
6.6
BOD enabled
32KCK
14CK
1
00
Fast rising power
32KCK
14CK + 4.1ms
1
01
Slowly rising power
32KCK
14CK + 65ms
1
10
1.
Reserved
1
11
These options should only be used if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
The calibrated internal RC oscillator by default provides a 8.0MHz clock. The frequency is nominal value at 3V and 25°C.
The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 fuse programmed. See Section 6.11 “System Clock Prescaler” on page 31 for more
details. This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL fuses as shown in Table 6-8. If selected,
it will operate with no external components. During reset, hardware loads the calibration byte into the OSCCAL register and
thereby automatically calibrates the RC oscillator. At 3V and 25°C, this calibration gives a frequency of 8MHz ±1%. The
tolerance of the internal RC oscillator remains better than ±10% within the whole automotive temperature and voltage ranges
(2.7V to 5.5V, –40°C to +125°C). The oscillator can be calibrated to any frequency in the range 7.3 - 8.1MHz within ±1%
accuracy, by changing the OSCCAL register. When this Oscillator is used as the chip clock, the Watchdog Oscillator will still
be used for the watchdog timer and for the reset time-out. For more information on the pre-programmed calibration value,
see Section 25.4 “Calibration Byte” on page 245.
Table 6-8.
Notes:
Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Operating Modes(1)(3)
Frequency Range(2) (MHz)
CKSEL3..0
7.3 - 8.1
The device is shipped with this option selected.
0010
1.
2.
The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.
3.
If 8MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 fuse can be
programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8.
When this oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT fuses as shown in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9.
Start-up Times for the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Clock Selection
Power Conditions
Notes:
28
Start-up Time from Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V)
(1)
14CK
SUT1..0
BOD enabled
6CK
Fast rising power
6CK
14CK + 4.1ms
01
Slowly rising power
6CK
14CK + 65ms(2)
10
1.
Reserved
If the RSTDISBL fuse is programmed, this start-up time will be increased to
14CK + 4.1ms to ensure programming mode can be entered.
2.
The device is shipped with this option selected.
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11
6.6.1
Oscillator Calibration Register – OSCCAL
Bit
Read/Write
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CAL7
CAL6
CAL5
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
OSCCAL
Device Specific Calibration Value
• Bits 7..0 – CAL7..0: Oscillator Calibration Value
The oscillator calibration register is used to trim the calibrated internal RC oscillator to remove process variations from the
oscillator frequency. The factory-calibrated value is automatically written to this register during chip reset, giving an oscillator
frequency of 8.0MHz at 25°C. The application software can write this register to change the oscillator frequency. The
oscillator can be calibrated to any frequency in the range 7.3 - 8.1MHz within ±1% accuracy. Calibration outside that range is
not guaranteed.
Note that this oscillator is used to time EEPROM and flash write accesses, and these write times will be affected accordingly.
If the EEPROM or flash are written, do not calibrate to more than 8.8MHz. Otherwise, the EEPROM or flash write may fail.
The CAL7 bit determines the range of operation for the oscillator. Setting this bit to 0 gives the lowest frequency range,
setting this bit to 1 gives the highest frequency range. The two frequency ranges are overlapping, in other words a setting of
OSCCAL = 0x7F gives a higher frequency than OSCCAL = 0x80.
The CAL6..0 bits are used to tune the frequency within the selected range. A setting of 0x00 gives the lowest frequency in
that range, and a setting of 0x7F gives the highest frequency in the range. Incrementing CAL6..0 by 1 will give a frequency
increment of less than 2% in the frequency range 7.3 - 8.1MHz.
6.7
128 kHz Internal Oscillator
The 128kHz internal oscillator is a low power oscillator providing a clock of 128kHz. The frequency is nominal at 3V and
25°C. This clock may be select as the system clock by programming the CKSEL fuses to “11” as shown in Table 6-10.
Table 6-10. 128kHz Internal Oscillator Operating Modes
Nominal Frequency
Note:
1.
CKSEL3..0
128kHz
The frequency is preliminary value. Actual value is TBD.
0011
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT fuses as shown in Table 6-11.
Table 6-11. Start-up Times for the 128kHz Internal Oscillator
Power Conditions
Note:
Start-up Time from Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay from Reset
BOD enabled
6CK
Fast rising power
6CK
14CK + 4ms
01
Slowly rising power
6CK
14CK + 64ms
10
1.
14CK
SUT1..0
(1)
00
Reserved
If the RSTDISBL fuse is programmed, this start-up time will be increased to
14CK + 4.1ms to ensure programming mode can be entered.
11
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6.8
External Clock
The device can utilize a external clock source as shown in Figure 6-4. To run the device on an external clock, the CKSEL
fuses must be programmed as shown in Table 6-12.
Table 6-12. Full Swing Crystal Oscillator operating modes(2)
Frequency Range(1) (MHz)
Notes:
1.
2.
CKSEL3..0
Recommended Range for Capacitors C1 and C2 (pF)
0 - 100
0000
The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.
12 - 22
If 8MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 fuse can be
programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. It must be ensured that the resulting divided clock
meets the frequency specification of the device.
Figure 6-4. External Clock Drive Configuration
NC
XTAL2
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
SIGNAL
XTAL1
GND
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT fuses as shown in Table 6-13.
Table 6-13. Start-up Times for the External Clock Selection
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay from Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
SUT1..0
BOD enabled
6CK
14CK
00
Fast rising power
6CK
14CK + 4.1ms
01
Slowly rising power
6CK
14CK + 65ms
10
Reserved
11
When applying an external clock, it is required to avoid sudden changes in the applied clock frequency to ensure stable
operation of the MCU. A variation in frequency of more than 2% from one clock cycle to the next can lead to unpredictable
behavior. If changes of more than 2% is required, ensure that the MCU is kept in reset during the changes.
Note that the system clock prescaler can be used to implement run-time changes of the internal clock frequency while still
ensuring stable operation. Refer to Section 6.11 “System Clock Prescaler” on page 31 for details.
6.9
Clock Output Buffer
The device can output the system clock on the CLKO pin. To enable the output, the CKOUT fuse has to be programmed.
This mode is suitable when the chip clock is used to drive other circuits on the system. The clock also will be output during
reset, and the normal operation of I/O pin will be overridden when the fuse is programmed. Any clock source, including the
internal RC oscillator, can be selected when the clock is output on CLKO. If the system clock prescaler is used, it is the
divided system clock that is output.
30
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6.10
Timer/Counter Oscillator
The device can operate its Timer/Counter2 from an external 32.768kHz watch crystal or a external clock source. The
Timer/Counter oscillator pins (TOSC1 and TOSC2) are shared with XTAL1 and XTAL2. This means that the Timer/Counter
oscillator can only be used when an internal RC oscillator is selected as system clock source. See Figure 6-2 on page 25 for
crystal connection.
Applying an external clock source to TOSC1 requires EXTCLK in the ASSR register written to logic one. See
Section 15.9 “Asynchronous operation of the Timer/Counter” on page 134 for further description on selecting external clock
as input instead of a 32kHz crystal.
6.11
System Clock Prescaler
The Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 has a system clock prescaler, and the system clock can be divided by setting the
Section 6.11.1 “Clock Prescale Register – CLKPR” on page 31. This feature can be used to decrease the system clock
frequency and the power consumption when the requirement for processing power is low. This can be used with all clock
source options, and it will affect the clock frequency of the CPU and all synchronous peripherals. clkI/O, clkADC, clkCPU, and
clkFLASH are divided by a factor as shown in Table 8-1 on page 40.
When switching between prescaler settings, the system clock prescaler ensures that no glitches occurs in the clock system.
It also ensures that no intermediate frequency is higher than neither the clock frequency corresponding to the previous
setting, nor the clock frequency corresponding to the new setting. The ripple counter that implements the prescaler runs at
the frequency of the undivided clock, which may be faster than the CPU's clock frequency. Hence, it is not possible to
determine the state of the prescaler - even if it were readable, and the exact time it takes to switch from one clock division to
the other cannot be exactly predicted. From the time the CLKPS values are written, it takes between T1 + T2 and T1 + 2  T2
before the new clock frequency is active. In this interval, 2 active clock edges are produced. Here, T1 is the previous clock
period, and T2 is the period corresponding to the new prescaler setting.
To avoid unintentional changes of clock frequency, a special write procedure must befollowed to change the CLKPS bits:
1. Write the Clock Prescaler Change Enable (CLKPCE) bit to one and all other bitsin CLKPR to zero.
2.
Within four cycles, write the desired value to CLKPS while writing a zero to CLKPCE.
Interrupts must be disabled when changing prescaler setting to make sure the write procedure is not interrupted.
6.11.1 Clock Prescale Register – CLKPR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
CLKPR
See Bit Description
• Bit 7 – CLKPCE: Clock Prescaler Change Enable
The CLKPCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the CLKPS bits. The CLKPCE bit is only updated when the
other bits in CLKPR are simultaneously written to zero. CLKPCE is cleared by hardware four cycles after it is written or when
CLKPS bits are written. Rewriting the CLKPCE bit within this time-out period does neither extend the time-out period, nor
clear the CLKPCE bit.
• Bits 3..0 – CLKPS3..0: Clock Prescaler Select Bits 3 - 0
These bits define the division factor between the selected clock source and the internal system clock. These bits can be
written run-time to vary the clock frequency to suit the application requirements. As the divider divides the master clock input
to the MCU, the speed of all synchronous peripherals is reduced when a division factor is used. The division factors are
given in Table 6-14 on page 32.
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The CKDIV8 fuse determines the initial value of the CLKPS bits. If CKDIV8 is unprogrammed, the CLKPS bits will be reset to
“0000”. If CKDIV8 is programmed, CLKPS bits are reset to “0011”, giving a division factor of 8 at start up. This feature should
be used if the selected clock source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at the present
operating conditions. Note that any value can be written to the CLKPS bits regardless of the CKDIV8 fuse setting. The
application software must ensure that a sufficient division factor is chosen if the selected clock source has a higher
frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at the present operating conditions. The device is shipped with the
CKDIV8 fuse programmed.
Table 6-14. Clock Prescaler Select
32
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
Clock Division Factor
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
1
1
8
0
1
0
0
16
0
1
0
1
32
0
1
1
0
64
0
1
1
1
128
1
0
0
0
256
1
0
0
1
Reserved
1
0
1
0
Reserved
1
0
1
1
Reserved
1
1
0
0
Reserved
1
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
1
Reserved
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7.
Power Management and Sleep Modes
Sleep modes enable the application to shut down unused modules in the MCU, thereby saving power. The AVR® provides
various sleep modes allowing the user to tailor the power consumption to the application’s requirements.
To enter any of the five sleep modes, the SE bit in SMCR must be written to logic one and a SLEEP instruction must be
executed. The SM2, SM1, and SM0 bits in the SMCR register select which sleep mode (idle, ADC noise reduction,
power-down, power-save, or standby) will be activated by the SLEEP instruction. See Table 7-1 for a summary. If an enabled
interrupt occurs while the MCU is in a sleep mode, the MCU wakes up. The MCU is then halted for four cycles in addition to
the start-up time, executes the interrupt routine, and resumes execution from the instruction following SLEEP. The contents
of the register file and SRAM are unaltered when the device wakes up from sleep. If a reset occurs during sleep mode, the
MCU wakes up and executes from the reset vector.
Figure 6-1 on page 23 presents the different clock systems in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and their distribution. The
figure is helpful in selecting an appropriate sleep mode.
7.1
Sleep Mode Control Register – SMCR
The sleep mode control register contains control bits for power management.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SMCR
• Bits 7..4 Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bits 3..1 – SM2..0: Sleep Mode Select Bits 2, 1, and 0
These bits select between the five available sleep modes as shown in Table 7-1.
Table 7-1.
Note:
Sleep Mode Select
SM2
SM1
SM0
Sleep Mode
0
0
0
Idle
0
0
1
ADC noise reduction
0
1
0
Power-down
0
1
1
Power-save
1
0
0
Reserved
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Standby(1)
1
1.
1
1
Reserved
Standby mode is only recommended for use with external crystals or resonators.
• Bit 0 – SE: Sleep Enable
The SE bit must be written to logic one to make the MCU enter the sleep mode when the SLEEP instruction is executed. To
avoid the MCU entering the sleep mode unless it is the programmer’s purpose, it is recommended to write the sleep enable
(SE) bit to one just before the execution of the SLEEP instruction and to clear it immediately after waking up.
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7.2
Idle Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 000, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter idle mode, stopping the CPU but
allowing the SPI, USART, analog comparator, ADC, 2-wire serial interface, Timer/Counters, watchdog, and the interrupt
system to continue operating. This sleep mode basically halts clkCPU and clkFLASH, while allowing the other clocks to run.
Idle mode enables the MCU to wake up from external triggered interrupts as well as internal ones like the timer overflow and
USART transmit complete interrupts. If wake-up from the analog comparator interrupt is not required, the analog comparator
can be powered down by setting the ACD bit in the analog comparator control and status register – ACSR. This will reduce
power consumption in idle mode. If the ADC is enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered.
7.3
ADC Noise Reduction Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 001, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter ADC noise reduction mode, stopping
the CPU but allowing the ADC, the external interrupts, the 2-wire serial interface address watch, Timer/Counter2, and the
watchdog to continue operating (if enabled). This sleep mode basically halts clkI/O, clkCPU, and clkFLASH, while allowing the
other clocks to run.
This improves the noise environment for the ADC, enabling higher resolution measurements. If the ADC is enabled, a
conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered. Apart from the ADC conversion complete interrupt, only an
external reset, a watchdog system reset, a watchdog interrupt, a brown-out reset, a 2-wire serial interface address match, a
Timer/Counter2 interrupt, an SPM/EEPROM ready interrupt, an external level interrupt on INT0 or INT1 or a pin change
interrupt can wake up the MCU from ADC noise reduction mode.
7.4
Power-down Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 010, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter power-down mode. In this mode, the
external oscillator is stopped, while the external interrupts, the 2-wire serial interface address watch, and the watchdog
continue operating (if enabled). Only an external reset, a watchdog system reset, a watchdog interrupt, a brown-out reset, a
2-wire serial interface address match, an external level interrupt on INT0 or INT1, or a pin change interrupt can wake up the
MCU. This sleep mode basically halts all generated clocks, allowing operation of asynchronous modules only.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from power-down mode, the changed level must be held for some
time to wake up the MCU. Refer to Section 11. “External Interrupts” on page 73 for details.
When waking up from power-down mode, there is a delay from the wake-up condition occurs until the wake-up becomes
effective. This allows the clock to restart and become stable after having been stopped. The wake-up period is defined by the
same CKSEL fuses that define the reset time-out period, as described in Section 6.2 “Clock Sources” on page 24.
7.5
Power-save Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 011, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter power-save mode. This mode is
identical to power-down, with one exception:
If Timer/Counter2 is enabled, it will keep running during sleep. The device can wake up from either timer overflow or output
compare event from Timer/Counter2 if the corresponding Timer/Counter2 interrupt enable bits are set in TIMSK2, and the
global interrupt enable bit in SREG is set.
If Timer/Counter2 is not running, power-down mode is recommended instead of power-save mode.
The Timer/Counter2 can be clocked both synchronously and asynchronously in power-save mode. If Timer/Counter2 is not
using the asynchronous clock, the Timer/Counter oscillator is stopped during sleep. If Timer/Counter2 is not using the
synchronous clock, the clock source is stopped during sleep. Note that even if the synchronous clock is running in
power-save, this clock is only available for Timer/Counter2.
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7.6
Standby Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are 110 and an external crystal/resonator clock option is selected, the SLEEP instruction makes the
MCU enter standby mode. This mode is identical to power-down with the exception that the oscillator is kept running. From
standby mode, the device wakes up in six clock cycles.
Active Clock Domains and Wake-up Sources in the Different Sleep Modes.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X(2)
X(3)
X
X
X
X
X
Power-down
X(3)
X
Power-save
(3)
X
clkIO
ADC noise
reduction
X
X
X
X
Standby
X
X
X
Notes: 1. Only recommended with external crystal or resonator selected as clock source.
X
(3)
2.
If Timer/Counter2 is running in asynchronous mode.
3.
For INT1 and INT0, only level interrupt.
X
X
X
(1)
7.7
WDT
X
X
ADC
X
Idle
SPM/EEPROM
Ready
X
Sleep Mode
Timer2
TWI Address
Match
X(2)
clkASY
X
clkADC
X
clkFLASH
X
clkCPU
INT1, INT0 and
Pin Change
Wake-up Sources
Timer Oscillator
Enabled
Oscillators
Main Clock
Source Enabled
Active Clock Domains
OtherI/O
Table 7-2.
Power Reduction Register
The power reduction register, PRR, provides a method to stop the clock to individual peripherals to reduce power
consumption. The current state of the peripheral is frozen and the I/O registers can not be read or written. Resources used
by the peripheral when stopping the clock will remain occupied, hence the peripheral should in most cases be disabled
before stopping the clock. Waking up a module, which is done by clearing the bit in PRR, puts the module in the same state
as before shutdown.
Module shutdown can be used in idle mode and active mode to significantly reduce the overall power consumption. See
Section 28.1.1 “Power-Down Supply Current” on page 271 for examples. In all other sleep modes, the clock is already
stopped.
7.7.1
Power Reduction Register - PRR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PRTWI
PRTIM2
PRTIM0
–
PRTIM1
PRSPI
PRUSART0
PRADC
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PRR
• Bit 7 - PRTWI: Power Reduction TWI
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the TWI by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the TWI again, the
TWI should be re-initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 6 - PRTIM2: Power Reduction Timer/Counter2
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter2 module in synchronous mode (AS2 is 0). When the
Timer/Counter2 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
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• Bit 5 - PRTIM0: Power Reduction Timer/Counter0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter0 module. When the Timer/Counter0 is enabled, operation will
continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 4 - Res: Reserved bit
This bit is reserved in Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 - PRTIM1: Power Reduction Timer/Counter1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter1 module. When the Timer/Counter1 is enabled, operation will
continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 2 - PRSPI: Power Reduction Serial Peripheral Interface
If using debugWIRE on-chip debug system, this bit should not be written to one. Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the
serial peripheral interface by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the SPI again, the SPI should be
re-initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 1 - PRUSART0: Power Reduction USART0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the USART
again, the USART should be re-initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 0 - PRADC: Power Reduction ADC
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the ADC. The ADC must be disabled before shut down. The analog comparator
cannot use the ADC input MUX when the ADC is shut down.
7.8
Minimizing Power Consumption
There are several possibilities to consider when trying to minimize the power consumption in an AVR® controlled system. In
general, sleep modes should be used as much as possible, and the sleep mode should be selected so that as few as
possible of the device’s functions are operating. All functions not needed should be disabled. In particular, the following
modules may need special consideration when trying to achieve the lowest possible power consumption.
7.8.1
Analog to Digital Converter
If enabled, the ADC will be enabled in all sleep modes. To save power, the ADC should be disabled before entering any
sleep mode. When the ADC is turned off and on again, the next conversion will be an extended conversion. Refer to Section
21. “Analog-to-Digital Converter” on page 206 for details on ADC operation.
7.8.2
Analog Comparator
When entering idle mode, the analog comparator should be disabled if not used. When entering ADC noise reduction mode,
the analog comparator should be disabled. In other sleep modes, the analog comparator is automatically disabled. However,
if the analog comparator is set up to use the internal voltage reference as input, the analog comparator should be disabled in
all sleep modes. Otherwise, the internal voltage reference will be enabled, independent of sleep mode. Refer to
Section 20. “Analog Comparator” on page 203 for details on how to configure the analog comparator.
7.8.3
Brown-out Detector
If the brown-out detector is not needed by the application, this module should be turned off. If the brown-out detector is
enabled by the BODLEVEL fuses, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume power. In the deeper
sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to
Section 8.5 “Brown-out Detection” on page 41 for details on how to configure the brown-out detector.
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7.8.4
Internal Voltage Reference
The internal voltage reference will be enabled when needed by the brown-out detection, the analog comparator or the ADC.
If these modules are disabled as described in the sections above, the internal voltage reference will be disabled and it will
not be consuming power. When turned on again, the user must allow the reference to start up before the output is used. If
the reference is kept on in sleep mode, the output can be used immediately. Refer to
Section 8.8 “Internal Voltage Reference” on page 43 for details on the start-up time.
7.8.5
Watchdog Timer
If the watchdog timer is not needed in the application, the module should be turned off. If the watchdog timer is enabled, it
will be enabled in all sleep modes and hence always consume power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute
significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to Section 8.9 “Watchdog Timer” on page 44 for details on how to
configure the watchdog timer.
7.8.6
Port Pins
When entering a sleep mode, all port pins should be configured to use minimum power. The most important is then to ensure
that no pins drive resistive loads. In sleep modes where both the I/O clock (clkI/O) and the ADC clock (clkADC) are stopped,
the input buffers of the device will be disabled. This ensures that no power is consumed by the input logic when not needed.
In some cases, the input logic is needed for detecting wake-up conditions, and it will then be enabled. Refer to the section
Section 10.2.5 “Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 61 for details on which pins are enabled. If the input buffer is
enabled and the input signal is left floating or have an analog signal level close to VCC/2, the input buffer will use excessive
power.
For analog input pins, the digital input buffer should be disabled at all times. An analog signal level close to VCC/2 on an input
pin can cause significant current even in active mode. Digital input buffers can be disabled by writing to the digital input
disable registers (DIDR1 and DIDR0). Refer to Section 20.3.1 “Digital Input Disable Register 1 – DIDR1” on page 205 and
Section 21.6.5 “Digital Input Disable Register 0 – DIDR0” on page 220 for details.
7.8.7
On-chip Debug System
If the on-chip debug system is enabled by the DWEN fuse and the chip enters sleep mode, the main clock source is enabled
and hence always consumes power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current
consumption.
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37
8.
System Control and Reset
8.1
Resetting the AVR
During reset, all I/O registers are set to their initial values, and the program starts execution from the reset vector. For the
ATmega168, the instruction placed at the reset vector must be a JMP – absolute jump – instruction to the reset handling
routine. For the ATmega48 and ATmega88, the instruction placed at the reset vector must be an RJMP – relative jump –
instruction to the reset handling routine. If the program never enables an interrupt source, the interrupt vectors are not used,
and regular program code can be placed at these locations. This is also the case if the reset vector is in the application
section while the interrupt vectors are in the boot section or vice versa (Atmel® ATmega88/168 only). The circuit diagram in
Figure 8-1 shows the reset logic. Table 8-1 on page 40 defines the electrical parameters of the reset circuitry.
The I/O ports of the AVR® are immediately reset to their initial state when a reset source goes active. This does not require
any clock source to be running.
After all reset sources have gone inactive, a delay counter is invoked, stretching the internal reset. This allows the power to
reach a stable level before normal operation starts. The time-out period of the delay counter is defined by the user through
the SUT and CKSEL fuses. The different selections for the delay period are presented in
Section 6.2 “Clock Sources” on page 24.
8.2
Reset Sources
The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 has four sources of reset:
● Power-on reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage is below the power-on reset threshold (VPOT).
38
●
External reset. The MCU is reset when a low level is present on the RESET pin for longer than the minimum pulse
length.
●
Watchdog system reset. The MCU is reset when the watchdog timer period expires and the watchdog system reset
mode is enabled.
●
Brown-out reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage VCC is below the brown-out reset threshold (VBOT) and the
brown-out detector is enabled.
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Figure 8-1. Reset Logic
DATA BUS
Power-on Reset
Circuit
BODLEVEL [2 to 0]
Brown-out
Reset Circuit
WDRF
BORF
Pull-up Resistor
Reset Circuit
S
RESET
SPIKE
FILTER
COUNTER RESET
R
Watchdog
Timer
RSTDISBL
Q
INTERNAL RESET
VCC
EXTRF
PORF
MCU Status
Register (MCUSR)
Watchdog
Oscillator
Clock
Generator
CK
Delay Counters
TIMEOUT
CKSEL[3:0]
SUT[1:0]
8.3
Power-on Reset
A power-on reset (POR) pulse is generated by an on-chip detection circuit. The detection level is defined in
Table 8-1 on page 40. The POR is activated whenever VCC is below the detection level. The POR circuit can be used to
trigger the start-up Reset, as well as to detect a failure in supply voltage.
A power-on reset (POR) circuit ensures that the device is reset from power-on. Reaching the power-on reset threshold
voltage invokes the delay counter, which determines how long the device is kept in RESET after VCC rise. The RESET signal
is activated again, without any delay, when VCC decreases below the detection level.
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39
Figure 8-2. MCU Start-up, RESET Tied to VCC
V CCRR
V CC
VPORMAX
VPORMIN
RESET
VRST
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
Figure 8-3. MCU Start-up, RESET Extended Externally
V DD
V RST
RESET
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
Table 8-1.
Power On Reset Specifications
Parameter
Symbol
Power-on reset threshold voltage (rising)
(1)
Power-on reset threshold voltage (falling)
VPOT
VCC max. start voltage to ensure internal power-on reset
signal
VPORMAX
VCC min. start voltage to ensure internal power-on reset
signal
VPORMIN
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
1.1
1.4
1.7
V
0.8
1.3
1.6
V
0.4
V
–0.1
VCC rise rate to ensure power-on reset
VCCRR
0.01
RESET pin threshold voltage
VRST
0.1VCC
V
V/ms
0.9VCC
Minimum pulse width on RESET pin
tRST
2.5
Note:
1. Before rising, the supply has to be between VPORMIN and VPORMAX to ensure a Reset.
40
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V
µs
8.4
External Reset
An external reset is generated by a low level on the RESET pin. Reset pulses longer than the minimum pulse width (see
Table 8-1 on page 40) will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a
reset. When the applied signal reaches the reset threshold voltage – VRST – on its positive edge, the delay counter starts the
MCU after the time-out period – tTOUT – has expired. The external reset can be disabled by the RSTDISBL fuse, see
Table 25-6 on page 244.
Figure 8-4. External Reset During Operation
VCC
RESET
V RST
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
8.5
Brown-out Detection
Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 has an on-chip brown-out detection (BOD) circuit for monitoring the VCC level during operation by
comparing it to a fixed trigger level. The trigger level for the BOD can be selected by the BODLEVEL fuses. The trigger level
has a hysteresis to ensure spike free brown-out detection. The hysteresis on the detection level should be interpreted as
VBOT+ = VBOT + VHYST/2 and VBOT- = VBOT – VHYST/2.
BODLEVEL Fuse Coding(1)
Table 8-2.
BODLEVEL 2..0 Fuses
Min VBOT
Typ VBOT
111
Max VBOT
Unit
BOD Disabled
110
(2)
1.7
1.8
2.0(2)
101
2.5(2)
2.7
2.9(2)
100
(2)
4.3
(2)
4.1
V
4.5
011
010
Reserved
001
Notes:
1.
2.
Table 8-3.
000
VBOT may be below nominal minimum operating voltage for some devices. For devices where this is the case,
the device is tested down to VCC = VBOT during the production test. This guarantees that a brown-out reset will
occur before VCC drops to a voltage where correct operation of the microcontroller is no longer guaranteed.
The test is performed using BODLEVEL = 110 and BODLEVEL = 101 for Atmel ATmega48V/88V/168V, and
BODLEVEL = 101 and BODLEVEL = 101 for Atmel ATmega48/88/168.
Min/max values applicable for Atmel ATmega48.
Brown-out Characteristics
Parameter
Brown-out detector hysteresis
Min pulse width on brown-out reset
Symbol
VHYST
Min
Typ
Max
50
Unit
mV
tBOD
ns
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41
When the BOD is enabled, and VCC decreases to a value below the trigger level (VBOT- in Figure 8-5), the brown-out reset is
immediately activated. When VCC increases above the trigger level (VBOT+ in Figure 8-5), the delay counter starts the MCU
after the time-out period tTOUT has expired.
The BOD circuit will only detect a drop in VCC if the voltage stays below the trigger level for longer than tBOD given in
Table 8-1 on page 40.
Figure 8-5. Brown-out Reset During Operation
V CC
VBOT-
VBOT+
RESET
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
8.6
Watchdog System Reset
When the watchdog times out, it will generate a short reset pulse of one CK cycle duration. On the falling edge of this pulse,
the delay timer starts counting the time-out period tTOUT. Refer to Section 8.9 “Watchdog Timer” on page 44 for details on
operation of the watchdog timer.
Figure 8-6. Watchdog System Reset During Operation
V CC
RESET
1 CK Cycle
WDT
TIME-OUT
RESET
Time-OUT
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
42
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8.7
MCU Status Register – MCUSR
The MCU status register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU reset.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
MCUSR
See Bit Description
• Bit 7..4: Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – WDRF: Watchdog System Reset Flag
This bit is set if a watchdog system reset occurs. The bit is reset by a power-on reset, or by writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 2 – BORF: Brown-out Reset Flag
This bit is set if a brown-out reset occurs. The bit is reset by a power-on reset, or by writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 1 – EXTRF: External Reset Flag
This bit is set if an external reset occurs. The bit is reset by a power-on reset, or by writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 0 – PORF: Power-on Reset Flag
This bit is set if a power-on reset occurs. The bit is reset only by writing a logic zero to the flag.
To make use of the reset flags to identify a reset condition, the user should read and then reset the MCUSR as early as
possible in the program. If the register is cleared before another reset occurs, the source of the reset can be found by
examining the reset flags.
8.8
Internal Voltage Reference
Atmel ATmega48/88/168 features an internal bandgap reference. This reference is used for brown-out detection, and it can
be used as an input to the analog comparator or the ADC.
8.8.1
Voltage Reference Enable Signals and Start-up Time
The voltage reference has a start-up time that may influence the way it should be used. The start-up time is given in
Table 8-4. To save power, the reference is not always turned on. The reference is on during the following situations:
1. When the BOD is enabled (by programming the BODLEVEL [2..0] fuses).
2.
When the bandgap reference is connected to the analog comparator (by setting the ACBG bit in ACSR).
3.
When the ADC is enabled.
Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit or enabling the ADC, the user must always allow the
reference to start up before the output from the analog comparator or ADC is used. To reduce power consumption in
power-down mode, the user can avoid the three conditions above to ensure that the reference is turned off before entering
power-down mode.
Table 8-4.
Internal Voltage Reference Characteristics(1)
Parameter
Condition
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Bandgap reference voltage
TBD
VBG
1.0
1.1
1.2
V
Bandgap reference start-up time
TBD
tBG
40
70
µs
IBG
10
TBD
µA
Bandgap reference current consumption
TBD
Note:
1. Values are guidelines only. Actual values are TBD.
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Unit
43
8.9
Watchdog Timer
Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 has an enhanced watchdog timer (WDT). The main features are:
● Clocked from separate on-chip oscillator
●
●
●
3 operating modes
●
Interrupt
●
System reset
●
Interrupt and system reset
Selectable time-out period from 16ms to 8s
Possible hardware fuse watchdog always on (WDTON) for fail-safe mode
Figure 8-7. Watchdog Timer
WDE
OSC/1024K
OSC/256K
OSC/512K
OSC/64K
OSC/128K
OSC/32K
OSC/8K
OSC/4K
OSC/2K
WATCHDOG
RESET
OSC/16K
Watchdog
Prescaler
128kHz
Oscillator
WDP0
WDP1
WDP2
WDP3
MCU RESET
WDIF
WDIE
INTERRUPT
The watchdog timer (WDT) is a timer counting cycles of a separate on-chip 128kHz oscillator. The WDT gives an interrupt or
a system reset when the counter reaches a given time-out value. In normal operation mode, it is required that the system
uses the WDR - watchdog timer reset - instruction to restart the counter before the time-out value is reached. If the system
doesn't restart the counter, an interrupt or system reset will be issued.
In Interrupt mode, the WDT gives an interrupt when the timer expires. This interrupt can be used to wake the device from
sleep-modes, and also as a general system timer. One example is to limit the maximum time allowed for certain operations,
giving an interrupt when the operation has run longer than expected. In system reset mode, the WDT gives a reset when the
timer expires. This is typically used to prevent system hang-up in case of runaway code. The third mode, Interrupt and
system reset mode, combines the other two modes by first giving an interrupt and then switch to system reset mode. This
mode will for instance allow a safe shutdown by saving critical parameters before a system reset.
The watchdog always on (WDTON) fuse, if programmed, will force the watchdog timer to system reset mode. With the fuse
programmed the system reset mode bit (WDE) and interrupt mode bit (WDIE) are locked to 1 and 0 respectively. To further
ensure program security, alterations to the watchdog set-up must follow timed sequences. The sequence for clearing WDE
and changing time-out configuration is as follows:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to the watchdog change enable bit (WDCE) and WDE. A logic one must
be written to WDE regardless of the previous value of the WDE bit.
2.
44
Within the next four clock cycles, write the WDE and watchdog prescaler bits (WDP) as desired, but with the
WDCE bit cleared. This must be done in one operation.
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The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for turning off the watchdog timer. The example
assumes that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling interrupts globally) so that no interrupts will occur during the
execution of these functions.
Assembly Code Example(1)
WDT_off:
; Turn off global interrupt
cli
; Reset Watchdog Timer
wdr
; Clear WDRF in MCUSR
in
r16, MCUSR
andi r16, (0xff & (0<<WDRF))
out
MCUSR, r16
; Write logical one to WDCE and WDE
; Keep old prescaler setting to prevent unintentional time-out
lds r16, WDTCSR
ori
r16, (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE)
sts WDTCSR, r16
; Turn off WDT
ldi
r16, (0<<WDE)
sts WDTCSR, r16
; Turn on global interrupt
sei
ret
C Code Example(1)
void WDT_off(void)
{
__disable_interrupt();
__watchdog_reset();
/* Clear WDRF in MCUSR */
MCUSR &= ~(1<<WDRF);
/* Write logical one to WDCE and WDE */
/* Keep old prescaler setting to prevent unintentional time-out
*/
WDTCSR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Turn off WDT */
WDTCSR = 0x00;
__enable_interrupt();
}
Notes:
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
2.
If the watchdog is accidentally enabled, for example by a runaway pointer or brown-out condition, the device
will be reset and the watchdog timer will stay enabled. If the code is not set up to handle the watchdog, this
might lead to an eternal loop of time-out resets. To avoid this situation, the application software should always
clear the watchdog system reset flag (WDRF) and the WDE control bit in the initialization routine, even if the
watchdog is not in use.
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45
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for changing the time-out value of the watchdog timer.
Assembly Code Example(1)
WDT_Prescaler_Change:
; Turn off global interrupt
cli
; Reset Watchdog Timer
wdr
; Start timed sequence
lds r16, WDTCSR
ori
r16, (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE)
sts WDTCSR, r16
; -- Got four cycles to set the new values from here ; Set new prescaler(time-out) value = 64K cycles (~0.5 s)
ldi
r16, (1<<WDE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0)
sts WDTCSR, r16
; -- Finished setting new values, used 2 cycles ; Turn on global interrupt
sei
ret
C Code Example(1)
void WDT_Prescaler_Change(void)
{
__disable_interrupt();
__watchdog_reset();
/* Start timed sequence */
WDTCSR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Set new prescaler(time-out) value = 64K cycles (~0.5 s) */
WDTCSR = (1<<WDE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0);
__enable_interrupt();
}
Notes:
8.9.1
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
2.
The watchdog timer should be reset before any change of the WDP bits, since a change in the WDP bits can
result in a time-out when switching to a shorter time-out period.
Watchdog Timer Control Register - WDTCSR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
WDIF
WDIE
WDP3
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
WDTCSR
• Bit 7 - WDIF: Watchdog Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when a time-out occurs in the watchdog timer and the watchdog timer is configured for interrupt. WDIF is
cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, WDIF is cleared by writing a
logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG and WDIE are set, the watchdog time-out interrupt is executed.
• Bit 6 - WDIE: Watchdog Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in the status register is set, the watchdog interrupt is enabled. If WDE is cleared in
combination with this setting, the watchdog timer is in interrupt mode, and the corresponding interrupt is executed if time-out
in the watchdog timer occurs.
46
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
If WDE is set, the watchdog timer is in interrupt and system reset mode. The first time-out in the watchdog timer will set
WDIF. Executing the corresponding interrupt vector will clear WDIE and WDIF automatically by hardware (the watchdog
goes to system reset mode). This is useful for keeping the watchdog timer security while using the interrupt. To stay in
interrupt and system reset mode, WDIE must be set after each interrupt. This should however not be done within the
interrupt service routine itself, as this might compromise the safety-function of the watchdog system reset mode. If the
interrupt is not executed before the next time-out, a system reset will be applied.
Table 8-5.
Watchdog Timer Configuration
WDTON
WDE
WDIE
Mode
Action on Time-out
0
0
0
Stopped
None
0
0
1
Interrupt mode
Interrupt
0
1
0
System reset mode
Reset
0
1
1
Interrupt and system reset mode
Interrupt, then go to system reset mode
1
x
x
System reset mode
Reset
• Bit 4 - WDCE: Watchdog Change Enable
This bit is used in timed sequences for changing WDE and prescaler bits. To clear the WDE bit, and/or change the prescaler
bits, WDCE must be set.
Once written to one, hardware will clear WDCE after four clock cycles.
• Bit 3 - WDE: Watchdog System Reset Enable
WDE is overridden by WDRF in MCUSR. This means that WDE is always set when WDRF is set. To clear WDE, WDRF
must be cleared first. This feature ensures multiple resets during conditions causing failure, and a safe start-up after the
failure.
• Bit 5, 2..0 - WDP3..0: Watchdog Timer Prescaler 3, 2, 1 and 0
The WDP3..0 bits determine the watchdog timer prescaling when the watchdog timer is running. The different prescaling
values and their corresponding time-out periods are shown in Table 8-6.
Table 8-6.
Watchdog Timer Prescale Select
WDP3
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator Cycles
Typical Time-out at VCC = 5.0V
0
0
0
0
2K (2048) cycles
16ms
0
0
0
1
4K (4096) cycles
32ms
0
0
1
0
8K (8192) cycles
64ms
0
0
1
1
16K (16384) cycles
0.125s
0
1
0
0
32K (32768) cycles
0.25s
0
1
0
1
64K (65536) cycles
0.5 s
0
1
1
0
128K (131072) cycles
1.0s
0
1
1
1
256K (262144) cycles
2.0s
1
0
0
0
512K (524288) cycles
4.0s
1
0
0
1
1024K (1048576) cycles
8.0s
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
Reserved
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
47
9.
Interrupts
This section describes the specifics of the interrupt handling as performed in Atmel® ATmega48/88/168. For a general
explanation of the AVR® interrupt handling, refer to Section 4.8 “Reset and Interrupt Handling” on page 13.
The interrupt vectors in Atmel ATmega48, Atmel ATmega88 and Atmel ATmega168 are generally the same, with the
following differences:
● Each interrupt vector occupies two instruction words in ATmega168, and one instruction word in ATmega48 and
ATmega88.
●
9.1
ATmega48 does not have a separate boot loader section. In ATmega88 and ATmega168, the reset vector is affected
by the BOOTRST fuse, and the interrupt vector start address is affected by the IVSEL bit in MCUCR.
Interrupt Vectors in ATmega48
Table 9-1.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors in ATmega48
Vector No. Program Address Source
48
Interrupt Definition
1
0x000
RESET
External pin, power-on reset, brown-out reset and watchdog
system reset
2
0x001
INT0
External interrupt request 0
3
0x002
INT1
External interrupt request 1
4
0x003
PCINT0
Pin change interrupt request 0
5
0x004
PCINT1
Pin change interrupt request 1
6
0x005
PCINT2
Pin change interrupt request 2
7
0x006
WDT
Watchdog time-out interrupt
8
0x007
TIMER2 COMPA
Timer/Counter2 compare match A
9
0x008
TIMER2 COMPB
Timer/Counter2 compare match B
10
0x009
TIMER2 OVF
Timer/Counter2 overflow
11
0x00A
TIMER1 CAPT
Timer/Counter1 capture event
12
0x00B
TIMER1 COMPA
Timer/Counter1 compare match A
13
0x00C
TIMER1 COMPB
Timer/coutner1 compare match B
14
0x00D
TIMER1 OVF
Timer/Counter1 overflow
15
0x00E
TIMER0 COMPA
Timer/Counter0 compare match A
16
0x00F
TIMER0 COMPB
Timer/Counter0 compare match B
17
0x010
TIMER0 OVF
Timer/Counter0 overflow
18
0x011
SPI, STC
SPI serial transfer complete
19
0x012
USART, RX
USART Rx complete
20
0x013
USART, UDRE
USART, data register empty
21
0x014
USART, TX
USART, Tx complete
22
0x015
ADC
ADC conversion complete
23
0x016
EE READY
EEPROM ready
24
0x017
ANALOG COMP
Analog comparator
25
0x018
TWI
2-wire serial interface
26
0x019
SPM READY
Store program memory ready
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
The most typical and general program setup for the reset and interrupt vector addresses in Atmel® ATmega48 is:
Address
Labels Code
Comments
0x000
rjmp
RESET
; Reset Handler
0x001
rjmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x002
rjmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
0x003
rjmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
0x004
rjmp
PCINT1
; PCINT1 Handler
0x005
rjmp
PCINT2
; PCINT2 Handler
0x006
rjmp
WDT
; Watchdog Timer Handler
0x007
rjmp
TIM2_COMPA
; Timer2 Compare A Handler
0x008
rjmp
TIM2_COMPB
; Timer2 Compare B Handler
0x009
rjmp
TIM2_OVF
; Timer2 Overflow Handler
0x00A
rjmp
TIM1_CAPT
; Timer1 Capture Handler
0x00B
rjmp
TIM1_COMPA
; Timer1 Compare A Handler
0x00C
rjmp
TIM1_COMPB
; Timer1 Compare B Handler
0x00D
rjmp
TIM1_OVF
; Timer1 Overflow Handler
0x00E
rjmp
TIM0_COMPA
; Timer0 Compare A Handler
0x00F
rjmp
TIM0_COMPB
; Timer0 Compare B Handler
0x010
rjmp
TIM0_OVF
; Timer0 Overflow Handler
0x011
rjmp
SPI_STC
; SPI Transfer Complete Handler
0x012
rjmp
USART_RXC
; USART, RX Complete Handler
0x013
rjmp
USART_UDRE
; USART, UDR Empty Handler
0x014
rjmp
USART_TXC
; USART, TX Complete Handler
0x015
rjmp
ADC
; ADC Conversion Complete Handler
0x016
rjmp
EE_RDY
; EEPROM Ready Handler
0x017
rjmp
ANA_COMP
; Analog Comparator Handler
0x018
rjmp
TWI
; 2-wire Serial Interface Handler
0x019
rjmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
;
0x01A RESET:
ldi
r16, high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x01B
out
SPH,r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
0x01C
ldi
r16, low(RAMEND)
0x01D
out
SPL,r16
0x01E
sei
; Enable interrupts
0x01F
<instr> xxx
...
...
...
...
9.2
Interrupt Vectors in ATmega88
Table 9-2.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors in ATmega88
Vector No.
Program Address(2)
Source
Interrupt Definition
1
0x000(1)
RESET
External pin, power-on reset, brown-out reset and watchdog
system reset
2
0x001
INT0
External interrupt request 0
3
0x002
INT1
External interrupt request 1
4
0x003
PCINT0
Pin change interrupt request 0
5
0x004
PCINT1
Pin change interrupt request 1
6
0x005
PCINT2
Pin change interrupt request 2
7
Notes:
1.
2.
0x006
WDT
Watchdog time-out interrupt
When the BOOTRST fuse is programmed, the device will jump to the boot loader address at reset, see
Section 24. “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and ATmega168” on
page 229.
When the IVSEL bit in MCUCR is set, interrupt vectors will be moved to the start of the boot flash section. The
address of each interrupt vector will then be the address in this table added to the start address of the boot
flash section.
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
49
Table 9-2.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors in ATmega88 (Continued)
Vector No.
Program Address(2)
8
0x007
TIMER2 COMPA Timer/Counter2 compare match A
9
0x008
TIMER2 COMPB Timer/Counter2 compare match B
10
0x009
TIMER2 OVF
Timer/Counter2 overflow
11
0x00A
TIMER1 CAPT
Timer/Counter1 capture event
12
0x00B
TIMER1 COMPA Timer/Counter1 compare match A
13
0x00C
TIMER1 COMPB Timer/coutner1 compare match B
14
0x00D
TIMER1 OVF
15
0x00E
TIMER0 COMPA Timer/Counter0 compare match A
16
0x00F
TIMER0 COMPB Timer/Counter0 compare match B
17
0x010
TIMER0 OVF
Timer/Counter0 overflow
18
0x011
SPI, STC
SPI serial transfer complete
19
0x012
USART, RX
USART Rx complete
20
0x013
USART, UDRE
USART, data register empty
21
0x014
USART, TX
USART, Tx complete
22
0x015
ADC
ADC conversion complete
23
0x016
EE READY
EEPROM ready
24
0x017
ANALOG COMP Analog comparator
25
0x018
TWI
26
Notes: 1.
2.
Source
Interrupt Definition
Timer/Counter1 overflow
2-wire serial interface
0x019
SPM READY
Store program memory ready
When the BOOTRST fuse is programmed, the device will jump to the boot loader address at reset, see
Section 24. “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and ATmega168” on
page 229.
When the IVSEL bit in MCUCR is set, interrupt vectors will be moved to the start of the boot flash section. The
address of each interrupt vector will then be the address in this table added to the start address of the boot
flash section.
Table 9-3 shows reset and interrupt vectors placement for the various combinations of BOOTRST and IVSEL settings. If the
program never enables an interrupt source, the interrupt vectors are not used, and regular program code can be placed at
these locations. This is also the case if the reset vector is in the application section while the interrupt vectors are in the boot
section or vice versa.
Table 9-3.
BOOTRST
IVSEL
Reset Address
1
0
0x000
0x001
1
1
0x000
Boot reset address + 0x001
0
0
Boot reset address
0x001
Note:
50
Reset and Interrupt Vectors Placement in ATmega88(1)
0
1.
Interrupt Vectors Start Address
1
Boot reset address
Boot reset address + 0x001
The boot reset address is shown in Table 24-6 on page 240. For the BOOTRST fuse “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
The most typical and general program setup for the reset and interrupt vector addresses in Atmel® ATmega88 is:
Address
Labels Code
Comments
0x000
rjmp
RESET
; Reset Handler
0x001
rjmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x002
rjmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
0x003
rjmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
0x004
rjmp
PCINT1
; PCINT1 Handler
0x005
rjmp
PCINT2
; PCINT2 Handler
0x006
rjmp
WDT
; Watchdog Timer Handler
0x007
rjmp
TIM2_COMPA
; Timer2 Compare A Handler
0X008
rjmp
TIM2_COMPB
; Timer2 Compare B Handler
0x009
rjmp
TIM2_OVF
; Timer2 Overflow Handler
0x00A
rjmp
TIM1_CAPT
; Timer1 Capture Handler
0x00B
rjmp
TIM1_COMPA
; Timer1 Compare A Handler
0x00C
rjmp
TIM1_COMPB
; Timer1 Compare B Handler
0x00D
rjmp
TIM1_OVF
; Timer1 Overflow Handler
0x00E
rjmp
TIM0_COMPA
; Timer0 Compare A Handler
0x00F
rjmp
TIM0_COMPB
; Timer0 Compare B Handler
0x010
rjmp
TIM0_OVF
; Timer0 Overflow Handler
0x011
rjmp
SPI_STC
; SPI Transfer Complete Handler
0x012
rjmp
USART_RXC
; USART, RX Complete Handler
0x013
rjmp
USART_UDRE
; USART, UDR Empty Handler
0x014
rjmp
USART_TXC
; USART, TX Complete Handler
0x015
rjmp
ADC
; ADC Conversion Complete Handler
0x016
rjmp
EE_RDY
; EEPROM Ready Handler
0x017
rjmp
ANA_COMP
; Analog Comparator Handler
0x018
rjmp
TWI
; 2-wire Serial Interface Handler
0x019
rjmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
;
0x01A RESET:
ldi
r16, high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x01B
out
SPH,r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
0x01C
ldi
r16, low(RAMEND)
0x01D
out
SPL,r16
0x01E
sei
; Enable interrupts
0x01F
<instr> xxx
...
...
...
...
When the BOOTRST fuse is unprogrammed, the boot section size set to 2K bytes and the IVSEL bit in the MCUCR register
is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and general program setup for the reset and interrupt vector
addresses in Atmel ATmega88 is:
Address
Labels Code
Comments
0x000
RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x001
out
SPH,r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
0x002
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x003
out
SPL,r16
0x004
sei
; Enable interrupts
0x005
<instr> xxx
;
.org 0xC01
0xC01
rjmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0xC02
rjmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
...
...
...
;
0xC19
rjmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
51
When the BOOTRST fuse is programmed and the boot section size set to 2Kbytes, the most typical and general program
setup for the reset and interrupt vector addresses in Atmel® ATmega88 is:
Address
Labels Code
Comments
.org 0x001
0x001
rjmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x002
rjmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x019
rjmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
;
.org 0xC00
0xC00
RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0xC01
out
SPH,r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
0xC02
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0xC03
out
SPL,r16
0xC04
sei
; Enable interrupts
0xC05
<instr> xxx
When the BOOTRST fuse is programmed, the boot section size set to 2Kbytes and the IVSEL bit in the MCUCR register is
set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and general program setup for the reset and interrupt vector
addresses in Atmel ATmega88 is:
Address
;
.org 0xC00
0xC00
0xC01
0xC02
...
0xC19
;
0xC1A
0xC1B
0xC1C
0xC1D
0xC1E
0xC1F
9.3
rjmp
rjmp
rjmp
...
Comments
RESET
EXT_INT0
EXT_INT1
...
; Reset handler
; IRQ0 Handler
; IRQ1 Handler
;
rjmpSPM_RDY; Store Program Memory Ready
Handler
RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
out
SPH,r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
out
SPL,r16
sei
; Enable interrupts
<instr> xxx
Interrupt Vectors in ATmega168
Table 9-4.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors in ATmega168
VectorNo.
Program Address(2)
Source
Interrupt Definition
1
0x0000(1)
RESET
External pin, power-on reset, brown-out reset and watchdog
system reset
2
0x0002
INT0
External interrupt request 0
3
0x0004
INT1
External interrupt request 1
4
0x0006
PCINT0
Pin change interrupt request 0
5
0x0008
PCINT1
Pin change interrupt request 1
6
0x000A
PCINT2
Pin change interrupt request 2
7
0x000C
WDT
Watchdog time-out interrupt
8
Notes:
1.
2.
52
Labels Code
0x000E
TIMER2 COMPA Timer/Counter2 compare match A
When the BOOTRST fuse is programmed, the device will jump to the boot loader address at reset, see
Section 24. “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and ATmega168” on
page 229.
When the IVSEL bit in MCUCR is set, interrupt vectors will be moved to the start of the boot flash section. The
address of each interrupt vector will then be the address in this table added to the start address of the boot
flash Section.
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
Table 9-4.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors in ATmega168 (Continued)
VectorNo.
Program Address(2)
Source
Interrupt Definition
9
0x0010
TIMER2 COMPB Timer/Counter2 compare match B
10
0x0012
TIMER2 OVF
Timer/Counter2 overflow
11
0x0014
TIMER1 CAPT
Timer/Counter1 capture event
12
0x0016
TIMER1 COMPA
Timer/Counter1 compare match A
13
0x0018
TIMER1 COMPB Timer/coutner1 compare match B
14
0x001A
TIMER1 OVF
Timer/Counter1 overflow
15
0x001C
TIMER0 COMPA
Timer/Counter0 compare match A
16
0x001E
TIMER0 COMPB Timer/Counter0 compare match B
17
0x0020
TIMER0 OVF
Timer/Counter0 overflow
18
0x0022
SPI, STC
SPI serial transfer complete
19
0x0024
USART, RX
USART Rx complete
20
0x0026
USART, UDRE
USART, data register empty
21
0x0028
USART, TX
USART, Tx complete
22
0x002A
ADC
ADC conversion vomplete
23
0x002C
EE READY
EEPROM ready
24
0x002E
ANALOG COMP
Analog comparator
25
0x0030
TWI
2-wire serial interface
26
Notes:
1.
2.
0x0032
SPM READY
Store program memory ready
When the BOOTRST fuse is programmed, the device will jump to the boot loader address at reset, see
Section 24. “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and ATmega168” on
page 229.
When the IVSEL bit in MCUCR is set, interrupt vectors will be moved to the start of the boot flash section. The
address of each interrupt vector will then be the address in this table added to the start address of the boot
flash Section.
Table 9-5 shows reset and interrupt vectors placement for the various combinations of BOOTRST and IVSEL settings. If the
program never enables an interrupt source, the interrupt vectors are not used, and regular program code can be placed at
these locations. This is also the case if the reset vector is in the application section while the Interrupt Vectors are in the boot
section or vice versa.
Table 9-5.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors Placement in ATmega168(1)
BOOTRST
IVSEL
1
Note:
Reset Address
Interrupt Vectors Start Address
0
0x000
0x001
1
1
0x000
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
0
0
Boot Reset Address
0x001
0
1.
1
Boot Reset Address
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
The boot reset address is shown in Table 24-6 on page 240. For the BOOTRST fuse “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
53
The most typical and general program setup for the reset and interrupt vector addresses in Atmel® ATmega168 is:
Address
Labels Code
Comments
0x0000
jmp
RESET
; Reset Handler
0x0002
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x0004
jmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
0x0006
jmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
0x0008
jmp
PCINT1
; PCINT1 Handler
0x000A
jmp
PCINT2
; PCINT2 Handler
0x000C
jmp
WDT
; Watchdog Timer Handler
0x000E
jmp
TIM2_COMPA
; Timer2 Compare A Handler
0x0010
jmp
TIM2_COMPB
; Timer2 Compare B Handler
0x0012
jmp
TIM2_OVF
; Timer2 Overflow Handler
0x0014
jmp
TIM1_CAPT
; Timer1 Capture Handler
0x0016
jmp
TIM1_COMPA
; Timer1 Compare A Handler
0x0018
jmp
TIM1_COMPB
; Timer1 Compare B Handler
0x001A
jmp
TIM1_OVF
; Timer1 Overflow Handler
0x001C
jmp
TIM0_COMPA
; Timer0 Compare A Handler
0x001E
jmp
TIM0_COMPB
; Timer0 Compare B Handler
0x0020
jmp
TIM0_OVF
; Timer0 Overflow Handler
0x0022
jmp
SPI_STC
; SPI Transfer Complete Handler
0x0024
jmp
USART_RXC
; USART, RX Complete Handler
0x0026
jmp
USART_UDRE
; USART, UDR Empty Handler
0x0028
jmp
USART_TXC
; USART, TX Complete Handler
0x002A
jmp
ADC
; ADC Conversion Complete Handler
0x002C
jmp
EE_RDY
; EEPROM Ready Handler
0x002E
jmp
ANA_COMP
; Analog Comparator Handler
0x0030
jmp
TWI
; 2-wire Serial Interface Handler
0x0032
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
;
0x0033
RESET: ldi
r16, high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x0034
r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
0x0035
ldi
r16, low(RAMEND)
0x0036
out
SPL,r16
0x0037
sei
; Enable interrupts
0x0038
<instr> xxx
...
...
...
...
When the BOOTRST fuse is unprogrammed, the boot section size set to 2K bytes and the IVSEL bit in the MCUCR register
is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and general program setup for the reset and interrupt vector
addresses in ATmega168 is:
Address
Labels Code
Comments
0x0000
RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x0001
out
SPH,r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
0x0002
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x0003
out
SPL,r16
0x0004
sei
; Enable interrupts
0x0005
<instr> xxx
;
.org 0xC02
0x1C02
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x1C04
jmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x1C32
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
54
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
When the BOOTRST fuse is programmed and the boot section size set to 2Kbytes, the most typical and general program
setup for the reset and interrupt vector addresses in Atmel® ATmega168 is:
Address
Labels Code
Comments
.org 0x0002
0x0002
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x0004
jmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x0032
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
;
.org 0x1C00
0x1C00
RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x1C01
out
SPH,r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
0x1C02
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x1C03
out
SPL,r16
0x1C04
sei
; Enable interrupts
0x1C05
<instr> xxx
When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the Boot section size set to 2K bytes and the IVSEL bit in the MCUCR Register
is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector
Addresses in ATmega168 is:
Address
Labels Code
Comments
;
.org 0x1C00
0x1C00
jmp
RESET
; Reset handler
0x1C02
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x1C04
jmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x1C32
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
;
0x1C33
RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x1C34
out
SPH,r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
0x1C35
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x1C36
out
SPL,r16
0x1C37
sei
; Enable interrupts
0x1C38
<instr> xxx
9.3.1
Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Space, ATmega88 and ATmega168
The MCU control register controls the placement of the interrupt vector table.
9.3.2
MCU Control Register – MCUCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
–
Read/Write
R
Initial Value
0
0
3
2
1
0
–
–
PUD
R
R
R/W
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
R
R
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bit 1 – IVSEL: Interrupt Vector Select
When the IVSEL bit is cleared (zero), the interrupt vectors are placed at the start of the flash memory. When this bit is set
(one), the interrupt vectors are moved to the beginning of the boot loader section of the flash. The actual address of the start
of the boot flash section is determined by the BOOTSZ fuses. Refer to the Section 24. “Boot Loader Support – Read-WhileWrite Self-Programming, ATmega88 and ATmega168” on page 229 for details. To avoid unintentional changes of interrupt
vector tables, a special write procedure must be followed to change the IVSEL bit:
1. Write the interrupt vector change enable (IVCE) bit to one.
2.
Within four cycles, write the desired value to IVSEL while writing a zero to IVCE.
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Interrupts will automatically be disabled while this sequence is executed. Interrupts are disabled in the cycle IVCE is set, and
they remain disabled until after the instruction following the write to IVSEL. If IVSEL is not written, interrupts remain disabled
for four cycles. The I-bit in the status register is unaffected by the automatic disabling.
Note:
If interrupt vectors are placed in the boot loader section and boot lock bit BLB02 is programmed, interrupts are
disabled while executing from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Application section
and boot lock bit BLB12 is programed, interrupts are disabled while executing from the boot loader section.
Refer to Section 24. “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and
ATmega168” on page 229 for details on boot lock bits.
This bit is not available in Atmel® ATmega48.
• Bit 0 – IVCE: Interrupt Vector Change Enable
The IVCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the IVSEL bit. IVCE is cleared by hardware four cycles after it
is written or when IVSEL is written. Setting the IVCE bit will disable interrupts, as explained in the IVSEL description above.
See code example below.
Assembly Code Example
Move_interrupts:
; Enable change of Interrupt Vectors
ldi
r16, (1<<IVCE)
out
MCUCR, r16
; Move interrupts to Boot Flash section
ldi
r16, (1<<IVSEL)
out
MCUCR, r16
ret
C Code Example
void Move_interrupts(void)
{
/* Enable change of Interrupt Vectors */
MCUCR = (1<<IVCE);
/* Move interrupts to Boot Flash section */
MCUCR = (1<<IVSEL);
}
This bit is not available in Atmel ATmega48.
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10.
I/O-Ports
10.1
Introduction
All AVR® ports have true read-modify-write functionality when used as general digital I/O ports. This means that the direction
of one port pin can be changed without unintentionally changing the direction of any other pin with the SBI and CBI
instructions. The same applies when changing drive value (if configured as output) or enabling/disabling of pull-up resistors
(if configured as input). Each output buffer has symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability.
The pin driver is strong enough to drive LED displays directly. All port pins have individually selectable pull-up resistors with
a supply-voltage invariant resistance. All I/O pins have protection diodes to both VCC and ground as indicated in Figure 10-1.
Refer to Section 26. “Electrical Characteristics” on page 260 for a complete list of parameters.
Figure 10-1. I/O Pin Equivalent Schematic
Rpu
Pxn
Logic
Cpin
See Figure
”General Digital I/O”
for Details
All registers and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “x” represents the numbering letter for
the port, and a lower case “n” represents the bit number. However, when using the register or bit defines in a program, the
precise form must be used. For example, PORTB3 for bit no. 3 in port B, here documented generally as PORTxn. The
physical I/O registers and bit locations are listed in Section 10.4 “Register Description for I/O Ports” on page 71.
Three I/O memory address locations are allocated for each port, one each for the data register – PORTx, data direction
register – DDRx, and the port input pins – PINx. The port input pins I/O location is read only, while the data register and the
data direction register are read/write. However, writing a logic one to a bit in the PINx register, will result in a toggle in the
corresponding bit in the data register. In addition, the pull-up disable – PUD bit in MCUCR disables the pull-up function for all
pins in all ports when set.
Using the I/O port as general digital I/O is described in Section 10.2 “Ports as General Digital I/O” on page 58. Most port pins
are multiplexed with alternate functions for the peripheral features on the device. How each alternate function interferes with
the port pin is described in Section 10.3 “Alternate Port Functions” on page 62. Refer to the individual module sections for a
full description of the alternate functions.
Note that enabling the alternate function of some of the port pins does not affect the use of the other pins in the port as
general digital I/O.
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10.2
Ports as General Digital I/O
The ports are bi-directional I/O ports with optional internal pull-ups. Figure 10-2 shows a functional description of one I/Oport pin, here generically called Pxn.
Figure 10-2. General Digital I/O(1)
PUD
Q
D
DDxn
Q
CLR
RESET
WDx
RDx
D
0
PORTxn
Q
CLR
RESET
SLEEP
DATA BUS
1
Q
Pxn
WRx
WPx
RRx
Synchronizer
RPx
D
Q
D
Q
PINxn
L
Q
Q
CLKI/O
PUD:
SLEEP:
CLKI/O:
Note:
1.
PULLUP DISABLE
SLEEP CONTROL
I/O CLOCK
WDx:
RDx:
WRx:
RRx:
RPx:
WPx:
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx REGISTER
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PORTx REGISTER
WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O, SLEEP, and PUD
are common to all ports.
10.2.1 Configuring the Pin
Each port pin consists of three register bits: DDxn, PORTxn, and PINxn. As shown in
Section 10.4 “Register Description for I/O Ports” on page 71, the DDxn bits are accessed at the DDRx I/O address, the
PORTxn bits at the PORTx I/O address, and the PINxn bits at the PINx I/O address.
The DDxn bit in the DDRx register selects the direction of this pin. If DDxn is written logic one, Pxn is configured as an output
pin. If DDxn is written logic zero, Pxn is configured as an input pin.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an input pin, the pull-up resistor is activated. To switch the
pull-up resistor off, PORTxn has to be written logic zero or the pin has to be configured as an output pin. The port pins are
tri-stated when reset condition becomes active, even if no clocks are running.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven high (one). If PORTxn is
written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven low (zero).
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10.2.2 Toggling the Pin
Writing a logic one to PINxn toggles the value of PORTxn, independent on the value of DDRxn. Note that the SBI instruction
can be used to toggle one single bit in a port.
10.2.3 Switching Between Input and Output
When switching between tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) and output high ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b11), an intermediate
state with either pull-up enabled {DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01) or output low ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b10) must occur. Normally, the
pull-up enabled state is fully acceptable, as a high-impedant environment will not notice the difference between a strong high
driver and a pull-up. If this is not the case, the PUD bit in the MCUCR register can be set to disable all pull-ups in all ports.
Switching between input with pull-up and output low generates the same problem. The user must use either the tri-state
({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) or the output high state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b11) as an intermediate step.
Table 10-1 summarizes the control signals for the pin value.
Table 10-1. Port Pin Configurations
DDxn
PORTxn
PUD (in MCUCR)
I/O
Pull-up
Comment
0
0
X
Input
No
Tri-state (hi-Z)
0
1
0
Input
Yes
Pxn will source current if ext. pulled low.
0
1
1
Input
No
Tri-state (hi-Z)
1
0
X
Output
No
Output low (sink)
1
1
X
Output
No
Output high (source)
10.2.4 Reading the Pin Value
Independent of the setting of data direction bit DDxn, the port pin can be read through the PINxn register bit. As shown in
Figure 10-2 on page 58, the PINxn register bit and the preceding latch constitute a synchronizer. This is needed to avoid
metastability if the physical pin changes value near the edge of the internal clock, but it also introduces a delay. Figure 10-3
shows a timing diagram of the synchronization when reading an externally applied pin value. The maximum and minimum
propagation delays are denoted tpd,max and tpd,min respectively.
Figure 10-3. Synchronization when Reading an Externally Applied Pin value
SYSTEM CLK
INSTRUCTIOS
XXX
XXX
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
tpd, max
tpd, min
Consider the clock period starting shortly after the first falling edge of the system clock. The latch is closed when the clock is
low, and goes transparent when the clock is high, as indicated by the shaded region of the “SYNC LATCH” signal. The signal
value is latched when the system clock goes low. It is clocked into the PINxn register at the succeeding positive clock edge.
As indicated by the two arrows tpd,max and tpd,min, a single signal transition on the pin will be delayed between ½ and 1½
system clock period depending upon the time of assertion.
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When reading back a software assigned pin value, a nop instruction must be inserted as indicated in Figure 10-4. The out
instruction sets the “SYNC LATCH” signal at the positive edge of the clock. In this case, the delay tpd through the
synchronizer is 1 system clock period.
Figure 10-4. Synchronization when Reading a Software Assigned Pin Value
SYSTEM CLK
r16
INSTRUCTIOS
0xFF
out PORTx, r16
nop
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
tpd
The following code example shows how to set port B pins 0 and 1 high, 2 and 3 low, and define the port pins from 4 to 7 as
input with pull-ups assigned to port pins 6 and 7. The resulting pin values are read back again, but as previously discussed,
a nop instruction is included to be able to read back the value recently assigned to some of the pins.
Assembly Code Example(1)
...
; Define pull-ups and set outputs high
; Define directions for port pins
ldi
r16,(1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0)
ldi
r17,(1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0)
out
PORTB,r16
out
DDRB,r17
; Insert nop for synchronization
nop
; Read port pins
in
r16,PINB
...
C Code Example
unsigned char i;
...
/* Define pull-ups and set outputs high */
/* Define directions for port pins */
PORTB = (1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0);
DDRB = (1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0);
/* Insert nop for synchronization*/
__no_operation();
/* Read port pins */
i = PINB;
...
Note:
60
1.
For the assembly program, two temporary registers are used to minimize the time from pull-ups are set on pins
0, 1, 6, and 7, until the direction bits are correctly set, defining bit 2 and 3 as low and redefining bits 0 and 1 as
strong high drivers.
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10.2.5 Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes
As shown in Figure 10-2 on page 58, the digital input signal can be clamped to ground at the input of the schmitt trigger. The
signal denoted SLEEP in the figure, is set by the MCU sleep controller in power-down mode, power-save mode, and standby
mode to avoid high power consumption if some input signals are left floating, or have an analog signal level close to VCC/2.
SLEEP is overridden for port pins enabled as external interrupt pins. If the external interrupt request is not enabled, SLEEP
is active also for these pins. SLEEP is also overridden by various other alternate functions as described in
Section 10.3 “Alternate Port Functions” on page 62.
If a logic high level (“one”) is present on an asynchronous external interrupt pin configured as “interrupt on rising edge, falling
edge, or any logic change on pin” while the external interrupt is not enabled, the corresponding external interrupt flag will be
set when resuming from the above mentioned sleep mode, as the clamping in these sleep mode produces the requested
logic change.
10.2.6 Unconnected Pins
If some pins are unused, it is recommended to ensure that these pins have a defined level. Even though most of the digital
inputs are disabled in the deep sleep modes as described above, floating inputs should be avoided to reduce current
consumption in all other modes where the digital inputs are enabled (reset, active mode and idle mode).
The simplest method to ensure a defined level of an unused pin, is to enable the internal pull-up. In this case, the pull-up will
be disabled during reset. If low power consumption during reset is important, it is recommended to use an external pull-up or
pull-down. Connecting unused pins directly to VCC or GND is not recommended, since this may cause excessive currents if
the pin is accidentally configured as an output.
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10.3
Alternate Port Functions
Most port pins have alternate functions in addition to being general digital I/Os. Figure 10-5 shows how the port pin control
signals from the simplified Figure 10-2 on page 58 can be overridden by alternate functions. The overriding signals may not
be present in all port pins, but the figure serves as a generic description applicable to all port pins in the AVR®
microcontroller family.
Figure 10-5. Alternate Port Functions(1)
PUOExn
1
PUOVxn
PUD
0
DDOExn
1
DDOVxn
0
Q
D
DDxn
Q
CLR
RESET
WDx
RDx
PVOExn
1
PVOVxn
Pxn
D
0
PORTxn
Q
DIEOExn
1
DIEOVxn
0
SLEEP
DATA BUS
1
Q
0
PTOExn
CLR
RESET
WRx
WPx
RRx
Synchronizer
RPx
D SET Q
D
Q
PINxn
L
CLR
Q
CLR
Q
CLKI/O
DIxn
AIOxn
PUOExn:
PUOVxn:
DDOExn:
DDOVxn:
PVOExn:
PVOVxn:
DIEOExn:
DIEOVxn:
SLEEP:
PTOExn:
Note:
62
1.
Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DIGITAL INPUT ENABLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn DIGITAL INPUT ENABLE OVERRIDE VALUE
SLEEP CONTROL
Pxn, PORT TOGGLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
PUD:
WDx:
RDx:
RRx:
WRx:
RPx:
WPx:
CLK:I/O
DIxn:
AIOxn:
PULL-UP DISABLE
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
READ PORTx REGISTER
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx
I/O CLOCK
DIGITAL INPUT PIN n ON PORTx
ANALOG INPUT/OUTPUT PIN n ON PORTx
WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O, SLEEP, and PUD
are common to all ports. All other signals are unique for each pin.
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Table 10-2 summarizes the function of the overriding signals. The pin and port indexes from Figure 10-5 on page 62 are not
shown in the succeeding tables. The overriding signals are generated internally in the modules having the alternate function.
Table 10-2. Generic Description of Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions
Signal Name
Full Name
Description
PUOE
Pull-up override enable
If this signal is set, the pull-up enable is controlled by the PUOV signal. If
this signal is cleared, the pull-up is enabled when {DDxn, PORTxn, PUD} =
0b010.
PUOV
Pull-up override value
If PUOE is set, the pull-up is enabled/disabled when PUOV is set/cleared,
regardless of the setting of the DDxn, PORTxn, and PUD register bits.
DDOE
Data direction override
enable
If this signal is set, the output driver enable is controlled by the DDOV
signal. If this signal is cleared, the output driver is enabled by the DDxn
register bit.
DDOV
Data direction override
value
If DDOE is set, the output driver is enabled/disabled when DDOV is
set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn register bit.
PVOE
Port value override
enable
If this signal is set and the output driver is enabled, the port value is
controlled by the PVOV signal. If PVOE is cleared, and the output driver is
enabled, the port Value is controlled by the PORTxn register bit.
PVOV
Port value override value
If PVOE is set, the port value is set to PVOV, regardless of the setting of the
PORTxn register bit.
PTOE
Port toggle override
enable
If PTOE is set, the PORTxn register bit is inverted.
DIEOE
Digital input enable
override enable
If this bit is set, the digital input enable is controlled by the DIEOV signal. If
this signal is cleared, the digital input enable is determined by MCU state
(normal mode, sleep mode).
DIEOV
Digital input enable
override value
If DIEOE is set, the digital input is enabled/disabled when DIEOV is
set/cleared, regardless of the MCU state (normal mode, sleep mode).
DI
Digital input
This is the digital input to alternate functions. In the figure, the signal is
connected to the output of the schmitt trigger but before the synchronizer.
Unless the digital input is used as a clock source, the module with the
alternate function will use its own synchronizer.
AIO
Analog input/output
This is the analog input/output to/from alternate functions. The signal is
connected directly to the pad, and can be used bi-directionally.
The following subsections shortly describe the alternate functions for each port, and relate the overriding signals to the
alternate function. Refer to the alternate function description for further details.
10.3.1 MCU Control Register – MCUCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bit 4 – PUD: Pull-up Disable
When this bit is written to one, the pull-ups in the I/O ports are disabled even if the DDxn and PORTxn registers are
configured to enable the pull-ups ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01). See Section 10.2.1 “Configuring the Pin” on page 58 for more
details about this feature.
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10.3.2 Alternate Functions of Port B
The port B pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 10-3.
Table 10-3. Port B Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Functions
PB7
XTAL2 (chip clock oscillator pin 2)
TOSC2 (timer oscillator pin 2)
PCINT7 (pin change interrupt 7)
PB6
XTAL1 (chip clock oscillator pin 1 or external clock input)
TOSC1 (timer oscillator pin 1)
PCINT6 (pin change interrupt 6)
PB5
SCK (SPI bus master clock input)
PCINT5 (pin change interrupt 5)
PB4
MISO (SPI bus master input/slave output)
PCINT4 (pin change interrupt 4)
PB3
MOSI (SPI bus master output/slave input)
OC2A (Timer/Counter2 output compare match A output)
PCINT3 (pin change interrupt 3)
PB2
SS (SPI bus master slave select)
OC1B (Timer/Counter1 output compare match B output)
PCINT2 (pin change interrupt 2)
PB1
OC1A (Timer/Counter1 output compare match A output)
PCINT1 (pin change interrupt 1)
PB0
ICP1 (Timer/Counter1 input capture input)
CLKO (divided system clock output)
PCINT0 (pin change interrupt 0)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• XTAL2/TOSC2/PCINT7 – Port B, Bit 7
XTAL2: chip clock oscillator pin 2. Used as clock pin for crystal oscillator or low-frequency crystal oscillator. When used as a
clock pin, the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
TOSC2: timer oscillator pin 2. Used only if internal calibrated RC oscillator is selected as chip clock source, and the
asynchronous timer is enabled by the correct setting in ASSR. When the AS2 bit in ASSR is set (one) and the EXCLK bit is
cleared (zero) to enable asynchronous clocking of Timer/Counter2 using the crystal oscillator, pin PB7 is disconnected from
the port, and becomes the inverting output of the oscillator amplifier. In this mode, a crystal oscillator is connected to this pin,
and the pin cannot be used as an I/O pin.
PCINT7: pin change interrupt source 7. The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
If PB7 is used as a clock pin, DDB7, PORTB7 and PINB7 will all read 0.
• XTAL1/TOSC1/PCINT6 – Port B, Bit 6
XTAL1: chip clock oscillator pin 1. Used for all chip clock sources except internal calibrated RC oscillator. When used as a
clock pin, the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
TOSC1: timer oscillator pin 1. Used only if internal calibrated RC oscillator is selected as chip clock source, and the
asynchronous timer is enabled by the correct setting in ASSR. When the AS2 bit in ASSR is set (one) to enable
asynchronous clocking of Timer/Counter2, pin PB6 is disconnected from the port, and becomes the input of the inverting
oscillator amplifier. In this mode, a crystal oscillator is connected to this pin, and the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
PCINT6: pin change interrupt source 6. The PB6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
If PB6 is used as a clock pin, DDB6, PORTB6 and PINB6 will all read 0.
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• SCK/PCINT5 – Port B, Bit 5
SCK: master clock output, slave clock input pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is configured as
an input regardless of the setting of DDB5. When the SPI is enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled
by DDB5. When the pin is forced by the SPI to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB5 bit.
PCINT5: pin change interrupt source 5. The PB5 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• MISO/PCINT4 – Port B, Bit 4
MISO: master data input, slave data output pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a master, this pin is configured
as an input regardless of the setting of DDB4. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, the data direction of this pin is controlled
by DDB4. When the pin is forced by the SPI to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB4 bit.
PCINT4: pin change interrupt source 4. The PB4 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• MOSI/OC2/PCINT3 – Port B, Bit 3
MOSI: SPI master data output, slave data input for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is configured
as an input regardless of the setting of DDB3. When the SPI is enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is
controlled by DDB3. When the pin is forced by the SPI to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB3 bit.
OC2, output compare match output: The PB3 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter2 compare match.
The PB3 pin has to be configured as an output (DDB3 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC2 pin is also the output pin for
the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT3: pin change interrupt source 3. The PB3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• SS/OC1B/PCINT2 – Port B, Bit 2
SS: slave select input. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of
DDB2. As a slave, the SPI is activated when this pin is driven low. When the SPI is enabled as a master, the data direction
of this pin is controlled by DDB2. When the pin is forced by the SPI to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the
PORTB2 bit.
OC1B, output compare match output: The PB2 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1 compare match
B. The PB2 pin has to be configured as an output (DDB2 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1B pin is also the output
pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT2: pin change interrupt source 2. The PB2 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• OC1A/PCINT1 – Port B, Bit 1
OC1A, output compare match output: The PB1 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1 compare match
A. The PB1 pin has to be configured as an output (DDB1 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1A pin is also the output
pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT1: pin change interrupt source 1. The PB1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• ICP1/CLKO/PCINT0 – Port B, Bit 0
ICP1, input capture pin: The PB0 pin can act as an input capture pin for Timer/Counter1.
CLKO, divided system clock: The divided system clock can be output on the PB0 pin. The divided system clock will be output
if the CKOUT fuse is programmed, regardless of the PORTB0 and DDB0 settings. It will also be output during reset.
PCINT0: pin change interrupt source 0. The PB0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
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Table 10-4 and Table 10-5 relate the alternate functions of port B to the overriding signals shown in Figure 10-5 on page 62.
SPI MSTR INPUT and SPI SLAVE OUTPUT constitute the MISO signal, while MOSI is divided into SPI MSTR OUTPUT and
SPI SLAVE INPUT.
Table 10-4. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB7..PB4
Signal Name PB7/XTAL2/TOSC2/PCINT7(1)
PB6/XTAL1/TOSC1/PCINT6(1) PB5/SCK/PCINT5 PB4/MISO/PCINT4
PUOE
INTRC  EXTCK+ AS2
INTRC + AS2
SPE  MSTR
SPE  MSTR
PUOV
0
0
PORTB5  PUD
PORTB4  PUD
DDOE
INTRC  EXTCK+ AS2
INTRC + AS2
SPE  MSTR
SPE  MSTR
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
SPE  MSTR
SPE  MSTR
PVOV
0
0
SCK OUTPUT
SPI SLAVE OUTPUT
DIEOE
INTRC  EXTCK + AS2 +
PCINT7  PCIE0
INTRC + AS2 + PCINT6 
PCIE0
PCINT5  PCIE0
PCINT4  PCIE0
DIEOV
(INTRC + EXTCK)  AS2
INTRC  AS2
1
1
DI
PCINT7 INPUT
PCINT6 INPUT
PCINT5 INPUT
SCK INPUT
PCINT4 INPUT
SPI MSTR INPUT
AIO
Note:
1.
Oscillator output
Oscillator/clock input
–
–
INTRC means that one of the internal RC oscillators are selected (by the CKSEL fuses), EXTCK means that
external clock is selected (by the CKSEL fuses).
Table 10-5. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB3..PB0
66
Signal Name
PB3/MOSI/OC2/PCINT3
PB2/SS/OC1B/PCINT2
PB1/OC1A/PCINT1
PB0/ICP1/PCINT0
PUOE
SPE  MSTR
SPE  MSTR
0
0
PUOV
PORTB3  PUD
PORTB2  PUD
0
0
DDOE
SPE  MSTR
SPE  MSTR
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
SPE  MSTR +
OC2A ENABLE
OC1B ENABLE
OC1A ENABLE
0
PVOV
SPI MSTR OUTPUT +
OC2A
OC1B
OC1A
0
DIEOE
PCINT3  PCIE0
PCINT2  PCIE0
PCINT1  PCIE0
PCINT0  PCIE0
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT3 INPUT
SPI SLAVE INPUT
PCINT2 INPUT SPI SS
PCINT1 INPUT
PCINT0 INPUT
ICP1 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
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10.3.3 Alternate Functions of Port C
The port C pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 10-6.
Table 10-6. Port C Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PC6
RESET (reset pin)
PCINT14 (pin change interrupt 14)
PC5
ADC5 (ADC input channel 5)
SCL (2-wire serial bus clock line)
PCINT13 (pin change interrupt 13)
PC4
ADC4 (ADC input channel 4)
SDA (2-wire serial bus data input/output line)
PCINT12 (pin change interrupt 12)
PC3
ADC3 (ADC input channel 3)
PCINT11 (pin change interrupt 11)
PC2
ADC2 (ADC input channel 2)
PCINT10 (pin change interrupt 10)
PC1
ADC1 (ADC input channel 1)
PCINT9 (pin change interrupt 9)
PC0
ADC0 (ADC input channel 0)
PCINT8 (pin change interrupt 8)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• RESET/PCINT14 – Port C, Bit 6
RESET, reset pin: When the RSTDISBL fuse is programmed, this pin functions as a normal I/O pin, and the part will have to
rely on power-on reset and brown-out reset as its reset sources. When the RSTDISBL fuse is unprogrammed, the reset
circuitry is connected to the pin, and the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
If PC6 is used as a reset pin, DDC6, PORTC6 and PINC6 will all read 0.
PCINT14: pin change interrupt source 14. The PC6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• SCL/ADC5/PCINT13 – Port C, Bit 5
SCL, 2-wire serial interface clock: When the TWEN bit in TWCR is set (one) to enable the 2-wire serial interface, pin PC5 is
disconnected from the port and becomes the serial clock I/O pin for the 2-wire serial interface. In this mode, there is a spike
filter on the pin to suppress spikes shorter than 50 ns on the input signal, and the pin is driven by an open drain driver with
slew-rate limitation.
PC5 can also be used as ADC input channel 5. Note that ADC input channel 5 uses digital power.
PCINT13: pin change interrupt source 13. The PC5 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• SDA/ADC4/PCINT12 – Port C, Bit 4
SDA, 2-wire serial interface data: When the TWEN bit in TWCR is set (one) to enable the 2-wire serial interface, pin PC4 is
disconnected from the port and becomes the serial data I/O pin for the 2-wire serial interface. In this mode, there is a spike
filter on the pin to suppress spikes shorter than 50ns on the input signal, and the pin is driven by an open drain driver with
slew-rate limitation.
PC4 can also be used as ADC input Channel 4. Note that ADC input channel 4 uses digital power.
PCINT12: pin change interrupt source 12. The PC4 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• ADC3/PCINT11 – Port C, Bit 3
PC3 can also be used as ADC input channel 3. Note that ADC input channel 3 uses analog power.
PCINT11: pin change interrupt source 11. The PC3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
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• ADC2/PCINT10 – Port C, Bit 2
PC2 can also be used as ADC input channel 2. Note that ADC input channel 2 uses analog power.
PCINT10: pin change interrupt source 10. The PC2 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• ADC1/PCINT9 – Port C, Bit 1
PC1 can also be used as ADC input channel 1. Note that ADC input channel 1 uses analog power.
PCINT9: pin change interrupt source 9. The PC1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• ADC0/PCINT8 – Port C, Bit 0
PC0 can also be used as ADC input channel 0. Note that ADC input channel 0 uses analog power.
PCINT8: pin change interrupt source 8. The PC0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
Table 10-7 and Table 10-8 on page 68 relate the alternate functions of port C to the overriding signals shown in
Figure 10-5 on page 62.
Table 10-7. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC6..PC4(1)
Signal Name
PC6/RESET/PCINT14
PC5/SCL/ADC5/PCINT13
PC4/SDA/ADC4/PCINT12
PUOE
RSTDISBL
TWEN
TWEN
PUOV
1
PORTC5  PUD
PORTC4  PUD
DDOE
RSTDISBL
TWEN
TWEN
DDOV
0
SCL_OUT
SDA_OUT
PVOE
0
TWEN
TWEN
PVOV
0
0
0
DIEOE
RSTDISBL + PCINT14  PCIE1
PCINT13  PCIE1 + ADC5D
PCINT12  PCIE1 + ADC4D
DIEOV
RSTDISBL
PCINT13  PCIE1
PCINT12  PCIE1
DI
PCINT14 INPUT
PCINT13 INPUT
PCINT12 INPUT
AIO
Note:
1.
RESET INPUT
ADC5 INPUT / SCL INPUT
ADC4 INPUT / SDA INPUT
When enabled, the 2-wire serial interface enables slew-rate controls on the output pins PC4 and PC5. This is
not shown in the figure. In addition, spike filters are connected between the AIO outputs shown in the port
figure and the digital logic of the TWI module.
Table 10-8. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC3..PC0
68
Signal Name
PC3/ADC3/PCINT11
PC2/ADC2/PCINT10
PC1/ADC1/PCINT9
PC0/ADC0/PCINT8
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
PCINT11  PCIE1 +
ADC3D
PCINT10  PCIE1 +
ADC2D
PCINT9  PCIE1 +
ADC1D
PCINT8  PCIE1 +
ADC0D
DIEOV
PCINT11  PCIE1
PCINT10  PCIE1
PCINT9  PCIE1
PCINT8  PCIE1
DI
PCINT11 INPUT
PCINT10 INPUT
PCINT9 INPUT
PCINT8 INPUT
AIO
ADC3 INPUT
ADC2 INPUT
ADC1 INPUT
ADC0 INPUT
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10.3.4 Alternate Functions of Port D
The port D pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 10-9.
Table 10-9. Port D Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PD7
AIN1 (analog comparator negative input)
PCINT23 (pin change interrupt 23)
PD6
AIN0 (analog comparator positive input)
OC0A (Timer/Counter0 output compare match A output)
PCINT22 (pin change interrupt 22)
PD5
T1 (Timer/Counter 1 external counter input)
OC0B (Timer/Counter0 output compare match B output)
PCINT21 (pin change interrupt 21)
PD4
XCK (USART external clock input/output)
T0 (Timer/Counter 0 external counter input)
PCINT20 (pin change interrupt 20)
PD3
INT1 (external interrupt 1 input)
OC2B (Timer/Counter2 output compare match B output)
PCINT19 (pin change interrupt 19)
PD2
INT0 (external interrupt 0 input)
PCINT18 (pin change interrupt 18)
PD1
TXD (USART output pin)
PCINT17 (pin change interrupt 17)
PD0
RXD (USART input pin)
PCINT16 (pin change interrupt 16)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• AIN1/OC2B/PCINT23 – Port D, Bit 7
AIN1, analog comparator negative input. Configure the port pin as input with the internal pull-up switched off to avoid the
digital port function from interfering with the function of the analog comparator.
PCINT23: pin change interrupt source 23. The PD7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• AIN0/OC0A/PCINT22 – Port D, Bit 6
AIN0, analog comparator positive input. Configure the port pin as input with the internal pull-up switched off to avoid the
digital port function from interfering with the function of the analog comparator.
OC0A, output compare match output: The PD6 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter0 compare match
A. The PD6 pin has to be configured as an output (DDD6 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC0A pin is also the output
pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT22: pin change interrupt source 22. The PD6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• T1/OC0B/PCINT21 – Port D, Bit 5
T1, Timer/Counter1 counter source.
OC0B, output compare match output: The PD5 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter0 compare match
B. The PD5 pin has to be configured as an output (DDD5 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC0B pin is also the output
pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT21: pin change interrupt source 21. The PD5 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
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• XCK/T0/PCINT20 – Port D, Bit 4
XCK, USART external clock.
T0, Timer/Counter0 counter source.
PCINT20: pin change interrupt source 20. The PD4 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• INT1/OC2B/PCINT19 – Port D, Bit 3
INT1, external interrupt source 1: The PD3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
OC2B, output compare match output: The PD3 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter0 compare match
B. The PD3 pin has to be configured as an output (DDD3 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC2B pin is also the output
pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT19: pin change interrupt source 19. The PD3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• INT0/PCINT18 – Port D, Bit 2
INT0, external interrupt source 0: The PD2 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
PCINT18: pin change interrupt source 18. The PD2 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• TXD/PCINT17 – Port D, Bit 1
TXD, transmit data (data output pin for the USART). When the USART transmitter is enabled, this pin is configured as an
output regardless of the value of DDD1.
PCINT17: pin change interrupt source 17. The PD1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• RXD/PCINT16 – Port D, Bit 0
RXD, receive data (data input pin for the USART). When the USART receiver is enabled this pin is configured as an input
regardless of the value of DDD0. When the USART forces this pin to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the
PORTD0 bit.
PCINT16: pin change interrupt source 16. The PD0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
Table 10-10 and Table 10-11 on page 71 relate the alternate functions of Port D to the overriding signals shown in
Figure 10-5 on page 62.
Table 10-10. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PD7..PD4
70
Signal Name
PD7/AIN1/PCINT23 PD6/AIN0/OC0A/PCINT22
PD5/T1/OC0B/PCINT21 PD4/XCK/T0/PCINT20
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUO
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
OC0A ENABLE
OC0B ENABLE
UMSEL
PVOV
0
OC0A
OC0B
XCK OUTPUT
DIEOE
PCINT23  PCIE2
PCINT22  PCIE2
PCINT21  PCIE2
PCINT20  PCIE2
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT23 INPUT
PCINT22 INPUT
PCINT21 INPUT
T1 INPUT
PCINT20 INPUT
XCK INPUT
T0 INPUT
AIO
AIN1 INPUT
AIN0 INPUT
–
–
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Table 10-11. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PD3..PD0
10.4
Signal Name
PD3/OC2B/INT1/PCINT19
PD2/INT0/PCINT18
PD1/TXD/PCINT17
PD0/RXD/PCINT16
PUOE
0
0
TXEN
RXEN
PUO
0
0
0
PORTD0  PUD
DDOE
0
0
TXEN
RXEN
DDOV
0
0
1
0
PVOE
OC2B ENABLE
0
TXEN
0
PVOV
OC2B
0
TXD
0
DIEOE
INT1 ENABLE + PCINT19  INT0 ENABLE + PCINT18
PCINT17  PCIE2
PCIE2
 PCIE1
PCINT16  PCIE2
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT19 INPUT
INT1 INPUT
PCINT18 INPUT
INT0 INPUT
PCINT17 INPUT
PCINT16 INPUT
RXD
AIO
–
–
–
–
Register Description for I/O Ports
10.4.1 The Port B Data Register – PORTB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTB
10.4.2 The Port B Data Direction Register – DDRB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRB
10.4.3 The Port B Input Pins Address – PINB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PINB
10.4.4 The Port C Data Register – PORTC
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTC
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10.4.5 The Port C Data Direction Register – DDRC
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRC
10.4.6 The Port C Input Pins Address – PINC
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PINC
10.4.7 The Port D Data Register – PORTD
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTD
10.4.8 The Port D Data Direction Register – DDRD
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRD
10.4.9 The Port D Input Pins Address – PIND
Bit
72
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
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PIND
11.
External Interrupts
The external interrupts are triggered by the INT0 and INT1 pins or any of the PCINT23..0 pins. Observe that, if enabled, the
interrupts will trigger even if the INT0 and INT1 or PCINT23..0 pins are configured as outputs. This feature provides a way of
generating a software interrupt. The pin change interrupt PCI2 will trigger if any enabled PCINT23..16 pin toggles. The pin
change interrupt PCI1 will trigger if any enabled PCINT14..8 pin toggles. The pin change interrupt PCI0 will trigger if any
enabled PCINT7..0 pin toggles. The PCMSK2, PCMSK1 and PCMSK0 registers control which pins contribute to the pin
change interrupts. Pin change interrupts on PCINT23..0 are detected asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can
be used for waking the part also from sleep modes other than idle mode.
The INT0 and INT1 interrupts can be triggered by a falling or rising edge or a low level. This is set up as indicated in the
specification for the external interrupt control register A – EICRA. When the INT0 or INT1 interrupts are enabled and are
configured as level triggered, the interrupts will trigger as long as the pin is held low. Note that recognition of falling or rising
edge interrupts on INT0 or INT1 requires the presence of an I/O clock, described in
Section 6.1 “Clock Systems and their Distribution” on page 23. Low level interrupt on INT0 and INT1 is detected
asynchronously. This implies that this interrupt can be used for waking the part also from sleep modes other than idle mode.
The I/O clock is halted in all sleep modes except idle mode.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from power-down, the required level must be held long enough for
the MCU to complete the wake-up to trigger the level interrupt. If the level disappears before the end of the start-up time, the
MCU will still wake up, but no interrupt will be generated. The start-up time is defined by the SUT and CKSEL fuses as
described in Section 6. “System Clock and Clock Options” on page 23.
11.1
External Interrupt Control Register A – EICRA
The external interrupt control register A contains control bits for interrupt sense control.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
–
–
ISC11
ISC10
ISC01
ISC00
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EICRA
• Bit 7..4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3, 2 – ISC11, ISC10: Interrupt Sense Control 1 Bit 1 and Bit 0
The external interrupt 1 is activated by the external pin INT1 if the SREG I-flag and the corresponding interrupt mask are set.
The level and edges on the external INT1 pin that activate the interrupt are defined in Table 11-1. The value on the INT1 pin
is sampled before detecting edges. If edge or toggle interrupt is selected, pulses that last longer than one clock period will
generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate an interrupt. If low level interrupt is selected, the low
level must be held until the completion of the currently executing instruction to generate an interrupt.
Table 11-1. Interrupt 1 Sense Control
ISC11
ISC10
0
0
Description
The low level of INT1 generates an interrupt request.
0
1
Any logical change on INT1 generates an interrupt request.
1
0
The falling edge of INT1 generates an interrupt request.
1
1
The rising edge of INT1 generates an interrupt request.
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• Bit 1, 0 – ISC01, ISC00: Interrupt Sense Control 0 Bit 1 and Bit 0
The external interrupt 0 is activated by the external pin INT0 if the SREG I-flag and the corresponding interrupt mask are set.
The level and edges on the external INT0 pin that activate the interrupt are defined in Table 11-2. The value on the INT0 pin
is sampled before detecting edges. If edge or toggle interrupt is selected, pulses that last longer than one clock period will
generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate an interrupt. If low level interrupt is selected, the low
level must be held until the completion of the currently executing instruction to generate an interrupt.
Table 11-2. Interrupt 0 Sense Control
11.2
ISC01
ISC00
0
0
Description
The low level of INT0 generates an interrupt request.
0
1
Any logical change on INT0 generates an interrupt request.
1
0
The falling edge of INT0 generates an interrupt request.
1
1
The rising edge of INT0 generates an interrupt request.
External Interrupt Mask Register – EIMSK
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
–
–
INT1
INT0
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EIMSK
• Bit 7..2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 1 – INT1: External Interrupt Request 1 Enable
When the INT1 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the status register (SREG) is set (one), the external pin interrupt is enabled.
The interrupt sense control1 bits 1/0 (ISC11 and ISC10) in the external interrupt control register A (EICRA) define whether
the external interrupt is activated on rising and/or falling edge of the INT1 pin or level sensed. Activity on the pin will cause an
interrupt request even if INT1 is configured as an output. The corresponding interrupt of external interrupt request 1 is
executed from the INT1 interrupt vector.
• Bit 0 – INT0: External Interrupt Request 0 Enable
When the INT0 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the status register (SREG) is set (one), the external pin interrupt is enabled.
The interrupt sense control0 bits 1/0 (ISC01 and ISC00) in the external interrupt control register A (EICRA) define whether
the external interrupt is activated on rising and/or falling edge of the INT0 pin or level sensed. Activity on the pin will cause an
interrupt request even if INT0 is configured as an output. The corresponding interrupt of external interrupt request 0 is
executed from the INT0 interrupt vector.
11.3
External Interrupt Flag Register – EIFR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
INTF1
INTF0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7..2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
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EIFR
• Bit 1 – INTF1: External Interrupt Flag 1
When an edge or logic change on the INT1 pin triggers an interrupt request, INTF1 becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG
and the INT1 bit in EIMSK are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding interrupt vector. The flag is cleared when
the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it. This flag is always cleared
when INT1 is configured as a level interrupt.
• Bit 0 – INTF0: External Interrupt Flag 0
When an edge or logic change on the INT0 pin triggers an interrupt request, INTF0 becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG
and the INT0 bit in EIMSK are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding interrupt vector. The flag is cleared when
the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it. This flag is always cleared
when INT0 is configured as a level interrupt.
11.4
Pin Change Interrupt Control Register - PCICR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
–
–
PCIE2
PCIE1
PCIE0
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCICR
• Bit 7..3 - Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 2 - PCIE2: Pin Change Interrupt Enable 2
When the PCIE2 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the status register (SREG) is set (one), pin change interrupt 2 is enabled. Any
change on any enabled PCINT23..16 pin will cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of pin change interrupt request
is executed from the PCI2 interrupt vector. PCINT23..16 pins are enabled individually by the PCMSK2 register.
• Bit 1 - PCIE1: Pin Change Interrupt Enable 1
When the PCIE1 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the status register (SREG) is set (one), pin change interrupt 1 is enabled. Any
change on any enabled PCINT14..8 pin will cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of pin change interrupt request is
executed from the PCI1 interrupt vector. PCINT14..8 pins are enabled individually by the PCMSK1 register.
• Bit 0 - PCIE0: Pin Change Interrupt Enable 0
When the PCIE0 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the status register (SREG) is set (one), pin change interrupt 0 is enabled. Any
change on any enabled PCINT7..0 pin will cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of pin change interrupt request is
executed from the PCI0 interrupt vector. PCINT7..0 pins are enabled individually by the PCMSK0 register.
11.5
Pin Change Interrupt Flag Register - PCIFR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
PCIF2
PCIF1
PCIF0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCIFR
• Bit 7..3 - Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 2 - PCIF2: Pin Change Interrupt Flag 2
When a logic change on any PCINT23..16 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF2 becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG
and the PCIE2 bit in PCICR are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding interrupt vector. The flag is cleared when
the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
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• Bit 1 - PCIF1: Pin Change Interrupt Flag 1
When a logic change on any PCINT14..8 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF1 becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG and
the PCIE1 bit in PCICR are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding interrupt vector. The flag is cleared when the
interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
• Bit 0 - PCIF0: Pin Change Interrupt Flag 0
When a logic change on any PCINT7..0 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF0 becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG and
the PCIE0 bit in PCICR are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding interrupt vector. The flag is cleared when the
interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
11.6
Pin Change Mask Register 2 – PCMSK2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PCINT23
PCINT22
PCINT21
PCINT20
PCINT19
PCINT18
PCINT17
PCINT16
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCMSK2
• Bit 7..0 – PCINT23..16: Pin Change Enable Mask 23..16
Each PCINT23..16-bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT23..16 is set
and the PCIE2 bit in PCICR is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT23..16 is cleared,
pin change interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
11.7
Pin Change Mask Register 1 – PCMSK1
Bit
7
–
6
5
4
3
2
PCINT14 PCINT13 PCINT12 PCINT11 PCINT10
1
0
PCINT9
PCINT8
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCMSK1
• Bit 7 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is an unused bit in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 6..0 – PCINT14..8: Pin Change Enable Mask 14..8
Each PCINT14..8-bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT14..8 is set and
the PCIE1 bit in PCICR is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT14..8 is cleared, pin
change interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
11.8
Pin Change Mask Register 0 – PCMSK0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PCINT7
PCINT6
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCMSK0
• Bit 7..0 – PCINT7..0: Pin Change Enable Mask 7..0
Each PCINT7..0 bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT7..0 is set and the
PCIE0 bit in PCICR is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT7..0 is cleared, pin change
interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
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12.
8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM
Timer/Counter0 is a general purpose 8-bit Timer/Counter module, with two independent output compare units, and with
PWM support. It allows accurate program execution timing (event management) and wave generation. The main features
are:
● Two independent output compare units
●
●
●
●
●
●
Clear timer on compare match (auto reload)
Glitch free, phase correct pulse width modulator (PWM)
Variable PWM period
Frequency generator
Three independent interrupt sources (TOV0, OCF0A, and OCF0B)
Overview
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 12-1. For the actual placement of I/O pins, refer to
Section 1-1 “Pinout ATmega48/88/168” on page 3. CPU accessible I/O registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in
bold. The device-specific I/O register and bit locations are listed in Section 12.8 “8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description”
on page 87.
The PRTIM0 bit in Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 must be written to zero to enable
Timer/Counter0 module.
Figure 12-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn (Int. Req.)
Control Logic
clkTn
TOSC1
T/C
Oscillator
Prescaler
TOP
TOSC2
BOTTOM
clkI/O
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=
0
OCnA (Int. Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
OCRnA
DATA BUS
12.1
Double buffered output compare registers
Fixed
TOP
Value
OCnB (Int. Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnB
OCRnB
TCCRnA
TCCRnB
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12.1.1 Definitions
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter
number, in this case 0. A lower case “x” replaces the output compare unit, in this case compare unit A or compare unit B.
However, when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., TCNT0 for accessing
Timer/Counter0 counter value and so on.
The definitions in the following table are also used extensively throughout the document.
Table 12-1. Definitions
Parameters
Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x00.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count sequence. The
TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF (MAX) or the value stored in the OCR0A register.
The assignment is dependent on the mode of operation.
12.1.2 Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT0) and output compare registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt request
(abbreviated to int.req. in the figure) signals are all visible in the timer interrupt flag register (TIFR0). All interrupts are
individually masked with the timer interrupt mask register (TIMSK0). TIFR0 and TIMSK0 are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on the T0 pin. The clock select
logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The
Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the clock select logic is referred to as the timer
clock (clkT0).
The double buffered output compare registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are compared with the Timer/Counter value at all
times. The result of the compare can be used by the waveform generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on
the output compare pins (OC0A and OC0B). See Section 14.6.3 “Using the Output Compare Unit” on page 104 for details.
The compare match event will also set the compare flag (OCF0A or OCF0B) which can be used to generate an output
compare interrupt request.
12.2
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source is selected by the clock
select logic which is controlled by the clock select (CS02:0) bits located in the Timer/Counter control register (TCCR0B). For
details on clock sources and prescaler, see Section 13. “Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers” on page 92.
12.3
Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure 12-2 shows a block diagram
of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 12-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int. Req.)
DATA BUS
Clock Select
count
TCNTn
clear
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
direction
(from Prescaler)
bottom
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top
Tn
Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT0 by 1.
direction
Select between increment and decrement.
clear
Clear TCNT0 (set all bits to zero).
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock, referred to as clkT0 in the following.
top
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached maximum value.
bottom
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending of the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented at each timer clock (clkT0).
clkT0 can be generated from an external or internal clock source, selected by the clock select bits (CS02:0). When no clock
source is selected (CS02:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT0 value can be accessed by the CPU, regardless of
whether clkT0 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM01 and WGM00 bits located in the Timer/Counter control
register (TCCR0A) and the WGM02 bit located in the Timer/Counter control register B (TCCR0B). There are close
connections between how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the output compare outputs
OC0A and OC0B. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see Section 12.6
“Modes of Operation” on page 81.
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV0) is set according to the mode of operation selected by the WGM02:0 bits. TOV0 can
be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
12.4
Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT0 with the output compare registers (OCR0A and OCR0B). Whenever
TCNT0 equals OCR0A or OCR0B, the comparator signals a match. A match will set the output compare flag (OCF0A or
OCF0B) at the next timer clock cycle. If the corresponding interrupt is enabled, the output compare flag generates an output
compare interrupt. The output compare flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively, the flag
can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The waveform generator uses the match signal to
generate an output according to operating mode set by the WGM02:0 bits and compare output mode (COM0x1:0) bits. The
max and bottom signals are used by the waveform generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in some
modes of operation (Section 12.6 “Modes of Operation” on page 81).
Figure 12-3 shows a block diagram of the output compare unit.
Figure 12-3. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
=
(8-bit Comparator)
OCFnx (Int. Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMnX1:0
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The OCR0x registers are double buffered when using any of the pulse width modulation (PWM) modes. For the normal and
clear timer on compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the
update of the OCR0x Compare Registers to either top or bottom of the counting sequence. The synchronization prevents the
occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR0x register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the CPU has
access to the OCR0x buffer register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCR0x directly.
12.4.1 Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by writing a one to the force
output compare (FOC0x) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the OCF0x flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC0x pin
will be updated as if a real compare match had occurred (the COM0x1:0 bits settings define whether the OC0x pin is set,
cleared or toggled).
12.4.2 Compare Match Blocking by TCNT0 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT0 register will block any compare match that occur in the next timer clock cycle, even
when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR0x to be initialized to the same value as TCNT0 without triggering an
interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
12.4.3 Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT0 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock cycle, there are risks
involved when changing TCNT0 when using the output compare unit, independently of whether the Timer/Counter is running
or not. If the value written to TCNT0 equals the OCR0x value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in incorrect
waveform generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT0 value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is downcounting.
The setup of the OC0x should be performed before setting the data direction register for the port pin to output. The easiest
way of setting the OC0x value is to use the force output compare (FOC0x) strobe bits in normal mode. The OC0x registers
keep their values even when changing between waveform generation modes.
Be aware that the COM0x1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value. Changing the COM0x1:0 bits will
take effect immediately.
12.5
Compare Match Output Unit
The compare output mode (COM0x1:0) bits have two functions. The waveform generator uses the COM0x1:0 bits for
defining the output compare (OC0x) state at the next compare match. Also, the COM0x1:0 bits control the OC0x pin output
source. Figure 12-4 on page 81 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM0x1:0 bit setting. The I/O
registers, I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O port control registers (DDR
and PORT) that are affected by the COM0x1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the OC0x state, the reference is for the
internal OC0x register, not the OC0x pin. If a system reset occur, the OC0x register is reset to “0”.
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Figure 12-4. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCn
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
Pin
OCnx
0
DATA BUS
D
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clkI/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the output compare (OC0x) from the waveform generator if either of the
COM0x1:0 bits are set. However, the OC0x pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the data direction register
(DDR) for the port pin. The data direction register bit for the OC0x pin (DDR_OC0x) must be set as output before the OC0x
value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the waveform generation mode.
The design of the output compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC0x state before the output is enabled. Note that
some COM0x1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of operation. See Section 12.8 “8-bit Timer/Counter Register
Description” on page 87
12.5.1 Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The waveform generator uses the COM0x1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes. For all modes, setting the
COM0x1:0 = 0 tells the waveform generator that no action on the OC0x register is to be performed on the next compare
match. For compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 12-2 on page 87. For fast PWM mode, refer to
Table 12-3 on page 87, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 12-4 on page 87.
A change of the COM0x1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are written. For non-PWM
modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the FOC0x strobe bits.
12.6
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the output compare pins, is defined by the combination of
the waveform generation mode (WGM02:0) and compare output mode (COM0x1:0) bits. The compare output mode bits do
not affect the counting sequence, while the waveform generation mode bits do. The COM0x1:0 bits control whether the
PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM modes the COM0x1:0 bits
control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at a compare match (see Section 12.5 “Compare Match Output
Unit” on page 80).
For detailed timing information refer to Section 12.7 “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 85.
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12.6.1 Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the normal mode (WGM02:0 = 0). In this mode the counting direction is always up
(incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value
(TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV0) will be
set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT0 becomes zero. The TOV0 flag in this case behaves like a ninth bit, except
that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOV0 flag,
the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special cases to consider in the normal mode, a new counter
value can be written anytime.
The output compare unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the output compare to generate
waveforms in normal mode is not recommended, since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.
12.6.2 Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In clear timer on compare or CTC mode (WGM02:0 = 2), the OCR0A register is used to manipulate the counter resolution. In
CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNT0) matches the OCR0A. The OCR0A defines the top
value for the counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It
also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 12-5. The counter value (TCNT0) increases until a compare match
occurs between TCNT0 and OCR0A, and then counter (TCNT0) is cleared.
Figure 12-5. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt
Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the OCF0A flag. If the interrupt
is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP value. However, changing TOP to a value close to
BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does
not have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR0A is lower than the current value of TCNT0, the
counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around
starting at 0x00 before the compare match can occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC0A output can be set to toggle its logical level on each compare
match by setting the compare output mode bits to toggle mode (COM0A1:0 = 1). The OC0A value will not be visible on the
port pin unless the data direction for the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of
fOC0 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnx = ------------------------------------------------2  N   1 + OCRnx 
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the normal mode of operation, the TOV0 flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the counter counts from MAX to
0x00.
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12.6.3 Fast PWM Mode
The fast pulse width modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM02:0 = 3 or 7) provides a high frequency PWM waveform
generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from
BOTTOM to TOP then restarts from BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and OCR0A when WGM2:0 = 7.
In non-inverting compare output mode, the output compare (OC0x) is cleared on the compare match between TCNT0 and
OCR0x, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting compare output mode, the output is set on compare match and cleared at
BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation, the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the
phase correct PWM mode that use dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited for
power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small sized external components
(coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost.
In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the TOP value. The counter is then cleared at
the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is shown in Figure 12-6. The TCNT0 value is in
the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent compare matches between OCR0x
and TCNT0.
Figure 12-6. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt
Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt
handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pins. Setting the COM0x1:0 bits to
two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM0x1:0 to three:
Setting the COM0A1:0 bits to one allows the OC0A pin to toggle on compare matches if the WGM02 bit is set. This option is
not available for the OC0B pin (see Table 12-6 on page 88). The actual OC0x value will only be visible on the port pin if the
data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC0x register at
the compare match between OCR0x and TCNT0, and clearing (or setting) the OC0x register at the timer clock cycle the
counter is cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ----------------N  256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A register represents special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the fast
PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle.
Setting the OCR0A equal to MAX will result in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set by
the COM0A1:0 bits.)
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A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC0x to toggle its logical
level on each compare match (COM0x1:0 = 1). The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0 = fclk_I/O/2
when OCR0A is set to zero. This feature is similar to the OC0A toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the
output compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
12.6.4 Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM02:0 = 1 or 5) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation
option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to
TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 1, and OCR0A when WGM2:0 = 5.
In non-inverting compare output mode, the output compare (OC0x) is cleared on the compare match between TCNT0 and
OCR0x while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting output compare mode, the
operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation.
However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control
applications.
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches TOP. When the counter reaches
TOP, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for
the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 12-7. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for
illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line
marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent compare matches between OCR0x and TCNT0.
Figure 12-7. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt
Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt
Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The interrupt flag can be used to
generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM value.
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In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pins. Setting the
COM0x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the
COM0x1:0 to three: Setting the COM0A0 bits to one allows the OC0A pin to toggle on compare matches if the WGM02 bit is
set. This option is not available for the OC0B pin (see Table 12-7 on page 88). The actual OC0x value will only be visible on
the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the
OC0x register at the compare match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter increments, and setting (or clearing) the
OC0x register at compare match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the
output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = ----------------N  510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the phase
correct PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the
output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic
values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 12-7 OCnx has a transition from high to low even though there is no compare match.
The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without
compare match.
● OCRnx changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 12-7. When the OCR0A value is MAX the OCn pin value is the
same as the result of a down-counting compare match. To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCnx value at
MAX must correspond to the result of an up-counting compare match.
●
12.7
The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCRnx, and for that reason misses the compare match
and hence the OCnx change that would have happened on the way up.
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT0) is therefore shown as a clock enable signal in the
following figures. The figures include information on when interrupt flags are set. Figure 12-8 contains timing data for basic
Timer/Counter operation. The figure shows the count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes other than phase
correct PWM mode.
Figure 12-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
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Figure 12-9 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 12-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 12-10 shows the setting of OCF0B in all modes and OCF0A in all modes except CTC mode and PWM mode, where
OCR0A is TOP.
Figure 12-10.Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF0x, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 12-11 shows the setting of OCF0A and the clearing of TCNT0 in CTC mode and fast PWM mode where OCR0A is
TOP.
Figure 12-11.Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
TOP - 1
OCRnx
OCFnx
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TOP
BOTTOM
TOP
BOTTOM + 1
12.8
8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description
12.8.1 Timer/Counter Control Register A – TCCR0A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM0A1
COM0A0
COM0B1
COM0B0
–
–
WGM01
WGM00
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR0A
• Bits 7:6 – COM0A1:0: Compare Match Output A Mode
These bits control the output compare pin (OC0A) behavior. If one or both of the COM0A1:0 bits are set, the OC0A output
overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the data direction register (DDR)
bit corresponding to the OC0A pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC0A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0A1:0 bits depends on the WGM02:0 bit setting. Table 12-2
shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 12-2. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0A1
COM0A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC0A on compare match
1
0
Clear OC0A on compare match
1
1
Set OC0A on compare match
Table 12-3 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM01:0 bits are set to fast PWM mode.
Table 12-3. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1
COM0A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
WGM02 = 0: normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
WGM02 = 1: toggle OC0A on compare match.
1
0
Clear OC0A on compare match, set OC0A at TOP
Note:
1
1.
Description
1
Set OC0A on compare match, clear OC0A at TOP
A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is
ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See Section 12.6.3 “Fast PWM Mode” on page 83 for more
details.
Table 12-4 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Table 12-4. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1
COM0A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
WGM02 = 0: normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
WGM02 = 1: toggle OC0A on compare match.
1
0
Clear OC0A on compare match when up-counting. Set OC0A on compare match
when down-counting.
1
Note:
1.
Description
Set OC0A on compare match when up-counting. Clear OC0A on compare match
when down-counting.
A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is
ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See Section 14.8.4 “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 108 for
more details.
1
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Bits 5:4 – COM0B1:0: Compare Match Output B Mode
These bits control the output compare pin (OC0B) behavior. If one or both of the COM0B1:0 bits are set, the OC0B output
overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the data direction register (DDR)
bit corresponding to the OC0B pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC0B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0B1:0 bits depends on the WGM02:0 bit setting.
Table 12-5 on page 88 shows the COM0B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode
(non-PWM).
Table 12-5. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0B1
COM0B0
0
0
Description
Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC0B on compare match
1
0
Clear OC0B on compare match
1
1
Set OC0B on compare match
Table 12-6 shows the COM0B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to fast PWM mode.
Table 12-6. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM0B1
COM0B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0B on compare match, set OC0B at TOP
Note:
1
1.
Description
1
Set OC0B on compare match, clear OC0B at TOP
A special case occurs when OCR0B equals TOP and COM0B1 is set. In this case, the compare match is
ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See Section 12.6.3 “Fast PWM Mode” on page 83 for more
details.
Table 12-7 shows the COM0B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Table 12-7. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM0B1
COM0B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0B on compare match when up-counting. Set OC0B on compare match when
down-counting.
1
Note:
1.
Description
Set OC0B on compare match when up-counting. Clear OC0B on compare match when
down-counting.
A special case occurs when OCR0B equals TOP and COM0B1 is set. In this case, the compare match is
ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See Section 12.6.4 “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 84 for
more details.
1
• Bits 3, 2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bits 1:0 – WGM01:0: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM02 bit found in the TCCR0B register, these bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the
source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used, see Table 12-8. Modes of
operation supported by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), clear timer on compare match (CTC) mode, and
two types of pulse width modulation (PWM) modes (see Section 12.6 “Modes of Operation” on page 81).
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Table 12-8. Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description
Timer/Counter
Mode of Operation
TOP
Update of
OCRx at
TOV Flag
Set on(1)(2)
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
0
1
PWM, phase correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
1
0
CTC
OCRA
Immediate
MAX
0
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
TOP
MAX
4
1
0
0
Reserved
–
–
–
5
1
0
1
PWM, phase correct
OCRA
TOP
BOTTOM
6
1
1
0
Reserved
–
–
–
1
1
Fast PWM
OCRA
TOP
TOP
Mode
WGM02
WGM01
WGM00
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
7
Notes:
1.
1
MAX
2.
BOTTOM = 0x00
= 0xFF
12.8.2 Timer/Counter Control Register B – TCCR0B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC0A
FOC0B
–
–
WGM02
CS02
CS01
CS00
Read/Write
W
W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR0B
• Bit 7 – FOC0A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC0A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0B is written when operating
in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0A bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the waveform
generation unit. The OC0A output is changed according to its COM0A1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC0A bit is
implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM0A1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced
compare.
A FOC0A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0A as TOP.
The FOC0A bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC0B: Force Output Compare B
The FOC0B bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0B is written when operating
in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0B bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the waveform
generation unit. The OC0B output is changed according to its COM0B1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC0B bit is
implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM0B1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced
compare.
A FOC0B strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0B as TOP.
The FOC0B bit is always read as zero.
• Bits 5:4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – WGM02: Waveform Generation Mode
See the description in the Section 12.8.1 “Timer/Counter Control Register A – TCCR0A” on page 87.
• Bits 2:0 – CS02:0: Clock Select
The three clock select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter.
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Table 12-9. Clock Select Bit Description
CS02
CS01
CS00
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0
0
1
clkI/O/(no prescaling)
0
1
0
clkI/O/8 (from prescaler)
0
1
1
clkI/O/64 (from prescaler)
1
0
0
clkI/O/256 (from prescaler)
1
0
1
clkI/O/1024 (from prescaler)
1
1
0
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on falling edge.
1
1
1
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on rising edge.
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter0, transitions on the T0 pin will clock the counter even if the pin is
configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the counting.
12.8.3 Timer/Counter Register – TCNT0
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
TCNT0[7:0]
TCNT0
The Timer/Counter register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 8-bit counter.
Writing to the TCNT0 register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter
(TCNT0) while the counter is running, introduces a risk of missing a compare match between TCNT0 and the OCR0x
registers.
12.8.4 Output Compare Register A – OCR0A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OCR0A[7:0]
OCR0A
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The output compare register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value (TCNT0). A
match can be used to generate an output compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC0A pin.
12.8.5 Output Compare Register B – OCR0B
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
OCR0B[7:0]
OCR0B
The output compare register B contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value (TCNT0). A
match can be used to generate an output compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC0B pin.
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12.8.6 Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register – TIMSK0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE0B
OCIE0A
TOIE0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK0
• Bits 7..3 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 2 – OCIE0B: Timer/Counter Output Compare Match B Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0B bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the status register is set, the Timer/Counter compare match B interrupt
is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a compare match in Timer/Counter occurs, i.e., when the OCF0B bit is
set in the Timer/Counter interrupt flag register – TIFR0.
• Bit 1 – OCIE0A: Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0A bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the status register is set, the Timer/Counter0 compare match A
interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a compare match in Timer/Counter0 occurs, i.e., when the
OCF0A bit is set in the Timer/Counter 0 interrupt flag register – TIFR0.
• Bit 0 – TOIE0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE0 bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the status register is set, the Timer/Counter0 overflow interrupt is
enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an overflow in Timer/Counter0 occurs, i.e., when the TOV0 bit is set in
the Timer/Counter 0 interrupt flag register – TIFR0.
12.8.7 Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
OCF0B
OCF0A
TOV0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR0
• Bits 7..3 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 2 – OCF0B: Timer/Counter 0 Output Compare B Match Flag
The OCF0B bit is set when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter and the data in OCR0B – output compare
register0 B. OCF0B is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively,
OCF0B is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0B (Timer/Counter compare B match
interrupt enable), and OCF0B are set, the Timer/Counter compare match interrupt is executed.
• Bit 1 – OCF0A: Timer/Counter 0 Output Compare A Match Flag
The OCF0A bit is set when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter0 and the data in OCR0A – output compare
register0. OCF0A is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF0A
is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0A (Timer/Counter0 compare match interrupt
enable), and OCF0A are set, the Timer/Counter0 compare match interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Flag
The bit TOV0 is set when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter0. TOV0 is cleared by hardware when executing the
corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV0 is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the
SREG I-bit, TOIE0 (Timer/Counter0 overflow interrupt enable), and TOV0 are set, the Timer/Counter0 overflow interrupt is
executed.
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM02:0 bit setting. Refer to Table 12-8 on page 89 in Section 12-8 “Waveform
Generation Mode Bit Description” on page 89.
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13.
Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers
Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 share the same prescaler module, but the Timer/Counters can have different prescaler
settings. The description below applies to both Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0.
13.1
Internal Clock Source
The Timer/Counter can be clocked directly by the system clock (by setting the CSn2:0 = 1). This provides the fastest
operation, with a maximum Timer/Counter clock frequency equal to system clock frequency (fCLK_I/O). Alternatively, one of
four taps from the prescaler can be used as a clock source. The prescaled clock has a frequency of either fCLK_I/O/8,
fCLK_I/O/64, fCLK_I/O/256, or fCLK_I/O/1024.
13.2
Prescaler Reset
The prescaler is free running, i.e., operates independently of the clock select logic of the Timer/Counter, and it is shared by
timer/sounter1 and Timer/Counter0. Since the prescaler is not affected by the Timer/Counter’s clock select, the state of the
prescaler will have implications for situations where a prescaled clock is used. One example of prescaling artifacts occurs
when the timer is enabled and clocked by the prescaler (6 > CSn2:0 > 1). The number of system clock cycles from when the
timer is enabled to the first count occurs can be from 1 to N+1 system clock cycles, where N equals the prescaler divisor (8,
64, 256, or 1024).
It is possible to use the prescaler reset for synchronizing the Timer/Counter to program execution. However, care must be
taken if the other Timer/Counter that shares the same prescaler also uses prescaling. A prescaler reset will affect the
prescaler period for all Timer/Counters it is connected to.
13.3
External Clock Source
An external clock source applied to the T1/T0 pin can be used as Timer/Counter clock (clkT1/clkT0). The T1/T0 pin is sampled
once every system clock cycle by the pin synchronization logic. The synchronized (sampled) signal is then passed through
the edge detector. Figure 13-1 shows a functional equivalent block diagram of the T1/T0 synchronization and edge detector
logic. The registers are clocked at the positive edge of the internal system clock (clkI/O). The latch is transparent in the high
period of the internal system clock.
The edge detector generates one clkT1/clkT0 pulse for each positive (CSn2:0 = 7) or negative (CSn2:0 = 6) edge it detects.
Figure 13-1. T1/T0 Pin Sampling
Tn
D
Q
D
Q
D
Tn_sync
(to Clock
Select Logic)
Q
LE
clkI/O
Synchronization
Edge Detector
The synchronization and edge detector logic introduces a delay of 2.5 to 3.5 system clock cycles from an edge has been
applied to the T1/T0 pin to the counter is updated.
Enabling and disabling of the clock input must be done when T1/T0 has been stable for at least one system clock cycle,
otherwise it is a risk that a false Timer/Counter clock pulse is generated.
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Each half period of the external clock applied must be longer than one system clock cycle to ensure correct sampling. The
external clock must be guaranteed to have less than half the system clock frequency (fExtClk < fclk_I/O/2) given a 50/50% duty
cycle. Since the edge detector uses sampling, the maximum frequency of an external clock it can detect is half the sampling
frequency (nyquist sampling theorem). However, due to variation of the system clock frequency and duty cycle caused by
oscillator source (crystal, resonator, and capacitors) tolerances, it is recommended that maximum frequency of an external
clock source is less than fclk_I/O/2.5.
An external clock source can not be prescaled.
Figure 13-2. Prescaler for Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1(1)
10-bit T/C Prescaler
CK/64
PSRSYNC
Note:
T0
Synchronization
T1
Synchronization
1.
0
CK/1024
CK/8
Clear
CK/256
clkI/O
0
CS10
CS00
CS11
CS01
CS12
CS02
Timer/Counter 1Clock Source
Timer/Counter 0 Clock Source
clkT1
clkT0
The synchronization logic on the input pins (T1/T0) is shown in Figure 13-1 on page 92.
13.3.1 General Timer/Counter Control Register – GTCCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSRASY
PSRSYNC
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode
Writing the TSM bit to one activates the Timer/Counter synchronization mode. In this mode, the value that is written to the
PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits is kept, hence keeping the corresponding prescaler reset signals asserted. This ensures that
the corresponding Timer/Counters are halted and can be configured to the same value without the risk of one of them
advancing during configuration. When the TSM bit is written to zero, the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits are cleared by
hardware, and the Timer/Counters start counting simultaneously.
• Bit 0 – PSRSYNC: Prescaler Reset
When this bit is one, Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally cleared immediately by
hardware, except if the TSM bit is set. Note that Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 share the same prescaler and a reset
of this prescaler will affect both timers.
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14.
16-bit Timer/Counter1 with PWM
The 16-bit Timer/Counter unit allows accurate program execution timing (event management), wave generation, and signal
timing measurement. The main features are:
● True 16-bit Design (i.e., allows 16-bit PWM)
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
14.1
Two independent output compare units
Double buffered output compare registers
One input capture unit
Input capture noise canceler
Clear timer on compare match (auto reload)
Glitch-free, phase correct pulse width modulator (PWM)
Variable PWM period
Frequency generator
External event counter
Four independent interrupt sources (TOV1, OCF1A, OCF1B, and ICF1)
Overview
Most register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter
number, and a lower case “x” replaces the output compare unit channel. However, when using the register or bit defines in a
program, the precise form must be used, i.e., TCNT1 for accessing Timer/Counter1 counter value and so on.
A simplified block diagram of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 14-1 on page 95. For the actual placement of
I/O pins, refer to Section 1-1 “Pinout ATmega48/88/168” on page 3. CPU accessible I/O registers, including I/O bits and I/O
pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O register and bit locations are listed in the
Section 14.10 “16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 113.
The PRTIM1 bit in Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 must be written to zero to enable
Timer/Counter1 module.
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Figure 14-1. 16-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram(1)
TOVn (Int. Req.)
Count
Clear
Direction
Clock Select
Control Logic
clkTn
TOP
BOTTOM
=
=
Edge
Detector
Tn
(from Prescaler)
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
0
OCnA (Int. Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
DATA BUS
OCRnA
Fixed
TOP
Value
OCnB (Int. Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnB
(From Analog
Comparator Output)
OCRnB
ICFn (Int. Req.)
Edge
Detector
ICRn
TCCRnA
Note:
1.
Noise
Canceler
ICPn
TCCRnB
Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 3, Table 10-3 on page 64 and Table 10-9 on page 69 for Timer/Counter1 pin
placement and description.
14.1.1 Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT1), output compare registers (OCR1A/B), and input capture register (ICR1) are all 16-bit registers.
Special procedures must be followed when accessing the 16-bit registers. These procedures are described in the
Section 14.2 “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 96. The Timer/Counter control registers (TCCR1A/B) are 8-bit registers
and have no CPU access restrictions. Interrupt requests (abbreviated to int.req. in the figure) signals are all visible in the
timer interrupt flag register (TIFR1). All interrupts are individually masked with the timer interrupt mask register (TIMSK1).
TIFR1 and TIMSK1 are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on the T1 pin. The clock select
logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The
Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the clock select logic is referred to as the timer
clock (clkT1).
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The double buffered output compare registers (OCR1A/B) are compared with the Timer/Counter value at all time. The result
of the compare can be used by the waveform generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the output
compare pin (OC1A/B). See Section 14.6 “Output Compare Units” on page 102. The compare match event will also set the
compare match flag (OCF1A/B) which can be used to generate an output compare interrupt request.
The input capture register can capture the Timer/Counter value at a given external (edge triggered) event on either the input
capture pin (ICP1) or on the analog comparator pins (see Section 20. “Analog Comparator” on page 203) The input capture
unit includes a digital filtering unit (noise canceler) for reducing the chance of capturing noise spikes.
The TOP value, or maximum Timer/Counter value, can in some modes of operation be defined by either the OCR1A
register, the ICR1 register, or by a set of fixed values. When using OCR1A as TOP value in a PWM mode, the OCR1A
register can not be used for generating a PWM output. However, the TOP value will in this case be double buffered allowing
the TOP value to be changed in run time. If a fixed TOP value is required, the ICR1 register can be used as an alternative,
freeing the OCR1A to be used as PWM output.
14.1.2 Definitions
The following definitions are used extensively throughout the section:
Table 14-1. Definitions
14.2
Parameter
Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x0000.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFFFF (decimal 65535).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count sequence. The TOP
value can be assigned to be one of the fixed values: 0x00FF, 0x01FF, or 0x03FF, or to the value stored in
the OCR1A or ICR1 register. The assignment is dependent of the mode of operation.
Accessing 16-bit Registers
The TCNT1, OCR1A/B, and ICR1 are 16-bit registers that can be accessed by the AVR CPU via the 8-bit data bus.
The 16-bit register must be byte accessed using two read or write operations. Each 16-bit timer has a single 8-bit register for
temporary storing of the high byte of the 16-bit access. The same temporary register is shared between all 16-bit registers
within each 16-bit timer. Accessing the low byte triggers the 16-bit read or write operation. When the low byte of a
16-bit register is written by the CPU, the high byte stored in the temporary register, and the low byte written are both copied
into the 16-bit register in the same clock cycle. When the low byte of a 16-bit register is read by the CPU, the high byte of the
16-bit register is copied into the temporary register in the same clock cycle as the low byte is read.
Not all 16-bit accesses uses the temporary register for the high byte. Reading the OCR1A/B 16-bit registers does not involve
using the temporary register.
To do a 16-bit write, the high byte must be written before the low byte. For a 16-bit read, the low byte must be read before the
high byte.
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The following code examples show how to access the 16-bit timer registers assuming that no interrupts updates the
temporary register. The same principle can be used directly for accessing the OCR1A/B and ICR1 registers. Note that when
using “C”, the compiler handles the 16-bit access.
Assembly Code Examples(1)
...
; Set TCNT1 to 0x01FF
ldi
r17,0x01
ldi
r16,0xFF
out
TCNT1H,r17
out
TCNT1L,r16
; Read TCNT1 into r17:r16
in
r16,TCNT1L
in
r17,TCNT1H
...
C Code Examples(1)
unsigned int i;
...
/* Set TCNT1 to 0x01FF */
TCNT1 = 0x1FF;
/* Read TCNT1 into i */
i = TCNT1;
...
Note:
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must
be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with
“SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
The assembly code example returns the TCNT1 value in the r17:r16 register pair.
It is important to notice that accessing 16-bit registers are atomic operations. If an interrupt occurs between the two
instructions accessing the 16-bit register, and the interrupt code updates the temporary register by accessing the same or
any other of the 16-bit timer registers, then the result of the access outside the interrupt will be corrupted. Therefore, when
both the main code and the interrupt code update the temporary register, the main code must disable the interrupts during
the 16-bit access.
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The following code examples show how to do an atomic read of the TCNT1 register contents. Reading any of the OCR1A/B
or ICR1 registers can be done by using the same principle.
Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_ReadTCNT1:
; Save global interrupt flag
in
r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Read TCNT1 into r17:r16
in
r16,TCNT1L
in
r17,TCNT1H
; Restore global interrupt flag
out
SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned int TIM16_ReadTCNT1( void )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
_CLI();
/* Read TCNT1 into i */
i = TCNT1;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
return i;
}
Note:
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must
be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with
“SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
The assembly code example returns the TCNT1 value in the r17:r16 register pair.
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The following code examples show how to do an atomic write of the TCNT1 register contents. Writing any of the OCR1A/B
or ICR1 registers can be done by using the same principle.
Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_WriteTCNT1:
; Save global interrupt flag
in
r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Set TCNT1 to r17:r16
out
TCNT1H,r17
out
TCNT1L,r16
; Restore global interrupt flag
out
SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
void TIM16_WriteTCNT1( unsigned int i )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
_CLI();
/* Set TCNT1 to i */
TCNT1 = i;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
}
Note:
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must
be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with
“SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
The assembly code example requires that the r17:r16 register pair contains the value to be written to TCNT1.
14.2.1 Reusing the Temporary High Byte Register
If writing to more than one 16-bit register where the high byte is the same for all registers written, then the high byte only
needs to be written once. However, note that the same rule of atomic operation described previously also applies in this
case.
14.3
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source is selected by the clock
select logic which is controlled by the clock select (CS12:0) bits located in the Timer/Counter control register B (TCCR1B).
For details on clock sources and prescaler, see Section 13. “Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers” on page 92.
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14.4
Counter Unit
The main part of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable 16-bit bi-directional counter unit. Figure 14-2 shows a block
diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 14-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TOVn
(Int. Req.)
TEMP (8-bit)
Clock Select
Count
TCNTnH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTnH (16-bit Counter)
Clear
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
Tn
Direction
(from Prescaler)
TOP
BOTTOM
Signal description (internal signals):
Count
Increment or decrement TCNT1 by 1.
Direction
Select between increment and decrement.
Clear
Clear TCNT1 (set all bits to zero).
clkT1
Timer/Counter clock.
TOP
Signalize that TCNT1 has reached maximum value.
BOTTOM
Signalize that TCNT1 has reached minimum value (zero).
The 16-bit counter is mapped into two 8-bit I/O memory locations: counter high (TCNT1H) containing the upper eight bits of
the counter, and counter low (TCNT1L) containing the lower eight bits. The TCNT1H register can only be indirectly accessed
by the CPU. When the CPU does an access to the TCNT1H I/O location, the CPU accesses the high byte temporary register
(TEMP). The temporary register is updated with the TCNT1H value when the TCNT1L is read, and TCNT1H is updated with
the temporary register value when TCNT1L is written. This allows the CPU to read or write the entire 16-bit counter value
within one clock cycle via the 8-bit data bus. It is important to notice that there are special cases of writing to the TCNT1
register when the counter is counting that will give unpredictable results. The special cases are described in the sections
where they are of importance.
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented at each timer clock (clkT1).
The clkT1 can be generated from an external or internal clock source, selected by the clock select bits (CS12:0). When no
clock source is selected (CS12:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT1 value can be accessed by the CPU,
independent of whether clkT1 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or count
operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the waveform generation mode bits (WGM13:0) located in the
Timer/Counter control registers A and B (TCCR1A and TCCR1B). There are close connections between how the counter
behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the output compare outputs OC1x. For more details about
advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see Section 14.8 “Modes of Operation” on page 105.
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV1) is set according to the mode of operation selected by the WGM13:0 bits. TOV1 can
be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
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14.5
Input Capture Unit
The Timer/Counter incorporates an input capture unit that can capture external events and give them a time-stamp
indicating time of occurrence. The external signal indicating an event, or multiple events, can be applied via the ICP1 pin or
alternatively, via the analog-comparator unit. The time-stamps can then be used to calculate frequency, duty-cycle, and
other features of the signal applied. Alternatively the time-stamps can be used for creating a log of the events.
The input capture unit is illustrated by the block diagram shown in Figure 14-3. The elements of the block diagram that are
not directly a part of the input capture unit are gray shaded. The small “n” in register and bit names indicates the
Timer/Counter number.
Figure 14-3. Input Capture Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS (8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
ICRnH (8-bit)
ICRnL (8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
ICRn (16-bit Register)
WRITE
+
-
ACO*
Analog
Comparator
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
ACIC*
ICNC
ICES
Noise
Canceler
Edge
Detector
ICFn (Int. Req.)
ICPn
When a change of the logic level (an event) occurs on the input capture pin (ICP1), alternatively on the analog comparator
output (ACO), and this change confirms to the setting of the edge detector, a capture will be triggered. When a capture is
triggered, the 16-bit value of the counter (TCNT1) is written to the input capture register (ICR1). The input capture flag (ICF1)
is set at the same system clock as the TCNT1 value is copied into ICR1 Register. If enabled (ICIE1 = 1), the Input Capture
flag generates an input capture interrupt. The ICF1 flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively
the ICF1 flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location.
Reading the 16-bit value in the input capture register (ICR1) is done by first reading the low byte (ICR1L) and then the high
byte (ICR1H). When the low byte is read the high byte is copied into the high byte temporary register (TEMP). When the
CPU reads the ICR1H I/O location it will access the TEMP register.
The ICR1 register can only be written when using a waveform generation mode that utilizes the ICR1 register for defining the
counter’s TOP value. In these cases the waveform generation mode (WGM13:0) bits must be set before the TOP value can
be written to the ICR1 register. When writing the ICR1 register the high byte must be written to the ICR1H I/O location before
the low byte is written to ICR1L.
For more information on how to access the 16-bit registers refer to Section 14.2 “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 96.
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14.5.1 Input Capture Trigger Source
The main trigger source for the input capture unit is the input capture pin (ICP1). Timer/Counter1 can alternatively use the
analog comparator output as trigger source for the Input Capture unit. The Analog Comparator is selected as trigger source
by setting the analog comparator input capture (ACIC) bit in the analog comparator control and status register (ACSR). Be
aware that changing trigger source can trigger a capture. The input capture flag must therefore be cleared after the change.
Both the input capture pin (ICP1) and the analog comparator output (ACO) inputs are sampled using the same technique as
for the T1 pin (Figure 13-1 on page 92). The edge detector is also identical. However, when the noise canceler is enabled,
additional logic is inserted before the edge detector, which increases the delay by four system clock cycles. Note that the
input of the noise canceler and edge detector is always enabled unless the Timer/Counter is set in a waveform generation
mode that uses ICR1 to define TOP.
An input capture can be triggered by software by controlling the port of the ICP1 pin.
14.5.2 Noise Canceler
The noise canceler improves noise immunity by using a simple digital filtering scheme. The noise canceler input is monitored
over four samples, and all four must be equal for changing the output that in turn is used by the edge detector.
The noise canceler is enabled by setting the input capture noise canceler (ICNC1) bit in Timer/Counter control register B
(TCCR1B). When enabled the noise canceler introduces additional four system clock cycles of delay from a change applied
to the input, to the update of the ICR1 register. The noise canceler uses the system clock and is therefore not affected by the
prescaler.
14.5.3 Using the Input Capture Unit
The main challenge when using the input capture unit is to assign enough processor capacity for handling the incoming
events. The time between two events is critical. If the processor has not read the captured value in the ICR1 register before
the next event occurs, the ICR1 will be overwritten with a new value. In this case the result of the capture will be incorrect.
When using the input capture interrupt, the ICR1 register should be read as early in the interrupt handler routine as possible.
Even though the input capture interrupt has relatively high priority, the maximum interrupt response time is dependent on the
maximum number of clock cycles it takes to handle any of the other interrupt requests.
Using the input capture unit in any mode of operation when the TOP value (resolution) is actively changed during operation,
is not recommended.
Measurement of an external signal’s duty cycle requires that the trigger edge is changed after each capture. Changing the
edge sensing must be done as early as possible after the ICR1 register has been read. After a change of the edge, the input
capture flag (ICF1) must be cleared by software (writing a logical one to the I/O bit location). For measuring frequency only,
the clearing of the ICF1 flag is not required (if an interrupt handler is used).
14.6
Output Compare Units
The 16-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT1 with the output compare register (OCR1x). If TCNT equals OCR1x
the comparator signals a match. A match will set the output compare flag (OCF1x) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled
(OCIE1x = 1), the output compare flag generates an output compare interrupt. The OCF1x flag is automatically cleared
when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the OCF1x flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit
location. The waveform generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to operating mode set by the
waveform generation mode (WGM13:0) bits and compare output mode (COM1x1:0) bits. The TOP and BOTTOM signals
are used by the waveform generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation (See
Section 14.8 “Modes of Operation” on page 105)
A special feature of output compare unit A allows it to define the Timer/Counter TOP value (i.e., counter resolution). In
addition to the counter resolution, the TOP value defines the period time for waveforms generated by the waveform
generator.
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Figure 14-4 shows a block diagram of the output compare unit. The small “n” in the register and bit names indicates the
device number (n = 1 for Timer/Counter 1), and the “x” indicates output compare unit (A/B). The elements of the block
diagram that are not directly a part of the output compare unit are gray shaded.
Figure 14-4. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS (8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
OCRnxH Buf. (8-bit)
OCRnxL Buf. (8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
OCRnx Buffer (16-bit Register)
OCRnxH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
OCRnxL (8-bit)
OCRnx (16-bit Register)
=
(16-bitComparator)
OCFnx (Int. Req.)
TOP
Waveform Generator
OCnx
BOTTOM
WGMn3:0
COMnx1:0
The OCR1x register is double buffered when using any of the twelve pulse width modulation (PWM) modes. For the normal
and clear timer on compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes
the update of the OCR1x compare register to either TOP or BOTTOM of the counting sequence. The synchronization
prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR1x register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the CPU has
access to the OCR1x buffer register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCR1x directly. The content
of the OCR1x (buffer or compare) register is only changed by a write operation (the Timer/Counter does not update this
register automatically as the TCNT1 and ICR1 register). Therefore OCR1x is not read via the high byte temporary register
(TEMP). However, it is a good practice to read the low byte first as when accessing other 16-bit registers. Writing the OCR1x
registers must be done via the TEMP register since the compare of all 16 bits is done continuously. The high byte (OCR1xH)
has to be written first. When the high byte I/O location is written by the CPU, the TEMP register will be updated by the value
written. Then when the low byte (OCR1xL) is written to the lower eight bits, the high byte will be copied into the upper 8-bits
of either the OCR1x buffer or OCR1x compare register in the same system clock cycle.
For more information of how to access the 16-bit registers refer to Section 14.2 “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 96.
14.6.1 Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by writing a one to the force
output compare (FOC1x) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the OCF1x flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC1x pin
will be updated as if a real compare match had occurred (the COM11:0 bits settings define whether the OC1x pin is set,
cleared or toggled).
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14.6.2 Compare Match Blocking by TCNT1 Write
All CPU writes to the TCNT1 register will block any compare match that occurs in the next timer clock cycle, even when the
timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR1x to be initialized to the same value as TCNT1 without triggering an interrupt
when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
14.6.3 Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT1 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock cycle, there are risks
involved when changing TCNT1 when using any of the output compare channels, independent of whether the Timer/Counter
is running or not. If the value written to TCNT1 equals the OCR1x value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in
incorrect waveform generation. Do not write the TCNT1 equal to TOP in PWM modes with variable TOP values. The
compare match for the TOP will be ignored and the counter will continue to 0xFFFF. Similarly, do not write the TCNT1 value
equal to BOTTOM when the counter is downcounting.
The setup of the OC1x should be performed before setting the data direction register for the port pin to output. The easiest
way of setting the OC1x value is to use the force output compare (FOC1x) strobe bits in normal mode. The OC1x register
keeps its value even when changing between waveform generation modes.
Be aware that the COM1x1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value. Changing the COM1x1:0 bits will
take effect immediately.
14.7
Compare Match Output Unit
The compare output mode (COM1x1:0) bits have two functions. The waveform generator uses the COM1x1:0 bits for
defining the output compare (OC1x) state at the next compare match. Secondly the COM1x1:0 bits control the OC1x pin
output source. Figure 14-5 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM1x1:0 bit setting. The I/O registers,
I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O port control registers (DDR and PORT)
that are affected by the COM1x1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the OC1x state, the reference is for the internal OC1x
register, not the OC1x pin. If a system reset occur, the OC1x register is reset to “0”.
Figure 14-5. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCn
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
Pin
OCnx
0
DATA BUS
D
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clkI/O
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The general I/O port function is overridden by the output compare (OC1x) from the waveform generator if either of the
COM1x1:0 bits are set. However, the OC1x pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the data direction register
(DDR) for the port pin. The data direction register bit for the OC1x pin (DDR_OC1x) must be set as output before the OC1x
value is visible on the pin. The port override function is generally independent of the waveform generation mode, but there
are some exceptions. Refer to Table 14-2 on page 113, Table 14-3 on page 114 and Table 14-4 on page 114 for details.
The design of the output compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC1x state before the output is enabled. Note that
some COM1x1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of operation.
See Section 14.10 “16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 113
The COM1x1:0 bits have no effect on the input capture unit.
14.7.1 Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The waveform generator uses the COM1x1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes. For all modes, setting the
COM1x1:0 = 0 tells the waveform generator that no action on the OC1x register is to be performed on the next compare
match. For compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 14-2 on page 113. For fast PWM mode refer to
Table 14-3 on page 114, and for phase correct and phase and frequency correct PWM refer to Table 14-4 on page 114.
A change of the COM1x1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are written. For non-PWM
modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the FOC1x strobe bits.
14.8
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the output compare pins, is defined by the combination of
the waveform generation mode (WGM13:0) and compare output mode (COM1x1:0) bits. The compare output mode bits do
not affect the counting sequence, while the waveform generation mode bits do. The COM1x1:0 bits control whether the
PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM modes the COM1x1:0 bits
control whether the output should be set, cleared or toggle at a compare match
(see Section 14.7 “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 104)
For detailed timing information refer to Section 14.9 “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 111.
14.8.1 Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the normal mode (WGM13:0 = 0). In this mode the counting direction is always up
(incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 16-bit value
(MAX = 0xFFFF) and then restarts from the BOTTOM (0x0000). In normal operation the Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV1)
will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT1 becomes zero. The TOV1 flag in this case behaves like a 17th bit,
except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOV1
flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special cases to consider in the normal mode, a new
counter value can be written anytime.
The input capture unit is easy to use in normal mode. However, observe that the maximum interval between the external
events must not exceed the resolution of the counter. If the interval between events are too long, the timer overflow interrupt
or the prescaler must be used to extend the resolution for the capture unit.
The output compare units can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the output compare to generate
waveforms in normal mode is not recommended, since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.
14.8.2 Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In clear timer on compare or CTC mode (WGM13:0 = 4 or 12), the OCR1A or ICR1 register are used to manipulate the
counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNT1) matches either the OCR1A
(WGM13:0 = 4) or the ICR1 (WGM13:0 = 12). The OCR1A or ICR1 define the top value for the counter, hence also its
resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of
counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 14-6 on page 106. The counter value (TCNT1) increases until a
compare match occurs with either OCR1A or ICR1, and then counter (TCNT1) is cleared.
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Figure 14-6. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnA
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnA1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated at each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by either using the OCF1A or ICF1 flag
according to the register used to define the TOP value. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used
for updating the TOP value. However, changing the TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none
or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature. If the new
value written to OCR1A or ICR1 is lower than the current value of TCNT1, the counter will miss the compare match. The
counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare
match can occur. In many cases this feature is not desirable. An alternative will then be to use the fast PWM mode using
OCR1A for defining TOP (WGM13:0 = 15) since the OCR1A then will be double buffered.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC1A output can be set to toggle its logical level on each compare
match by setting the compare output mode bits to toggle mode (COM1A1:0 = 1). The OC1A value will not be visible on the
port pin unless the data direction for the pin is set to output (DDR_OC1A = 1). The waveform generated will have a
maximum frequency of fOC1A = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR1A is set to zero (0x0000). The waveform frequency is defined by the
following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnA = -------------------------------------------------2  N   1 + OCRnA 
The N variable represents the prescaler factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the normal mode of operation, the TOV1 flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the counter counts from MAX to
0x0000.
14.8.3 Fast PWM Mode
The fast pulse width modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM13:0 = 5, 6, 7, 14, or 15) provides a high frequency PWM
waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM options by its single-slope operation. The counter
counts from BOTTOM to TOP then restarts from BOTTOM. In non-inverting compare output mode, the output compare
(OC1x) is set on the compare match between TCNT1 and OCR1x, and cleared at TOP. In inverting compare output mode
output is cleared on compare match and set at TOP. Due to the single-slope operation, the operating frequency of the fast
PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct and phase and frequency correct PWM modes that use dual-slope
operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited for power regulation, rectification, and DAC
applications. High frequency allows physically small sized external components (coils, capacitors), hence reduces total
system cost.
The PWM resolution for fast PWM can be fixed to 8-, 9-, or 10-bit, or defined by either ICR1 or OCR1A. The minimum
resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set to 0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set to
MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be calculated by using the following equation:
log  TOP + 1 
R FPWM = ---------------------------------log  2 
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In fast PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either one of the fixed values 0x00FF,
0x01FF, or 0x03FF (WGM13:0 = 5, 6, or 7), the value in ICR1 (WGM13:0 = 14), or the value in OCR1A (WGM13:0 = 15).
The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is shown in
Figure 14-7. The figure shows fast PWM mode when OCR1A or ICR1 is used to define TOP. The TCNT1 value is in the
timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT1 slopes represent compare matches between OCR1x
and TCNT1. The OC1x interrupt flag will be set when a compare match occurs.
Figure 14-7. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx/ TOP Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set and
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV1) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. In addition the OC1A or ICF1 flag is set
at the same timer clock cycle as TOV1 is set when either OCR1A or ICR1 is used for defining the TOP value. If one of the
interrupts are enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP and compare values.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or equal to the value of all of the
compare registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the compare registers, a compare match will never occur between
the TCNT1 and the OCR1x. Note that when using fixed TOP values the unused bits are masked to zero when any of the
OCR1x registers are written.
The procedure for updating ICR1 differs from updating OCR1A when used for defining the TOP value. The ICR1 register is
not double buffered. This means that if ICR1 is changed to a low value when the counter is running with none or a low
prescaler value, there is a risk that the new ICR1 value written is lower than the current value of TCNT1. The result will then
be that the counter will miss the compare match at the TOP value. The counter will then have to count to the MAX value
(0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can occur. The OCR1A register however, is double
buffered. This feature allows the OCR1A I/O location to be written anytime. When the OCR1A I/O location is written the
value written will be put into the OCR1A buffer register. The OCR1A compare register will then be updated with the value in
the buffer register at the next timer clock cycle the TCNT1 matches TOP. The update is done at the same timer clock cycle
as the TCNT1 is cleared and the TOV1 flag is set.
Using the ICR1 register for defining TOP works well when using fixed TOP values. By using ICR1, the OCR1A register is
free to be used for generating a PWM output on OC1A. However, if the base PWM frequency is actively changed (by
changing the TOP value), using the OCR1A as TOP is clearly a better choice due to its double buffer feature.
In fast PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OC1x pins. Setting the COM1x1:0 bits to
two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM1x1:0 to three (see
Table on page 114). The actual OC1x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as
output (DDR_OC1x). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC1x register at the compare match
between OCR1x and TCNT1, and clearing (or setting) the OC1x register at the timer clock cycle the counter is cleared
(changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
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The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ---------------------------------N   1 + TOP 
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR1x register represents special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the fast
PWM mode. If the OCR1x is set equal to BOTTOM (0x0000) the output will be a narrow spike for each TOP+1 timer clock
cycle. Setting the OCR1x equal to TOP will result in a constant high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set
by the COM1x1:0 bits.)
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC1A to toggle its logical
level on each compare match (COM1A1:0 = 1). This applies only if OCR1A is used to define the TOP value
(WGM13:0 = 15). The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC1A = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR1A is set to zero
(0x0000). This feature is similar to the OC1A toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the output compare
unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
14.8.4 Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct pulse width modulation or phase correct PWM mode (WGM13:0 = 1, 2, 3, 10, or 11) provides a high
resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is, like the phase and frequency
correct PWM mode, based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM (0x0000) to TOP and
then from TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting compare output mode, the output compare (OC1x) is cleared on the compare
match between TCNT1 and OCR1x while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting output
compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single
slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor
control applications.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode can be fixed to 8-, 9-, or 10-bit, or defined by either ICR1 or OCR1A.
The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set to 0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICR1 or
OCR1A set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be calculated by using the following equation:
log  TOP + 1 
R PCPWM = ---------------------------------log  2 
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either one of the fixed values
0x00FF, 0x01FF, or 0x03FF (WGM13:0 = 1, 2, or 3), the value in ICR1 (WGM13:0 = 10), or the value in OCR1A
(WGM13:0 = 11). The counter has then reached the TOP and changes the count direction. The TCNT1 value will be equal to
TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 14-8 on page 109.
The figure shows phase correct PWM mode when OCR1A or ICR1 is used to define TOP. The TCNT1 value is in the timing
diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted
PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT1 slopes represent compare matches between OCR1x and
TCNT1. The OC1x interrupt flag will be set when a compare match occurs.
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Figure 14-8. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx/ TOP Update and
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV1) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. When either OCR1A or ICR1 is
used for defining the TOP value, the OC1A or ICF1 flag is set accordingly at the same timer clock cycle as the OCR1x
registers are updated with the double buffer value (at TOP). The interrupt flags can be used to generate an interrupt each
time the counter reaches the TOP or BOTTOM value.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or equal to the value of all of the
compare registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the compare registers, a compare match will never occur between
the TCNT1 and the OCR1x. Note that when using fixed TOP values, the unused bits are masked to zero when any of the
OCR1x registers are written. As the third period shown in Figure 14-8 illustrates, changing the TOP actively while the
Timer/Counter is running in the phase correct mode can result in an unsymmetrical output. The reason for this can be found
in the time of update of the OCR1x register. Since the OCR1x update occurs at TOP, the PWM period starts and ends at
TOP. This implies that the length of the falling slope is determined by the previous TOP value, while the length of the rising
slope is determined by the new TOP value. When these two values differ the two slopes of the period will differ in length. The
difference in length gives the unsymmetrical result on the output.
It is recommended to use the phase and frequency correct mode instead of the phase correct mode when changing the TOP
value while the Timer/Counter is running. When using a static TOP value there are practically no differences between the
two modes of operation.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OC1x pins. Setting the
COM1x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the
COM1x1:0 to three (See Table on page 114). The actual OC1x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction
for the port pin is set as output (DDR_OC1x). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC1x register at
the compare match between OCR1x and TCNT1 when the counter increments, and clearing (or setting) the OC1x register at
compare match between OCR1x and TCNT1 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using
phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = ---------------------------2  N  TOP
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR1x register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the phase
correct PWM mode. If the OCR1x is set equal to BOTTOM the output will be continuously low and if set equal to TOP the
output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic
values. If OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 11) and COM1A1:0 = 1, the OC1A output will toggle with a
50% duty cycle.
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14.8.5 Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode
The phase and frequency correct pulse width modulation, or phase and frequency correct PWM mode (WGM13:0 = 8 or 9)
provides a high resolution phase and frequency correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase and frequency correct
PWM mode is, like the phase correct PWM mode, based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from
BOTTOM (0x0000) to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting compare output mode, the output compare
(OC1x) is cleared on the compare match between TCNT1 and OCR1x while upcounting, and set on the compare match
while downcounting. In inverting compare output mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation gives a lower
maximum operation frequency compared to the single-slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the
dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications.
The main difference between the phase correct, and the phase and frequency correct PWM mode is the time the OCR1x
register is updated by the OCR1x buffer register, (see Figure 14-8 on page 109 and Figure 14-9).
The PWM resolution for the phase and frequency correct PWM mode can be defined by either ICR1 or OCR1A. The
minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set to 0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A
set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be calculated using the following equation:
log  TOP + 1 
R PFCPWM = ---------------------------------log  2 
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either the value in
ICR1 (WGM13:0 = 8), or the value in OCR1A (WGM13:0 = 9). The counter has then reached the TOP and changes the
count direction. The TCNT1 value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct
and frequency correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 14-9. The figure shows phase and frequency correct PWM mode
when OCR1A or ICR1 is used to define TOP. The TCNT1 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating
the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on
the TCNT1 slopes represent compare matches between OCR1x and TCNT1. The OC1x interrupt flag will be set when a
compare match occurs.
Figure 14-9. Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
OCRnx/ TOP Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV1) is set at the same timer clock cycle as the OCR1x registers are updated with the
double buffer value (at BOTTOM). When either OCR1A or ICR1 is used for defining the TOP value, the OC1A or ICF1 flag
set when TCNT1 has reached TOP. The interrupt flags can then be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter
reaches the TOP or BOTTOM value.
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When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or equal to the value of all of the
compare registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the compare registers, a compare match will never occur between
the TCNT1 and the OCR1x.
As Figure 14-9 on page 110 shows the output generated is, in contrast to the phase correct mode, symmetrical in all periods.
Since the OCR1x registers are updated at BOTTOM, the length of the rising and the falling slopes will always be equal. This
gives symmetrical output pulses and is therefore frequency correct.
Using the ICR1 register for defining TOP works well when using fixed TOP values. By using ICR1, the OCR1A register is
free to be used for generating a PWM output on OC1A. However, if the base PWM frequency is actively changed by
changing the TOP value, using the OCR1A as TOP is clearly a better choice due to its double buffer feature.
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OC1x pins.
Setting the COM1x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting
the COM1x1:0 to three (see Table 14-3 on page 114). The actual OC1x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data
direction for the port pin is set as output (DDR_OC1x). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC1x
register at the compare match between OCR1x and TCNT1 when the counter increments, and clearing (or setting) the OC1x
register at compare match between OCR1x and TCNT1 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output
when using phase and frequency correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPFCPWM = ---------------------------2  N  TOP
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR1x register represents special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the phase
correct PWM mode. If the OCR1x is set equal to BOTTOM the output will be continuously low and if set equal to TOP the
output will be set to high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values. If
OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 9) and COM1A1:0 = 1, the OC1A output will toggle with a 50% duty
cycle.
14.9
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT1) is therefore shown as a clock enable signal in the
following figures. The figures include information on when interrupt flags are set, and when the OCR1x register is updated
with the OCR1x buffer value (only for modes utilizing double buffering). Figure 14-10 shows a timing diagram for the setting
of OCF1x.
Figure 14-10.Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF1x, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/1)
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
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Figure 14-11 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 14-11.Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF1x, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
OCRnx - 1
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 14-12 shows the count sequence close to TOP in various modes. When using phase and frequency correct PWM
mode the OCR1x register is updated at BOTTOM. The timing diagrams will be the same, but TOP should be replaced by
BOTTOM, TOP-1 by BOTTOM+1 and so on. The same renaming applies for modes that set the TOV1 Flag at BOTTOM.
Figure 14-12.Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/1)
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP -1
TOP -2
TOVn (FPWM)
and ICFn
(if used as TOP)
OCRnx
(Update at TOP)
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Old OCRnx Value
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New OCRnx Value
Figure 14-13 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 14-13.Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP - 1
TOP - 2
TOVn (FPWM)
and ICFn
(if used as TOP)
OCRnx
(Update at TOP)
Old OCRnx Value
New OCRnx Value
14.10 16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description
14.10.1 Timer/Counter1 Control Register A – TCCR1A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
–
–
WGM11
WGM10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR1A
• Bit 7:6 – COM1A1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel A
• Bit 5:4 – COM1B1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel B
The COM1A1:0 and COM1B1:0 control the output compare pins (OC1A and OC1B respectively) behavior. If one or both of
the COM1A1:0 bits are written to one, the OC1A output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected
to. If one or both of the COM1B1:0 bit are written to one, the OC1B output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O
pin it is connected to. However, note that the data direction register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC1A or OC1B pin must
be set in order to enable the output driver.
When the OC1A or OC1B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM1x1:0 bits is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits
setting. Table 14-2 shows the COM1x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM).
Table 14-2. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM
COM1A1/COM1B1
COM1A0/COM1B0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC1A/OC1B on compare match.
1
0
Clear OC1A/OC1B on compare match (set output to low level).
1
1
Set OC1A/OC1B on compare match (set output to high level).
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Table 14-3 shows the COM1x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to the fast PWM mode.
Table 14-3. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM(1)
COM1A1/COM1B1
COM1A0/COM1B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
0
1
WGM13:0 = 14 or 15: Toggle OC1A on compare match, OC1B
disconnected (normal port operation). For all other WGM1
settings, normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
1
0
Clear OC1A/OC1B on compare match, set OC1A/OC1B at TOP
Note:
1.
Description
1
1
Set OC1A/OC1B on compare match, clear OC1A/OC1B at TOP
A special case occurs when OCR1A/OCR1B equals TOP and COM1A1/COM1B1 is set. In this case the
compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP.
See Section 14.8.3 “Fast PWM Mode” on page 106 for more details.
Table 14-4 shows the COM1x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to the phase correct or the phase and
frequency correct, PWM mode.
Table 14-4. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct and Phase and Frequency Correct PWM(1)
COM1A1/COM1B1
COM1A0/COM1B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
0
1
WGM13:0 = 8, 9, 10 or 11: Toggle OC1A on compare match,
OC1B disconnected (normal port operation). For all other WGM1
settings, normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
1
0
Clear OC1A/OC1B on compare match when up-counting.
Set OC1A/OC1B on compare match when downcounting.
Set OC1A/OC1B on compare match when up-counting.
Clear OC1A/OC1B on compare match when downcounting.
A special case occurs when OCR1A/OCR1B equals TOP and COM1A1/COM1B1 is set.
See Section 14.8.4 “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 108 for more details.
1
Note:
1.
Description
1
• Bit 1:0 – WGM11:0: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM13:2 bits found in the TCCR1B register, these bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the
source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used, see Table 14-5. Modes of
operation supported by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), clear timer on compare match (CTC) mode, and
three types of pulse width modulation (PWM) modes. (See Section 14.8 “Modes of Operation” on page 105).
Table 14-5. Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description(1)
Mode
WGM13
WGM12
(CTC1)
WGM11
(PWM11)
TOP
Update of
OCR1x at
TOV1 Flag
Set on
0
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFFFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
1
PWM, phase correct, 8-bit
0x00FF
TOP
BOTTOM
0
PWM, phase correct, 9-bit
0x01FF
TOP
BOTTOM
3
0
0
1
1
PWM, phase correct, 10-bit
0x03FF
TOP
BOTTOM
4
0
1
0
0
CTC
OCR1A
Immediate
MAX
5
6
0
1
0
1
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x00FF
TOP
TOP
0
1
1
0
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x01FF
TOP
TOP
7
0
1
1
1
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x03FF
TOP
TOP
8
1
Note:
114
1.
WGM10 Timer/Counter Mode of
(PWM10) Operation
PWM, phase and frequency
ICR1
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
correct
The CTC1 and PWM11:0 bit definition names are obsolete. Use the WGM12:0 definitions. However, the
functionality and location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of the timer.
0
0
0
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Table 14-5. Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description(1) (Continued)
Mode
WGM13
WGM12
(CTC1)
WGM11
(PWM11)
WGM10 Timer/Counter Mode of
(PWM10) Operation
Update of
OCR1x at
TOV1 Flag
Set on
9
1
0
0
1
PWM, phase and frequency
OCR1A
correct
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
10
1
0
1
0
PWM, phase correct
ICR1
TOP
BOTTOM
TOP
11
1
0
1
1
PWM, phase correct
OCR1A
TOP
BOTTOM
12
1
1
0
0
CTC
ICR1
Immediate
MAX
13
1
1
0
1
(Reserved)
–
–
–
14
1
1
1
0
Fast PWM
ICR1
TOP
TOP
15
Note:
1.
1
1
1
1
Fast PWM
OCR1A
TOP
TOP
The CTC1 and PWM11:0 bit definition names are obsolete. Use the WGM12:0 definitions. However, the
functionality and location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of the timer.
14.10.2 Timer/Counter1 Control Register B – TCCR1B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC1
ICES1
–
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR1B
• Bit 7 – ICNC1: Input Capture Noise Canceler
Setting this bit (to one) activates the input capture noise canceler. When the noise canceler is activated, the input from the
input capture pin (ICP1) is filtered. The filter function requires four successive equal valued samples of the ICP1 pin for
changing its output. The input capture is therefore delayed by four oscillator cycles when the noise canceler is enabled.
• Bit 6 – ICES1: Input Capture Edge Select
This bit selects which edge on the input capture pin (ICP1) that is used to trigger a capture event. When the ICES1 bit is
written to zero, a falling (negative) edge is used as trigger, and when the ICES1 bit is written to one, a rising (positive) edge
will trigger the capture.
When a capture is triggered according to the ICES1 setting, the counter value is copied into the input capture register
(ICR1). The event will also set the input capture flag (ICF1), and this can be used to cause an input capture interrupt, if this
interrupt is enabled.
When the ICR1 is used as TOP value (see description of the WGM13:0 bits located in the TCCR1A and the TCCR1B
register), the ICP1 is disconnected and consequently the input capture function is disabled.
• Bit 5 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be written to zero when
TCCR1B is written.
• Bit 4:3 – WGM13:2: Waveform Generation Mode
See TCCR1A register description.
• Bit 2:0 – CS12:0: Clock Select
The three clock select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter, see Figure 14-10 on page 111 and
Figure 14-11 on page 112.
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Table 14-6. Clock Select Bit Description
CS12
CS11
CS10
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped).
0
0
1
clkI/O/1 (no prescaling)
0
1
0
clkI/O/8 (from prescaler)
0
1
1
clkI/O/64 (from prescaler)
1
0
0
clkI/O/256 (from prescaler)
1
0
1
clkI/O/1024 (from prescaler)
1
1
0
External clock source on T1 pin. Clock on falling edge.
1
1
1
External clock source on T1 pin. Clock on rising edge.
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter1, transitions on the T1 pin will clock the counter even if the pin is
configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the counting.
14.10.3 Timer/Counter1 Control Register C – TCCR1C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC1A
FOC1B
–
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR1C
• Bit 7 – FOC1A: Force Output Compare for Channel A
• Bit 6 – FOC1B: Force Output Compare for Channel B
The FOC1A/FOC1B bits are only active when the WGM13:0 bits specifies a non-PWM mode. However, for ensuring
compatibility with future devices, these bits must be set to zero when TCCR1A is written when operating in a PWM mode.
When writing a logical one to the FOC1A/FOC1B bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the waveform generation
unit. The OC1A/OC1B output is changed according to its COM1x1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC1A/FOC1B bits are
implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value present in the COM1x1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced
compare.
A FOC1A/FOC1B strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in clear timer on compare match (CTC)
mode using OCR1A as TOP.
The FOC1A/FOC1B bits are always read as zero.
14.10.4 Timer/Counter1 – TCNT1H and TCNT1L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT1[15:8]
TCNT1H
TCNT1[7:0]
TCNT1L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT1H and TCNT1L, combined TCNT1) give direct access, both for read and for
write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written
simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary high byte register
(TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See Section 14.2 “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on
page 96.
Modifying the counter (TCNT1) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare match between TCNT1
and one of the OCR1x registers.
Writing to the TCNT1 register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all compare units.
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14.10.5 Output Compare Register 1 A – OCR1AH and OCR1AL
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OCR1A[15:8]
OCR1AH
OCR1A[7:0]
OCR1AL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
14.10.6 Output Compare Register 1 B – OCR1BH and OCR1BL
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
OCR1B[15:8]
OCR1BH
OCR1B[7:0]
OCR1BL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The output compare registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value (TCNT1). A match
can be used to generate an output compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC1x pin.
The output compare registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written simultaneously when
the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary high byte register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See Section 14.2 “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 96.
14.10.7 Input Capture Register 1 – ICR1H and ICR1L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICR1[15:8]
ICR1H
ICR1[7:0]
ICR1L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The input capture is updated with the counter (TCNT1) value each time an event occurs on the ICP1 pin (or optionally on the
analog comparator output for Timer/Counter1). The input capture can be used for defining the counter TOP value.
The input capture register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read simultaneously when the
CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary high byte register (TEMP). This temporary
register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See Section 14.2 “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 96.
14.10.8 Timer/Counter1 Interrupt Mask Register – TIMSK1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
ICIE1
–
–
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK1
• Bit 7, 6 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 5 – ICIE1: Timer/Counter1, Input Capture Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the status register is set (interrupts globally enabled), the Timer/Counter1
input capture interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt vector (see Section 9. “Interrupts” on page 48) is executed
when the ICF1 flag, located in TIFR1, is set.
• Bit 4, 3 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
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• Bit 2 – OCIE1B: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare B Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the status register is set (interrupts globally enabled), the Timer/Counter1
output compare B match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt vector (see Section 9. “Interrupts” on page 48) is
executed when the OCF1B flag, located in TIFR1, is set.
• Bit 1 – OCIE1A: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare A Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the status register is set (interrupts globally enabled), the Timer/Counter1
output compare A match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt vector (see Section 9. “Interrupts” on page 48) is
executed when the OCF1A flag, located in TIFR1, is set.
• Bit 0 – TOIE1: Timer/Counter1, Overflow Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the status register is set (interrupts globally enabled), the Timer/Counter1
overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt vector (see Section 8.9 “Watchdog Timer” on page 44) is executed
when the TOV1 flag, located in TIFR1, is set.
14.10.9 Timer/Counter1 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
ICF1
–
–
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR1
• Bit 7, 6 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 5 – ICF1: Timer/Counter1, Input Capture Flag
This flag is set when a capture event occurs on the ICP1 pin. When the input capture register (ICR1) is set by the WGM13:0
to be used as the TOP value, the ICF1 flag is set when the counter reaches the TOP value.
ICF1 is automatically cleared when the input capture interrupt vector is executed. Alternatively, ICF1 can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 4, 3 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 2 – OCF1B: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare B Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT1) value matches the output compare register B (OCR1B).
Note that a forced output compare (FOC1B) strobe will not set the OCF1B flag.
OCF1B is automatically cleared when the output compare match B interrupt vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF1B can be
cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 1 – OCF1A: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare A Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT1) value matches the output compare register A (OCR1A).
Note that a forced output compare (FOC1A) strobe will not set the OCF1A flag.
OCF1A is automatically cleared when the output compare match A interrupt vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF1A can be
cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 – TOV1: Timer/Counter1, Overflow Flag
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits setting. In normal and CTC modes, the TOV1 flag is set when the
timer overflows. Refer to Table 14-5 on page 114 for the TOV1 flag behavior when using another WGM13:0 bit setting.
TOV1 is automatically cleared when the Timer/Counter1 overflow interrupt vector is executed. Alternatively, TOV1 can be
cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
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15.
8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation
Timer/Counter2 is a general purpose, single channel, 8-bit Timer/Counter module. The main features are:
● Single channel counter
●
●
●
●
●
●
Glitch-free, phase correct pulse width modulator (PWM)
Frequency generator
10-bit clock prescaler
Overflow and compare match interrupt sources (TOV2, OCF2A and OCF2B)
Allows clocking from external 32kHz watch crystal independent of the I/O clock
Overview
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 15-1. For the actual placement of I/O pins, refer to
Section 1-1 “Pinout ATmega48/88/168” on page 3. CPU accessible I/O registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in
bold. The device-specific I/O register and bit locations are listed in Section 15.8 “8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description”
on page 129.
The PRTIM2 bit in Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 must be written to zero to enable
Timer/Counter2 module.
Figure 15-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn (Int. Req.)
Control Logic
clkTn
TOSC1
T/C
Oscillator
Prescaler
TOP
TOSC2
BOTTOM
clkI/O
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=
0
OCnA (Int. Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
OCRnA
DATA BUS
15.1
Clear timer on compare match (auto reload)
Fixed
TOP
Value
OCnB (Int. Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnB
OCRnB
TCCRnA
TCCRnB
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15.1.1 Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT2) and output compare register (OCR2A and OCR2B) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt request
(shorten as int.req.) signals are all visible in the timer interrupt flag register (TIFR2). All interrupts are individually masked
with the timer interrupt mask register (TIMSK2). TIFR2 and TIMSK2 are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or asynchronously clocked from the TOSC1/2 pins, as
detailed later in this section. The asynchronous operation is controlled by the asynchronous status register (ASSR). The
clock select logic block controls which clock source he Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The
Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the clock select logic is referred to as the timer
clock (clkT2).
The double buffered output compare register (OCR2A and OCR2B) are compared with the Timer/Counter value at all times.
The result of the compare can be used by the waveform generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the
output compare pins (OC2A and OC2B). See Section 15.4 “Output Compare Unit” on page 121 for details. The compare
match event will also set the compare flag (OCF2A or OCF2B) which can be used to generate an output compare interrupt
request.
15.1.2 Definitions
Many register and bit references in this document are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter
number, in this case 2. However, when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e.,
TCNT2 for accessing Timer/Counter2 counter value and so on.
The definitions in the following table are also used extensively throughout the section.
Table 15-1. Definitions
15.2
Parameter
Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes zero (0x00).
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count sequence. The
TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF (MAX) or the value stored in the OCR2A register.
The assignment is dependent on the mode of operation.
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal synchronous or an external asynchronous clock source. The clock source
clkT2 is by default equal to the MCU clock, clkI/O. When the AS2 bit in the ASSR register is written to logic one, the clock
source is taken from the Timer/Counter oscillator connected to TOSC1 and TOSC2. For details on asynchronous operation,
see Section 15.9.2 “Asynchronous Status Register – ASSR” on page 135. For details on clock sources and prescaler, see
Section 15.10 “Timer/Counter Prescaler” on page 136.
15.3
Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure 15-2 shows a block diagram
of the counter and its surrounding environment.
Figure 15-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int. Req.)
DATA BUS
TOSC1
T/C
Oscillator
count
TCNTn
clear
Control Logic
clkTn
Prescaler
TOSC2
direction
clkI/O
bottom
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top
Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT2 by 1.
direction
Selects between increment and decrement.
clear
Clear TCNT2 (set all bits to zero).
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock, referred to as clkT2 in the following.
top
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached maximum value.
bottom
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented at each timer clock (clkT2).
clkT2 can be generated from an external or internal clock source, selected by the clock select bits (CS22:0). When no clock
source is selected (CS22:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT2 value can be accessed by the CPU, regardless of
whether clkT2 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM21 and WGM20 bits located in the Timer/Counter control
register (TCCR2A) and the WGM22 located in the Timer/Counter control register B (TCCR2B). There are close connections
between how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the output compare outputs OC2A and
OC2B. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see Section 15.6 “Modes of
Operation” on page 123.
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV2) is set according to the mode of operation selected by the WGM22:0 bits. TOV2 can
be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
15.4
Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT2 with the output compare register (OCR2A and OCR2B). Whenever
TCNT2 equals OCR2A or OCR2B, the comparator signals a match. A match will set the output compare flag (OCF2A or
OCF2B) at the next timer clock cycle. If the corresponding interrupt is enabled, the output compare flag generates an output
compare interrupt. The output compare flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively, the output
compare flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The waveform generator uses the
match signal to generate an output according to operating mode set by the WGM22:0 bits and compare output mode
(COM2x1:0) bits. The max and bottom signals are used by the waveform generator for handling the special cases of the
extreme values in some modes of operation (Section 15.6 “Modes of Operation” on page 123).
Figure 15-3 shows a block diagram of the output compare unit.
Figure 15-3. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
=
(8-bit Comparator)
OCFnx (Int. Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMnX1:0
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The OCR2x register is double buffered when using any of the pulse width modulation (PWM) modes. For the normal and
clear timer on compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the
update of the OCR2x compare register to either top or bottom of the counting sequence. The synchronization prevents the
occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR2x register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the CPU has
access to the OCR2x buffer register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCR2x directly.
15.4.1 Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by writing a one to the force
output compare (FOC2x) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the OCF2x flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC2x pin
will be updated as if a real compare match had occurred (the COM2x1:0 bits settings define whether the OC2x pin is set,
cleared or toggled).
15.4.2 Compare Match Blocking by TCNT2 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT2 register will block any compare match that occurs in the next timer clock cycle, even
when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR2x to be initialized to the same value as TCNT2 without triggering an
interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
15.4.3 Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT2 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock cycle, there are risks
involved when changing TCNT2 when using the output compare channel, independently of whether the Timer/Counter is
running or not. If the value written to TCNT2 equals the OCR2x value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in
incorrect waveform generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT2 value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is
downcounting.
The setup of the OC2x should be performed before setting the data direction register for the port pin to output. The easiest
way of setting the OC2x value is to use the force output compare (FOC2x) strobe bit in normal mode. The OC2x register
keeps its value even when changing between waveform generation modes.
Be aware that the COM2x1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value. Changing the COM2x1:0 bits will
take effect immediately.
15.5
Compare Match Output Unit
The compare output mode (COM2x1:0) bits have two functions. The waveform generator uses the COM2x1:0 bits for
defining the output compare (OC2x) state at the next compare match. Also, the COM2x1:0 bits control the OC2x pin output
source. Figure 15-4 on page 123 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM2x1:0 bit setting.
The I/O registers, I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O port control registers
(DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM2x1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the OC2x state, the reference is for
the internal OC2x register, not the OC2x pin.
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Figure 15-4. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCn
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
Pin
OCnx
0
DATA BUS
D
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clkI/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the output compare (OC2x) from the waveform generator if either of the
COM2x1:0 bits are set. However, the OC2x pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the data direction register
(DDR) for the port pin. The data direction register bit for the OC2x pin (DDR_OC2x) must be set as output before the OC2x
value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the waveform generation mode.
The design of the output compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC2x state before the output is enabled. Note that
some COM2x1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of operation. See Section 15.8 “8-bit Timer/Counter Register
Description” on page 129
15.5.1 Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The waveform generator uses the COM2x1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes. For all modes, setting the
COM2x1:0 = 0 tells the waveform generator that no action on the OC2x register is to be performed on the next compare
match. For compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 15-5 on page 130. For fast PWM mode, refer to
Table 15-6 on page 130, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 15-7 on page 130.
A change of the COM2x1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are written. For non-PWM
modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the FOC2x strobe bits.
15.6
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the output compare pins, is defined by the combination of
the waveform generation mode (WGM22:0) and compare output mode (COM2x1:0) bits. The compare output mode bits do
not affect the counting sequence, while the waveform generation mode bits do. The COM2x1:0 bits control whether the
PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM modes the COM2x1:0 bits
control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at a compare match (see Section 15.5 “Compare Match Output
Unit” on page 122).
For detailed timing information refer to Section 15.7 “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 127.
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15.6.1 Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the normal mode (WGM22:0 = 0). In this mode the counting direction is always up
(incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value
(TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV2) will be
set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT2 becomes zero. The TOV2 flag in this case behaves like a ninth bit, except
that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOV2 flag,
the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special cases to consider in the normal mode, a new counter
value can be written anytime.
The output compare unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the output compare to generate
waveforms in normal mode is not recommended, since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.
15.6.2 Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In clear timer on compare or CTC mode (WGM22:0 = 2), the OCR2A register is used to manipulate the counter resolution. In
CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNT2) matches the OCR2A. The OCR2A defines the top
value for the counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It
also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 15-5. The counter value (TCNT2) increases until a compare match
occurs between TCNT2 and OCR2A, and then counter (TCNT2) is cleared.
Figure 15-5. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt
Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the OCF2A flag. If the interrupt
is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP value. However, changing TOP to a value close to
BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does
not have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR2A is lower than the current value of TCNT2, the
counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around
starting at 0x00 before the compare match can occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC2A output can be set to toggle its logical level on each compare
match by setting the compare output mode bits to toggle mode (COM2A1:0 = 1). The OC2A value will not be visible on the
port pin unless the data direction for the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of
fOC2A = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR2A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnx = ------------------------------------------------2  N   1 + OCRnx 
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
As for the normal mode of operation, the TOV2 flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the counter counts from MAX to
0x00.
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15.6.3 Fast PWM Mode
The fast pulse width modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM22:0 = 3 or 7) provides a high frequency PWM waveform
generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from
BOTTOM to TOP then restarts from BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and OCR2A when MGM2:0 = 7.
In non-inverting compare output mode, the output compare (OC2x) is cleared on the compare match between TCNT2 and
OCR2x, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting compare output mode, the output is set on compare match and cleared at
BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation, the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the
phase correct PWM mode that uses dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited for
power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small sized external components
(coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost.
In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the TOP value. The counter is then cleared at
the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is shown in Figure 15-6. The TCNT2 value is in
the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT2 slopes represent compare matches between OCR2x
and TCNT2.
Figure 15-6. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt
Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt
handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC2x pin. Setting the COM2x1:0 bits to
two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM2x1:0 to three. TOP
is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and OCR2A when MGM2:0 = 7. (See Table 15-3 on page 129). The actual OC2x
value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated
by setting (or clearing) the OC2x register at the compare match between OCR2x and TCNT2, and clearing (or setting) the
OC2x register at the timer clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ----------------N  256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the fast
PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle.
Setting the OCR2A equal to MAX will result in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set by
the COM2A1:0 bits.)
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A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC2x to toggle its logical
level on each compare match (COM2x1:0 = 1). The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of foc2 = fclk_I/O/2
when OCR2A is set to zero. This feature is similar to the OC2A toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the
output compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
15.6.4 Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM22:0 = 1 or 5) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation
option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to
TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and OCR2A when MGM2:0 = 7. In
non-inverting compare output mode, the output compare (OC2x) is cleared on the compare match between TCNT2 and
OCR2x while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting output compare mode, the
operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation.
However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control
applications.
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches TOP. When the counter reaches
TOP, it changes the count direction. The TCNT2 value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for
the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 15-7. The TCNT2 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for
illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line
marks on the TCNT2 slopes represent compare matches between OCR2x and TCNT2.
Figure 15-7. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt
Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt
Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter overflow flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The interrupt flag can be used to
generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM value.
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In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC2x pin. Setting the
COM2x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the
COM2x1:0 to three. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and OCR2A when MGM2:0 = 7
(See Table 15-4 on page 129). The actual OC2x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin
is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC2x register at the compare match between
OCR2x and TCNT2 when the counter increments, and setting (or clearing) the OC2x register at compare match between
OCR2x and TCNT2 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can
be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = ----------------N  510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the phase
correct PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the
output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic
values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 15-7 on page 126 OCnx has a transition from high to low even though there is no
compare match. The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a
transition without compare match.
● OCR2A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 15-7 on page 126. When the OCR2A value is MAX the OCn pin
value is the same as the result of a down-counting compare match. To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn
value at MAX must correspond to the result of an up-counting compare match.
●
15.7
The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR2A, and for that reason misses the compare match
and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the way up.
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The following figures show the Timer/Counter in synchronous mode, and the timer clock (clkT2) is therefore shown as a clock
enable signal. In asynchronous mode, clkI/O should be replaced by the Timer/Counter oscillator clock. The figures include
information on when interrupt flags are set. Figure 15-8 contains timing data for basic Timer/Counter operation. The figure
shows the count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes other than phase correct PWM mode.
Figure 15-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
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Figure 15-9 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 15-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 15-10 shows the setting of OCF2A in all modes except CTC mode.
Figure 15-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF2A, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 15-11 shows the setting of OCF2A and the clearing of TCNT2 in CTC mode.
Figure 15-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
TOP - 1
OCRnx
OCFnx
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TOP
BOTTOM
TOP
BOTTOM + 1
15.8
8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description
15.8.1 Timer/Counter Control Register A – TCCR2A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM2A1
COM2A0
COM2B1
COM2B0
–
–
WGM21
WGM20
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR2A
• Bits 7:6 – COM2A1:0: Compare Match Output A Mode
These bits control the output compare pin (OC2A) behavior. If one or both of the COM2A1:0 bits are set, the OC2A output
overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the data direction register (DDR)
bit corresponding to the OC2A pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC2A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM2A1:0 bits depends on the WGM22:0 bit setting. Table 15-2
shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 15-2. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM2A1
COM2A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC2A on compare match
1
0
Clear OC2A on compare match
1
1
Set OC2A on compare match
Table 15-3 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM21:0 bits are set to fast PWM mode.
Table 15-3. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM2A1
COM2A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected.
0
1
WGM22 = 0: normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
WGM22 = 1: toggle OC2A on compare match.
1
0
Clear OC2A on compare match, set OC2A at TOP
Note:
1
1.
Description
1
Set OC2A on compare match, clear OC2A at TOP
A special case occurs when OCR2A equals TOP and COM2A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is
ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See Section 15.6.3 “Fast PWM Mode” on page 125 for more
details.
Table 15-4 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Table 15-4. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM2A1
COM2A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected.
0
1
WGM22 = 0: normal port operation, OC2A disconnected.
WGM22 = 1: toggle OC2A on compare match.
1
0
Clear OC2A on compare match when up-counting. Set OC2A on compare match
when down-counting.
1
Note:
1.
Description
Set OC2A on compare match when up-counting. Clear OC2A on compare match
when down-counting.
A special case occurs when OCR2A equals TOP and COM2A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is
ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See Section 15.6.4 “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 126 for
more details.
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• Bits 5:4 – COM2B1:0: Compare Match Output B Mode
These bits control the output compare pin (OC2B) behavior. If one or both of the COM2B1:0 bits are set, the OC2B output
overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the data direction register (DDR)
bit corresponding to the OC2B pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC2B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM2B1:0 bits depends on the WGM22:0 bit setting. Table 15-5
shows the COM2B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 15-5. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM2B1
COM2B0
0
0
Description
Normal port operation, OC2B disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC2B on compare match
1
0
Clear OC2B on compare match
1
1
Set OC2B on compare match
Table 15-6 shows the COM2B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to fast PWM mode.
Table 15-6. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM2B1
COM2B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2B disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC2B on compare match, set OC2B at TOP
Note:
1
1.
Description
1
Set OC2B on compare match, clear OC2B at TOP
A special case occurs when OCR2B equals TOP and COM2B1 is set. In this case, the compare match is
ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See Section 15.6.4 “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 126 for
more details.
Table 15-7 shows the COM2B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Table 15-7. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM2B1
COM2B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2B disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC2B on compare match when up-counting. Set OC2B on compare match when
down-counting.
1
Note:
1.
Description
Set OC2B on compare match when up-counting. Clear OC2B on compare match when
down-counting.
A special case occurs when OCR2B equals TOP and COM2B1 is set. In this case, the compare match is
ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See Section 15.6.4 “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 126 for
more details.
1
• Bits 3, 2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bits 1:0 – WGM21:0: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM22 bit found in the TCCR2B register, these bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the
source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used, see Table 15-8. Modes of
operation supported by the Timer/Counter unit are: normal mode (counter), clear timer on compare match (CTC) mode, and
two types of pulse width modulation (PWM) modes (see Section 15.6 “Modes of Operation” on page 123).
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Table 15-8. Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description
Timer/Counter Mode of
Operation
TOP
Update of
OCRx at
TOV Flag
Set on(1)(2)
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
0
1
PWM, phase correct
1
0
CTC
0
1
1
4
1
0
5
1
6
1
Mode
WGM2
WGM1
WGM0
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
7
Notes:
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
OCRA
Immediate
MAX
Fast PWM
0xFF
TOP
MAX
0
Reserved
–
–
–
0
1
PWM, phase correct
OCRA
TOP
BOTTOM
1
0
Reserved
–
–
–
1
1
Fast PWM
OCRA
TOP
TOP
1.
1
MAX = 0xFF
2.
BOTTOM= 0x00
15.8.2 Timer/Counter Control Register B – TCCR2B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC2A
FOC2B
–
–
WGM22
CS22
CS21
CS20
Read/Write
W
W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR2B
• Bit 7 – FOC2A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC2A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR2B is written when operating
in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC2A bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the waveform
generation unit. The OC2A output is changed according to its COM2A1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC2A bit is
implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM2A1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced
compare.
A FOC2A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR2A as TOP.
The FOC2A bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC2B: Force Output Compare B
The FOC2B bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR2B is written when operating
in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC2B bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the waveform
generation unit. The OC2B output is changed according to its COM2B1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC2B bit is
implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM2B1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced
compare.
A FOC2B strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR2B as TOP.
The FOC2B bit is always read as zero.
• Bits 5:4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – WGM22: Waveform Generation Mode
See the description in the Section 15.8.1 “Timer/Counter Control Register A – TCCR2A” on page 129.
• Bit 2:0 – CS22:0: Clock Select
The three clock select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter, see Table 15-9.
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Table 15-9. Clock Select Bit Description
CS22
CS21
CS20
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped).
0
0
1
clkT2S/(no prescaling)
0
1
0
clkT2S/8 (from prescaler)
0
1
1
clkT2S/32 (from prescaler)
1
0
0
clkT2S/64 (from prescaler)
1
0
1
clkT2S/128 (from prescaler)
1
1
0
clkT2S/256 (from prescaler)
1
1
1
clkT2S/1024 (from prescaler)
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter0, transitions on the T0 pin will clock the counter even if the pin is
configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the counting.
15.8.3 Timer/Counter Register – TCNT2
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
TCNT2[7:0]
TCNT2
The Timer/Counter register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 8-bit counter.
Writing to the TCNT2 register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter
(TCNT2) while the counter is running, introduces a risk of missing a compare match between TCNT2 and the OCR2x
registers.
15.8.4 Output Compare Register A – OCR2A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OCR2A[7:0]
OCR2A
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The output compare register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value (TCNT2). A
match can be used to generate an output compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC2A pin.
15.8.5 Output Compare Register B – OCR2B
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
OCR2B[7:0]
OCR2B
The output compare register B contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value (TCNT2). A
match can be used to generate an output compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC2B pin.
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15.8.6 Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Mask Register – TIMSK2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE2B
OCIE2A
TOIE2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK2
• Bit 2 – OCIE2B: Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Match B Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE2B bit is written to one and the I-bit in the status register is set (one), the Timer/Counter2 compare match B
interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a compare match in Timer/Counter2 occurs, i.e., when the
OCF2B bit is set in the Timer/Counter 2 interrupt flag register – TIFR2.
• Bit 1 – OCIE2A: Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE2A bit is written to one and the I-bit in the status register is set (one), the Timer/Counter2 compare match A
interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a compare match in Timer/Counter2 occurs, i.e., when the
OCF2A bit is set in the Timer/Counter 2 interrupt flag register – TIFR2.
• Bit 0 – TOIE2: Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE2 bit is written to one and the I-bit in the status register is set (one), the Timer/Counter2 overflow interrupt is
enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an overflow in Timer/Counter2 occurs, i.e., when the TOV2 bit is set in
the Timer/Counter2 interrupt flag register – TIFR2.
15.8.7 Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
OCF2B
OCF2A
TOV2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR2
• Bit 2 – OCF2B: Output Compare Flag 2 B
The OCF2B bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter2 and the data in OCR2B – output
compare register2. OCF2B is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector.
Alternatively, OCF2B is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE2B (Timer/Counter2 compare
match interrupt enable), and OCF2B are set (one), the Timer/Counter2 compare match interrupt is executed.
• Bit 1 – OCF2A: Output Compare Flag 2 A
The OCF2A bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter2 and the data in OCR2A – output
compare register2. OCF2A is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector.
Alternatively, OCF2A is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE2A (Timer/Counter2 compare
match interrupt enable), and OCF2A are set (one), the Timer/Counter2 compare match interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV2: Timer/Counter2 Overflow Flag
The TOV2 bit is set (one) when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter2. TOV2 is cleared by hardware when executing the
corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV2 is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the
SREG I-bit, TOIE2A (Timer/Counter2 overflow interrupt enable), and TOV2 are set (one), the Timer/Counter2 overflow
interrupt is executed. In PWM mode, this bit is set when Timer/Counter2 changes counting direction at 0x00.
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15.9
Asynchronous operation of the Timer/Counter
15.9.1 Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously, some considerations must be taken.
● Warning: When switching between asynchronous and synchronous clocking of Timer/Counter2, the timer registers
TCNT2, OCR2x, and TCCR2x might be corrupted. A safe procedure for switching clock source is:
a.
●
●
b.
Select clock source by setting AS2 as appropriate.
c.
Write new values to TCNT2, OCR2x, and TCCR2x.
d.
To switch to asynchronous operation: Wait for TCN2xUB, OCR2xUB, and TCR2xUB.
e.
Clear the Timer/Counter2 interrupt flags.
f.
Enable interrupts, if needed.
The CPU main clock frequency must be more than four times the oscillator frequency.
When writing to one of the registers TCNT2, OCR2x, or TCCR2x, the value is transferred to a temporary register, and
latched after two positive edges on TOSC1. The user should not write a new value before the contents of the
temporary register have been transferred to its destination. Each of the five mentioned registers have their individual
temporary register, which means that e.g. writing to TCNT2 does not disturb an OCR2x write in progress. To detect
that a transfer to the destination register has taken place, the asynchronous status register – ASSR has been
implemented.
●
When entering power-save or ADC noise reduction mode after having written to TCNT2, OCR2x, or TCCR2x, the
user must wait until the written register has been updated if Timer/Counter2 is used to wake up the device. Otherwise,
the MCU will enter sleep mode before the changes are effective. This is particularly important if any of the output
compare2 interrupt is used to wake up the device, since the output compare function is disabled during writing to
OCR2x or TCNT2. If the write cycle is not finished, and the MCU enters sleep mode before the corresponding
OCR2xUB bit returns to zero, the device will never receive a compare match interrupt, and the MCU will not wake up.
●
If Timer/Counter2 is used to wake the device up from power-save or ADC noise reduction mode, precautions must be
taken if the user wants to re-enter one of these modes: The interrupt logic needs one TOSC1 cycle to be reset. If the
time between wake-up and re-entering sleep mode is less than one TOSC1 cycle, the interrupt will not occur, and the
device will fail to wake up. If the user is in doubt whether the time before re-entering power-save or ADC noise
reduction mode is sufficient, the following algorithm can be used to ensure that one TOSC1 cycle has elapsed:
a.
134
Disable the Timer/Counter2 interrupts by clearing OCIE2x and TOIE2.
Write a value to TCCR2x, TCNT2, or OCR2x.
b.
Wait until the corresponding update busy flag in ASSR returns to zero.
c.
Enter power-save or ADC noise reduction mode.
●
When the asynchronous operation is selected, the 32.768kHz oscillator for Timer/Counter2 is always running, except
in power-down and standby modes. After a power-up reset or wake-up from power-down or standby mode, the user
should be aware of the fact that this oscillator might take as long as one second to stabilize. The user is advised to
wait for at least one second before using Timer/Counter2 after power-up or wake-up from power-down or standby
mode. The contents of all Timer/Counter2 registers must be considered lost after a wake-up from power-down or
standby mode due to unstable clock signal upon start-up, no matter whether the oscillator is in use or a clock signal is
applied to the TOSC1 pin.
●
Description of wake up from power-save or ADC noise reduction mode when the timer is clocked asynchronously:
When the interrupt condition is met, the wake up process is started on the following cycle of the timer clock, that is,
the timer is always advanced by at least one before the processor can read the counter value. After wake-up, the
MCU is halted for four cycles, it executes the interrupt routine, and resumes execution from the instruction following
SLEEP.
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●
Reading of the TCNT2 register shortly after wake-up from power-save may give an incorrect result. Since TCNT2 is
clocked on the asynchronous TOSC clock, reading TCNT2 must be done through a register synchronized to the
internal I/O clock domain. Synchronization takes place for every rising TOSC1 edge. When waking up from
power-save mode, and the I/O clock (clkI/O) again becomes active, TCNT2 will read as the previous value (before
entering sleep) until the next rising TOSC1 edge. The phase of the TOSC clock after waking up from power-save
mode is essentially unpredictable, as it depends on the wake-up time. The recommended procedure for reading
TCNT2 is thus as follows:
a.
Write any value to either of the registers OCR2x or TCCR2x.
b.
Wait for the corresponding update busy flag to be cleared.
c.
Read TCNT2.
During asynchronous operation, the synchronization of the interrupt flags for the asynchronous timer takes 3 processor
cycles plus one timer cycle. The timer is therefore advanced by at least one before the processor can read the timer value
causing the setting of the interrupt flag. The output compare pin is changed on the timer clock and is not synchronized to the
processor clock.
15.9.2 Asynchronous Status Register – ASSR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
OCR2AUB
OCR2BUB
TCR2AUB
TCR2BUB
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ASSR
• Bit 6 – EXCLK: Enable External Clock Input
When EXCLK is written to one, and asynchronous clock is selected, the external clock input buffer is enabled and an
external clock can be input on timer oscillator 1 (TOSC1) pin instead of a 32kHz crystal. Writing to EXCLK should be done
before asynchronous operation is selected. Note that the crystal oscillator will only run when this bit is zero.
• Bit 5 – AS2: Asynchronous Timer/Counter2
When AS2 is written to zero, Timer/Counter2 is clocked from the I/O clock, clkI/O. When AS2 is written to one,
Timer/Counter2 is clocked from a crystal oscillator connected to the timer oscillator 1 (TOSC1) pin. When the value of AS2 is
changed, the contents of TCNT2, OCR2A, OCR2B, TCCR2A and TCCR2B might be corrupted.
• Bit 4 – TCN2UB: Timer/Counter2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCNT2 is written, this bit becomes set. When TCNT2 has been
updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCNT2 is
ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 3 – OCR2AUB: Output Compare Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and OCR2A is written, this bit becomes set. When OCR2A has been
updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that OCR2A is
ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 2 – OCR2BUB: Output Compare Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and OCR2B is written, this bit becomes set. When OCR2B has been
updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that OCR2B is
ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 1 – TCR2AUB: Timer/Counter Control Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCCR2A is written, this bit becomes set. When TCCR2A has been
updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCCR2A
is ready to be updated with a new value.
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• Bit 0 – TCR2BUB: Timer/Counter Control Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCCR2B is written, this bit becomes set. When TCCR2B has been
updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCCR2B
is ready to be updated with a new value.
If a write is performed to any of the five Timer/Counter2 registers while its update busy flag is set, the updated value might
get corrupted and cause an unintentional interrupt to occur.
The mechanisms for reading TCNT2, OCR2A, OCR2B, TCCR2A and TCCR2B are different. When reading TCNT2, the
actual timer value is read. When reading OCR2A, OCR2B, TCCR2A and TCCR2B the value in the temporary storage
register is read.
15.10 Timer/Counter Prescaler
Figure 15-12. Prescaler for Timer/Counter2
clkT2S
clkT2S/1024
clkT2S/256
clkT2S/128
clkT2S/64
AS2
10-bit T/C Prescaler
Clear
clkT2S/32
TOSC1
clkT2S/8
clkI/O
PSRASY
0
CS20
CS21
CS22
Timer/Counter2 Clock Source
clkT2
The clock source for Timer/Counter2 is named clkT2S. clkT2S is by default connected to the main system I/O clock clkIO. By
setting the AS2 bit in ASSR, Timer/Counter2 is asynchronously clocked from the TOSC1 pin. This enables use of
Timer/Counter2 as a real time counter (RTC). When AS2 is set, pins TOSC1 and TOSC2 are disconnected from port C. A
crystal can then be connected between the TOSC1 and TOSC2 pins to serve as an independent clock source for
Timer/Counter2. The oscillator is optimized for use with a 32.768kHz crystal. Applying an external clock source to TOSC1 is
not recommended.
For Timer/Counter2, the possible prescaled selections are: clkT2S/8, clkT2S/32, clkT2S/64, clkT2S/128, clkT2S/256, and
clkT2S/1024. Additionally, clkT2S as well as 0 (stop) may be selected. Setting the PSRASY bit in GTCCR resets the prescaler.
This allows the user to operate with a predictable prescaler.
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15.10.1 General Timer/Counter Control Register – GTCCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PSRSYN
PSRASY
C
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 1 – PSRASY: Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter2
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter2 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally cleared immediately by hardware. If the
bit is written when Timer/Counter2 is operating in asynchronous mode, the bit will remain one until the prescaler has been
reset. The bit will not be cleared by hardware if the TSM bit is set. Refer to the description of the
Section • “Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode” on page 93 for a description of the Timer/Counter
synchronization mode.
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16.
Serial Peripheral Interface – SPI
The serial peripheral interface (SPI) allows high-speed synchronous data transfer between the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168
and peripheral devices or between several AVR® devices. The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 SPI includes the following features:
● Full-duplex, three-wire synchronous data transfer
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Master or slave operation
LSB first or MSB first data transfer
Seven programmable bit rates
End of transmission interrupt flag
Write collision flag protection
Wake-up from idle mode
Double speed (CK/2) master SPI mode
The USART can also be used in master SPI mode, see Section 18. “USART in SPI Mode” on page 168. The PRSPI bit in
Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 must be written to zero to enable SPI module.
Figure 16-1. SPI Block Diagram(1)
MISO
S
MSB
XTAL
M
M
LSB
8-Bit Shift Register
Read Data Buffer
Pin
Control
Logic
Divider
/2/4/8/16/32/64/128
Clock
SPI Clock (Master)
SPR0
DORD
SPR0
SPR1
CPHA
CPOL
MSTR
SPIE
SPI Control Register
8
SPI Interrupt
Request
DORD
SPI2X
WCOL
SPIF
8
SPE
MSTR
SPE
SPI Status Register
138
SPE
MSTR
SPR1
SPI2X
M
SS
SPI Control
1.
SCK
S
Clock
Logic
Select
Note:
MOSI
S
8
Internal
Data Bus
Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 3, and Table 10-3 on page 64 for SPI pin placement.
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The interconnection between master and slave CPUs with SPI is shown in Figure 16-2. The system consists of two shift
registers, and a master clock generator. The SPI master initiates the communication cycle when pulling low the slave select
SS pin of the desired slave. Master and slave prepare the data to be sent in their respective shift registers, and the master
generates the required clock pulses on the SCK line to interchange data. Data is always shifted from master to slave on the
master out – slave In, MOSI, line, and from slave to master on the master In – slave out, MISO, line. After each data packet,
the master will synchronize the slave by pulling high the slave select, SS, line.
When configured as a master, the SPI interface has no automatic control of the SS line. This must be handled by user
software before communication can start. When this is done, writing a byte to the SPI data register starts the SPI clock
generator, and the hardware shifts the eight bits into the slave. After shifting one byte, the SPI clock generator stops, setting
the end of transmission flag (SPIF). If the SPI interrupt enable bit (SPIE) in the SPCR register is set, an interrupt is
requested. The master may continue to shift the next byte by writing it into SPDR, or signal the end of packet by pulling high
the slave select, SS line. The last incoming byte will be kept in the buffer register for later use.
When configured as a slave, the SPI interface will remain sleeping with MISO tri-stated as long as the SS pin is driven high.
In this state, software may update the contents of the SPI data register, SPDR, but the data will not be shifted out by
incoming clock pulses on the SCK pin until the SS pin is driven low. As one byte has been completely shifted, the end of
transmission flag, SPIF is set. If the SPI interrupt enable bit, SPIE, in the SPCR register is set, an interrupt is requested. The
slave may continue to place new data to be sent into SPDR before reading the incoming data. The last incoming byte will be
kept in the buffer register for later use.
Figure 16-2. SPI Master-slave Interconnection
MSB
MASTER
LSB
MISO
MISO
8 Bit Shift Register
SPI
Clock Generator
MSB
SLAVE
LSB
8 Bit Shift Register
MOSI
MOSI
SCK
SCK
SS
Shift
Enable
SS
The system is single buffered in the transmit direction and double buffered in the receive direction. This means that bytes to
be transmitted cannot be written to the SPI data register before the entire shift cycle is completed. When receiving data,
however, a received character must be read from the SPI data register before the next character has been completely
shifted in. Otherwise, the first byte is lost.
In SPI slave mode, the control logic will sample the incoming signal of the SCK pin. To ensure correct sampling of the clock
signal, the frequency of the SPI clock should never exceed fosc/4.
When the SPI is enabled, the data direction of the MOSI, MISO, SCK, and SS pins is overridden according to
Table 16-1 on page 139. For more details on automatic port overrides, refer to Section 10.3 “Alternate Port Functions” on
page 62.
Table 16-1. SPI Pin Overrides(1)
Note:
Pin
Direction, Master SPI
Direction, Slave SPI
MOSI
User defined
Input
MISO
Input
User defined
SCK
User defined
Input
SS
1.
User defined
Input
See Section 10.3.2 “Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 64 for a detailed description of how to define the
direction of the user defined SPI pins.
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The following code examples show how to initialize the SPI as a master and how to perform a simple transmission.
DDR_SPI in the examples must be replaced by the actual data direction register controlling the SPI pins. DD_MOSI,
DD_MISO and DD_SCK must be replaced by the actual data direction bits for these pins. E.g. if MOSI is placed on pin PB5,
replace DD_MOSI with DDB5 and DDR_SPI with DDRB.
Assembly Code Example(1)
SPI_MasterInit:
; Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input
ldi
r17,(1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK)
out
DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16
ldi
r17,(1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0)
out
SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_MasterTransmit:
; Start transmission of data (r16)
out
SPDR,r16
Wait_Transmit:
; Wait for transmission complete
sbis
SPSR,SPIF
rjmp
Wait_Transmit
ret
C Code Example(1)
void SPI_MasterInit(void)
{
/* Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK);
/* Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16 */
SPCR = (1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0);
}
void SPI_MasterTransmit(char cData)
{
/* Start transmission */
SPDR = cData;
/* Wait for transmission complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)))
;
}
Note:
140
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
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The following code examples show how to initialize the SPI as a Slave and how to perform a simple reception.
Assembly Code Example(1)
SPI_SlaveInit:
; Set MISO output, all others input
ldi
r17,(1<<DD_MISO)
out
DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI
ldi
r17,(1<<SPE)
out
SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_SlaveReceive:
; Wait for reception complete
sbis
SPSR,SPIF
rjmp
SPI_SlaveReceive
; Read received data and return
in
r16,SPDR
ret
C Code Example(1)
void SPI_SlaveInit(void)
{
/* Set MISO output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MISO);
/* Enable SPI */
SPCR = (1<<SPE);
}
char SPI_SlaveReceive(void)
{
/* Wait for reception complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)))
;
/* Return Data Register */
return SPDR;
}
Note:
16.1
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
SS Pin Functionality
16.1.1 Slave Mode
When the SPI is configured as a slave, the slave select (SS) pin is always input. When SS is held low, the SPI is activated,
and MISO becomes an output if configured so by the user. All other pins are inputs. When SS is driven high, all pins are
inputs, and the SPI is passive, which means that it will not receive incoming data. Note that the SPI logic will be reset once
the SS pin is driven high.
The SS pin is useful for packet/byte synchronization to keep the slave bit counter synchronous with the master clock
generator. When the SS pin is driven high, the SPI slave will immediately reset the send and receive logic, and drop any
partially received data in the shift register.
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16.1.2 Master Mode
When the SPI is configured as a master (MSTR in SPCR is set), the user can determine the direction of the SS pin.
If SS is configured as an output, the pin is a general output pin which does not affect the SPI system. Typically, the pin will be
driving the SS pin of the SPI slave.
If SS is configured as an input, it must be held high to ensure master SPI operation. If the SS pin is driven low by peripheral
circuitry when the SPI is configured as a master with the SS pin defined as an input, the SPI system interprets this as
another master selecting the SPI as a slave and starting to send data to it. To avoid bus contention, the SPI system takes the
following actions:
1. The MSTR bit in SPCR is cleared and the SPI system becomes a slave. As a result of the SPI becoming a slave,
the MOSI and SCK pins become inputs.
2.
The SPIF flag in SPSR is set, and if the SPI interrupt is enabled, and the I-bit in SREG is set, the interrupt routine
will be executed.
Thus, when interrupt-driven SPI transmission is used in master mode, and there exists a possibility that SS is driven low, the
interrupt should always check that the MSTR bit is still set. If the MSTR bit has been cleared by a slave select, it must be set
by the user to re-enable SPI master mode.
16.1.3 SPI Control Register – SPCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPCR
• Bit 7 – SPIE: SPI Interrupt Enable
This bit causes the SPI interrupt to be executed if SPIF bit in the SPSR register is set and the if the global interrupt enable bit
in SREG is set.
• Bit 6 – SPE: SPI Enable
When the SPE bit is written to one, the SPI is enabled. This bit must be set to enable any SPI operations.
• Bit 5 – DORD: Data Order
When the DORD bit is written to one, the LSB of the data word is transmitted first.
When the DORD bit is written to zero, the MSB of the data word is transmitted first.
• Bit 4 – MSTR: Master/Slave Select
This bit selects master SPI mode when written to one, and slave SPI mode when written logic zero. If SS is configured as an
input and is driven low while MSTR is set, MSTR will be cleared, and SPIF in SPSR will become set. The user will then have
to set MSTR to re-enable SPI master mode.
• Bit 3 – CPOL: Clock Polarity
When this bit is written to one, SCK is high when idle. When CPOL is written to zero, SCK is low when idle. Refer to
Figure 16-3 on page 145 and Figure 16-4 on page 145 for an example. The CPOL functionality is summarized below:
Table 16-2. CPOL Functionality
142
CPOL
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
Rising
Falling
1
Falling
Rising
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• Bit 2 – CPHA: Clock Phase
The settings of the clock phase bit (CPHA) determine if data is sampled on the leading (first) or trailing (last) edge of SCK.
Refer to Figure 16-3 on page 145 and Figure 16-4 on page 145 for an example. The CPOL functionality is summarized
below:
Table 16-3. CPHA Functionality
CPHA
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
Sample
Setup
1
Setup
Sample
• Bits 1, 0 – SPR1, SPR0: SPI Clock Rate Select 1 and 0
These two bits control the SCK rate of the device configured as a master. SPR1 and SPR0 have no effect on the slave. The
relationship between SCK and the oscillator clock frequency fosc is shown in the following table:
Table 16-4. Relationship Between SCK and the Oscillator Frequency
SPI2X
SPR1
SPR0
SCK Frequency
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
fosc/4
fosc/16
fosc/64
fosc/128
fosc/2
fosc/8
fosc/32
fosc/64
16.1.4 SPI Status Register – SPSR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIF
WCOL
–
–
–
–
–
SPI2X
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPSR
• Bit 7 – SPIF: SPI Interrupt Flag
When a serial transfer is complete, the SPIF flag is set. An interrupt is generated if SPIE in SPCR is set and global interrupts
are enabled. If SS is an input and is driven low when the SPI is in master mode, this will also set the SPIF flag. SPIF is
cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, the SPIF bit is cleared by
first reading the SPI status register with SPIF set, then accessing the SPI data register (SPDR).
• Bit 6 – WCOL: Write COLlision Flag
The WCOL bit is set if the SPI data register (SPDR) is written during a data transfer. The WCOL bit (and the SPIF bit) are
cleared by first reading the SPI status register with WCOL set, and then accessing the SPI data register.
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• Bit 5..1 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 0 – SPI2X: Double SPI Speed Bit
When this bit is written logic one the SPI speed (SCK frequency) will be doubled when the SPI is in master mode
(see Table 16-4 on page 143). This means that the minimum SCK period will be two CPU clock periods. When the SPI is
configured as Slave, the SPI is only guaranteed to work at fosc/4 or lower.
The SPI interface on the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 is also used for program memory and EEPROM downloading or
uploading. See Section 25.8 “Serial Downloading” on page 256 for serial programming and verification.
16.1.5 SPI Data Register – SPDR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
MSB
0
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SPDR
Undefined
The SPI data register is a read/write register used for data transfer between the register file and the SPI shift register. Writing
to the register initiates data transmission. Reading the register causes the shift register receive buffer to be read.
16.2
Data Modes
There are four combinations of SCK phase and polarity with respect to serial data, which are determined by control bits
CPHA and CPOL. The SPI data transfer formats are shown in Figure 16-3 on page 145 and Figure 16-4 on page 145. Data
bits are shifted out and latched in on opposite edges of the SCK signal, ensuring sufficient time for data signals to stabilize.
This is clearly seen by summarizing Figure 16-2 on page 142 and Table 16-3 on page 143, as done below.
Table 16-5. CPOL Functionality
144
Leading Edge
Trailing eDge
SPI Mode
CPOL=0, CPHA=0
Sample (rising)
Setup (falling)
0
CPOL=0, CPHA=1
Setup (rising)
Sample (falling)
1
CPOL=1, CPHA=0
Sample (falling)
Setup (rising)
2
CPOL=1, CPHA=1
Setup (falling)
Sample (rising)
3
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Figure 16-3. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 0
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 0
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 2
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0) MSB
LSB first (DORD =1) LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
Figure 16-4. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 1
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 1
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 3
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0)
LSB first (DORD =1)
MSB
LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
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17.
USART0
The universal synchronous and asynchronous serial receiver and transmitter (USART) is a highly flexible serial
communication device. The main features are:
● Full duplex operation (independent serial receive and transmit registers)
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Asynchronous or synchronous operation
Master or slave clocked synchronous operation
High resolution baud rate generator
Supports serial frames with 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 data bits and 1 or 2 stop bits
Odd or even parity generation and parity check supported by hardware
Data overrun detection
Framing error detection
Noise filtering includes false start bit detection and digital low pass filter
Three separate interrupts on TX complete, TX data register empty and RX complete
Multi-processor communication mode
Double speed asynchronous communication mode
The USART can also be used in master SPI mode, see Section 18. “USART in SPI Mode” on page 168. The power
reduction USART bit, PRUSART0, in Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 must be disabled by
writing a logical zero to it.
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Overview
A simplified block diagram of the USART Transmitter is shown in Figure 17-1. CPU accessible I/O Registers and I/O pins are
shown in bold.
Figure 17-1. USART Block Diagram(1)
Clock Generator
UBRRn [H:L]
OSC
Baud Rate Generator
Sync Logic
Pin
Control
XCKn
Transmitter
TX
Control
UDRn (Transmit)
DATA BUS
17.1
Parity
Generator
1.
TxDn
Receiver
Clock
Recoverc
RX
Control
Receive Shift Register
Data
Recoverc
Pin
Control
UDRn (Receive)
Parity
Checker
UCSRnA
Note:
Pin
Control
Transmit Shift Register
UCSRnB
RxDn
UCSRnC
Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 3 and Table 10-9 on page 69 for USART0 pin placement.
The dashed boxes in the block diagram separate the three main parts of the USART (listed from the top): clock generator,
transmitter and receiver. Control registers are shared by all units. The clock generation logic consists of synchronization
logic for external clock input used by synchronous slave operation, and the baud rate generator. The XCKn (transfer clock)
pin is only used by synchronous transfer mode. The transmitter consists of a single write buffer, a serial shift register, parity
generator and control logic for handling different serial frame formats. The write buffer allows a continuous transfer of data
without any delay between frames. The receiver is the most complex part of the USART module due to its clock and data
recovery units. The recovery units are used for asynchronous data reception. In addition to the recovery units, the receiver
includes a parity checker, control logic, a shift register and a two level receive buffer (UDRn). The receiver supports the
same frame formats as the transmitter, and can detect frame error, data overrun and parity errors.
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17.2
Clock Generation
The clock generation logic generates the base clock for the transmitter and receiver. The USART supports four modes of
clock operation: normal asynchronous, double speed asynchronous, master synchronous and slave synchronous mode.
The UMSELn bit in USART control and status register C (UCSRnC) selects between asynchronous and synchronous
operation. Double speed (asynchronous mode only) is controlled by the U2Xn found in the UCSRnA register. When using
synchronous mode (UMSELn = 1), the data direction register for the XCKn pin (DDR_XCKn) controls whether the clock
source is internal (master mode) or external (slave mode). The XCKn pin is only active when using synchronous mode.
Figure 17-2 shows a block diagram of the clock generation logic.
Figure 17-2. Clock Generation Logic, Block Diagram
UBRRn
U2Xn
fosc
Prescaling
Down-Counter
UBRRn+1
/2
/4
/2
0
1
OSC
0
DDR_XCKn
xcki
XCKn
Pin
DDR_XCKn
Sync
Register
Edge
Detector
xcko
1
0
UMSELn
1
UCPOLn
txclk
0
1
rxclk
Signal description:
txclk
Transmitter clock (internal signal).
rxclk
Receiver base clock (internal signal).
xcki
Input from XCK pin (internal signal). Used for synchronous slave operation.
xcko
Clock output to XCK pin (internal signal). Used for synchronous master operation.
fosc
XTAL pin frequency (system clock).
17.2.1 Internal Clock Generation – The Baud Rate Generator
Internal clock generation is used for the asynchronous and the synchronous master modes of operation. The description in
this section refers to Figure 17-2.
The USART baud rate register (UBRRn) and the down-counter connected to it function as a programmable prescaler or
baud rate generator. The down-counter, running at system clock (fosc), is loaded with the UBRRn value each time the
counter has counted down to zero or when the UBRRnL register is written. A clock is generated each time the counter
reaches zero. This clock is the baud rate generator clock output (= fosc/(UBRRn+1)). The transmitter divides the baud rate
generator clock output by 2, 8 or 16 depending on mode. The baud rate generator output is used directly by the receiver’s
clock and data recovery units. However, the recovery units use a state machine that uses 2, 8 or 16 states depending on
mode set by the state of the UMSELn, U2Xn and DDR_XCKn bits.
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Table 17-1 contains equations for calculating the baud rate (in bits per second) and for calculating the UBRRn value for each
mode of operation using an internally generated clock source.
Table 17-1. Equations for Calculating Baud Rate Register Setting
Equation for Calculating Baud Rate(1)
Operating Mode
Equation for Calculating UBRRn Value
Asynchronous normal mode
(U2Xn = 0)
f OSC
BAUD = ----------------------------------------16  UBRRn + 1 
f OSC
UBRRn = ----------------------- – 1
16BAUD
Asynchronous double speed
mode (U2Xn = 1)
f OSC
BAUD = -------------------------------------8  UBRRn + 1 
f OSC
UBRRn = -------------------- – 1
8BAUD
Synchronous master mode
f OSC
BAUD = -------------------------------------2  UBRRn + 1 
f OSC
UBRRn = -------------------- – 1
2BAUD
Note:
1.
The baud rate is defined to be the transfer rate in bit per second (bps)
BAUD
Baud rate (in bits per second, bps)
fOSC
System oscillator clock frequency
UBRRn Contents of the UBRRnH and UBRRnL registers, (0-4095)
Some examples of UBRRn values for some system clock frequencies are found in Table 17-9 on page 165.
17.2.2 Double Speed Operation (U2Xn)
The transfer rate can be doubled by setting the U2Xn bit in UCSRnA. Setting this bit only has effect for the asynchronous
operation. Set this bit to zero when using synchronous operation.
Setting this bit will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from 16 to 8, effectively doubling the transfer rate for
asynchronous communication. Note however that the receiver will in this case only use half the number of samples (reduced
from 16 to 8) for data sampling and clock recovery, and therefore a more accurate baud rate setting and system clock are
required when this mode is used. For the transmitter, there are no downsides.
17.2.3 External Clock
External clocking is used by the synchronous slave modes of operation. The description in this section refers to
Figure 17-2 on page 148 for details.
External clock input from the XCKn pin is sampled by a synchronization register to minimize the chance of meta-stability.
The output from the synchronization register must then pass through an edge detector before it can be used by the
transmitter and receiver. This process introduces a two CPU clock period delay and therefore the maximum external XCKn
clock frequency is limited by the following equation:
f OSC
f XCK  ----------4
Note that fosc depends on the stability of the system clock source. It is therefore recommended to add some margin to avoid
possible loss of data due to frequency variations.
17.2.4 Synchronous Clock Operation
When synchronous mode is used (UMSELn = 1), the XCKn pin will be used as either clock input (slave) or clock output
(master). The dependency between the clock edges and data sampling or data change is the same. The basic principle is
that data input (on RxDn) is sampled at the opposite XCKn clock edge of the edge the data output (TxDn) is changed.
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Figure 17-3. Synchronous Mode XCKn Timing
UCPOL = 1
XCK
RxD/ TxD
Sample
UCPOL = 0
XCK
RxD/ TxD
Sample
The UCPOLn bit UCRSC selects which XCKn clock edge is used for data sampling and which is used for data change. As
Figure 17-3 shows, when UCPOLn is zero the data will be changed at rising XCKn edge and sampled at falling XCKn edge.
If UCPOLn is set, the data will be changed at falling XCKn edge and sampled at rising XCKn edge.
17.3
Frame Formats
A serial frame is defined to be one character of data bits with synchronization bits (start and stop bits), and optionally a parity
bit for error checking. The USART accepts all 30 combinations of the following as valid frame formats:
● 1 start bit
●
●
●
5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 data bits
no, even or odd parity bit
1 or 2 stop bits
A frame starts with the start bit followed by the least significant data bit. Then the next data bits, up to a total of nine, are
succeeding, ending with the most significant bit. If enabled, the parity bit is inserted after the data bits, before the stop bits.
When a complete frame is transmitted, it can be directly followed by a new frame, or the communication line can be set to an
idle (high) state. Figure 17-4 on page 150 illustrates the possible combinations of the frame formats. Bits inside brackets are
optional.
Figure 17-4. Frame Formats
FRAME
(IDLE)
ST
0
1
2
3
4
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8] [P] Sp1 [Sp2]
(St/ IDLE)
St
Start bit, always low.
(n)
Data bits (0 to 8).
P
Parity bit. Can be odd or even.
Sp
Stop bit, always high.
IDLE
No transfers on the communication line (RxDn or TxDn). An IDLE line must be high.
The frame format used by the USART is set by the UCSZn2:0, UPMn1:0 and USBSn bits in UCSRnB and UCSRnC. The
receiver and transmitter use the same setting. Note that changing the setting of any of these bits will corrupt all ongoing
communication for both the receiver and transmitter.
The USART character size (UCSZn2:0) bits select the number of data bits in the frame. The USART parity mode (UPMn1:0)
bits enable and set the type of parity bit. The selection between one or two stop bits is done by the USART stop bit select
(USBSn) bit. The receiver ignores the second stop bit. An FE (frame error) will therefore only be detected in the cases where
the first stop bit is zero.
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17.3.1 Parity Bit Calculation
The parity bit is calculated by doing an exclusive-or of all the data bits. If odd parity is used, the result of the exclusive or is
inverted. The relation between the parity bit and data bits is as follows:
P even = d n – 1    d 3  d 2  d 1  d 0  0
P odd = d n – 1    d 3  d 2  d 1  d 0  1
Peven
Parity bit using even parity
Podd
Parity bit using odd parity
dn
Data bit n of the character
If used, the parity bit is located between the last data bit and first stop bit of a serial frame.
17.4
USART Initialization
The USART has to be initialized before any communication can take place. The initialization process normally consists of
setting the baud rate, setting frame format and enabling the transmitter or the receiver depending on the usage. For interrupt
driven USART operation, the global interrupt flag should be cleared (and interrupts globally disabled) when doing the
initialization.
Before doing a re-initialization with changed baud rate or frame format, be sure that there are no ongoing transmissions
during the period the registers are changed. The TXCn flag can be used to check that the transmitter has completed all
transfers, and the RXC flag can be used to check that there are no unread data in the receive buffer. Note that the TXCn flag
must be cleared before each transmission (before UDRn is written) if it is used for this purpose.
The following simple USART initialization code examples show one assembly and one C function that are equal in
functionality. The examples assume asynchronous operation using polling (no interrupts enabled) and a fixed frame format.
The baud rate is given as a function parameter. For the assembly code, the baud rate parameter is assumed to be stored in
the r17:r16 registers.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Init:
; Set baud rate
out
UBRRnH, r17
out
UBRRnL, r16
; Enable receiver and transmitter
ldi
r16, (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn)
out
UCSRnB,r16
; Set frame format: 8data, 2stop bit
ldi
r16, (1<<USBSn)|(3<<UCSZn0)
out
UCSRnC,r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
void USART_Init( unsigned int baud )
{
/* Set baud rate */
UBRRnH = (unsigned char)(baud>>8);
UBRRnL = (unsigned char)baud;
/* Enable receiver and transmitter */
UCSRnB = (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn);
/* Set frame format: 8data, 2stop bit */
UCSRnC = (1<<USBSn)|(3<<UCSZn0);
}
Note:
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must
be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with
“SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
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More advanced initialization routines can be made that include frame format as parameters, disable interrupts and so on.
However, many applications use a fixed setting of the baud and control registers, and for these types of applications the
initialization code can be placed directly in the main routine, or be combined with initialization code for other I/O modules.
17.5
Data Transmission – The USART Transmitter
The USART transmitter is enabled by setting the transmit enable (TXEN) bit in the UCSRnB register. When the transmitter is
enabled, the normal port operation of the TxDn pin is overridden by the USART and given the function as the transmitter’s
serial output. The baud rate, mode of operation and frame format must be set up once before doing any transmissions. If
synchronous operation is used, the clock on the XCKn pin will be overridden and used as transmission clock.
17.5.1 Sending Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bit
A data transmission is initiated by loading the transmit buffer with the data to be transmitted. The CPU can load the transmit
buffer by writing to the UDRn I/O location. The buffered data in the transmit buffer will be moved to the shift register when the
shift register is ready to send a new frame. The shift register is loaded with new data if it is in idle state (no ongoing
transmission) or immediately after the last stop bit of the previous frame is transmitted. When the shift register is loaded with
new data, it will transfer one complete frame at the rate given by the baud register, U2Xn bit or by XCKn depending on mode
of operation.
The following code examples show a simple USART transmit function based on polling of the data register empty (UDREn)
flag. When using frames with less than eight bits, the most significant bits written to the UDRn are ignored. The USART has
to be initialized before the function can be used. For the assembly code, the data to be sent is assumed to be stored in
register R16.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Transmit:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis
UCSRnA,UDREn
rjmp
USART_Transmit
; Put data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
out
UDRn,r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
void USART_Transmit( unsigned char data )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSRnA & (1<<UDREn)) )
;
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDRn = data;
}
Note:
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must
be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with
“SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
The function simply waits for the transmit buffer to be empty by checking the UDREn flag, before loading it with new data to
be transmitted. If the data register empty interrupt is utilized, the interrupt routine writes the data into the buffer.
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17.5.2 Sending Frames with 9 Data Bit
If 9-bit characters are used (UCSZn = 7), the ninth bit must be written to the TXB8 bit in UCSRnB before the low byte of the
character is written to UDRn. The following code examples show a transmit function that handles 9-bit characters. For the
assembly code, the data to be sent is assumed to be stored in registers R17:R16.
Assembly Code Example(1)(2)
USART_Transmit:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis
UCSRnA,UDREn
rjmp
USART_Transmit
; Copy 9th bit from r17 to TXB8
cbi
UCSRnB,TXB8
sbrc
r17,0
sbi
UCSRnB,TXB8
; Put LSB data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
out
UDRn,r16
ret
C Code Example(1)(2
void USART_Transmit( unsigned int data )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSRnA & (1<<UDREn))) )
;
/* Copy 9th bit to TXB8 */
UCSRnB &= ~(1<<TXB8);
if ( data & 0x0100 )
UCSRnB |= (1<<TXB8);
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDRn = data;
}
Notes:
1.
These transmit functions are written to be general functions. They can be optimized if the contents of the
UCSRnB is static. For example, only the TXB8 bit of the UCSRnB register is used after initialization.
2.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must
be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with
“SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
The ninth bit can be used for indicating an address frame when using multi processor communication mode or for other
protocol handling as for example synchronization.
17.5.3 Transmitter Flags and Interrupts
The USART transmitter has two flags that indicate its state: USART data register empty (UDREn) and transmit complete
(TXCn). Both flags can be used for generating interrupts.
The data register empty (UDREn) flag indicates whether the transmit buffer is ready to receive new data. This bit is set when
the transmit buffer is empty, and cleared when the transmit buffer contains data to be transmitted that has not yet been
moved into the shift register. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to zero when writing the UCSRnA
register.
When the data register empty interrupt enable (UDRIEn) bit in UCSRnB is written to one, the USART data register empty
interrupt will be executed as long as UDREn is set (provided that global interrupts are enabled). UDREn is cleared by writing
UDRn. When interrupt-driven data transmission is used, the data register empty interrupt routine must either write new data
to UDRn in order to clear UDREn or disable the data register empty interrupt, otherwise a new interrupt will occur once the
interrupt routine terminates.
The transmit complete (TXCn) flag bit is set one when the entire frame in the transmit shift register has been shifted out and
there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer. The TXCn flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit
complete interrupt is executed, or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location.
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The TXCn flag is useful in half-duplex communication interfaces (like the RS-485 standard), where a transmitting application
must enter receive mode and free the communication bus immediately after completing the transmission.
When the transmit compete interrupt enable (TXCIEn) bit in UCSRnB is set, the USART transmit complete interrupt will be
executed when the TXCn flag becomes set (provided that global interrupts are enabled). When the transmit complete
interrupt is used, the interrupt handling routine does not have to clear the TXCn flag, this is done automatically when the
interrupt is executed.
17.5.4 Parity Generator
The parity generator calculates the parity bit for the serial frame data. When parity bit is enabled (UPMn1 = 1), the
transmitter control logic inserts the parity bit between the last data bit and the first stop bit of the frame that is sent.
17.5.5 Disabling the Transmitter
The disabling of the transmitter (setting the TXEN to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending transmissions
are completed, i.e., when the transmit shift register and transmit buffer register do not contain data to be transmitted. When
disabled, the transmitter will no longer override the TxDn pin.
17.6
Data Reception – The USART Receiver
The USART receiver is enabled by writing the receive enable (RXENn) bit in the UCSRnB register to one. When the receiver
is enabled, the normal pin operation of the RxDn pin is overridden by the USART and given the function as the receiver’s
serial input. The baud rate, mode of operation and frame format must be set up once before any serial reception can be
done. If synchronous operation is used, the clock on the XCKn pin will be used as transfer clock.
17.6.1 Receiving Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bits
The receiver starts data reception when it detects a valid start bit. Each bit that follows the start bit will be sampled at the
baud rate or XCKn clock, and shifted into the receive shift register until the first stop bit of a frame is received. A second stop
bit will be ignored by the receiver. When the first stop bit is received, i.e., a complete serial frame is present in the receive
shift register, the contents of the shift register will be moved into the receive buffer. The receive buffer can then be read by
reading the UDRn I/O location.
The following code example shows a simple USART receive function based on polling of the receive complete (RXCn) flag.
When using frames with less than eight bits the most significant bits of the data read from the UDRn will be masked to zero.
The USART has to be initialized before the function can be used.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Receive:
; Wait for data to be received
sbis
UCSRnA, RXCn
rjmp
USART_Receive
; Get and return received data from buffer
in
r16, UDRn
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned char USART_Receive(void)
{
/* Wait for data to be received */
while (!(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)))
;
/* Get and return received data from buffer */
return UDRn;
}
Note:
154
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included. For I/O registers
located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions
must be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and
“STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
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The function simply waits for data to be present in the receive buffer by checking the RXCn flag, before reading the buffer
and returning the value.
17.6.2 Receiving Frames with 9 Data Bits
If 9-bit characters are used (UCSZn=7) the ninth bit must be read from the RXB8n bit in UCSRnB before reading the low bits
from the UDRn. This rule applies to the FEn, DORn and UPEn status flags as well. Read status from UCSRnA, then data
from UDRn. Reading the UDRn I/O location will change the state of the receive buffer FIFO and consequently the TXB8n,
FEn, DORn and UPEn bits, which all are stored in the FIFO, will change.
The following code example shows a simple USART receive function that handles both nine bit characters and the status
bits.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Receive:
; Wait for data to be received
sbis
UCSRnA, RXCn
rjmp
USART_Receive
; Get status and 9th bit, then data from buffer
in
r18, UCSRnA
in
r17, UCSRnB
in
r16, UDRn
; If error, return -1
andi
r18,(1<<FEn)|(1<<DORn)|(1<<UPEn)
breq
USART_ReceiveNoError
ldi
r17, HIGH(-1)
ldi
r16, LOW(-1)
USART_ReceiveNoError:
; Filter the 9th bit, then return
lsr
r17
andi
r17, 0x01
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned int USART_Receive(void)
{
unsigned char status, resh, resl;
/* Wait for data to be received */
while (!(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)))
;
/* Get status and 9th bit, then data */
/* from buffer */
status = UCSRnA;
resh = UCSRnB;
resl = UDRn;
/* If error, return -1 */
if (status & (1<<FEn)|(1<<DORn)|(1<<UPEn))
return -1;
/* Filter the 9th bit, then return */
resh = (resh >> 1) & 0x01;
return ((resh << 8) | resl);
}
Note:
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included. For I/O registers located in extended
I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow
access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
The receive function example reads all the I/O registers into the register file before any computation is done. This gives an
optimal receive buffer utilization since the buffer location read will be free to accept new data as early as possible.
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17.6.3 Receive Compete Flag and Interrupt
The USART receiver has one flag that indicates the receiver state.
The receive complete (RXCn) flag indicates if there are unread data present in the receive buffer. This flag is one when
unread data exist in the receive buffer, and zero when the receive buffer is empty (i.e., does not contain any unread data). If
the receiver is disabled (RXENn = 0), the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn bit will become zero.
When the receive complete interrupt enable (RXCIEn) in UCSRnB is set, the USART receive complete interrupt will be
executed as long as the RXCn flag is set (provided that global interrupts are enabled). When interrupt-driven data reception
is used, the receive complete routine must read the received data from UDRn in order to clear the RXCn flag, otherwise a
new interrupt will occur once the interrupt routine terminates.
17.6.4 Receiver Error Flags
The USART receiver has three error flags: frame error (FEn), data overrun (DORn) and parity arror (UPEn). All can be
accessed by reading UCSRnA. Common for the error flags is that they are located in the receive buffer together with the
frame for which they indicate the error status. Due to the buffering of the error flags, the UCSRnA must be read before the
receive buffer (UDRn), since reading the UDRn I/O location changes the buffer read location. Another equality for the error
flags is that they can not be altered by software doing a write to the flag location. However, all flags must be set to zero when
the UCSRnA is written for upward compatibility of future USART implementations. None of the error flags can generate
interrupts.
The frame error (FEn) flag indicates the state of the first stop bit of the next readable frame stored in the receive buffer. The
FEn flag is zero when the stop bit was correctly read (as one), and the FEn flag will be one when the stop bit was incorrect
(zero). This flag can be used for detecting out-of-sync conditions, detecting break conditions and protocol handling. The FEn
flag is not affected by the setting of the USBSn bit in UCSRnC since the receiver ignores all, except for the first, stop bits. For
compatibility with future devices, always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
The data overrun (DORn) flag indicates data loss due to a receiver buffer full condition. A data overrun occurs when the
receive buffer is full (two characters), it is a new character waiting in the receive shift register, and a new start bit is detected.
If the DORn flag is set there was one or more serial frame lost between the frame last read from UDRn, and the next frame
read from UDRn. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA. The DORn flag
is cleared when the frame received was successfully moved from the shift register to the receive buffer.
The parity error (UPEn) flag indicates that the next frame in the receive buffer had a parity error when received. If parity
check is not enabled the UPEn bit will always be read zero. For compatibility with future devices, always set this bit to zero
when writing to UCSRnA. For more details see Section 17.3.1 “Parity Bit Calculation” on page 151 and Section 17.6.5 “Parity
Checker” on page 156.
17.6.5 Parity Checker
The parity checker is active when the high USART parity mode (UPMn1) bit is set. Type of parity check to be performed (odd
or even) is selected by the UPMn0 bit. When enabled, the parity checker calculates the parity of the data bits in incoming
frames and compares the result with the parity bit from the serial frame. The result of the check is stored in the receive buffer
together with the received data and stop bits. The parity error (UPEn) flag can then be read by software to check if the frame
had a parity error.
The UPEn bit is set if the next character that can be read from the receive buffer had a parity error when received and the
parity checking was enabled at that point (UPMn1 = 1). This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read.
17.6.6 Disabling the Receiver
In contrast to the transmitter, disabling of the receiver will be immediate. Data from ongoing receptions will therefore be lost.
When disabled (i.e., the RXENn is set to zero) the receiver will no longer override the normal function of the RxDn port pin.
The receiver buffer FIFO will be flushed when the receiver is disabled. Remaining data in the buffer will be lost.
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17.6.7 Flushing the Receive Buffer
The receiver buffer FIFO will be flushed when the receiver is disabled, i.e., the buffer will be emptied of its contents. Unread
data will be lost. If the buffer has to be flushed during normal operation, due to for instance an error condition, read the UDRn
I/O location until the RXCn flag is cleared. The following code example shows how to flush the receive buffer.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Flush:
sbis
UCSRnA, RXCn
ret
in
r16, UDRn
rjmp
USART_Flush
C Code Example(1)
void USART_Flush(void)
{
unsigned char dummy;
while (UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)) dummy = UDRn;
}
Note:
17.7
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included. For I/O registers located in extended
I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow
access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
Asynchronous Data Reception
The USART includes a clock recovery and a data recovery unit for handling asynchronous data reception. The clock
recovery logic is used for synchronizing the internally generated baud rate clock to the incoming asynchronous serial frames
at the RxDn pin. The data recovery logic samples and low pass filters each incoming bit, thereby improving the noise
immunity of the receiver. The asynchronous reception operational range depends on the accuracy of the internal baud rate
clock, the rate of the incoming frames, and the frame size in number of bits.
17.7.1 Asynchronous Clock Recovery
The clock recovery logic synchronizes internal clock to the incoming serial frames. Figure 17-5 illustrates the sampling
process of the start bit of an incoming frame. The sample rate is 16 times the baud rate for normal mode, and eight times the
baud rate for double speed mode. The horizontal arrows illustrate the synchronization variation due to the sampling process.
Note the larger time variation when using the double speed mode (U2Xn = 1) of operation. Samples denoted zero are
samples done when the RxDn line is idle (i.e., no communication activity).
Figure 17-5. Start Bit Sampling
RxD
IDLE
START
BIT 0
Sample
(U2X = 0)
Sample
(U2X = 1)
0
0
0
1
1
2
3
2
4
5
3
6
7
4
8
9
5
10
11
6
12
13
7
14
15
8
16
1
2
1
3
2
When the clock recovery logic detects a high (idle) to low (start) transition on the RxDn line, the start bit detection sequence
is initiated. Let sample 1 denote the first zero-sample as shown in the figure. The clock recovery logic then uses samples 8,
9, and 10 for normal mode, and samples 4, 5, and 6 for double speed mode (indicated with sample numbers inside boxes on
the figure), to decide if a valid start bit is received. If two or more of these three samples have logical high levels (the majority
wins), the start bit is rejected as a noise spike and the receiver starts looking for the next high to low-transition. If however, a
valid start bit is detected, the clock recovery logic is synchronized and the data recovery can begin. The synchronization
process is repeated for each start bit.
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17.7.2 Asynchronous Data Recovery
When the receiver clock is synchronized to the start bit, the data recovery can begin. The data recovery unit uses a state
machine that has 16 states for each bit in normal mode and eight states for each bit in double speed mode. Figure 17-6
shows the sampling of the data bits and the parity bit. Each of the samples is given a number that is equal to the state of the
recovery unit.
Figure 17-6. Sampling of Data and Parity Bit
RxD
Bit n
Sample
(U2X = 0)
Sample
(U2X = 1)
1
2
1
3
4
2
5
6
3
7
8
4
9
10
5
11
12
6
13
7
14
15
8
16
1
1
The decision of the logic level of the received bit is taken by doing a majority voting of the logic value to the three samples in
the center of the received bit. The center samples are emphasized on the figure by having the sample number inside boxes.
The majority voting process is done as follows: If two or all three samples have high levels, the received bit is registered to
be a logic 1. If two or all three samples have low levels, the received bit is registered to be a logic 0. This majority voting
process acts as a low pass filter for the incoming signal on the RxDn pin. The recovery process is then repeated until a
complete frame is received. Including the first stop bit. Note that the receiver only uses the first stop bit of a frame.
Figure 17-7 shows the sampling of the stop bit and the earliest possible beginning of the start bit of the next frame.
Figure 17-7. Stop Bit Sampling and Next Start Bit Sampling
RxD
(A)
STOP 1
(B)
(C)
Sample
(U2X = 0)
Sample
(U2X = 1)
1
1
2
3
2
4
5
3
6
7
4
8
9
5
10
0/1
6
0/1
0/1
0/1
The same majority voting is done to the stop bit as done for the other bits in the frame. If the stop bit is registered to have a
logic 0 value, the frame error (FEn) flag will be set.
A new high to low transition indicating the start bit of a new frame can come right after the last of the bits used for majority
voting. For normal speed mode, the first low level sample can be at point marked (A) in Figure 17-7. For double speed mode
the first low level must be delayed to (B). (C) marks a stop bit of full length. The early start bit detection influences the
operational range of the receiver.
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17.7.3 Asynchronous Operational Range
The operational range of the receiver is dependent on the mismatch between the received bit rate and the internally
generated baud rate. If the transmitter is sending frames at too fast or too slow bit rates, or the internally generated baud rate
of the receiver does not have a similar (see Table 17-2) base frequency, the Receiver will not be able to synchronize the
frames to the start bit.
The following equations can be used to calculate the ratio of the incoming data rate and internal receiver baud rate.
 D + 1 S
R slow = -----------------------------------------S – 1 + D  S + SF
 D + 2 S
R fast = ---------------------------------- D + 1 S + S M
D
Sum of character size and parity size (D = 5 to 10 bit)
S
Samples per bit. S = 16 for normal speed mode and S = 8 for double speed mode.
SF
First sample number used for majority voting. SF = 8 for normal speed and SF = 4
for double speed mode.
SM
Middle sample number used for majority voting. SM = 9 for normal speed and
SM = 5 for double speed mode.
Rslow
is the ratio of the slowest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to the
receiver baud rate. Rfast is the ratio of the fastest incoming data rate that can be
accepted in relation to the receiver baud rate.
Table 17-2 and Table 17-3 list the maximum receiver baud rate error that can be tolerated. Note that normal speed mode has
higher toleration of baud rate variations.
Table 17-2. Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Normal Speed Mode (U2Xn = 0)
D# (Data+Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max Receiver
Error (%)
5
93.20
106.67
+6.67/–6.8
±3.0
6
94.12
105.79
+5.79/–5.88
±2.5
7
94.81
105.11
+5.11/–5.19
±2.0
8
95.36
104.58
+4.58/–4.54
±2.0
9
95.81
104.14
+4.14/–4.19
±1.5
10
96.17
103.78
+3.78/–3.83
±1.5
Table 17-3. Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Double Speed Mode (U2Xn = 1)
D# (Data+Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max Receiver
Error (%)
5
94.12
105.66
+5.66/–5.88
±2.5
6
94.92
104.92
+4.92/–5.08
±2.0
7
95.52
104,35
+4.35/–4.48
±1.5
8
96.00
103.90
+3.90/–4.00
±1.5
9
96.39
103.53
+3.53/–3.61
±1.5
10
96.70
103.23
+3.23/–3.30
±1.0
The recommendations of the maximum receiver baud rate error was made under the assumption that the receiver and
transmitter equally divides the maximum total error.
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There are two possible sources for the receivers baud rate error. The receiver’s system clock (XTAL) will always have some
minor instability over the supply voltage range and the temperature range. When using a crystal to generate the system
clock, this is rarely a problem, but for a resonator the system clock may differ more than 2% depending of the resonators
tolerance. The second source for the error is more controllable. The baud rate generator can not always do an exact division
of the system frequency to get the baud rate wanted. In this case an UBRRn value that gives an acceptable low error can be
used if possible.
17.8
Multi-processor Communication Mode
Setting the multi-processor communication mode (MPCMn) bit in UCSRnA enables a filtering function of incoming frames
received by the USART receiver. frames that do not contain address information will be ignored and not put into the receive
buffer. This effectively reduces the number of incoming frames that has to be handled by the CPU, in a system with multiple
MCUs that communicate via the same serial bus. The transmitter is unaffected by the MPCMn setting, but has to be used
differently when it is a part of a system utilizing the multi-processor communication mode.
If the receiver is set up to receive frames that contain 5 to 8 data bits, then the first stop bit indicates if the frame contains
data or address information. If the receiver is set up for frames with nine data bits, then the ninth bit (RXB8n) is used for
identifying address and data frames. When the frame type bit (the first stop or the ninth bit) is one, the frame contains an
address. When the frame type bit is zero the frame is a data frame.
The multi-processor communication mode enables several slave MCUs to receive data from a master MCU. This is done by
first decoding an address frame to find out which MCU has been addressed. If a particular slave MCU has been addressed,
it will receive the following data frames as normal, while the other slave MCUs will ignore the received frames until another
address frame is received.
17.8.1 Using MPCMn
For an MCU to act as a master MCU, it can use a 9-bit character frame format (UCSZn = 7). The ninth bit (TXB8n) must be
set when an address frame (TXB8n = 1) or cleared when a data frame (TXB = 0) is being transmitted. The slave MCUs must
in this case be set to use a 9-bit character frame format.
The following procedure should be used to exchange data in multi-processor communication mode:
1. All slave MCUs are in multi-processor communication mode (MPCMn in UCSRnA is set).
2.
The master MCU sends an address frame, and all slaves receive and read this frame. In the slave MCUs, the
RXCn flag in UCSRnA will be set as normal.
3.
Each slave MCU reads the UDRn register and determines if it has been selected. If so, it clears the MPCMn bit in
UCSRnA, otherwise it waits for the next address byte and keeps the MPCMn setting.
4.
The addressed MCU will receive all data frames until a new address frame is received. The other slave MCUs,
which still have the MPCMn bit set, will ignore the data frames.
5.
When the last data frame is received by the addressed MCU, the addressed MCU sets the MPCMn bit and waits
for a new address frame from master. The process then repeats from 2.
Using any of the 5- to 8-bit character frame formats is possible, but impractical since the receiver must change between
using n and n+1 character frame formats. This makes full-duplex operation difficult since the transmitter and receiver uses
the same character size setting. If 5- to 8-bit character frames are used, the transmitter must be set to use two stop bit
(USBSn = 1) since the first stop bit is used for indicating the frame type.
Do not use read-modify-write instructions (SBI and CBI) to set or clear the MPCMn bit. The MPCMn bit shares the same I/O
location as the TXCn flag and this might accidentally be cleared when using SBI or CBI instructions.
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17.9
USART Register Description
17.9.1 USART I/O Data Register n– UDRn
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXB[7:0]
UDRn (Read)
TXB[7:0]
UDRn (Write)
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The USART transmit data buffer register and USART receive data buffer registers share the same I/O address referred to as
USART data register or UDRn. The transmit data buffer register (TXB) will be the destination for data written to the UDRn
register location. Reading the UDRn register location will return the contents of the receive data buffer register (RXB).
For 5-, 6-, or 7-bit characters the upper unused bits will be ignored by the transmitter and set to zero by the receiver.
The transmit buffer can only be written when the UDREn flag in the UCSRnA register is set. Data written to UDRn when the
UDREn flag is not set, will be ignored by the USART transmitter. When data is written to the transmit buffer, and the
transmitter is enabled, the transmitter will load the data into the transmit shift register when the shift register is empty.
Then the data will be serially transmitted on the TxDn pin.
The receive buffer consists of a two level FIFO. The FIFO will change its state whenever the receive buffer is accessed. Due
to this behavior of the receive buffer, do not use read-modify-write instructions (SBI and CBI) on this location. Be careful
when using bit test instructions (SBIC and SBIS), since these also will change the state of the FIFO.
17.9.2 USART Control and Status Register n A – UCSRnA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCn
TXCn
UDREn
FEn
DORn
UPEn
U2Xn
MPCMn
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
UCSRnA
• Bit 7 – RXCn: USART Receive Complete
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when the receive buffer is empty (i.e., does
not contain any unread data). If the receiver is disabled, the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn bit will
become zero. The RXCn flag can be used to generate a receive complete interrupt (see description of the RXCIEn bit).
• Bit 6 – TXCn: USART Transmit Complete
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the transmit shift register has been shifted out and there are no new data currently
present in the transmit buffer (UDRn). The TXCn flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is
executed, or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXCn flag can generate a transmit complete interrupt
(see description of the TXCIEn bit).
• Bit 5 – UDREn: USART Data Register Empty
The UDREn flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDRn) is ready to receive new data. If UDREn is one, the buffer is empty,
and therefore ready to be written. The UDREn flag can generate a data register empty interrupt (see description of the
UDRIEn bit).
UDREn is set after a reset to indicate that the transmitter is ready.
• Bit 4 – FEn: Frame Error
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a frame error when received. I.e., when the first stop bit of the
next character in the receive buffer is zero. This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read. The FEn bit is zero when
the stop bit of received data is one. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
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• Bit 3 – DORn: Data OverRun
This bit is set if a data overrun condition is detected. A data overrun occurs when the receive buffer is full (two characters), it
is a new character waiting in the receive shift register, and a new start bit is detected. This bit is valid until the receive buffer
(UDRn) is read. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 2 – UPEn: USART Parity Error
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a parity error when received and the parity checking was enabled
at that point (UPMn1 = 1). This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read. Always set this bit to zero when writing to
UCSRnA.
• Bit 1 – U2Xn: Double the USART Transmission Speed
This bit only has effect for the asynchronous operation. Write this bit to zero when using synchronous operation.
Writing this bit to one will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from 16 to 8 effectively doubling the transfer rate for
asynchronous communication.
• Bit 0 – MPCMn: Multi-processor Communication Mode
This bit enables the multi-processor communication mode. When the MPCMn bit is written to one, all the incoming frames
received by the USART receiver that do not contain address information will be ignored. The transmitter is unaffected by the
MPCMn setting. For more detailed information see Section 17.8 “Multi-processor Communication Mode” on page 160.
17.9.3 USART Control and Status Register n B – UCSRnB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCIEn
TXCIEn
UDRIEn
RXENn
TXENn
UCSZn2
RXB8n
TXB8n
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
UCSRnB
• Bit 7 – RXCIEn: RX Complete Interrupt Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXCn flag. A USART receive complete interrupt will be generated only if the
RXCIEn bit is written to one, the global interrupt flag in SREG is written to one and the RXCn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 6 – TXCIEn: TX Complete Interrupt Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXCn flag. A USART transmit complete interrupt will be generated only if the
TXCIEn bit is written to one, the global interrupt flag in SREG is written to one and the TXCn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 5 – UDRIEn: USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDREn flag. A data register empty interrupt will be generated only if the
UDRIEn bit is written to one, the global interrupt flag in SREG is written to one and the UDREn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 4 – RXENn: Receiver Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables the USART receiver. The receiver will override normal port operation for the RxDn pin when
enabled. Disabling the receiver will flush the receive buffer invalidating the FEn, DORn, and UPEn flags.
• Bit 3 – TXENn: Transmitter Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables the USART transmitter. The transmitter will override normal port operation for the TxDn pin
when enabled. The disabling of the transmitter (writing TXENn to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending
transmissions are completed, i.e., when the transmit shift register and transmit buffer register do not contain data to be
transmitted. When disabled, the transmitter will no longer override the TxDn port.
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• Bit 2 – UCSZn2: Character Size n
The UCSZn2 bits combined with the UCSZn1:0 bit in UCSRnC sets the number of data bits (character size) in a frame the
receiver and transmitter use.
• Bit 1 – RXB8n: Receive Data Bit 8 n
RXB8n is the ninth data bit of the received character when operating with serial frames with nine data bits. Must be read
before reading the low bits from UDRn.
• Bit 0 – TXB8n: Transmit Data Bit 8 n
TXB8n is the ninth data bit in the character to be transmitted when operating with serial frames with nine data bits. Must be
written before writing the low bits to UDRn.
17.9.4 USART Control and Status Register n C – UCSRnC
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
UMSELn1
UMSELn0
UPMn1
UPMn0
USBSn
UCSZn1
UCSZn0
UCPOLn
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSRnC
• Bits 7:6 – UMSELn1:0 USART Mode Select
These bits select the mode of operation of the USARTn as shown in Table 17-4.
Table 17-4. UMSELn Bits Settings
Note:
UMSELn1
UMSELn0
Mode
0
0
Asynchronous USART
0
1
Synchronous USART
1
0
(Reserved)
1
1
Master SPI (MSPIM)(1)
1. See Section 18. “USART in SPI Mode” on page 168 for full description of the master SPI mode (MSPIM)
operation
• Bits 5:4 – UPMn1:0: Parity Mode
These bits enable and set type of parity generation and check. If enabled, the transmitter will automatically generate and
send the parity of the transmitted data bits within each frame. The receiver will generate a parity value for the incoming data
and compare it to the UPMn setting. If a mismatch is detected, the UPEn Flag in UCSRnA will be set.
Table 17-5. UPMn Bits Settings
UPMn1
UPMn0
Parity Mode
0
0
Disabled
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Enabled, even parity
1
1
Enabled, odd parity
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• Bit 3 – USBSn: Stop Bit Select
This bit selects the number of stop bits to be inserted by the transmitter. The receiver ignores this setting.
Table 17-6. USBS Bit Settings
USBSn
Stop Bit(s)
0
1-bit
1
2-bit
• Bit 2:1 – UCSZn1:0: Character Size
The UCSZn1:0 bits combined with the UCSZn2 bit in UCSRnB sets the number of data bits (character size) in a frame the
receiver and transmitter use.
Table 17-7. UCSZn Bits Settings
UCSZn2
UCSZn1
UCSZn0
Character Size
0
0
0
5-bit
0
0
1
6-bit
0
1
0
7-bit
0
1
1
8-bit
1
0
0
Reserved
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
9-bit
• Bit 0 – UCPOLn: Clock Polarity
This bit is used for synchronous mode only. Write this bit to zero when asynchronous mode is used. The UCPOLn bit sets
the relationship between data output change and data input sample, and the synchronous clock (XCKn).
Table 17-8. UCPOLn Bit Settings
UCPOLn
Transmitted Data Changed (Output of TxDn Pin)
Received Data Sampled (Input on RxDn Pin)
0
Rising XCKn edge
Falling XCKn edge
1
Falling XCKn edge
Rising XCKn edge
17.9.5 USART Baud Rate Registers – UBRRnL and UBRRnH
Bit
15
14
13
12
–
–
–
–
11
10
9
8
UBRRn[11:8]
UBRRnH
UBRRn[7:0]
Read/Write
Initial Value
164
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
UBRRnL
• Bit 15:12 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bit must be written to zero when UBRRnH
is written.
• Bit 11:0 – UBRR11:0: USART Baud Rate Register
This is a 12-bit register which contains the USART baud rate. The UBRRnH contains the four most significant bits, and the
UBRRnL contains the eight least significant bits of the USART baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the transmitter and
receiver will be corrupted if the baud rate is changed. Writing UBRRnL will trigger an immediate update of the baud rate
prescaler.
17.10 Examples of Baud Rate Setting
For standard crystal and resonator frequencies, the most commonly used baud rates for asynchronous operation can be
generated by using the UBRRn settings in Table 17-9. UBRRn values which yield an actual baud rate differing less than
0.5% from the target baud rate, are bold in the table. Higher error ratings are acceptable, but the receiver will have less noise
resistance when the error ratings are high, especially for large serial frames (see Section 17.7.3 “Asynchronous Operational
Range” on page 159). The error values are calculated using the following equation:
BaudRateClosest Match
Error[%] =  -------------------------------------------------- – 1  100%


BaudRate
Table 17-9. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies
fosc = 1.0000MHz
fosc = 1.8432MHz
fosc = 2.0000MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
2400
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
4800
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
9600
6
–7.0%
12
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
14.4k
3
8.5%
8
–3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
–3.5%
16
2.1%
19.2k
2
8.5%
6
–7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
–7.0%
12
0.2%
28.8k
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
–3.5%
38.4k
1
–18.6%
2
8.5%
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
2
8.5%
6
–7.0%
57.6k
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
76.8k
–
–
1
–18.6%
1
–25.0%
2
0.0%
1
–18.6%
2
8.5%
115.2k
–
–
0
8.5%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
230.4k
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0.0%
–
–
–
–
250k
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0.0%
Max.(1)
Note:
1.
62.5kbps
125kbps
UBRRn = 0, error = 0.0%
115.2kbps
230.4kbps
125kbps
250kbps
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
165
Table 17-10. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies (Continued)
fosc = 3.6864MHz
fosc = 4.0000MHz
fosc = 7.3728MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
2400
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
4800
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
9600
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
14.4k
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
16
2.1%
34
–0.8%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
19.2k
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
28.8k
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
–3.5%
16
2.1%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
38.4k
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
–7.0%
12
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
57.6k
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
–3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
76.8k
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
2
8.5%
6
–7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
115.2k
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
230.4k
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
250k
0
–7.8%
1
–7.8%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
1
–7.8%
3
–7.8%
0.5M
–
–
0
–7.8%
–
–
0
0.0%
0
–7.8%
1
–7.8%
1M
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
–7.8%
(1)
Max.
Note:
1.
230.4kbps
460.8kbps
UBRRn = 0, error = 0.0%
250kbps
0.5Mbps
460.8kbps
921.6kbps
Table 17-11. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies (Continued)
fosc = 11.0592MHz
fosc = 14.7456MHz
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
2400
207
0.2%
416
–0.1%
287
0.0%
575
0.0%
383
0.0%
767
0.0%
4800
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
143
0.0%
287
0.0%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
9600
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
71
0.0%
143
0.0%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
14.4k
34
–0.8%
68
0.6%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
63
0.0%
127
0.0%
19.2k
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
35
0.0%
71
0.0%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
28.8k
16
2.1%
34
–0.8%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
38.4k
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
17
0.0%
35
0.0%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
57.6k
8
–3.5%
16
2.1%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
76.8k
6
–7.0%
12
0.2%
8
0.0%
17
0.0%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
115.2k
3
8.5%
8
–3.5%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
230.4k
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
250k
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
2
–7.8%
5
–7.8%
3
–7.8%
6
5.3%
0.5M
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
–
–
2
–7.8%
1
–7.8%
3
–7.8%
1M
–
–
0
0.0%
–
–
–
–
0
–7.8%
1
–7.8%
Max.
Note:
166
fosc = 8.0000MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
(1)
1.
0.5Mbps
1Mbps
UBRRn = 0, error = 0.0%
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
691.2kbps
1.3824Mbps
921.6kbps
1.8432Mbps
Table 17-12. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies (Continued)
fosc = 16.0000MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
2400
416
–0.1%
4800
207
0.2%
9600
103
14.4k
68
19.2k
28.8k
U2Xn = 0
fosc = 18.4320MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
fosc = 20.0000MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
832
0.0%
479
0.0%
959
0.0%
520
0.0%
1041
0.0%
416
–0.1%
239
0.0%
479
0.0%
259
0.2%
520
0.0%
0.2%
207
0.2%
119
0.0%
239
0.0%
129
0.2%
259
0.2%
0.6%
138
–0.1%
79
0.0%
159
0.0%
86
–0.2%
173
–0.2%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
59
0.0%
119
0.0%
64
0.2%
129
0.2%
34
–0.8%
68
0.6%
39
0.0%
79
0.0%
42
0.9%
86
–0.2%
38.4k
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
29
0.0%
59
0.0%
32
–1.4%
64
0.2%
57.6k
16
2.1%
34
–0.8%
19
0.0%
39
0.0%
21
–1.4%
42
0.9%
76.8k
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
14
0.0%
29
0.0%
15
1.7%
32
–1.4%
115.2k
8
–3.5%
16
2.1%
9
0.0%
19
0.0%
10
–1.4%
21
–1.4%
230.4k
3
8.5%
8
–3.5%
4
0.0%
9
0.0%
4
8.5%
10
–1.4%
250k
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
4
–7.8%
8
2.4%
4
0.0%
9
0.0%
0.5M
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
–
–
4
–7.8%
–
–
4
0.0%
1M
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Max.
Note:
(1)
1.
1Mbps
2Mbps
UBRRn = 0, error = 0.0%
1.152Mbps
2.304Mbps
1.25Mbps
2.5Mbps
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
167
18.
USART in SPI Mode
The universal synchronous and asynchronous serial receiver and transmitter (USART) can be set to a master SPI compliant
mode of operation. The master SPI mode (MSPIM) has the following features:
● Full duplex, three-wire synchronous data transfer
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
18.1
Master operation
Supports all four SPI modes of operation (mode 0, 1, 2, and 3)
LSB first or MSB first data transfer (configurable data order)
Queued operation (double buffered)
High resolution baud rate generator
High speed operation (fXCKmax = fCK/2)
Flexible interrupt generation
Overview
Setting both UMSELn1:0 bits to one enables the USART in MSPIM logic. In this mode of operation the SPI master control
logic takes direct control over the USART resources. These resources include the transmitter and receiver shift register and
buffers, and the baud rate generator. The parity generator and checker, the data and clock recovery logic, and the RX and
TX control logic is disabled. The USART RX and TX control logic is replaced by a common SPI transfer control logic.
However, the pin control logic and interrupt generation logic is identical in both modes of operation.
The I/O register locations are the same in both modes. However, some of the functionality of the control registers changes
when using MSPIM.
18.2
Clock Generation
The clock generation logic generates the base clock for the transmitter and receiver. For USART MSPIM mode of operation
only internal clock generation (i.e. master operation) is supported. The data direction register for the XCKn pin (DDR_XCKn)
must therefore be set to one (i.e. as output) for the USART in MSPIM to operate correctly. Preferably the DDR_XCKn should
be set up before the USART in MSPIM is enabled (i.e. TXENn and RXENn bit set to one).
The internal clock generation used in MSPIM mode is identical to the USART synchronous master mode. The baud rate or
UBRRn setting can therefore be calculated using the same equations, see Table 18-1.
Table 18-1. Equations for Calculating Baud Rate Register Setting
Operating Mode
Equation for Calculating Baud Rate(1)
Equation for Calculating UBRRn Value
Synchronous master mode
f OSC
BAUD = -------------------------------------2  UBRRn + 1 
f OSC
UBRRn = -------------------- – 1
2BAUD
Note:
168
1.
The baud rate is defined to be the transfer rate in bit per second (bps)
BAUD
Baud rate (in bits per second, bps)
fOSC
System oscillator clock frequency
UBRRn
Contents of the UBRRnH and UBRRnL registers, (0-4095)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
18.3
SPI Data Modes and Timing
There are four combinations of XCKn (SCK) phase and polarity with respect to serial data, which are determined by control
bits UCPHAn and UCPOLn. The data transfer timing diagrams are shown in Figure 18-1. Data bits are shifted out and
latched in on opposite edges of the XCKn signal, ensuring sufficient time for data signals to stabilize. The UCPOLn and
UCPHAn functionality is summarized in Table 18-2. Note that changing the setting of any of these bits will corrupt all ongoing
communication for both the receiver and transmitter.
Table 18-2. UCPOLn and UCPHAn FunctionalityUCPOLn
UCPHAn
SPI Mode
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
0
0
Sample (rising)
Setup (falling)
0
1
1
Setup (rising)
Sample (falling)
1
0
2
Sample (falling)
Setup (rising)
1
1
3
Setup (falling)
Sample (rising)
Figure 18-1. UCPHAn and UCPOLn Data Transfer Timing Diagrams
UCPHA = 0
UCPHA = 1
UCPOL = 0
18.4
UCPOL = 1
XCK
XCK
Data setup (TXD)
Data setup (TXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Data sample (RXD)
XCK
XCK
Data setup (TXD)
Data setup (TXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Frame Formats
A serial frame for the MSPIM is defined to be one character of 8 data bits. The USART in MSPIM mode has two valid frame
formats:
● 8-bit data with MSB first
●
8-bit data with LSB first
A frame starts with the least or most significant data bit. Then the next data bits, up to a total of eight, are succeeding, ending
with the most or least significant bit accordingly. When a complete frame is transmitted, a new frame can directly follow it, or
the communication line can be set to an idle (high) state.
The UDORDn bit in UCSRnC sets the frame format used by the USART in MSPIM mode. The receiver and transmitter use
the same setting. Note that changing the setting of any of these bits will corrupt all ongoing communication for both the
receiver and transmitter.
16-bit data transfer can be achieved by writing two data bytes to UDRn. A UART transmit complete interrupt will then signal
that the 16-bit value has been shifted out.
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
169
18.4.1 USART MSPIM Initialization
The USART in MSPIM mode has to be initialized before any communication can take place. The initialization process
normally consists of setting the baud rate, setting master mode of operation (by setting DDR_XCKn to one), setting frame
format and enabling the transmitter and the receiver. Only the transmitter can operate independently. For interrupt driven
USART operation, the global interrupt flag should be cleared (and thus interrupts globally disabled) when doing the
initialization.
Note:
To ensure immediate initialization of the XCKn output the baud-rate register (UBRRn) must be zero at the time
the transmitter is enabled. Contrary to the normal mode USART operation the UBRRn must then be written to
the desired value after the transmitter is enabled, but before the first transmission is started. Setting UBRRn to
zero before enabling the transmitter is not necessary if the initialization is done immediately after a reset since
UBRRn is reset to zero.
Before doing a re-initialization with changed baud rate, data mode, or frame format, be sure that there is no ongoing
transmissions during the period the registers are changed. The TXCn flag can be used to check that the transmitter has
completed all transfers, and the RXCn flag can be used to check that there are no unread data in the receive buffer. Note
that the TXCn flag must be cleared before each transmission (before UDRn is written) if it is used for this purpose.
The following simple USART initialization code examples show one assembly and one C function that are equal in
functionality. The examples assume polling (no interrupts enabled). The baud rate is given as a function parameter. For the
assembly code, the baud rate parameter is assumed to be stored in the r17:r16 registers.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Init:
clr r18
out UBRRnH,r18
out UBRRnL,r18
; Setting the XCKn port pin as output, enables master mode.
sbi XCKn_DDR, XCKn
; Set MSPI mode of operation and SPI data mode 0.
ldi r18, (1<<UMSELn1)|(1<<UMSELn0)|(0<<UCPHAn)|(0<<UCPOLn)
out UCSRnC,r18
; Enable receiver and transmitter.
ldi r18, (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn)
out UCSRnB,r18
; Set baud rate.
; IMPORTANT: The Baud Rate must be set after the transmitter is
enabled!
out UBRRnH, r17
out UBRRnL, r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
void USART_Init( unsigned int baud )
{
UBRRn = 0;
/* Setting the XCKn port pin as output, enables master mode. */
XCKn_DDR |= (1<<XCKn);
/* Set MSPI mode of operation and SPI data mode 0. */
UCSRnC = (1<<UMSELn1)|(1<<UMSELn0)|(0<<UCPHAn)|(0<<UCPOLn);
/* Enable receiver and transmitter. */
UCSRnB = (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn);
/* Set baud rate. */
/* IMPORTANT: The Baud Rate must be set after the transmitter
is enabled
*/
UBRRn = baud;
}
Note:
170
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included. For I/O registers located in extended
I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow
access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
18.5
Data Transfer
Using the USART in MSPI mode requires the transmitter to be enabled, i.e. the TXENn bit in the UCSRnB register is set to
one. When the transmitter is enabled, the normal port operation of the TxDn pin is overridden and given the function as the
transmitter's serial output. Enabling the receiver is optional and is done by setting the RXENn bit in the UCSRnB register to
one. When the receiver is enabled, the normal pin operation of the RxDn pin is overridden and given the function as the
receiver's serial input. The XCKn will in both cases be used as the transfer clock.
After initialization the USART is ready for doing data transfers. A data transfer is initiated by writing to the UDRn I/O location.
This is the case for both sending and receiving data since the transmitter controls the transfer clock. The data written to
UDRn is moved from the transmit buffer to the shift register when the shift register is ready to send a new frame.
Note:
To keep the input buffer in sync with the number of data bytes transmitted, the UDRn register must be read
once for each byte transmitted. The input buffer operation is identical to normal USART mode, i.e. if an
overflow occurs the character last received will be lost, not the first data in the buffer. This means that if four
bytes are transferred, byte 1 first, then byte 2, 3, and 4, and the UDRn is not read before all transfers are
completed, then byte 3 to be received will be lost, and not byte 1.
The following code examples show a simple USART in MSPIM mode transfer function based on polling of the data register
empty (UDREn) flag and the receive complete (RXCn) flag. The USART has to be initialized before the function can be used.
For the assembly code, the data to be sent is assumed to be stored in register R16 and the data received will be available in
the same register (R16) after the function returns.
The function simply waits for the transmit buffer to be empty by checking the UDREn flag, before loading it with new data to
be transmitted. The function then waits for data to be present in the receive buffer by checking the RXCn flag, before reading
the buffer and returning the value.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_MSPIM_Transfer:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis UCSRnA, UDREn
rjmp USART_MSPIM_Transfer
; Put data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
out UDRn,r16
; Wait for data to be received
USART_MSPIM_Wait_RXCn:
sbis UCSRnA, RXCn
rjmp USART_MSPIM_Wait_RXCn
; Get and return received data from buffer
in r16, UDRn
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned char USART_Receive(void)
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while (!(UCSRnA & (1<<UDREn)));
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDRn = data;
/* Wait for data to be received */
while (!(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)));
/* Get and return received data from buffer */
return UDRn;
}
Note:
1.
The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included. For I/O registers located in extended
I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow
access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
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18.5.1 Transmitter and Receiver Flags and Interrupts
The RXCn, TXCn, and UDREn flags and corresponding interrupts in USART in MSPIM mode are identical in function to the
normal USART operation. However, the receiver error status flags (FE, DOR, and PE) are not in use and is always read as
zero.
18.5.2 Disabling the Transmitter or Receiver
The disabling of the transmitter or receiver in USART in MSPIM mode is identical in function to the normal USART operation.
18.6
USART MSPIM Register Description
The following section describes the registers used for SPI operation using the USART.
18.6.1 USART MSPIM I/O Data Register - UDRn
The function and bit description of the USART data register (UDRn) in MSPI mode is identical to normal USART operation.
See Section 17.9.1 “USART I/O Data Register n– UDRn” on page 161
18.6.2 USART MSPIM Control and Status Register n A - UCSRnA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCn
TXCn
UDREn
-
-
-
-
-
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSRnA
• Bit 7 - RXCn: USART Receive Complete
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when the receive buffer is empty (i.e., does
not contain any unread data). If the receiver is disabled, the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn bit will
become zero. The RXCn flag can be used to generate a receive complete interrupt (see description of the RXCIEn bit).
• Bit 6 - TXCn: USART Transmit Complete
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the transmit shift register has been shifted out and there are no new data currently
present in the transmit buffer (UDRn). The TXCn flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is
executed, or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXCn flag can generate a transmit complete interrupt
(see description of the TXCIEn bit).
• Bit 5 - UDREn: USART Data Register Empty
The UDREn flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDRn) is ready to receive new data. If UDREn is one, the buffer is empty,
and therefore ready to be written. The UDREn flag can generate a data register empty interrupt (see description of the
UDRIE bit). UDREn is set after a reset to indicate that the transmitter is ready.
• Bit 4:0 - Reserved Bits in MSPI mode
When in MSPI mode, these bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bits must be written
to zero when UCSRnA is written.
18.6.3 USART MSPIM Control and Status Register n B - UCSRnB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCIEn
TXCIEn
UDRIE
RXENn
TXENn
-
-
-
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSRnB
• Bit 7 - RXCIEn: RX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXCn flag. A USART receive complete interrupt will be generated only if the
RXCIEn bit is written to one, the global interrupt flag in SREG is written to one and the RXCn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 6 - TXCIEn: TX Complete Interrupt Enable
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Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXCn flag. A USART transmit complete interrupt will be generated only if the
TXCIEn bit is written to one, the global interrupt flag in SREG is written to one and the TXCn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 5 - UDRIE: USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDREn flag. A data register empty interrupt will be generated only if the
UDRIE bit is written to one, the global interrupt flag in SREG is written to one and the UDREn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 4 - RXENn: Receiver Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART receiver in MSPIM mode. The receiver will override normal port operation for the
RxDn pin when enabled. Disabling the receiver will flush the receive buffer. Only enabling the receiver in MSPI mode (i.e.
setting RXENn=1 and TXENn=0) has no meaning since it is the transmitter that controls the transfer clock and since only
master mode is supported.
• Bit 3 - TXENn: Transmitter Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART transmitter. The transmitter will override normal port operation for the TxDn pin
when enabled. The disabling of the transmitter (writing TXENn to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending
transmissions are completed, i.e., when the transmit shift register and transmit buffer register do not contain data to be
transmitted. When disabled, the transmitter will no longer override the TxDn port.
• Bit 2:0 - Reserved Bits in MSPI mode
When in MSPI mode, these bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bits must be written
to zero when UCSRnB is written.
18.6.4 USART MSPIM Control and Status Register n C - UCSRnC
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
UMSELn1
UMSELn0
-
-
-
UDORDn
UCPHAn
UCPOLn
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSRnC
• Bit 7:6 - UMSELn1:0: USART Mode Select
These bits select the mode of operation of the USART as shown in Table 18-3 on page 173.
See Section 17.9.4 “USART Control and Status Register n C – UCSRnC” on page 163 for full description of the normal
USART operation. The MSPIM is enabled when both UMSELn bits are set to one. The UDORDn, UCPHAn, and UCPOLn
can be set in the same write operation where the MSPIM is enabled.
Table 18-3. UMSELn Bits Settings
UMSELn1
UMSELn0
Mode
0
0
Asynchronous USART
0
1
Synchronous USART
1
0
(Reserved)
1
1
Master SPI (MSPIM)
• Bit 5:3 - Reserved Bits in MSPI mode
When in MSPI mode, these bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bits must be written
to zero when UCSRnC is written.
• Bit 2 - UDORDn: Data Order
When set to one the LSB of the data word is transmitted first. When set to zero the MSB of the data word is transmitted first.
Refer to the frame formats section page 4 for details.
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• Bit 1 - UCPHAn: Clock Phase
The UCPHAn bit setting determine if data is sampled on the leasing edge (first) or tailing (last) edge of XCKn. Refer to the
SPI data modes and timing section page 4 for details.
• Bit 0 - UCPOLn: Clock Polarity
The UCPOLn bit sets the polarity of the XCKn clock. The combination of the UCPOLn and UCPHAn bit settings determine
the timing of the data transfer. Refer to the SPI data modes and timing section page 4 for details.
18.6.5 USART MSPIM Baud Rate Registers - UBRRnL and UBRRnH
The function and bit description of the baud rate registers in MSPI mode is identical to normal USART operation.
See Section 17.9.5 “USART Baud Rate Registers – UBRRnL and UBRRnH” on page 164
18.7
AVR USART MSPIM versus AVR SPI
The USART in MSPIM mode is fully compatible with the AVR® SPI regarding:
● Master mode timing diagram.
●
●
●
The UCPOLn bit functionality is identical to the SPI CPOL bit.
The UCPHAn bit functionality is identical to the SPI CPHA bit.
The UDORDn bit functionality is identical to the SPI DORD bit.
However, since the USART in MSPIM mode reuses the USART resources, the use of the USART in MSPIM mode is
somewhat different compared to the SPI. In addition to differences of the control register bits, and that only master operation
is supported by the USART in MSPIM mode, the following features differ between the two modules:
● The USART in MSPIM mode includes (double) buffering of the transmitter. The SPI has no buffer.
●
●
●
The USART in MSPIM mode receiver includes an additional buffer level.
●
●
Interrupt timing is not compatible.
The SPI WCOL (write collision) bit is not included in USART in MSPIM mode.
The SPI double speed mode (SPI2X) bit is not included. However, the same effect is achieved by setting UBRRn
accordingly.
Pin control differs due to the master only operation of the USART in MSPIM mode.
A comparison of the USART in MSPIM mode and the SPI pins is shown in Table 18-4.
Table 18-4. Comparison of USART in MSPIM mode and SPI pins.
174
USART_MSPIM
SPI
Comment
TxDn
MOSI
Master out only
RxDn
MISO
Master in only
XCKn
SCK
(Functionally identical)
(N/A)
SS
Not supported by USART in MSPIM
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19.
2-wire Serial Interface
19.1
Features
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
19.2
Simple yet powerful and flexible communication interface, only two bus lines needed
Both master and slave operation supported
Device can operate as transmitter or receiver
7-bit address space allows up to 128 different slave addresses
Multi-master arbitration support
Up to 400kHz data transfer speed
Slew-rate limited output drivers
Noise suppression circuitry rejects spikes on bus lines
Fully programmable slave address with general call support
Address recognition causes wake-up when AVR® is in sleep mode
2-wire Serial Interface Bus Definition
The 2-wire serial interface (TWI) is ideally suited for typical microcontroller applications. The TWI protocol allows the
systems designer to interconnect up to 128 different devices using only two bi-directional bus lines, one for clock (SCL) and
one for data (SDA). The only external hardware needed to implement the bus is a single pull-up resistor for each of the TWI
bus lines. All devices connected to the bus have individual addresses, and mechanisms for resolving bus contention are
inherent in the TWI protocol.
Figure 19-1. TWI Bus Interconnection
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
19.2.1 TWI Terminology
The following definitions are frequently encountered in this section.
Table 19-1. TWI Terminology
Term
Description
Master
The device that initiates and terminates a transmission. The Master also generates the SCL clock.
Slave
The device addressed by a Master.
Transmitter
The device placing data on the bus.
Receiver
The device reading data from the bus.
The PRTWI bit in Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 must be written to zero to enable the 2-wire
serial interface.
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19.2.2 Electrical Interconnection
As depicted in Figure 19-1 on page 175, both bus lines are connected to the positive supply voltage through pull-up
resistors. The bus drivers of all TWI-compliant devices are open-drain or open-collector. This implements a wired-AND
function which is essential to the operation of the interface. A low level on a TWI bus line is generated when one or more TWI
devices output a zero. A high level is output when all TWI devices tri-state their outputs, allowing the pull-up resistors to pull
the line high. Note that all AVR® devices connected to the TWI bus must be powered in order to allow any bus operation.
The number of devices that can be connected to the bus is only limited by the bus capacitance limit of 400pF and the
7-bit slave address space. A detailed specification of the electrical characteristics of the TWI is given in Section 27. “2-wire
Serial Interface Characteristics” on page 266. Two different sets of specifications are presented there, one relevant for bus
speeds below 100kHz, and one valid for bus speeds up to 400kHz.
19.3
Data Transfer and Frame Format
19.3.1 Transferring Bits
Each data bit transferred on the TWI bus is accompanied by a pulse on the clock line. The level of the data line must be
stable when the clock line is high. The only exception to this rule is for generating start and stop conditions.
Figure 19-2. Data Validity
SDA
SCL
Data Stable
Data Stable
Data Change
19.3.2 START and STOP Conditions
The master initiates and terminates a data transmission. The transmission is initiated when the master issues a START
condition on the bus, and it is terminated when the master issues a STOP condition. Between a START and a STOP
condition, the bus is considered busy, and no other master should try to seize control of the bus. A special case occurs when
a new START condition is issued between a START and STOP condition. This is referred to as a REPEATED START
condition, and is used when the master wishes to initiate a new transfer without relinquishing control of the bus. After a
REPEATED START, the bus is considered busy until the next STOP. This is identical to the START behavior, and therefore
START is used to describe both START and REPEATED START for the remainder of this datasheet, unless otherwise
noted. As depicted below, START and STOP conditions are signalled by changing the level of the SDA line when the SCL
line is high.
Figure 19-3. START, REPEATED START and STOP Conditions
SDA
SCL
START
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STOP
START
REPEATED START
STOP
19.3.3 Address Packet Format
All address packets transmitted on the TWI bus are 9 bits long, consisting of 7 address bits, one READ/WRITE control bit
and an acknowledge bit. If the READ/WRITE bit is set, a read operation is to be performed, otherwise a write operation
should be performed. When a slave recognizes that it is being addressed, it should acknowledge by pulling SDA low in the
ninth SCL (ACK) cycle. If the addressed slave is busy, or for some other reason can not service the master’s request, the
SDA line should be left high in the ACK clock cycle. The master can then transmit a STOP condition, or a REPEATED
START condition to initiate a new transmission. An address packet consisting of a slave address and a READ or a WRITE
bit is called SLA+R or SLA+W, respectively.
The MSB of the address byte is transmitted first. Slave addresses can freely be allocated by the designer, but the address
0000 000 is reserved for a general call.
When a general call is issued, all slaves should respond by pulling the SDA line low in the ACK cycle. A general call is used
when a master wishes to transmit the same message to several slaves in the system. When the general call address
followed by a write bit is transmitted on the bus, all slaves set up to acknowledge the general call will pull the SDA line low in
the ack cycle. The following data packets will then be received by all the slaves that acknowledged the general call. Note that
transmitting the general call address followed by a read bit is meaningless, as this would cause contention if several slaves
started transmitting different data.
All addresses of the format 1111 xxx should be reserved for future purposes.
Figure 19-4. Address Packet Format
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
7
8
ACK
SDA
SCL
1
2
9
START
19.3.4 Data Packet Format
All data packets transmitted on the TWI bus are nine bits long, consisting of one data byte and an acknowledge bit. During a
data transfer, the master generates the clock and the START and STOP conditions, while the receiver is responsible for
acknowledging the reception. An acknowledge (ACK) is signalled by the receiver pulling the SDA line low during the ninth
SCL cycle. If the receiver leaves the SDA line high, a NACK is signalled. When the receiver has received the last byte, or for
some reason cannot receive any more bytes, it should inform the transmitter by sending a NACK after the final byte. The
MSB of the data byte is transmitted first.
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Figure 19-5. Data Packet Format
Data MSB
Data LSB
ACK
Aggregate
SDA
SDA from
Transmitter
SDA from
Receiver
SCL from
Master
1
2
7
SLA + R/W
8
9
STOP, REPEATED
START or next
Data Byte
Data Byte
19.3.5 Combining Address and Data Packets into a Transmission
A transmission basically consists of a START condition, a SLA+R/W, one or more data packets and a STOP condition. An
empty message, consisting of a START followed by a STOP condition, is illegal. Note that the Wired-ANDing of the SCL line
can be used to implement handshaking between the master and the slave. The slave can extend the SCL low period by
pulling the SCL line low. This is useful if the clock speed set up by the master is too fast for the slave, or the slave needs
extra time for processing between the data transmissions. The slave extending the SCL low period will not affect the SCL
high period, which is determined by the master. As a consequence, the slave can reduce the TWI data transfer speed by
prolonging the SCL duty cycle.
Figure 19-6 shows a typical data transmission. Note that several data bytes can be transmitted between the SLA+R/W and
the STOP condition, depending on the software protocol implemented by the application software.
Figure 19-6. Typical Data Transmission
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
7
8
ACK
Data MSB
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
SDA
SCL
1
START
19.4
2
9
1
SLA + R/W
2
7
Data Byte
STOP
Multi-master Bus Systems, Arbitration and Synchronization
The TWI protocol allows bus systems with several masters. Special concerns have been taken in order to ensure that
transmissions will proceed as normal, even if two or more masters initiate a transmission at the same time. Two problems
arise in multi-master systems:
● An algorithm must be implemented allowing only one of the masters to complete the transmission. All other masters
should cease transmission when they discover that they have lost the selection process. This selection process is
called arbitration. When a contending master discovers that it has lost the arbitration process, it should immediately
switch to slave mode to check whether it is being addressed by the winning master. The fact that multiple masters
have started transmission at the same time should not be detectable to the slaves, i.e. the data being transferred on
the bus must not be corrupted.
●
178
Different masters may use different SCL frequencies. A scheme must be devised to synchronize the serial clocks
from all masters, in order to let the transmission proceed in a lockstep fashion. This will facilitate the arbitration
process.
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The wired-ANDing of the bus lines is used to solve both these problems. The serial clocks from all masters will be
wired-ANDed, yielding a combined clock with a high period equal to the one from the master with the shortest high period.
The low period of the combined clock is equal to the low period of the master with the longest low period. Note that all
masters listen to the SCL line, effectively starting to count their SCL high and low time-out periods when the combined SCL
line goes high or low, respectively.
Figure 19-7. SCL Synchronization Between Multiple Masters
TAhigh
TAlow
SCL from
Master A
SCL from
Master B
SCL Bus
Line
TBlow
TBhigh
Masters Start
Counting Low Period
Masters Start
Counting High Period
Arbitration is carried out by all masters continuously monitoring the SDA line after outputting data. If the value read from the
SDA line does not match the value the master had output, it has lost the arbitration. Note that a master can only lose
arbitration when it outputs a high SDA value while another master outputs a low value. The losing master should
immediately go to slave mode, checking if it is being addressed by the winning master. The SDA line should be left high, but
losing masters are allowed to generate a clock signal until the end of the current data or address packet. Arbitration will
continue until only one master remains, and this may take many bits. If several masters are trying to address the same slave,
arbitration will continue into the data packet.
Figure 19-8. Arbitration Between Two Masters
START
Master A Loses
Arbitration, SDAA ≠ SDA
SDA from
Master A
SDA from
Master B
SDA Line
Synchronized
SCL Line
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Note that arbitration is not allowed between:
● A REPEATED START condition and a data bit.
●
●
A STOP condition and a data bit.
A REPEATED START and a STOP condition.
It is the user software’s responsibility to ensure that these illegal arbitration conditions never occur. This implies that in
multi-master systems, all data transfers must use the same composition of SLA+R/W and data packets. In other words: All
transmissions must contain the same number of data packets, otherwise the result of the arbitration is undefined.
19.5
Overview of the TWI Module
The TWI module is comprised of several submodules, as shown in Figure 19-9. All registers drawn in a thick line are
accessible through the AVR® data bus.
Figure 19-9. Overview of the TWI Module
SDA
Slew-rate
Control
Spike
Filter
Slew-rate
Control
Spike
Filter
Bit Rate Generator
Bus Interface Unit
START/ STOP
Control
Spike Suppression
Arbitration detection
Address/ Data Shift
Register (TWDR)
Prescaler
Bit Rate Register
(TWBR)
Ack
Address Match Unit
Address Register
(TWAR)
Address Comparator
Control Unit
Status Register
(TWSR)
Control Register
(TWCR)
State Machine and
Status control
TWI Unit
SCL
19.5.1 SCL and SDA Pins
These pins interface the AVR TWI with the rest of the MCU system. The output drivers contain a slew-rate limiter in order to
conform to the TWI specification. The input stages contain a spike suppression unit removing spikes shorter than 50ns. Note
that the internal pull-ups in the AVR pads can be enabled by setting the PORT bits corresponding to the SCL and SDA pins,
as explained in the I/O port section. The internal pull-ups can in some systems eliminate the need for external ones.
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19.5.2 Bit Rate Generator Unit
This unit controls the period of SCL when operating in a master mode. The SCL period is controlled by settings in the TWI bit
rate register (TWBR) and the prescaler bits in the TWI status register (TWSR). Slave operation does not depend on bit rate
or prescaler settings, but the CPU clock frequency in the slave must be at least 16 times higher than the SCL frequency.
Note that slaves may prolong the SCL low period, thereby reducing the average TWI bus clock period. The SCL frequency is
generated according to the following equation:
CPU Clock frequency
SCL frequency = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 + 2(TWBR)   PrescalerValue 
●
●
Note:
TWBR = value of the TWI bit rate register.
Prescaler value = value of the prescaler, see Table 19-2 on page 184.
TWBR should be 10 or higher if the TWI operates in master mode. If TWBR is lower than 10, the master may
produce an incorrect output on SDA and SCL for the reminder of the byte. The problem occurs when operating
the TWI in master mode, sending start + SLA + R/W to a slave (a slave does not need to be connected to the
bus for the condition to happen).
19.5.3 Bus Interface Unit
This unit contains the data and address shift register (TWDR), a START/STOP controller and arbitration detection hardware.
The TWDR contains the address or data bytes to be transmitted, or the address or data bytes received. In addition to the
8-bit TWDR, the bus interface unit also contains a register containing the (N)ACK bit to be transmitted or received. This
(N)ACK register is not directly accessible by the application software. However, when receiving, it can be set or cleared by
manipulating the TWI control register (TWCR). When in transmitter mode, the value of the received (N)ACK bit can be
determined by the value in the TWSR.
The START/STOP controller is responsible for generation and detection of START, REPEATED START, and STOP
conditions. The START/STOP controller is able to detect START and STOP conditions even when the AVR MCU is in one of
the sleep modes, enabling the MCU to wake up if addressed by a master.
If the TWI has initiated a transmission as master, the arbitration detection hardware continuously monitors the transmission
trying to determine if arbitration is in process. If the TWI has lost an arbitration, the control unit is informed. Correct action
can then be taken and appropriate status codes generated.
19.5.4 Address Match Unit
The address match unit checks if received address bytes match the seven-bit address in the TWI address register (TWAR).
If the TWI general call recognition enable (TWGCE) bit in the TWAR is written to one, all incoming address bits will also be
compared against the general call address. Upon an address match, the control unit is informed, allowing correct action to
be taken. The TWI may or may not acknowledge its address, depending on settings in the TWCR. The address match unit is
able to compare addresses even when the AVR® MCU is in sleep mode, enabling the MCU to wake up if addressed by a
master. If another interrupt (e.g., INT0) occurs during TWI power-down address match and wakes up the CPU, the TWI
aborts operation and return to it’s idle state. If this cause any problems, ensure that TWI address match is the only enabled
interrupt when entering power-down.
19.5.5 Control Unit
The control unit monitors the TWI bus and generates responses corresponding to settings in the TWI control register
(TWCR). When an event requiring the attention of the application occurs on the TWI bus, the TWI interrupt flag (TWINT) is
asserted. In the next clock cycle, the TWI status register (TWSR) is updated with a status code identifying the event. The
TWSR only contains relevant status information when the TWI interrupt flag is asserted. At all other times, the TWSR
contains a special status code indicating that no relevant status information is available. As long as the TWINT flag is set, the
SCL line is held low. This allows the application software to complete its tasks before allowing the TWI transmission to
continue.
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The TWINT flag is set in the following situations:
● After the TWI has transmitted a START/REPEATED START condition.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
19.6
After the TWI has transmitted SLA+R/W.
After the TWI has transmitted an address byte.
After the TWI has lost arbitration.
After the TWI has been addressed by own slave address or general call.
After the TWI has received a data byte.
After a STOP or REPEATED START has been received while still addressed as a slave.
When a bus error has occurred due to an illegal START or STOP condition.
TWI Register Description
19.6.1 TWI Bit Rate Register – TWBR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWBR7
TWBR6
TWBR5
TWBR4
TWBR3
TWBR2
TWBR1
TWBR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TWBR
• Bits 7..0 – TWI Bit Rate Register
TWBR selects the division factor for the bit rate generator. The bit rate generator is a frequency divider which generates the
SCL clock frequency in the master modes. See Section 19.5.2 “Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 181 for calculating bit
rates.
19.6.2 TWI Control Register – TWCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TWCR
The TWCR is used to control the operation of the TWI. It is used to enable the TWI, to initiate a master access by applying a
START condition to the bus, to generate a receiver acknowledge, to generate a stop condition, and to control halting of the
bus while the data to be written to the bus are written to the TWDR. It also indicates a write collision if data is attempted
written to TWDR while the register is inaccessible.
• Bit 7 – TWINT: TWI Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when the TWI has finished its current job and expects application software response. If the I-bit in
SREG and TWIE in TWCR are set, the MCU will jump to the TWI interrupt vector. While the TWINT flag is set, the SCL low
period is stretched. The TWINT flag must be cleared by software by writing a logic one to it. Note that this flag is not
automatically cleared by hardware when executing the interrupt routine. Also note that clearing this flag starts the operation
of the TWI, so all accesses to the TWI address register (TWAR), TWI status register (TWSR), and TWI data register (TWDR)
must be complete before clearing this flag.
• Bit 6 – TWEA: TWI Enable Acknowledge Bit
The TWEA bit controls the generation of the acknowledge pulse. If the TWEA bit is written to one, the ACK pulse is
generated on the TWI bus if the following conditions are met:
1. The device’s own slave address has been received.
182
2.
A general call has been received, while the TWGCE bit in the TWAR is set.
3.
A data byte has been received in master receiver or slave receiver mode.
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By writing the TWEA bit to zero, the device can be virtually disconnected from the 2-wire serial bus temporarily. Address
recognition can then be resumed by writing the TWEA bit to one again.
• Bit 5 – TWSTA: TWI START Condition Bit
The application writes the TWSTA bit to one when it desires to become a master on the 2-wire serial bus. The TWI hardware
checks if the bus is available, and generates a START condition on the bus if it is free. However, if the bus is not free, the
TWI waits until a STOP condition is detected, and then generates a new START condition to claim the bus master status.
TWSTA must be cleared by software when the START condition has been transmitted.
• Bit 4 – TWSTO: TWI STOP Condition Bit
Writing the TWSTO bit to one in master mode will generate a STOP condition on the 2-wire serial bus. When the STOP
condition is executed on the bus, the TWSTO bit is cleared automatically. In slave mode, setting the TWSTO bit can be used
to recover from an error condition. This will not generate a STOP condition, but the TWI returns to a well-defined
unaddressed Slave mode and releases the SCL and SDA lines to a high impedance state.
• Bit 3 – TWWC: TWI Write Collision Flag
The TWWC bit is set when attempting to write to the TWI data register – TWDR when TWINT is low. This flag is cleared by
writing the TWDR register when TWINT is high.
• Bit 2 – TWEN: TWI Enable Bit
The TWEN bit enables TWI operation and activates the TWI interface. When TWEN is written to one, the TWI takes control
over the I/O pins connected to the SCL and SDA pins, enabling the slew-rate limiters and spike filters. If this bit is written to
zero, the TWI is switched off and all TWI transmissions are terminated, regardless of any ongoing operation.
• Bit 1 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit and will always read as zero.
• Bit 0 – TWIE: TWI Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-bit in SREG is set, the TWI interrupt request will be activated for as long as the
TWINT flag is high.
19.6.3 TWI Status Register – TWSR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWS7
TWS6
TWS5
TWS4
TWS3
–
TWPS1
TWPS0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
TWSR
• Bits 7..3 – TWS: TWI Status
These 5 bits reflect the status of the TWI logic and the 2-wire serial bus. The different status codes are described later in this
section. Note that the value read from TWSR contains both the 5-bit status value and the 2-bit prescaler value. The
application designer should mask the prescaler bits to zero when checking the status bits. This makes status checking
independent of prescaler setting. This approach is used in this datasheet, unless otherwise noted.
• Bit 2 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bits 1..0 – TWPS: TWI Prescaler Bits
These bits can be read and written, and control the bit rate prescaler.
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183
Table 19-2. TWI Bit Rate Prescaler
TWPS1
TWPS0
Prescaler Value
0
0
1
0
1
4
1
0
16
1
1
64
To calculate bit rates, see Section 19.5.2 “Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 181. The value of TWPS1..0 is used in the
equation.
19.6.4 TWI Data Register – TWDR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWD7
TWD6
TWD5
TWD4
TWD3
TWD2
TWD1
TWD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
TWDR
In transmit mode, TWDR contains the next byte to be transmitted. In receive mode, the TWDR contains the last byte
received. It is writable while the TWI is not in the process of shifting a byte. This occurs when the TWI interrupt flag (TWINT)
is set by hardware. Note that the data register cannot be initialized by the user before the first interrupt occurs. The data in
TWDR remains stable as long as TWINT is set. While data is shifted out, data on the bus is simultaneously shifted in. TWDR
always contains the last byte present on the bus, except after a wake up from a sleep mode by the TWI interrupt. In this
case, the contents of TWDR is undefined.
In the case of a lost bus arbitration, no data is lost in the transition from master to slave. Handling of the ACK bit is controlled
automatically by the TWI logic, the CPU cannot access the ACK bit directly.
• Bits 7..0 – TWD: TWI Data Register
These eight bits constitute the next data byte to be transmitted, or the latest data byte received on the 2-wire serial bus.
19.6.5 TWI (Slave) Address Register – TWAR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
TWAR
The TWAR should be loaded with the 7-bit slave address (in the seven most significant bits of TWAR) to which the TWI will
respond when programmed as a slave transmitter or receiver, and not needed in the master modes. In multi master
systems, TWAR must be set in masters which can be addressed as slaves by other masters.
The LSB of TWAR is used to enable recognition of the general call address (0x00). There is an associated address
comparator that looks for the slave address (or general call address if enabled) in the received serial address. If a match is
found, an interrupt request is generated.
• Bits 7..1 – TWA: TWI (Slave) Address Register
These seven bits constitute the slave address of the TWI unit.
• Bit 0 – TWGCE: TWI General Call Recognition Enable Bit
If set, this bit enables the recognition of a general call given over the 2-wire serial bus.
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19.6.6 TWI (Slave) Address Mask Register – TWAMR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
TWAM[6:0]
0
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TWAMR
• Bits 7..1 – TWAM: TWI Address Mask
The TWAMR can be loaded with a 7-bit salve address mask. Each of the bits in TWAMR can mask (disable) the
corresponding address bits in the TWI address register (TWAR). If the mask bit is set to one then the address match logic
ignores the compare between the incoming address bit and the corresponding bit in TWAR. Figure 19-10 shown the address
match logic in detail.
Figure 19-10. TWI Address Match Logic, Block Diagram
TWAR0
Address
Match
Address
Bit 0
TWAMR0
Address Bit Comparator 0
Address Bit Comparator 6 to 1
• Bit 0 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is an unused bit in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
19.7
Using the TWI
The AVR® TWI is byte-oriented and interrupt based. Interrupts are issued after all bus events, like reception of a byte or
transmission of a START condition. Because the TWI is interrupt-based, the application software is free to carry on other
operations during a TWI byte transfer. Note that the TWI interrupt enable (TWIE) bit in TWCR together with the global
interrupt enable bit in SREG allow the application to decide whether or not assertion of the TWINT flag should generate an
interrupt request. If the TWIE bit is cleared, the application must poll the TWINT flag in order to detect actions on the TWI
bus.
When the TWINT flag is asserted, the TWI has finished an operation and awaits application response. In this case, the TWI
status register (TWSR) contains a value indicating the current state of the TWI bus. The application software can then
decide how the TWI should behave in the next TWI bus cycle by manipulating the TWCR and TWDR registers.
Figure 19-11 on page 186 is a simple example of how the application can interface to the TWI hardware. In this example, a
Master wishes to transmit a single data byte to a slave. This description is quite abstract, a more detailed explanation follows
later in this section. A simple code example implementing the desired behavior is also presented.
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185
Application
Action
Figure 19-11. Interfacing the Application to the TWI in a Typical Transmission
1. Application
writes to TWCR to
initiate
transmission of
START
TWI
Hardware
Action
TWI bus
186
3. Check TWSR to see if START was
sent. Application loads SLA + W into
TWDR, and loads appropriate control
signals into TWCR, makin sure that
TWINT is written to one,
and TWSTA is written to zero.
START
2. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
START condition sent
SLA + W
5. Check TWSR to see if SLA + W was
sent and ACK received.
Application loads data intoTWDR, and
loads appropriate control signals into
TWCR, makin sure that TWINT is
written to one
A
4. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
SLA + W sent,
ACK received
Data
7. Check TWSR to see if data was sent
and ACK received.
Application loads appropriate control
signals to send STOP into TWCR,
makin sure that TWINT is
written to one
A
6. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
data sent, ACK received
STOP
Indicates
TWINT set
1.
The first step in a TWI transmission is to transmit a START condition. This is done by writing a specific value into
TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit a START condition. Which value to write is described later on.
However, it is important that the TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The
TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set. Immediately after the application has
cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the START condition.
2.
When the START condition has been transmitted, the TWINT flag in TWCR is set, and TWSR is updated with a
status code indicating that the START condition has successfully been sent.
3.
The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that the START condition was
successfully transmitted. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the application software might take some special action,
like calling an error routine. Assuming that the status code is as expected, the application must load SLA+W into
TWDR. Remember that TWDR is used both for address and data. After TWDR has been loaded with the desired
SLA+W, a specific value must be written to TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit the SLA+W present in
TWDR. Which value to write is described later on. However, it is important that the TWINT bit is set in the value
written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in
TWCR is set. Immediately after the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the
address packet.
4.
When the address packet has been transmitted, the TWINT flag in TWCR is set, and TWSR is updated with a
status code indicating that the address packet has successfully been sent. The status code will also reflect
whether a slave acknowledged the packet or not.
5.
The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that the address packet was
successfully transmitted, and that the value of the ACK bit was as expected. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the
application software might take some special action, like calling an error routine. Assuming that the status code is
as expected, the application must load a data packet into TWDR. Subsequently, a specific value must be written to
TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit the data packet present in TWDR. Which value to write is
described later on. However, it is important that the TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT
clears the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set. Immediately after the
application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the data packet.
6.
When the data packet has been transmitted, the TWINT flag in TWCR is set, and TWSR is updated with a status
code indicating that the data packet has successfully been sent. The status code will also reflect whether a slave
acknowledged the packet or not.
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7.
The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that the data packet was
successfully transmitted, and that the value of the ACK bit was as expected. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the
application software might take some special action, like calling an error routine. Assuming that the status code is
as expected, the application must write a specific value to TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit a
STOP condition. Which value to write is described later on. However, it is important that the TWINT bit is set in the
value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit
in TWCR is set. Immediately after the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the
STOP condition. Note that TWINT is NOT set after a STOP condition has been sent.
Even though this example is simple, it shows the principles involved in all TWI transmissions. These can be summarized as
follows:
● When the TWI has finished an operation and expects application response, the TWINT flag is set. The SCL line is
pulled low until TWINT is cleared.
●
When the TWINT flag is set, the user must update all TWI registers with the value relevant for the next TWI bus cycle.
As an example, TWDR must be loaded with the value to be transmitted in the next bus cycle.
●
After all TWI register updates and other pending application software tasks have been completed, TWCR is written.
When writing TWCR, the TWINT bit should be set. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will then
commence executing whatever operation was specified by the TWCR setting.
In the following an assembly and C implementation of the example is given. Note that the code below assumes that several
definitions have been made, for example by using include-files.
Table 19-3. Code Example
No.
Assembly Code Example
C Example
Comments
1
ldi
r16, (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTA)|
(1<<TWEN)
out
TWCR, r16
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTA)|
(1<<TWEN)
Send START condition
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)));
2
wait1:
in
sbrs
rjmp
r16,TWCR
r16,TWINT
wait1
in
andi
cpi
brne
r16,TWSR
r16, 0xF8
r16, START
ERROR
3
4
5
if ((TWSR & 0xF8) != START
ERROR();
Wait for TWINT flag set. This
indicates that the START
condition has been transmitted
Check value of TWI status
register. Mask prescaler bits. If
status different from START go
to ERROR
ldi
r16, SLA_W
out
TWDR, r16
ldi
r16, (1<<TWINT) |
(1<<TWEN)
out
TWCR, r16
TWDR = SLA_W;
TWCR = (1<<TWINT) |
(1<<TWEN);
wait2:
in
sbrs
rjmp
r16,TWCR
r16,TWINT
wait2
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)))
;
Wait for TWINT flag set. This
indicates that the SLA+W has
been transmitted, and
ACK/NACK has been received.
in
andi
cpi
brne
r16,TWSR
r16, 0xF8
r16, MT_SLA_ACK
ERROR
if ((TWSR & 0xF8) !=
MT_SLA_ACK)
ERROR();
Check value of TWI status
register. Mask prescaler bits. If
status different from
MT_SLA_ACK go to ERROR
ldi
r16, DATA
out
TWDR, r16
ldi
r16, (1<<TWINT) |
(1<<TWEN)
out
TWCR, r16
TWDR = DATA;
TWCR = (1<<TWINT) |
(1<<TWEN);
Load SLA_W into TWDR
register. Clear TWINT bit in
TWCR to start transmission of
address
Load DATA into TWDR
register. Clear TWINT bit in
TWCR to start transmission of
data
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187
Table 19-3. Code Example (Continued)
No.
6
7
Assembly Code Example
C Example
Comments
wait3:
in
sbrs
rjmp
r16,TWCR
r16,TWINT
wait3
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)))
;
Wait for TWINT flag set. This
indicates that the DATA has
been transmitted, and
ACK/NACK has been received.
in
andi
cpi
brne
r16,TWSR
r16, 0xF8
r16, MT_DATA_ACK
ERROR
if ((TWSR & 0xF8) !=
MT_DATA_ACK)
ERROR();
Check value of TWI status
register. Mask prescaler bits. If
status different from
MT_DATA_ACK go to ERROR
ldi
r16,
(1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN)|
1<<TWSTO)
out
19.8
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN)|
(1<<TWSTO);
Transmit STOP condition
TWCR, r16
Transmission Modes
The TWI can operate in one of four major modes. These are named master transmitter (MT), master receiver (MR), slave
transmitter (ST) and slave receiver (SR). Several of these modes can be used in the same application. As an example, the
TWI can use MT mode to write data into a TWI EEPROM, MR mode to read the data back from the EEPROM. If other
masters are present in the system, some of these might transmit data to the TWI, and then SR mode would be used. It is the
application software that decides which modes are legal.
The following sections describe each of these modes. Possible status codes are described along with figures detailing data
transmission in each of the modes. These figures contain the following abbreviations:
S:
START condition
Rs:
REPEATED START condition
R:
Read bit (high level at SDA)
W:
Write bit (low level at SDA)
A:
Acknowledge bit (low level at SDA)
A:
Not acknowledge bit (high level at SDA)
Data:
8-bit data byte
P:
STOP condition
SLA:
Slave address
In Figure 19-13 on page 191 to Figure 19-19 on page 200, circles are used to indicate that the TWINT flag is set. The
numbers in the circles show the status code held in TWSR, with the prescaler bits masked to zero. At these points, actions
must be taken by the application to continue or complete the TWI transfer. The TWI transfer is suspended until the TWINT
flag is cleared by software.
When the TWINT flag is set, the status code in TWSR is used to determine the appropriate software action. For each status
code, the required software action and details of the following serial transfer are given in Table 19-4 on page 190 to
Table 19-7 on page 199. Note that the prescaler bits are masked to zero in these tables.
19.8.1 Master Transmitter Mode
In the master transmitter mode, a number of data bytes are transmitted to a slave receiver (see Figure 19-12 on page 189).
In order to enter a master mode, a START condition must be transmitted. The format of the following address packet
determines whether master transmitter or master receiver mode is to be entered. If SLA+W is transmitted, MT mode is
entered, if SLA+R is transmitted, MR mode is entered. All the status codes mentioned in this section assume that the
prescaler bits are zero or are masked to zero
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Figure 19-12. Data Transfer in Master Transmitter Mode
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
Master
Transmitter
Slave
Receiver
Device 3
........ Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
A START condition is sent by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
TWEN must be set to enable the 2-wire serial interface, TWSTA must be written to one to transmit a START condition and
TWINT must be written to one to clear the TWINT flag. The TWI will then test the 2-wire serial bus and generate a START
condition as soon as the bus becomes free. After a START condition has been transmitted, the TWINT flag is set by
hardware, and the status code in TWSR will be 0x08 (see Table 19-4 on page 190). In order to enter MT mode, SLA+W must
be transmitted. This is done by writing SLA+W to TWDR. Thereafter the TWINT bit should be cleared (by writing it to one) to
continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
When SLA+W have been transmitted and an acknowledgement bit has been received, TWINT is set again and a number of
status codes in TWSR are possible. Possible status codes in master mode are 0x18, 0x20, or 0x38. The appropriate action
to be taken for each of these status codes is detailed in Table 19-4 on page 190.
When SLA+W has been successfully transmitted, a data packet should be transmitted. This is done by writing the data byte
to TWDR. TWDR must only be written when TWINT is high. If not, the access will be discarded, and the write collision bit
(TWWC) will be set in the TWCR register. After updating TWDR, the TWINT bit should be cleared (by writing it to one) to
continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
This scheme is repeated until the last byte has been sent and the transfer is ended by generating a STOP condition or a
repeated START condition. A STOP condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
1
X
0
1
X
1
0
X
A REPEATED START condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
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189
After a repeated START condition (state 0x10) the 2-wire serial interface can access the same slave again, or a new slave
without transmitting a STOP condition. Repeated START enables the master to switch between slaves, master transmitter
mode and master receiver mode without losing control of the bus.
Table 19-4. Status Codes for Master Transmitter Mode
Application Software Response
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits are 0
Status of the 2-wire
Serial Bus and 2-wire
Serial Interface
Hardware
0x08
A START condition has
been transmitted
Load SLA+W
0
0
1
X
SLA+W will be transmitted;
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
0x10
A repeated START
condition has been
transmitted
Load SLA+W
or
Load SLA+R
0
0
1
X
0
0
1
X
SLA+W will be transmitted;
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
SLA+R will be transmitted;
logic will switch to master receiver mode
Load data byte or
No TWDR action
or No TWDR
action or
No TWDR action
0
0
1
X
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
1
1
1
X
0
0
1
X
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
1
1
1
X
0
0
1
X
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
1
1
1
X
0
0
1
X
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
1
1
1
X
0
0
1
X
1
0
1
X
0x18
0x20
0x28
0x30
0x38
190
SLA+W has been
transmitted;
ACK has been received
SLA+W has been
transmitted;
NOT ACK has been
received
Data byte has been
transmitted;
ACK has been received
Data byte has been
transmitted;
NOT ACK has been
received
Arbitration lost in SLA+W
or data bytes
To/from TWDR
STA
Load data byte or
No TWDR action
or No TWDR
action or
No TWDR action
Load data byte or
No TWDR action
or No TWDR
action or
No TWDR action
Load data byte or
No TWDR action
or No TWDR
action or
No TWDR action
No TWDR action
or
No TWDR action
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To TWCR
STO TWINT TWEA Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or
NOT ACK will be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and TWSTO
flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or
NOT ACK will be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and TWSTO
flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or
NOT ACK will be received
repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and TWSTO flag
will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or
NOT ACK will be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and TWSTO flag
will be reset
2-wire serial bus will be released and not
addressed slave mode entered
A START condition will be transmitted when
the bus becomes free
Figure 19-13. Formats and States in the Master Transmitter Mode
MT
Successfull
transmission
to a slave
receiver
S
SLA
$08
W
A
DATA
$18
A
P
$28
Next transfer
started with a
repeated start
condition
RS
SLA
W
$10
Not acknowledge
received after the
slave address
A
P
R
$20
MR
Not acknowledge
received after a
data byte
A
P
$30
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data byte
A or A
Other master
continues
A or A
$38
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
A
$68
From master to slave
From slave to master
Other master
continues
$38
Other master
continues
$78
To corresponding
states in slave mode
$B0
DATA
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the 2-Wire Serial Bus.
The prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
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191
19.8.2 Master Receiver Mode
In the master receiver mode, a number of data bytes are received from a slave transmitter (slave see Figure 19-14). In order
to enter a master mode, a START condition must be transmitted. The format of the following address packet determines
whether master transmitter or master receiver mode is to be entered. If SLA+W is transmitted, MT mode is entered, if SLA+R
is transmitted, MR mode is entered. All the status codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler bits are zero or
are masked to zero.
Figure 19-14. Data Transfer in Master Receiver Mode
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
Master
Receiver
Slave
Transmitter
Device 3
........ Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
A START condition is sent by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the 2-wire serial interface, TWSTA must be written to one to transmit a START
condition and TWINT must be set to clear the TWINT flag. The TWI will then test the 2-wire serial bus and generate a
START condition as soon as the bus becomes free. After a START condition has been transmitted, the TWINT flag is set by
hardware, and the status code in TWSR will be 0x08 (See Table 19-4 on page 190). In order to enter MR mode, SLA+R must
be transmitted. This is done by writing SLA+R to TWDR. Thereafter the TWINT bit should be cleared (by writing it to one) to
continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
When SLA+R have been transmitted and an acknowledgement bit has been received, TWINT is set again and a number of
status codes in TWSR are possible. Possible status codes in master mode are 0x38, 0x40, or 0x48. The appropriate action
to be taken for each of these status codes is detailed in Table 19-5 on page 193. Received data can be read from the TWDR
register when the TWINT flag is set high by hardware. This scheme is repeated until the last byte has been received. After
the last byte has been received, the MR should inform the ST by sending a NACK after the last received data byte. The
transfer is ended by generating a STOP condition or a repeated START condition. A STOP condition is generated by writing
the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
1
X
0
1
X
1
0
X
A REPEATED START condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
192
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
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After a repeated START condition (state 0x10) the 2-wire serial interface can access the same slave again, or a new slave
without transmitting a STOP condition. Repeated START enables the master to switch between slaves, master transmitter
mode and master receiver mode without losing control over the bus.
Table 19-5. Status Codes for Master Receiver Mode
Application Software Response
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits are 0
Status of the 2-wire
Serial Bus and 2-wire
Serial Interface
Hardware
0x08
A START condition has
been transmitted
Load SLA+R
0
0
1
X
SLA+R will be transmitted
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
0x10
A repeated START
condition has been
transmitted
Load SLA+R
or
Load SLA+W
0
0
1
X
0
0
1
X
SLA+R will be transmitted
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
SLA+W will be transmitted Logic will switch
to master transmitter mode
No TWDR action
or
No TWDR action
0
0
1
X
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action
or
No TWDR action
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Data byte has been
received;
ACK has been returned
Read data byte or
0
0
1
0
Read data byte
0
0
1
1
Data byte has been
received;
NOT ACK has been
returned
Read data byte or
Read data byte
or
Read data byte
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
1
1
1
X
0x38
0x40
0x48
0x50
0x58
Arbitration lost in SLA+R
or NOT ACK bit
SLA+R has been
transmitted;
ACK has been received
SLA+R has been
transmitted;
NOT ACK has been
received
To/from TWDR
To TWCR
STA
STO TWINT TWEA Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
2-wire serial bus will be released and not
addressed Slave mode will be entered
A START condition will be transmitted
when the bus becomes free
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK
will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be
returned
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and TWSTO
flag will be reset
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK
will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be
returned
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and TWSTO
flag will be reset
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193
Figure 19-15. Formats and States in the Master Receiver Mode
MR
Successfull
reception
from a slave
receiver
S
SLA
R
A
$08
DATA
$40
A
DATA
A
$50
P
$58
Next transfer
started with a
repeated start
condition
RS
SLA
R
$10
Not acknowledge
received after the
slave address
A
P
W
$48
MT
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data byte
Other master
continues
A or A
A or A
$38
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
$38
Other master
continues
A
$68
From master to slave
$78
To corresponding
states in slave mode
$B0
DATA
From slave to master
Other master
continues
A
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the 2-Wire Serial Bus.
The prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
n
19.8.3 Slave Receiver Mode
In the slave receiver mode, a number of data bytes are received from a master transmitter (see Figure 19-16). All the status
codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler bits are zero or are masked to zero.
Figure 19-16. Data Transfer in Slave Receiver Mode
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
Slave
Receiver
Master
Transmitter
SDA
SCL
194
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
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Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
To initiate the slave receiver mode, TWAR and TWCR must be initialized as follows:
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
Device’s Own Slave Address
value
The upper 7 bits are the address to which the 2-wire serial interface will respond when addressed by a master. If the LSB is
set, the TWI will respond to the general call address (0x00), otherwise it will ignore the general call address.
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the TWI. The TWEA bit must be written to one to enable the acknowledgement of
the device’s own slave address or the general call address. TWSTA and TWSTO must be written to zero.
When TWAR and TWCR have been initialized, the TWI waits until it is addressed by its own slave address (or the general
call address if enabled) followed by the data direction bit. If the direction bit is “0” (write), the TWI will operate in SR mode,
otherwise ST mode is entered. After its own slave address and the write bit have been received, the TWINT flag is set and a
valid status code can be read from TWSR. The status code is used to determine the appropriate software action. The
appropriate action to be taken for each status code is detailed in Table 19-6 on page 196. The slave receiver mode may also
be entered if arbitration is lost while the TWI is in the master mode (see states 0x68 and 0x78).
If the TWEA bit is reset during a transfer, the TWI will return a “Not Acknowledge” (“1”) to SDA after the next received data
byte. This can be used to indicate that the slave is not able to receive any more bytes. While TWEA is zero, the TWI does not
acknowledge its own slave address. However, the 2-wire serial bus is still monitored and address recognition may resume at
any time by setting TWEA. This implies that the TWEA bit may be used to temporarily isolate the TWI from the 2-wire serial
bus.
In all sleep modes other than Idle mode, the clock system to the TWI is turned off. If the TWEA bit is set, the interface can
still acknowledge its own slave address or the general call address by using the 2-wire serial bus clock as a clock source.
The part will then wake up from sleep and the TWI will hold the SCL clock low during the wake up and until the TWINT flag is
cleared (by writing it to one). Further data reception will be carried out as normal, with the AVR clocks running as normal.
Observe that if the AVR® is set up with a long start-up time, the SCL line may be held low for a long time, blocking other data
transmissions.
Note that the 2-wire serial interface data register – TWDR does not reflect the last byte present on the bus when waking up
from these sleep modes.
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Table 19-6. Status Codes for Slave Receiver Mode
Status Code
(TWSR)
Status of the 2-wire Serial
Prescaler Bus and 2-wire Serial
Bits are 0 Interface Hardware
To TWCR
STA
STO TWINT TWEA Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W No TWDR action
as Master; own SLA+W has
or
been received; ACK has
No TWDR action
been returned
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
General call address has
been received; ACK has
been returned
No TWDR action
or
No TWDR action
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
X
0
1
0
0x78
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W No TWDR action
as Master; general call
or
address has been received; No TWDR action
ACK has been returned
X
0
1
1
Read data byte
or
Read data byte
X
0
1
0
0x80
Previously addressed with
own SLA+W; data has been
received; ACK has been
returned
X
0
1
1
Previously addressed with
own SLA+W; data has been
received; NOT ACK has
been returned
Read data byte
or
Read data byte
or
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
Read data byte
or
1
0
1
0
Read data byte
1
0
1
1
Previously addressed with
general call; data has been
received; ACK has been
returned
Read data byte
or
Read data byte
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
Previously addressed with
general call; data has been
received; NOT ACK has
been returned
Read data byte
or
Read data byte
or
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
Read data byte
or
1
0
1
0
Read data byte
1
0
1
1
0x68
0x70
0x88
0x90
0x98
196
To/from TWDR
No TWDR action
or
No TWDR action
0x60
Own SLA+W has been
received;
ACK has been returned
Application Software Response
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
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Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will
be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will
be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will
be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will
be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will
be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be
returned
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA; a START
condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”; a START
condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will
be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be
returned
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA; a START
condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”; a START
condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Table 19-6. Status Codes for Slave Receiver Mode (Continued)
Status Code
(TWSR)
Status of the 2-wire Serial
Prescaler Bus and 2-wire Serial
Bits are 0 Interface Hardware
0xA0
Application Software Response
To/from TWDR
To TWCR
STA
A STOP condition or
repeated START condition
has been received while still
addressed as Slave
No action
STO TWINT TWEA Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when
the bus becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”;a START
condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Figure 19-17. Formats and States in the Slave Receiver Mode
Reception of the own
slave address and one or
more data bytes. All are
acknowledged
S
SLA
W
A
DATA
$60
A
DATA
$80
Last data byte received
is not acknowledged
A
P or S
$80
$A0
A
P or S
$88
Arbitration lost as master
and addressed as slave
A
$68
Reception of the general call
address and one or more
data bytes
General Call
A
DATA
A
$90
$70
Last data byte received
is not acknowledged
DATA
A
P or S
$90
$A0
A
P or S
$98
Arbitration lost as master
and as slave by general call
A
$78
From master to slave
From slave to master
DATA
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the 2-Wire Serial Bus.
The prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
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197
19.8.4 Slave Transmitter Mode
In the slave transmitter mode, a number of data bytes are transmitted to a master receiver (see Figure 19-18). All the status
codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler bits are zero or are masked to zero.
Figure 19-18. Data Transfer in Slave Transmitter Mode
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
Slave
Transmitter
Master
Receiver
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
To initiate the slave transmitter mode, TWAR and TWCR must be initialized as follows:
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
Device’s Own Slave Address
value
The upper seven bits are the address to which the 2-wire serial interface will respond when addressed by a master. If the
LSB is set, the TWI will respond to the general call address (0x00), otherwise it will ignore the general call address.
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
value
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the TWI. The TWEA bit must be written to one to enable the acknowledgement of
the device’s own slave address or the general call address. TWSTA and TWSTO must be written to zero.
When TWAR and TWCR have been initialized, the TWI waits until it is addressed by its own slave address (or the general
call address if enabled) followed by the data direction bit. If the direction bit is “1” (read), the TWI will operate in ST mode,
otherwise SR mode is entered. After its own slave address and the write bit have been received, the TWINT flag is set and a
valid status code can be read from TWSR. The status code is used to determine the appropriate software action. The
appropriate action to be taken for each status code is detailed in Table 19-7 on page 199. The slave transmitter mode may
also be entered if arbitration is lost while the TWI is in the master mode (see state 0xB0).
If the TWEA bit is written to zero during a transfer, the TWI will transmit the last byte of the transfer. State 0xC0 or state 0xC8
will be entered, depending on whether the master receiver transmits a NACK or ACK after the final byte. The TWI is
switched to the not addressed slave mode, and will ignore the master if it continues the transfer. Thus the master receiver
receives all “1” as serial data. State 0xC8 is entered if the master demands additional data bytes (by transmitting ACK), even
though the Slave has transmitted the last byte (TWEA zero and expecting NACK from the master).
While TWEA is zero, the TWI does not respond to its own slave address. However, the 2-wire serial bus is still monitored
and address recognition may resume at any time by setting TWEA. This implies that the TWEA bit may be used to
temporarily isolate the TWI from the 2-wire serial bus.
In all sleep modes other than idle mode, the clock system to the TWI is turned off. If the TWEA bit is set, the interface can still
acknowledge its own slave address or the general call address by using the 2-wire serial bus clock as a clock source. The
part will then wake up from sleep and the TWI will hold the SCL clock will low during the wake up and until the TWINT flag is
cleared (by writing it to one). Further data transmission will be carried out as normal, with the AVR® clocks running as
normal. Observe that if the AVR is set up with a long start-up time, the SCL line may be held low for a long time, blocking
other data transmissions.
Note that the 2-wire serial interface data register – TWDR does not reflect the last byte present on the bus when waking up
from these sleep modes.
198
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
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Table 19-7. Status Codes for Slave Transmitter Mode
Status
Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits are 0
0xA8
0xB0
0xB8
0xC0
0xC8
Application Software Response
Status of the 2-wire Serial
Bus and 2-wire Serial
Interface Hardware
To/from TWDR
To TWCR
STA
STO TWINT TWEA Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Own SLA+R has been
received;
ACK has been returned
Load data byte
or
Load data byte
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W
as Master; own SLA+R has
been received; ACK has
been returned
Load data byte
or
Load data byte
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
Data byte in TWDR has
been transmitted; ACK has
been received
Load data byte
or
Load data byte
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
Data byte in TWDR has
No TWDR action
been transmitted; NOT ACK
or
has been received
No TWDR action
or
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action
or
1
0
1
0
No TWDR action
1
0
1
1
Last data byte in TWDR has No TWDR action
been transmitted (TWEA =
or
“0”); ACK has been received No TWDR action
or
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action
or
1
0
1
0
No TWDR action
1
0
1
1
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT
ACK should be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should
be received
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT
ACK should be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should
be received
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT
ACK should be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should
be received
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA; a START
condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”; a START
condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA; a START
condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized; GCA will be
recognized if TWGCE = “1”; a START
condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
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199
Figure 19-19. Formats and States in the Slave Transmitter Mode
Reception of the own
slave address and one
or more data bytes
S
SLA
R
A
DATA
A
$A8
Arbitration lost as master
and addressed as slave
DATA
$B8
A
P or S
$C0
A
$B0
Last data byte transmitted.
Switched to not adressed
slave (TWEA = “0”
A
All 1’s
P or S
$C8
From master to slave
DATA
From slave to master
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
A
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the 2-Wire Serial Bus.
The prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
n
19.8.5 Miscellaneous States
There are two status codes that do not correspond to a defined TWI state, see Table 19-8.
Status 0xF8 indicates that no relevant information is available because the TWINT flag is not set. This occurs between other
states, and when the TWI is not involved in a serial transfer.
Status 0x00 indicates that a bus error has occurred during a 2-wire serial bus transfer. A bus error occurs when a START or
STOP condition occurs at an illegal position in the format frame. Examples of such illegal positions are during the serial
transfer of an address byte, a data byte, or an acknowledge bit. When a bus error occurs, TWINT is set. To recover from a
bus error, the TWSTO flag must set and TWINT must be cleared by writing a logic one to it. This causes the TWI to enter the
not addressed slave mode and to clear the TWSTO flag (no other bits in TWCR are affected). The SDA and SCL lines are
released, and no STOP condition is transmitted.
Table 19-8. Miscellaneous States
Application Software Response
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits are 0
200
Status of the 2-wire
Serial Bus and 2-wire
Serial Interface
Hardware
To/from TWDR
STA
0xF8
No relevant state
information available;
TWINT = “0”
0x00
Bus error due to an illegal No TWDR action
START or STOP condition
No TWDR action
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
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To TWCR
STO TWINT TWEA Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
No TWCR action
0
1
1
Wait or proceed current transfer
X
Only the internal hardware is affected, no
STOP condition is sent on the bus. In all
cases, the bus is released and TWSTO is
cleared.
19.8.6 Combining Several TWI Modes
In some cases, several TWI modes must be combined in order to complete the desired action. Consider for example reading
data from a serial EEPROM. Typically, such a transfer involves the following steps:
1. The transfer must be initiated.
2.
The EEPROM must be instructed what location should be read.
3.
The reading must be performed.
4.
The transfer must be finished.
Note that data is transmitted both from master to slave and vice versa. The master must instruct the slave what location it
wants to read, requiring the use of the MT mode. Subsequently, data must be read from the slave, implying the use of the
MR mode. Thus, the transfer direction must be changed. The master must keep control of the bus during all these steps, and
the steps should be carried out as an atomical operation. If this principle is violated in a multi master system, another master
can alter the data pointer in the EEPROM between steps 2 and 3, and the master will read the wrong data location. Such a
change in transfer direction is accomplished by transmitting a REPEATED START between the transmission of the address
byte and reception of the data. After a REPEATED START, the master keeps ownership of the bus. The following figure
shows the flow in this transfer.
Figure 19-20. Combining Several TWI Modes to Access a Serial EEPROM
Master Transmitter
S
SLA + W
A
ADDRESS
S = START
RS
SLA + R
A
DATA
RS = REPEATED START
Transmitted from master to slave
19.9
A
Master Receiver
A
P
P = STOP
Transmitted from slave to master
Multi-master Systems and Arbitration
If multiple masters are connected to the same bus, transmissions may be initiated simultaneously by one or more of them.
The TWI standard ensures that such situations are handled in such a way that one of the masters will be allowed to proceed
with the transfer, and that no data will be lost in the process. An example of an arbitration situation is depicted below, where
two masters are trying to transmit data to a slave receiver.
Figure 19-21. An Arbitration Example
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
Master
Transmitter
Master
Transmitter
Slave
Receiver
........ Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
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Several different scenarios may arise during arbitration, as described below:
● Two or more masters are performing identical communication with the same slave. In this case, neither the slave nor
any of the masters will know about the bus contention.
●
Two or more masters are accessing the same slave with different data or direction bit. In this case, arbitration will
occur, either in the READ/WRITE bit or in the data bits. The masters trying to output a one on SDA while another
master outputs a zero will lose the arbitration. Losing masters will switch to not addressed slave mode or wait until the
bus is free and transmit a new START condition, depending on application software action.
●
Two or more masters are accessing different slaves. In this case, arbitration will occur in the SLA bits. Masters trying
to output a one on SDA while another master outputs a zero will lose the arbitration. Masters losing arbitration in SLA
will switch to slave mode to check if they are being addressed by the winning master. If addressed, they will switch to
SR or ST mode, depending on the value of the READ/WRITE bit. If they are not being addressed, they will switch to
not addressed slave mode or wait until the bus is free and transmit a new START condition, depending on application
software action.
This is summarized in Figure 19-22. Possible status values are given in circles.
Figure 19-22. Possible Status Codes Caused by Arbitration
START
SLA
DATA
Arbitration lost in SLA
Own
Address/ General Call
received
NO
STOP
Arbitration lost in DATA
38
TWI bus will be released and not addressed slave mode will be entered
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus becomes free
YES
Direction
Write
68/78
Read
B0
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Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
20.
Analog Comparator
The analog comparator compares the input values on the positive pin AIN0 and negative pin AIN1. When the voltage on the
positive pin AIN0 is higher than the voltage on the negative pin AIN1, the analog comparator output, ACO, is set. The
comparator’s output can be set to trigger the Timer/Counter1 input capture function. In addition, the comparator can trigger a
separate interrupt, exclusive to the analog comparator. The user can select interrupt triggering on comparator output rise, fall
or toggle. A block diagram of the comparator and its surrounding logic is shown in Figure 20-1.
The power reduction ADC bit, PRADC, in Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 must be disabled by
writing a logical zero to be able to use the ADC input MUX.
Figure 20-1.
Analog Comparator Block Diagram(2)
VCC
Bandgap
Reference
ACBG
ACD
ACIE
AIN0
+
Analog
Comparator
IRQ
Interrupt
Select
-
ACI
AIN1
ACIS1
ACIS0
ACIC
ACME
ADEN
To T/C1 Capture
Trigger MUX
ACO
ADC Multiplexer
Output(1)
Notes:
20.1
1.
See Table 20-2 on page 205.
2.
Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 3 and Table 10-9 on page 69 for analog comparator pin placement.
ADC Control and Status Register B – ADCSRB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 6 – ACME: Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable
When this bit is written logic one and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero), the ADC multiplexer
selects the negative input to the analog comparator. When this bit is written logic zero, AIN1 is applied
to the negative input of the analog comparator. For a detailed description of this bit, see
Section 20.3 “Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input” on page 205.
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20.2
Analog Comparator Control and Status Register – ACSR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
N/A
0
0
0
0
0
ACSR
• Bit 7 – ACD: Analog Comparator Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the power to the analog comparator is switched off. This bit can be set at any time to turn
off the analog comparator. This will reduce power consumption in Active and idle mode. When changing the ACD bit, the
analog comparator interrupt must be disabled by clearing the ACIE bit in ACSR. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the
bit is changed.
• Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap Select
When this bit is set, a fixed bandgap reference voltage replaces the positive input to the analog comparator. When this bit is
cleared, AIN0 is applied to the positive input of the analog comparator.
See Section 8.8 “Internal Voltage Reference” on page 43
• Bit 5 – ACO: Analog Comparator Output
The output of the analog comparator is synchronized and then directly connected to ACO. The synchronization introduces a
delay of 1 - 2 clock cycles.
• Bit 4 – ACI: Analog Comparator Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when a comparator output event triggers the interrupt mode defined by ACIS1 and ACIS0. The
analog comparator interrupt routine is executed if the ACIE bit is set and the I-bit in SREG is set. ACI is cleared by hardware
when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ACI is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag.
• Bit 3 – ACIE: Analog Comparator Interrupt Enable
When the ACIE bit is written logic one and the I-bit in the status register is set, the analog comparator interrupt is activated.
When written logic zero, the interrupt is disabled.
• Bit 2 – ACIC: Analog Comparator Input Capture Enable
When written logic one, this bit enables the input capture function in Timer/Counter1 to be triggered by the analog
comparator. The comparator output is in this case directly connected to the input capture front-end logic, making the
comparator utilize the noise canceler and edge select features of the Timer/Counter1 input capture interrupt. When written
logic zero, no connection between the analog comparator and the input capture function exists. To make the comparator
trigger the Timer/Counter1 input capture interrupt, the ICIE1 bit in the timer interrupt mask register (TIMSK1) must be set.
• Bits 1, 0 – ACIS1, ACIS0: Analog Comparator Interrupt Mode Select
These bits determine which comparator events that trigger the analog comparator interrupt. The different settings are shown
in Table 20-1.
Table 20-1. ACIS1/ACIS0 Settings
ACIS1
ACIS0
Interrupt Mode
0
0
Comparator interrupt on output toggle.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Comparator interrupt on falling output edge.
1
1
Comparator interrupt on rising output edge.
When changing the ACIS1/ACIS0 bits, the analog comparator interrupt must be disabled by clearing its interrupt enable bit in
the ACSR register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
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20.3
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
It is possible to select any of the ADC7..0 pins to replace the negative input to the analog comparator. The ADC multiplexer
is used to select this input, and consequently, the ADC must be switched off to utilize this feature. If the analog comparator
multiplexer enable bit (ACME in ADCSRB) is set and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero), MUX2..0 in
ADMUX select the input pin to replace the negative input to the analog comparator, as shown in Table 20-2. If ACME is
cleared or ADEN is set, AIN1 is applied to the negative input to the analog comparator.
Table 20-2. Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
ACME
ADEN
MUX2..0
Analog Comparator Negative Input
0
x
xxx
AIN1
1
1
xxx
AIN1
1
0
000
ADC0
1
0
001
ADC1
1
0
010
ADC2
1
0
011
ADC3
1
0
100
ADC4
1
0
101
ADC5
1
0
110
ADC6
1
0
111
ADC7
20.3.1 Digital Input Disable Register 1 – DIDR1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
–
–
AIN1D
AIN0D
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DIDR1
• Bit 7..2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are unused bits in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bit 1, 0 – AIN1D, AIN0D: AIN1, AIN0 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the AIN1/0 pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN register bit will
always read as zero when this bit is set. When an analog signal is applied to the AIN1/0 pin and the digital input from this pin
is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input buffer.
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21.
Analog-to-Digital Converter
21.1
Features
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
10-bit resolution
0.5 LSB integral non-linearity
±2 LSB absolute accuracy
13 - 260µs conversion time
Up to 15kSPS at maximum resolution
6 multiplexed single ended input channels
2 additional multiplexed single ended input channels (TQFP and QFN package only)
Optional left adjustment for ADC result readout
0 - VCC ADC input voltage range
Selectable 1.1V ADC reference voltage
Free running or single conversion mode
Interrupt on ADC conversion complete
Sleep mode noise canceler
The Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 features a 10-bit successive approximation ADC. The ADC is connected to an 8-channel
analog multiplexer which allows eight single-ended voltage inputs constructed from the pins of port A. The single-ended
voltage inputs refer to 0V (GND).
The ADC contains a sample and hold circuit which ensures that the input voltage to the ADC is held at a constant level
during conversion. A block diagram of the ADC is shown in Figure 21-1 on page 207.
The ADC has a separate analog supply voltage pin, AVCC. AVCC must not differ more than ±0.3V from VCC. See the
Section 21.5 “ADC Noise Canceler” on page 213 on how to connect this pin.
Internal reference voltages of nominally 1.1V or AVCC are provided on-chip. The voltage reference may be externally
decoupled at the AREF pin by a capacitor for better noise performance.
The power reduction ADC bit, PRADC, in Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 must be disabled by
writing a logical zero to enable the ADC.
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Figure 21-1. Analog to Digital Converter Block Schematic Operation
ADC Conversion
Complete IRQ
ADC[9:0]
ADPS0
ADPS1
ADPS2
0
ADC Data Register
(ADCH/ADCL)
Channel Selection
Prescaler
Conversion Logic
Sample and Hold
Comparator
10-Bit DAC
AREF
ADIF
ADFR
ADSC
ADEN
MUX0
MUX1
MUX2
MUX3
REFS0
ADLAR
REFS1
MUX Decoder
Internal 1.1V
Reference
15
ADC CTRL and Status
Register (ADCSRA)
ADC Multiplexer
Select (ADMUX)
AVCC
ADIE
ADIF
8-Bit Data Bus
+
AREF
Bandgap
Reference
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
Input
MUX
ADC
Multiplexer
Output
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADC1
ADC0
The ADC converts an analog input voltage to a 10-bit digital value through successive approximation. The minimum value
represents GND and the maximum value represents the voltage on the AREF pin minus 1 LSB. Optionally, AVCC or an
internal 1.1V reference voltage may be connected to the AREF pin by writing to the REFSn bits in the ADMUX register. The
internal voltage reference may thus be decoupled by an external capacitor at the AREF pin to improve noise immunity.
The analog input channel is selected by writing to the MUX bits in ADMUX. Any of the ADC input pins, as well as GND and a
fixed bandgap voltage reference, can be selected as single ended inputs to the ADC. The ADC is enabled by setting the
ADC enable bit, ADEN in ADCSRA. Voltage reference and input channel selections will not go into effect until ADEN is set.
The ADC does not consume power when ADEN is cleared, so it is recommended to switch off the ADC before entering
power saving sleep modes.
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The ADC generates a 10-bit result which is presented in the ADC data registers, ADCH and ADCL. By default, the result is
presented right adjusted, but can optionally be presented left adjusted by setting the ADLAR bit in ADMUX.
If the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to read ADCH. Otherwise, ADCL must
be read first, then ADCH, to ensure that the content of the data registers belongs to the same conversion. Once ADCL is
read, ADC access to data registers is blocked. This means that if ADCL has been read, and a conversion completes before
ADCH is read, neither register is updated and the result from the conversion is lost. When ADCH is read, ADC access to the
ADCH and ADCL registers is re-enabled.
The ADC has its own interrupt which can be triggered when a conversion completes. When ADC access to the data registers
is prohibited between reading of ADCH and ADCL, the interrupt will trigger even if the result is lost.
21.2
Starting a Conversion
A single conversion is started by disabling the power reduction ADC bit, PRADC, in
Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 by writing a logical zero to it and writing a logical one to the
ADC start conversion bit, ADSC. This bit stays high as long as the conversion is in progress and will be cleared by hardware
when the conversion is completed. If a different data channel is selected while a conversion is in progress, the ADC will
finish the current conversion before performing the channel change.
Alternatively, a conversion can be triggered automatically by various sources. Auto triggering is enabled by setting the ADC
auto trigger enable bit, ADATE in ADCSRA. The trigger source is selected by setting the ADC trigger select bits, ADTS in
ADCSRB (see description of the ADTS bits for a list of the trigger sources). When a positive edge occurs on the selected
trigger signal, the ADC prescaler is reset and a conversion is started. This provides a method of starting conversions at fixed
intervals. If the trigger signal still is set when the conversion completes, a new conversion will not be started. If another
positive edge occurs on the trigger signal during conversion, the edge will be ignored. Note that an interrupt flag will be set
even if the specific interrupt is disabled or the global interrupt enable bit in SREG is cleared. A conversion can thus be
triggered without causing an interrupt. However, the interrupt flag must be cleared in order to trigger a new conversion at the
next interrupt event.
Figure 21-2. ADC Auto Trigger Logic
ADTS[2:0]
Prescaler
ADIF
ADATE
START
CLKADC
SOURCE 1
.
.
.
.
SOURCE n
Conversion
Logic
Edge
Detector
ADSC
Using the ADC interrupt flag as a trigger source makes the ADC start a new conversion as soon as the ongoing conversion
has finished. The ADC then operates in free running mode, constantly sampling and updating the ADC data register. The
first conversion must be started by writing a logical one to the ADSC bit in ADCSRA. In this mode the ADC will perform
successive conversions independently of whether the ADC interrupt flag, ADIF is cleared or not.
If auto triggering is enabled, single conversions can be started by writing ADSC in ADCSRA to one. ADSC can also be used
to determine if a conversion is in progress. The ADSC bit will be read as one during a conversion, independently of how the
conversion was started.
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Prescaling and Conversion Timing
Figure 21-3. ADC Prescaler
ADEN
START
Reset
7-Bit ADC Prescaler
CK/128
CK/64
CK/32
CK/16
CK/8
CK/4
CK
CK/2
21.3
ADPS0
ADPS1
ADPS2
ADC Clock Source
By default, the successive approximation circuitry requires an input clock frequency between 50kHz and 200kHz to get
maximum resolution. If a lower resolution than 10 bits is needed, the input clock frequency to the ADC can be higher than
200kHz to get a higher sample rate.
The ADC module contains a prescaler, which generates an acceptable ADC clock frequency from any CPU frequency above
100kHz. The prescaling is set by the ADPS bits in ADCSRA. The prescaler starts counting from the moment the ADC is
switched on by setting the ADEN bit in ADCSRA. The prescaler keeps running for as long as the ADEN bit is set, and is
continuously reset when ADEN is low.
When initiating a single ended conversion by setting the ADSC bit in ADCSRA, the conversion starts at the following rising
edge of the ADC clock cycle.
A normal conversion takes 13 ADC clock cycles. The first conversion after the ADC is switched on (ADEN in ADCSRA is set)
takes 25 ADC clock cycles in order to initialize the analog circuitry.
The actual sample-and-hold takes place 1.5 ADC clock cycles after the start of a normal conversion and 13.5 ADC clock
cycles after the start of an first conversion. When a conversion is complete, the result is written to the ADC data registers,
and ADIF is set. In single conversion mode, ADSC is cleared simultaneously. The software may then set ADSC again, and a
new conversion will be initiated on the first rising ADC clock edge.
When auto triggering is used, the prescaler is reset when the trigger event occurs. This assures a fixed delay from the trigger
event to the start of conversion. In this mode, the sample-and-hold takes place two ADC clock cycles after the rising edge on
the trigger source signal. Three additional CPU clock cycles are used for synchronization logic.
In free running mode, a new conversion will be started immediately after the conversion completes, while ADSC remains
high. For a summary of conversion times, see Table 21-1 on page 211.
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Figure 21-4.
ADC Timing Diagram, First Conversion (Single Conversion Mode)
Next
Conversion
First Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADEN
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
MUX and REFS
Update
Figure 21-5.
Conversion
Complete
Sample and Hold
MUX and REFS
Update
ADC Timing Diagram, Single Conversion
Next Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample and Hold
MUX and REFS
Update
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Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
Figure 21-6. ADC Timing Diagram, Auto Triggered Conversion
Next Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
2
ADC Clock
Trigger
Source
ADATE
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample and Hold
Prescaler
Reset
Prescaler
Reset
Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
Figure 21-7. ADC Timing Diagram, Free Running Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
11
12
13
Next Conversion
1
2
3
4
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
ADCL
Sign and MSB of Result
LSB of Result
Sample and Hold
Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
Table 21-1. ADC Conversion Time
Condition
Sample & Hold (Cycles from Start of Conversion)
Conversion Time (Cycles)
First conversion
13.5
25
Normal conversions, single ended
1.5
13
Auto triggered conversions
2
13.5
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21.4
Changing Channel or Reference Selection
The MUXn and REFS1:0 bits in the ADMUX register are single buffered through a temporary register to which the CPU has
random access. This ensures that the channels and reference selection only takes place at a safe point during the
conversion. The channel and reference selection is continuously updated until a conversion is started. Once the conversion
starts, the channel and reference selection is locked to ensure a sufficient sampling time for the ADC. Continuous updating
resumes in the last ADC clock cycle before the conversion completes (ADIF in ADCSRA is set). Note that the conversion
starts on the following rising ADC clock edge after ADSC is written. The user is thus advised not to write new channel or
reference selection values to ADMUX until one ADC clock cycle after ADSC is written.
If auto triggering is used, the exact time of the triggering event can be indeterministic. Special care must be taken when
updating the ADMUX register, in order to control which conversion will be affected by the new settings.
If both ADATE and ADEN is written to one, an interrupt event can occur at any time. If the ADMUX register is changed in this
period, the user cannot tell if the next conversion is based on the old or the new settings. ADMUX can be safely updated in
the following ways:
a. When ADATE or ADEN is cleared.
b.
During conversion, minimum one ADC clock cycle after the trigger event.
c.
After a conversion, before the Interrupt Flag used as trigger source is cleared.
When updating ADMUX in one of these conditions, the new settings will affect the next ADC conversion.
21.4.1 ADC Input Channels
When changing channel selections, the user should observe the following guidelines to ensure that the correct channel is
selected:
In single conversion mode, always select the channel before starting the conversion. The channel selection may be changed
one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However, the simplest method is to wait for the conversion to complete
before changing the channel selection.
In free running mode, always select the channel before starting the first conversion. The channel selection may be changed
one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However, the simplest method is to wait for the first conversion to complete,
and then change the channel selection. Since the next conversion has already started automatically, the next result will
reflect the previous channel selection. Subsequent conversions will reflect the new channel selection.
21.4.2 ADC Voltage Reference
The reference voltage for the ADC (VREF) indicates the conversion range for the ADC. Single ended channels that exceed
VREF will result in codes close to 0x3FF. VREF can be selected as either AVCC, internal 1.1V reference, or external AREF pin.
AVCC is connected to the ADC through a passive switch. The internal 1.1V reference is generated from the internal bandgap
reference (VBG) through an internal amplifier. In either case, the external AREF pin is directly connected to the ADC, and the
reference voltage can be made more immune to noise by connecting a capacitor between the AREF pin and ground. VREF
can also be measured at the AREF pin with a high impedant voltmeter. Note that VREF is a high impedant source, and only a
capacitive load should be connected in a system.
If the user has a fixed voltage source connected to the AREF pin, the user may not use the other reference voltage options
in the application, as they will be shorted to the external voltage. If no external voltage is applied to the AREF pin, the user
may switch between AVCC and 1.1V as reference selection. The first ADC conversion result after switching reference voltage
source may be inaccurate, and the user is advised to discard this result.
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21.5
ADC Noise Canceler
The ADC features a noise canceler that enables conversion during sleep mode to reduce noise induced from the CPU core
and other I/O peripherals. The noise canceler can be used with ADC noise reduction and idle mode. To make use of this
feature, the following procedure should be used:
a. Make sure that the ADC is enabled and is not busy converting. Single conversion mode must be selected and the
ADC conversion complete interrupt must be enabled.
b.
Enter ADC noise reduction mode (or Idle mode). The ADC will start a conversion once the CPU has been halted.
c.
If no other interrupts occur before the ADC conversion completes, the ADC interrupt will wake up the CPU and
execute the ADC conversion complete interrupt routine. If another interrupt wakes up the CPU before the ADC
conversion is complete, that interrupt will be executed, and an ADC conversion complete interrupt request will be
generated when the ADC conversion completes. The CPU will remain in active mode until a new sleep command
is executed.
Note that the ADC will not be automatically turned off when entering other sleep modes than Idle mode and ADC noise
reduction mode. The user is advised to write zero to ADEN before entering such sleep modes to avoid excessive power
consumption.
21.5.1 Analog Input Circuitry
The analog input circuitry for single ended channels is illustrated in Figure 21-8 An analog source applied to ADCn is
subjected to the pin capacitance and input leakage of that pin, regardless of whether that channel is selected as input for the
ADC. When the channel is selected, the source must drive the S/H capacitor through the series resistance (combined
resistance in the input path).
The ADC is optimized for analog signals with an output impedance of approximately 10k or less. If such a source is used,
the sampling time will be negligible. If a source with higher impedance is used, the sampling time will depend on how long
time the source needs to charge the S/H capacitor, with can vary widely. The user is recommended to only use low impedant
sources with slowly varying signals, since this minimizes the required charge transfer to the S/H capacitor.
Signal components higher than the nyquist frequency (fADC/2) should not be present for either kind of channels, to avoid
distortion from unpredictable signal convolution. The user is advised to remove high frequency components with a low-pass
filter before applying the signals as inputs to the ADC.
Figure 21-8.
Analog Input Circuitry
IIH
ADCn
1 to 100kΩ
IIL
CS/H = 14pF
VCC/2
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21.5.2 Analog Noise Canceling Techniques
Digital circuitry inside and outside the device generates EMI which might affect the accuracy of analog measurements. If
conversion accuracy is critical, the noise level can be reduced by applying the following techniques:
a. Keep analog signal paths as short as possible. Make sure analog tracks run over the analog ground plane, and
keep them well away from high-speed switching digital tracks.
b.
The AVCC pin on the device should be connected to the digital VCC supply voltage via an LC network as shown in
Figure 21-9.
c.
Use the ADC noise canceler function to reduce induced noise from the CPU.
d.
If any ADC [3..0] port pins are used as digital outputs, it is essential that these do not switch while a conversion is
in progress. However, using the 2-wire interface (ADC4 and ADC5) will only affect the conversion on ADC4 and
ADC5 and not the other ADC channels.
Analog Ground Plane
PC2 (ADC2)
PC3 (ADC3)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA)
PC5 (ADC5/SCL)
VCC
ADC Power Connections
GND
Figure 21-9.
PC1 (ADC1)
PA0 (ADC0)
ADC7
ADC6
AVCC
PB5
214
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100nF
AREF
10μH
GND
21.5.3 ADC Accuracy Definitions
An n-bit single-ended ADC converts a voltage linearly between GND and VREF in 2n steps (LSBs). The lowest code is read
as 0, and the highest code is read as 2n-1.
Several parameters describe the deviation from the ideal behavior:
● Offset: The deviation of the first transition (0x000 to 0x001) compared to the ideal transition (at 0.5 LSB). Ideal value:
0 LSB.
Figure 21-10. Offset Error
Output Code
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
Offset
Error
●
VREF Input Voltage
Gain error: After adjusting for offset, the gain error is found as the deviation of the last transition (0x3FE to 0x3FF)
compared to the ideal transition (at 1.5 LSB below maximum). Ideal value: 0 LSB
Figure 21-11. Gain Error
Output Code
Gain
Error
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF Input Voltage
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●
Integral non-linearity (INL): After adjusting for offset and gain error, the INL is the maximum deviation of an actual
transition compared to an ideal transition for any code. Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 21-12. Integral Non-linearity (INL)
INL
Output Code
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF Input Voltage
●
Differential non-linearity (DNL): The maximum deviation of the actual code width (the interval between two adjacent
transitions) from the ideal code width (1 LSB). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 21-13. Differential Non-linearity (DNL)
Output Code
0x3FF
1 LSB
DNL
0x000
0
216
VREF Input Voltage
●
Quantization error: Due to the quantization of the input voltage into a finite number of codes, a range of input voltages
(1 LSB wide) will code to the same value. Always ±0.5 LSB.
●
Absolute accuracy: The maximum deviation of an actual (unadjusted) transition compared to an ideal transition for
any code. This is the compound effect of offset, gain error, differential error, non-linearity, and quantization error. Ideal
value: ±0.5 LSB.
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21.6
ADC Conversion Result
After the conversion is complete (ADIF is high), the conversion result can be found in the ADC result registers (ADCL,
ADCH).
For single ended conversion, the result is:
V IN  1024
ADC = ------------------------V REF
where VIN is the voltage on the selected input pin and VREF the selected voltage reference (see Table 21-2 and
Table 21-3 on page 218). 0x000 represents analog ground, and 0x3FF represents the selected reference voltage minus one
LSB.
21.6.1 ADC Multiplexer Selection Register – ADMUX
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
–
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADMUX
• Bit 7:6 – REFS1:0: Reference Selection Bits
These bits select the voltage reference for the ADC, as shown in Table 21-2. If these bits are changed during a conversion,
the change will not go in effect until this conversion is complete (ADIF in ADCSRA is set). The internal voltage reference
options may not be used if an external reference voltage is being applied to the AREF pin.
Table 21-2. Voltage Reference Selections for ADC
REFS1
REFS0
Voltage Reference Selection
0
0
AREF, Internal Vref turned off
0
1
AVCC with external capacitor at AREF pin
1
0
Reserved
1
1
Internal 1.1V Voltage Reference with external capacitor at AREF pin
• Bit 5 – ADLAR: ADC Left Adjust Result
The ADLAR bit affects the presentation of the ADC conversion result in the ADC data register. Write one to ADLAR to left
adjust the result. Otherwise, the result is right adjusted. Changing the ADLAR bit will affect the ADC data register
immediately, regardless of any ongoing conversions. For a complete description of this bit, see Section 21.6.3 “The ADC
Data Register – ADCL and ADCH” on page 219.
• Bit 4 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is an unused bit in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, and will always read as zero.
• Bits 3:0 – MUX3:0: Analog Channel Selection Bits
The value of these bits selects which analog inputs are connected to the ADC. See Table 21-3 on page 218 for details. If
these bits are changed during a conversion, the change will not go in effect until this conversion is complete (ADIF in
ADCSRA is set).
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Table 21-3. Input Channel Selections
MUX3..0
Single Ended Input
0000
ADC0
0001
ADC1
0010
ADC2
0011
ADC3
0100
ADC4
0101
ADC5
0110
ADC6
0111
ADC7
1000
(reserved)
1001
(reserved)
1010
(reserved)
1011
(reserved)
1100
(reserved)
1101
(reserved)
1110
1.1V (VBG)
1111
0V (GND)
21.6.2 ADC Control and Status Register A – ADCSRA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRA
• Bit 7 – ADEN: ADC Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the ADC. By writing it to zero, the ADC is turned off. Turning the ADC off while a conversion is
in progress, will terminate this conversion.
• Bit 6 – ADSC: ADC Start Conversion
In single conversion mode, write this bit to one to start each conversion. In free running mode, write this bit to one to start the
first conversion. The first conversion after ADSC has been written after the ADC has been enabled, or if ADSC is written at
the same time as the ADC is enabled, will take 25 ADC clock cycles instead of the normal 13. This first conversion performs
initialization of the ADC.
ADSC will read as one as long as a conversion is in progress. When the conversion is complete, it returns to zero. Writing
zero to this bit has no effect.
• Bit 5 – ADATE: ADC Auto Trigger Enable
When this bit is written to one, auto triggering of the ADC is enabled. The ADC will start a conversion on a positive edge of
the selected trigger signal. The trigger source is selected by setting the ADC trigger select bits, ADTS in ADCSRB.
• Bit 4 – ADIF: ADC Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when an ADC conversion completes and the data registers are updated. The ADC conversion complete
interrupt is executed if the ADIE bit and the I-bit in SREG are set. ADIF is cleared by hardware when executing the
corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ADIF is cleared by writing a logical one to the flag. Beware that if
doing a read-modify-write on ADCSRA, a pending interrupt can be disabled. This also applies if the SBI and CBI instructions
are used.
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• Bit 3 – ADIE: ADC Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in SREG is set, the ADC conversion complete interrupt is activated.
• Bits 2:0 – ADPS2:0: ADC Prescaler Select Bits
These bits determine the division factor between the system clock frequency and the input clock to the ADC.
Table 21-4. ADC Prescaler Selections
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Division Factor
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
4
0
1
1
8
1
0
0
16
1
0
1
32
1
1
0
64
1
1
1
128
21.6.3 The ADC Data Register – ADCL and ADCH
21.6.3.1 ADLAR = 0
Bit
Read/Write
Initial Value
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADC9
ADC8
ADCH
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADC1
ADC0
ADCL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
21.6.3.2 ADLAR = 1
Bit
Read/Write
Initial Value
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ADC9
ADC8
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADCH
ADC1
ADC0
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADCL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
When an ADC conversion is complete, the result is found in these two registers.
When ADCL is read, the ADC data register is not updated until ADCH is read. Consequently, if the result is left adjusted and
no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to read ADCH. Otherwise, ADCL must be read first, then ADCH.
The ADLAR bit in ADMUX, and the MUXn bits in ADMUX affect the way the result is read from the registers. If ADLAR is set,
the result is left adjusted. If ADLAR is cleared (default), the result is right adjusted.
• ADC9:0: ADC Conversion Result
These bits represent the result from the conversion, as detailed in Section 21.6 “ADC Conversion Result” on page 217.
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21.6.4 ADC Control and Status Register B – ADCSRB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 7, 5:3 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. To ensure compatibility with future devices, these bist must be written to zero when
ADCSRB is written.
• Bit 2:0 – ADTS2:0: ADC Auto Trigger Source
If ADATE in ADCSRA is written to one, the value of these bits selects which source will trigger an ADC conversion. If ADATE
is cleared, the ADTS2:0 settings will have no effect. A conversion will be triggered by the rising edge of the selected interrupt
flag. Note that switching from a trigger source that is cleared to a trigger source that is set, will generate a positive edge on
the trigger signal. If ADEN in ADCSRA is set, this will start a conversion. Switching to free running mode (ADTS[2:0]=0) will
not cause a trigger event, even if the ADC interrupt flag is set.
Table 21-5. ADC Auto Trigger Source Selections
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Trigger Source
0
0
0
Free running mode
0
0
1
Analog comparator
0
1
0
External interrupt request 0
0
1
1
Timer/Counter0 compare match A
1
0
0
Timer/Counter0 overflow
1
0
1
Timer/Counter1 compare match B
1
1
0
Timer/Counter1 overflow
1
1
1
Timer/Counter1 capture event
21.6.5 Digital Input Disable Register 0 – DIDR0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DIDR0
• Bits 7:6 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. To ensure compatibility with future devices, these bits must be written to zero when
DIDR0 is written.
• Bit 5..0 – ADC5D..ADC0D: ADC5..0 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the corresponding ADC pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN
register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an analog signal is applied to the ADC5..0 pin and the digital
input from this pin is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input buffer.
Note that ADC pins ADC7 and ADC6 do not have digital input buffers, and therefore do not require digital input disable bits.
220
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22.
debugWIRE On-chip Debug System
22.1
Features
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
22.2
Complete program flow control
Emulates all on-chip functions, both digital and analog, except RESET pin
Real-time operation
Symbolic debugging support (both at C and assembler source Level, or for other HLLs)
Unlimited number of program break points (using software break points)
Non-intrusive operation
Electrical characteristics identical to real device
Automatic configuration system
High-speed operation
Programming of non-volatile memories
Overview
The debugWIRE on-chip debug system uses a one-wire, bi-directional interface to control the program flow, execute AVR®
instructions in the CPU and to program the different non-volatile memories.
22.3
Physical Interface
When the debugWIRE enable (DWEN) fuse is programmed and lock bits are unprogrammed, the debugWIRE system within
the target device is activated. The RESET port pin is configured as a wire-AND (open-drain) bi-directional I/O pin with pull-up
enabled and becomes the communication gateway between target and emulator.
Figure 22-1. The debugWIRE Setup
2.7 - 5.5V
VCC
dw
dw(RESET)
GND
Figure 22-1 shows the schematic of a target MCU, with debugWIRE enabled, and the emulator connector. The system clock
is not affected by debugWIRE and will always be the clock source selected by the CKSEL fuses.
When designing a system where debugWIRE will be used, the following observations must be made for correct operation:
● Pull-up resistors on the dW/(RESET) line must not be smaller than 10k. The pull-up resistor is not required for
debugWIRE functionality.
●
●
●
Connecting the RESET pin directly to VCC will not work.
Capacitors connected to the RESET pin must be disconnected when using debugWire.
All external reset sources must be disconnected.
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22.4
Software Break Points
debugWIRE supports program memory break points by the AVR® break instruction. Setting a break point in AVR Studio® will
insert a BREAK instruction in the program memory. The instruction replaced by the BREAK instruction will be stored. When
program execution is continued, the stored instruction will be executed before continuing from the program memory. A break
can be inserted manually by putting the BREAK instruction in the program.
The flash must be re-programmed each time a break point is changed. This is automatically handled by AVR Studio through
the debugWIRE interface. The use of break points will therefore reduce the flash data retention. Devices used for debugging
purposes should not be shipped to end customers.
22.5
Limitations of debugWIRE
The debugWIRE communication pin (dW) is physically located on the same pin as external reset (RESET). An external reset
source is therefore not supported when the debugWIRE is enabled.
The debugWIRE system accurately emulates all I/O functions when running at full speed, i.e., when the program in the CPU
is running. When the CPU is stopped, care must be taken while accessing some of the I/O registers via the debugger
(AVR Studio).
A programmed DWEN fuse enables some parts of the clock system to be running in all sleep modes. This will increase the
power consumption while in sleep. Thus, the DWEN fuse should be disabled when debugWire is not used.
22.6
debugWIRE Related Register in I/O Memory
The following section describes the registers used with the debugWire.
22.6.1 debugWire Data Register – DWDR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DWDR[7:0]
DWDR
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The DWDR register provides a communication channel from the running program in the MCU to the debugger. This register
is only accessible by the debugWIRE and can therefore not be used as a general purpose register in the normal operations.
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23.
Self-Programming the Flash, ATmega48
In Atmel® ATmega48, there is no read-while-write support, and no separate boot loader section. The SPM instruction can be
executed from the entire flash.
The device provides a self-programming mechanism for downloading and uploading program code by the MCU itself. The
self-programming can use any available data interface and associated protocol to read code and write (program) that code
into the program memory.
The program memory is updated in a page by page fashion. Before programming a page with the data stored in the
temporary page buffer, the page must be erased. The temporary page buffer is filled one word at a time using SPM and the
buffer can be filled either before the page erase command or between a page erase and a page write operation:
Alternative 1, fill the buffer before a page erase
● Fill temporary page buffer
●
●
Perform a page erase
Perform a page write
Alternative 2, fill the buffer after page erase
● Perform a page erase
●
●
Fill temporary page buffer
Perform a page write
If only a part of the page needs to be changed, the rest of the page must be stored (for example in the temporary page
buffer) before the erase, and then be re-written. When using alternative 1, the boot loader provides an effective
read-modify-write feature which allows the user software to first read the page, do the necessary changes, and then write
back the modified data. If alternative 2 is used, it is not possible to read the old data while loading since the page is already
erased. The temporary page buffer can be accessed in a random sequence. It is essential that the page address used in
both the page erase and page write operation is addressing the same page.
23.1
Performing Page Erase by SPM
To execute page erase, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “00000011” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four
clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to PCPAGE in the
Z-register. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
● The CPU is halted during the page erase operation.
23.2
Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading)
To write an instruction word, set up the address in the Z-pointer and data in R1:R0, write “00000001” to SPMCSR and
execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The content of PCWORD in the Z-register is used to address
the data in the temporary buffer. The temporary buffer will auto-erase after a page write operation or by writing the
RWWSRE bit in SPMCSR. It is also erased after a system reset. Note that it is not possible to write more than one time to
each address without erasing the temporary buffer.
If the EEPROM is written in the middle of an SPM page load operation, all data loaded will be lost.
23.3
Performing a Page Write
To execute page write, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “00000101” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four clock
cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to PCPAGE. Other bits
in the Z-pointer must be written to zero during this operation.
● The CPU is halted during the page write operation.
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23.4
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming
The Z-pointer is used to address the SPM commands.
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ZH (R31)
Z15
Z14
Z13
Z12
Z11
Z10
Z9
Z8
ZL (R30)
Z7
Z6
Z5
Z4
Z3
Z2
Z1
Z0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Since the flash is organized in pages (see Table 25-12 on page 247), the program counter can be treated as having two
different sections. One section, consisting of the least significant bits, is addressing the words within a page, while the most
significant bits are addressing the pages. This is shown in Figure 24-3 on page 235. Note that the page erase and page write
operations are addressed independently. Therefore it is of major importance that the software addresses the same page in
both the page erase and page write operation.
The LPM instruction uses the Z-pointer to store the address. Since this instruction addresses the flash byte-by-byte, also the
LSB (bit Z0) of the Z-pointer is used.
Figure 23-1. Addressing the Flash During SPM(1)
BIT
15
ZPCMSB
ZPAGEMSB
1 0
0
Z-REGISTER
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
PCWORD
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN PAGE
Program Memory
Page
Page
Instructions Word
PCWORD [PAGEMSB:0]
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
224
1.
The different variables used in Figure 24-3 on page 235 are listed in Table 25-12 on page 247.
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23.4.1 Store Program Memory Control and Status Register – SPMCSR
The store program memory control and status register contains the control bits needed to control the program memory
operations.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
SPMIE
RWWSB
–
RWWSRE
BLBSET
PGWRT
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PGERS SELFPRGEN SPMCSR
• Bit 7 – SPMIE: SPM Interrupt Enable
When the SPMIE bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the status register is set (one), the SPM ready interrupt will be enabled.
The SPM ready Interrupt will be executed as long as the SELFPRGEN bit in the SPMCSR register is cleared.
• Bit 6 – RWWSB: Read-While-Write Section Busy
This bit is for compatibility with devices supporting read-while-write. It will always read as zero in Atmel® ATmega48.
• Bit 5 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 4 – RWWSRE: Read-While-Write Section Read Enable
The functionality of this bit in ATmega48 is a subset of the functionality in ATmega88/168. If the RWWSRE bit is written while
filling the temporary page buffer, the temporary page buffer will be cleared and the data will be lost.
• Bit 3 – BLBSET: Boot Lock Bit Set
The functionality of this bit in ATmega48 is a subset of the functionality in ATmega88/168. An LPM instruction within three
cycles after BLBSET and SELFPRGEN are set in the SPMCSR register, will read either the lock bits or the fuse bits
(depending on Z0 in the Z-pointer) into the destination register.
See Section 23.4.3 “Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software” on page 226 for details.
• Bit 2 – PGWRT: Page Write
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SELFPRGEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles executes page
write, with the data stored in the temporary buffer. The page address is taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The data in
R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGWRT bit will auto-clear upon completion of a page write, or if no SPM instruction is executed
within four clock cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire page write operation.
• Bit 1 – PGERS: Page Erase
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SELFPRGEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles executes page
erase. The page address is taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGERS bit will
auto-clear upon completion of a page erase, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. The CPU is halted
during the entire page write operation.
• Bit 0 – SELFPRGEN: Self Programming Enable
This bit enables the SPM instruction for the next four clock cycles. If written to one together with either RWWSRE, BLBSET,
PGWRT, or PGERS, the following SPM instruction will have a special meaning, see description above. If only SELFPRGEN
is written, the following SPM instruction will store the value in R1:R0 in the temporary page buffer addressed by the
Z-pointer. The LSB of the Z-pointer is ignored. The SELFPRGEN bit will auto-clear upon completion of an SPM instruction,
or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. During page erase and page write, the SELFPRGEN bit remains
high until the operation is completed.
Writing any other combination than “10001”, “01001”, “00101”, “00011” or “00001” in the lower five bits will have no effect.
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23.4.2 EEPROM Write Prevents Writing to SPMCSR
Note that an EEPROM write operation will block all software programming to flash. Reading the fuses and lock bits from
software will also be prevented during the EEPROM write operation. It is recommended that the user checks the status bit
(EEPE) in the EECR register and verifies that the bit is cleared before writing to the SPMCSR register.
23.4.3 Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software
It is possible to read both the fuse and lock bits from software. To read the lock bits, load the Z-pointer with 0x0001 and set
the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits in SPMCSR. When an LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles after the
BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits are set in SPMCSR, the value of the lock bits will be loaded in the destination register. The
BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits will auto-clear upon completion of reading the lock bits or if no LPM instruction is executed
within three CPU cycles or no SPM instruction is executed within four CPU cycles. When BLBSET and SELFPRGEN are
cleared, LPM will work as described in the Instruction set manual.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
–
–
–
–
–
–
LB2
LB1
The algorithm for reading the fuse low byte is similar to the one described above for reading the lock bits. To read the fuse
low byte, load the Z-pointer with 0x0000 and set the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits in SPMCSR. When an LPM instruction
is executed within three cycles after the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the fuse low
byte (FLB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown below.See Table 25-5 on page 244 for a detailed description
and mapping of the fuse low byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FLB7
FLB6
FLB5
FLB4
FLB3
FLB2
FLB1
FLB0
Similarly, when reading the fuse high byte (FHB), load 0x0003 in the Z-pointer. When an LPM instruction is executed within
three cycles after the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the fuse high byte will be loaded
in the destination register as shown below. See Table 25-4 on page 243 for detailed description and mapping of the
extended fuse byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FHB7
FHB6
FHB5
FHB4
FHB3
FHB2
FHB1
FHB0
Similarly, when reading the extended fuse byte (EFB), load 0x0002 in the Z-pointer. When an LPM instruction is executed
within three cycles after the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the extended fuse byte will
be loaded in the destination register as shown below. See Table 25-5 on page 244 for detailed description and mapping of
the extended fuse byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FHB7
FHB6
FHB5
FHB4
FHB3
FHB2
FHB1
FHB0
Fuse and lock bits that are programmed, will be read as zero. Fuse and lock bits that are unprogrammed, will be read as
one.
23.4.4 Preventing Flash Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the flash program can be corrupted because the supply voltage is too low for the CPU and the
flash to operate properly. These issues are the same as for board level systems using the flash, and the same design
solutions should be applied.
A flash program corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First, a regular write sequence to
the flash requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the
supply voltage for executing instructions is too low.
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Flash corruption can easily be avoided by following these design recommendations (one is sufficient):
1. Keep the AVR® RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can be done by
enabling the internal brown-out detector (BOD) if the operating voltage matches the detection level. If not, an
external low VCC reset protection circuit can be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the
write operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
2.
Keep the AVR core in power-down sleep mode during periods of low VCC. This will prevent the CPU from
attempting to decode and execute instructions, effectively protecting the SPMCSR register and thus the flash from
unintentional writes.
23.4.5 Programming Time for Flash when Using SPM
The calibrated RC oscillator is used to time flash accesses. Table 24-5 on page 238 shows the typical programming time for
flash accesses from the CPU.
Table 23-1. SPM Programming Time
Symbol
Min Programming Time
Max Programming Time
Flash write (page erase, page write, and write lock
bits by SPM)
3.7ms
4.5ms
23.4.6 Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader
Note that the RWWSB bit will always be read as zero in Atmel® ATmega48. Nevertheless, it is recommended to check this
bit as shown in the code example, to ensure compatibility with devices supporting read-while-write.
;-the routine writes one page of data from RAM to flash
; the first data location in RAM is pointed to by the Y pointer
; the first data location in flash is pointed to by the Z-pointer
;-error handling is not included
;-the routine must be placed inside the boot space
; (at least the Do_spm sub routine). Only code inside NRWW section can
; be read during self-programming (page erase and page write).
;-registers used: r0, r1, temp1 (r16), temp2 (r17), looplo (r24),
; loophi (r25), spmcrval (r20)
; storing and restoring of registers is not included in the routine
; register usage can be optimized at the expense of code size
;-It is assumed that either the interrupt table is moved to the boot
; loader section or that the interrupts are disabled.
.equ
PAGESIZEB = PAGESIZE*2
;PAGESIZEB is page size in BYTES, not words
.org SMALLBOOTSTART
Write_page:
;
Page Erase
ldi
spmcrval, (1<<PGERS) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
rcall
Do_spm
;
ldi
rcall
;
ldi
ldi
Wrloop:
ld
ld
ldi
rcall
adiw
sbiw
re-enable the RWW section
spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
transfer data from RAM to Flash page buffer
looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
loophi, high(PAGESIZEB) ;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
r0, Y+
r1, Y+
spmcrval, (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
ZH:ZL, 2
loophi:looplo, 2
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
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brne
Wrloop
;
subi
sbci
ldi
rcall
execute Page Write
ZL, low(PAGESIZEB)
;restore pointer
ZH, high(PAGESIZEB)
;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
spmcrval, (1<<PGWRT) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
;
ldi
rcall
re-enable the RWW section
spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
;
ldi
ldi
subi
sbci
Rdloop:
lpm
ld
cpse
rjmp
sbiw
brne
read back and check, optional
looplo, low(PAGESIZEB) ;init loop variable
loophi, high(PAGESIZEB) ;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
YL, low(PAGESIZEB)
;restore pointer
YH, high(PAGESIZEB)
;
;
Return:
in
sbrs
ret
;
ldi
rcall
rjmp
return to RWW section
verify that RWW section is safe to read
r0, Z+
r1, Y+
r0, r1
Error
loophi:looplo, 1
Rdloop
temp1, SPMCSR
temp1, RWWSB
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
; If RWWSB is set, the RWW section is not ready yet
re-enable the RWW section
spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
Return
Do_spm:
;
check for previous SPM complete
Wait_spm:
in
temp1, SPMCSR
sbrc
temp1, SELFPRGEN
rjmp
Wait_spm
;
input: spmcrval determines SPM action
;
disable interrupts if enabled, store status
in
temp2, SREG
cli
;
check that no EEPROM write access is present
Wait_ee:
sbic
EECR, EEPE
rjmp
Wait_ee
;
SPM timed sequence
out
SPMCSR, spmcrval
spm
;
restore SREG (to enable interrupts if originally enabled)
out
SREG, temp2
ret
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24.
Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and
ATmega168
In Atmel® ATmega88 and Atmel ATmega168, the boot loader support provides a real read-while-write self-programming
mechanism for downloading and uploading program code by the MCU itself. This feature allows flexible application software
updates controlled by the MCU using a flash-resident boot loader program. The boot loader program can use any available
data interface and associated protocol to read code and write (program) that code into the flash memory, or read the code
from the program memory. The program code within the boot loader section has the capability to write into the entire flash,
including the boot loader memory. The boot loader can thus even modify itself, and it can also erase itself from the code if
the feature is not needed anymore. The size of the boot loader memory is configurable with fuses and the boot loader has
two separate sets of boot lock bits which can be set independently. This gives the user a unique flexibility to select different
levels of protection.
24.1
Boot Loader Features
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Note:
24.2
Read-while-write self-programming
Flexible boot memory size
High security (separate boot lock bits for a flexible protection)
Separate fuse to select reset vector
Optimized page(1) size
Code efficient algorithm
Efficient read-modify-write support
1.
A page is a section in the flash consisting of several bytes (see Table 25-12 on page 247) used during
programming. The page organization does not affect normal operation.
Application and Boot Loader Flash Sections
The flash memory is organized in two main sections, the application section and the boot loader section
(see Figure 24-2 on page 231). The size of the different sections is configured by the BOOTSZ fuses as shown in
Table 24-6 on page 240 and Figure 24-2 on page 231. These two sections can have different level of protection since they
have different sets of lock bits.
24.2.1 Application Section
The application section is the section of the flash that is used for storing the application code. The protection level for the
application section can be selected by the application boot lock bits (boot lock bits 0), see Table 24-2 on page 232. The
application section can never store any boot loader code since the SPM instruction is disabled when executed from the
application section.
24.2.2 BLS – Boot Loader Section
While the application section is used for storing the application code, the The boot loader software must be located in the
BLS since the SPM instruction can initiate a programming when executing from the BLS only. The SPM instruction can
access the entire flash, including the BLS itself. The protection level for the boot loader section can be selected by the boot
loader lock bits (boot lock bits 1), see Table 24-3 on page 232.
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24.3
Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections
Whether the CPU supports read-while-write or if the CPU is halted during a boot loader software update is dependent on
which address that is being programmed. In addition to the two sections that are configurable by the BOOTSZ fuses as
described above, the flash is also divided into two fixed sections, the read-while-write (RWW) section and the no
read-while-write (NRWW) section. The limit between the RWW- and NRWW sections is given in Table 24-7 on page 240 and
Figure 24-2 on page 231. The main difference between the two sections is:
● When erasing or writing a page located inside the RWW section, the NRWW section can be read during the
operation.
●
When erasing or writing a page located inside the NRWW section, the CPU is halted during the entire operation.
Note that the user software can never read any code that is located inside the RWW section during a boot loader software
operation. The syntax “read-while-write section” refers to which section that is being programmed (erased or written), not
which section that actually is being read during a boot loader software update.
24.3.1 RWW – Read-While-Write Section
If a boot loader software update is programming a page inside the RWW section, it is possible to read code from the flash,
but only code that is located in the NRWW section. During an on-going programming, the software must ensure that the
RWW section never is being read. If the user software is trying to read code that is located inside the RWW section (i.e., by
a call/jmp/lpm or an interrupt) during programming, the software might end up in an unknown state. To avoid this, the
interrupts should either be disabled or moved to the boot loader section. The boot loader section is always located in the
NRWW section. The RWW section busy bit (RWWSB) in the store program memory control and status register (SPMCSR)
will be read as logical one as long as the RWW section is blocked for reading. After a programming is completed, the
RWWSB must be cleared by software before reading code located in the RWW section. See Section 24.5.1 “Store Program
Memory Control and Status Register – SPMCSR” on page 233 for details on how to clear RWWSB.
24.3.2 NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section
The code located in the NRWW section can be read when the boot loader software is updating a page in the RWW section.
When the boot loader code updates the NRWW section, the CPU is halted during the entire page erase or page write
operation.
Table 24-1. Read-While-Write Features
230
Which Section does the Z-pointer Address
During the Programming?
Which Section Can be
Read during
Programming?
Is the CPU
Halted?
Read-While-Write
Supported?
RWW section
NRWW Section
No
Yes
NRWW section
None
Yes
No
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Figure 24-1. Read-While-Write versus No Read-While-Write
Read While Write
(RWW) Section
Z-pointer
Addresses NRWW
Section
Z-pointer
Addresses RWW
Section
No Read While Write
(NRWW) Section
CPU is Halted During
the Operation
Code located in
NRWW Section
can be Read During
the Operation
Figure 24-2. Memory Sections
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = ’11’
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = ’10’
Read-While-Write Section
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
Boot Loader Flash Section
0x0000
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Flashend
No Read-WhileWrite Section
No Read-WhileWrite Section
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = ’01’
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = ’00’
Note:
1.
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
Application Flash Section
End RWW, End
Application
No Read-WhileWrite Section
No Read-WhileWrite Section
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Start NRWW,
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
The parameters in the figure above are given in Table 24-6 on page 240.
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24.4
Boot Loader Lock Bits
If no boot loader capability is needed, the entire flash is available for application code. The boot loader has two separate sets
of boot lock bits which can be set independently. This gives the user a unique flexibility to select different levels of protection.
The user can select:
● To protect the entire flash from a software update by the MCU.
●
●
●
To protect only the boot loader flash section from a software update by the MCU.
To protect only the application flash section from a software update by the MCU.
Allow software update in the entire flash.
See Table 24-2 and Table 24-3 for further details. The boot lock bits can be set in software and in serial or parallel
programming mode, but they can be cleared by a chip erase command only. The general write lock (lock bit mode 2) does
not control the programming of the flash memory by SPM instruction. Similarly, the general read/write lock (Lock bit mode 1)
does not control reading nor writing by LPM/SPM, if it is attempted.
Table 24-2. Boot Lock Bit0 Protection Modes (Application Section)(1)
BLB0 Mode
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the application section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the application section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the application section, and LPM executing
from the boot loader section is not allowed to read from the application
section. If interrupt vectors are placed in the boot loader section, interrupts
are disabled while executing from the application section.
3
4
Note:
1.
0
Protection
LPM executing from the boot loader section is not allowed to read from the
application section. If interrupt vectors are placed in the boot loader section,
interrupts are disabled while executing from the application section.
“1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
0
1
Table 24-3. Boot Lock Bit1 Protection Modes (Boot Loader Section)(1)
BLB1 Mode
BLB12
BLB11
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the boot loader section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the boot loader section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the boot loader section, and LPM executing
from the application section is not allowed to read from the boot loader
section. If interrupt vectors are placed in the application section, interrupts
are disabled while executing from the boot loader section.
3
4
Note:
232
1.
0
Protection
LPM executing from the application section is not allowed to read from the
boot loader section. If interrupt vectors are placed in the application section,
interrupts are disabled while executing from the boot loader section.
1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
0
1
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24.5
“Entering the Boot Loader Program
Entering the boot loader takes place by a jump or call from the application program. This may be initiated by a trigger such
as a command received via USART, or SPI interface. Alternatively, the boot reset fuse can be programmed so that the reset
vector is pointing to the boot flash start address after a reset. In this case, the boot loader is started after a reset. After the
application code is loaded, the program can start executing the application code. Note that the fuses cannot be changed by
the MCU itself. This means that once the boot reset fuse is programmed, the reset vector will always point to the boot loader
reset and the fuse can only be changed through the serial or parallel programming interface.
Table 24-4. Boot Reset Fuse(1)
BOOTRST
Reset Address
1
Reset vector = application reset (address 0x0000)
0
1.
Note:
Reset vector = boot loader reset (see Table 24-6 on page 240)
“1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
24.5.1 Store Program Memory Control and Status Register – SPMCSR
The store program memory control and status register contains the control bits needed to control the boot loader operations.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
SPMIE
RWWSB
–
RWWSRE
BLBSET
PGWRT
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PGERS SELFPRGEN SPMCSR
• Bit 7 – SPMIE: SPM Interrupt Enable
When the SPMIE bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the status register is set (one), the SPM ready interrupt will be enabled.
The SPM ready interrupt will be executed as long as the SELFPRGEN bit in the SPMCSR register is cleared.
• Bit 6 – RWWSB: Read-While-Write Section Busy
When a self-programming (page erase or page write) operation to the RWW section is initiated, the RWWSB will be set
(one) by hardware. When the RWWSB bit is set, the RWW section cannot be accessed. The RWWSB bit will be cleared if
the RWWSRE bit is written to one after a self-programming operation is completed. Alternatively the RWWSB bit will
automatically be cleared if a page load operation is initiated.
• Bit 5 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 and always read as zero.
• Bit 4 – RWWSRE: Read-While-Write Section Read Enable
When programming (page erase or page write) to the RWW section, the RWW section is blocked for reading (the RWWSB
will be set by hardware). To re-enable the RWW section, the user software must wait until the programming is completed
(SELFPRGEN will be cleared). Then, if the RWWSRE bit is written to one at the same time as SELFPRGEN, the next SPM
instruction within four clock cycles re-enables the RWW section. The RWW section cannot be re-enabled while the flash is
busy with a page erase or a page write (SELFPRGEN is set). If the RWWSRE bit is written while the flash is being loaded,
the flash load operation will abort and the data loaded will be lost.
• Bit 3 – BLBSET: Boot Lock Bit Set
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SELFPRGEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles sets boot lock
bits and memory lock bits, according to the data in R0. The data in R1 and the address in the Z-pointer are ignored. The
BLBSET bit will automatically be cleared upon completion of the lock bit set, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four
clock cycles.
An LPM instruction within three cycles after BLBSET and SELFPRGEN are set in the SPMCSR register, will read either the
lock bits or the fuse bits (depending on Z0 in the Z-pointer) into the destination register. See Section 24.7.9 “Reading the
Fuse and Lock Bits from Software” on page 237 for details.
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• Bit 2 – PGWRT: Page Write
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SELFPRGEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles executes page
write, with the data stored in the temporary buffer. The page address is taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The data in
R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGWRT bit will auto-clear upon completion of a page write, or if no SPM instruction is executed
within four clock cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire page write operation if the NRWW section is addressed.
• Bit 1 – PGERS: Page Erase
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SELFPRGEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles executes page
erase. The page address is taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGERS bit will
auto-clear upon completion of a page erase, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. The CPU is halted
during the entire page write operation if the NRWW section is addressed.
• Bit 0 – SELFPRGEN: Self Programming Enable
This bit enables the SPM instruction for the next four clock cycles. If written to one together with either RWWSRE, BLBSET,
PGWRT or PGERS, the following SPM instruction will have a special meaning, see description above. If only SELFPRGEN
is written, the following SPM instruction will store the value in R1:R0 in the temporary page buffer addressed by the
Z-pointer. The LSB of the Z-pointer is ignored. The SELFPRGEN bit will auto-clear upon completion of an SPM instruction,
or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. During page erase and page write, the SELFPRGEN bit remains
high until the operation is completed.
Writing any other combination than “10001”, “01001”, “00101”, “00011” or “00001” in the lower five bits will have no effect.
24.6
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming
The Z-pointer is used to address the SPM commands.
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ZH (R31)
Z15
Z14
Z13
Z12
Z11
Z10
Z9
Z8
ZL (R30)
Z7
Z6
Z5
Z4
Z3
Z2
Z1
Z0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Since the flash is organized in pages (see Table 25-12 on page 247), the program counter can be treated as having two
different sections. One section, consisting of the least significant bits, is addressing the words within a page, while the most
significant bits are addressing the pages. This is1 shown in Figure 24-3 on page 235. Note that the page erase and page
write operations are addressed independently. Therefore it is of major importance that the boot loader software addresses
the same page in both the page erase and page write operation. Once a programming operation is initiated, the address is
latched and the Z-pointer can be used for other operations.
The only SPM operation that does not use the Z-pointer is setting the boot loader lock bits. The content of the Z-pointer is
ignored and will have no effect on the operation. The LPM instruction does also use the Z-pointer to store the address. Since
this instruction addresses the flash byte-by-byte, also the LSB (bit Z0) of the Z-pointer is used.
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Figure 24-3. Addressing the Flash During SPM(1)
BIT
15
ZPCMSB
ZPAGEMSB
Z-REGISTER
1 0
0
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
PCWORD
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN PAGE
Program Memory
Page
Page
Instructions Word
PCWORD [PAGEMSB:0]
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
24.7
1.
The different variables used in Figure 24-3 are listed in Table 24-8 on page 240.
Self-Programming the Flash
The program memory is updated in a page by page fashion. Before programming a page with the data stored in the
temporary page buffer, the page must be erased. The temporary page buffer is filled one word at a time using SPM and the
buffer can be filled either before the page erase command or between a page erase and a page write operation:
Alternative 1, fill the buffer before a page erase
● Fill temporary page buffer
●
●
Perform a page erase
Perform a page write
Alternative 2, fill the buffer after page erase
● Perform a page erase
●
●
Fill temporary page buffer
Perform a page write
If only a part of the page needs to be changed, the rest of the page must be stored (for example in the temporary page
buffer) before the erase, and then be rewritten. When using alternative 1, the boot loader provides an effective
read-modify-write feature which allows the user software to first read the page, do the necessary changes, and then write
back the modified data. If alternative 2 is used, it is not possible to read the old data while loading since the page is already
erased. The temporary page buffer can be accessed in a random sequence. It is essential that the page address used in
both the page erase and page write operation is addressing the same page. See Section 24.7.12 “Simple Assembly Code
Example for a Boot Loader” on page 238 for an assembly code example.
24.7.1 Performing Page Erase by SPM
To execute page erase, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000011” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four
clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to PCPAGE in the
Z-register. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
● Page erase to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the page erase.
●
Page erase to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation.
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24.7.2 Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading)
To write an instruction word, set up the address in the Z-pointer and data in R1:R0, write “00000001” to SPMCSR and
execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The content of PCWORD in the Z-register is used to address
the data in the temporary buffer. The temporary buffer will auto-erase after a page write operation or by writing the
RWWSRE bit in SPMCSR. It is also erased after a system reset. Note that it is not possible to write more than one time to
each address without erasing the temporary buffer.
If the EEPROM is written in the middle of an SPM page load operation, all data loaded will be lost.
24.7.3 Performing a Page Write
To execute page write, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000101” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four clock
cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to PCPAGE. Other bits
in the Z-pointer must be written to zero during this operation.
● Page write to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the page Write.
●
Page write to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation.
24.7.4 Using the SPM Interrupt
If the SPM interrupt is enabled, the SPM interrupt will generate a constant interrupt when the SELFPRGEN bit in SPMCSR is
cleared. This means that the interrupt can be used instead of polling the SPMCSR register in software. When using the SPM
interrupt, the interrupt vectors should be moved to the BLS section to avoid that an interrupt is accessing the RWW section
when it is blocked for reading. How to move the interrupts is described in Section 8.9 “Watchdog Timer” on page 44.
24.7.5 Consideration While Updating BLS
Special care must be taken if the user allows the boot loader section to be updated by leaving boot lock bit11
unprogrammed. An accidental write to the boot loader itself can corrupt the entire boot loader, and further software updates
might be impossible. If it is not necessary to change the boot loader software itself, it is recommended to program the boot
lock bit11 to protect the boot loader software from any internal software changes.
24.7.6 Prevent Reading the RWW Section During Self-Programming
During self-programming (either page erase or page write), the RWW section is always blocked for reading. The user
software itself must prevent that this section is addressed during the self programming operation. The RWWSB in the
SPMCSR will be set as long as the RWW section is busy. During self-programming the interrupt vector table should be
moved to the BLS as described in Section 8.9 “Watchdog Timer” on page 44, or the interrupts must be disabled. Before
addressing the RWW section after the programming is completed, the user software must clear the RWWSB by writing the
RWWSRE. See Section 24.7.12 “Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader” on page 238 for an example.
24.7.7 Setting the Boot Loader Lock Bits by SPM
To set the boot loader lock bits, write the desired data to R0, write “X0001001” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four
clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The only accessible lock bits are the boot lock bits that may prevent the application and
boot loader section from any software update by the MCU.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R0
1
1
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
See Table 24-2 on page 232 and Table 24-3 on page 232 for how the different settings of the boot loader bits affect the flash
access.
If bits 5..2 in R0 are cleared (zero), the corresponding boot lock bit will be programmed if an SPM instruction is executed
within four cycles after BLBSET and SELFPRGEN are set in SPMCSR. The Z-pointer is don’t care during this operation, but
for future compatibility it is recommended to load the Z-pointer with 0x0001 (same as used for reading the lOck bits). For
future compatibility it is also recommended to set bits 7, 6, 1, and 0 in R0 to “1” when writing the lock bits. When
programming the lock bits the entire flash can be read during the operation.
236
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24.7.8 EEPROM Write Prevents Writing to SPMCSR
Note that an EEPROM write operation will block all software programming to flash. Reading the fuses and lock bits from
software will also be prevented during the EEPROM write operation. It is recommended that the user checks the status bit
(EEPE) in the EECR register and verifies that the bit is cleared before writing to the SPMCSR register.
24.7.9 Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software
It is possible to read both the fuse and lock bits from software. To read the lock bits, load the Z-pointer with 0x0001 and set
the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits in SPMCSR. When an LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles after the
BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits are set in SPMCSR, the value of the lock bits will be loaded in the destination register. The
BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits will auto-clear upon completion of reading the lock bits or if no LPM instruction is executed
within three CPU cycles or no SPM instruction is executed within four CPU cycles. When BLBSET and SELFPRGEN are
cleared, LPM will work as described in the Instruction set manual.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
–
–
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
LB2
LB1
The algorithm for reading the fuse low byte is similar to the one described above for reading the lock bits. To read the fuse
low byte, load the Z-pointer with 0x0000 and set the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits in SPMCSR. When an LPM instruction
is executed within three cycles after the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the fuse low
byte (FLB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown below. Refer to Table 25-5 on page 244 for a detailed
description and mapping of the fuse low byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FLB7
FLB6
FLB5
FLB4
FLB3
FLB2
FLB1
FLB0
Similarly, when reading the fuse high byte, load 0x0003 in the Z-pointer. When an LPM instruction is executed within three
cycles after the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the fuse high byte (FHB) will be loaded
in the destination register as shown below. Refer to Table 25-6 on page 244 for detailed description and mapping of the fuse
high byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FHB7
FHB6
FHB5
FHB4
FHB3
FHB2
FHB1
FHB0
When reading the extended fuse byte, load 0x0002 in the Z-pointer. When an LPM instruction is executed within three cycles
after the BLBSET and SELFPRGEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the extended fuse byte (EFB) will be loaded in
the destination register as shown below. Refer to Table 25-4 on page 243 for detailed description and mapping of the
extended fuse byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
–
–
–
–
EFB3
EFB2
EFB1
EFB0
Fuse and lock bits that are programmed, will be read as zero. Fuse and lock bits that are unprogrammed, will be read as
one.
24.7.10 Preventing Flash Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the flash program can be corrupted because the supply voltage is too low for the CPU and the
flash to operate properly. These issues are the same as for board level systems using the flash, and the same design
solutions should be applied.
A flash program corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First, a regular write sequence to
the flash requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the
supply voltage for executing instructions is too low.
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Flash corruption can easily be avoided by following these design recommendations (one is sufficient):
1. If there is no need for a boot loader update in the system, program the boot loader lock bits to prevent any boot
loader software updates.
2.
Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can be done by
enabling the internal brown-out detector (BOD) if the operating voltage matches the detection level. If not, an
external low VCC reset protection circuit can be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the
write operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
3.
Keep the AVR® core in power-down sleep mode during periods of low VCC. This will prevent the CPU from
attempting to decode and execute instructions, effectively protecting the SPMCSR register and thus the flash from
unintentional writes.
24.7.11 Programming Time for Flash when Using SPM
The calibrated RC oscillator is used to time flash accesses. Table 24-5 shows the typical programming time for flash
accesses from the CPU.
Table 24-5. SPM Programming Time
Symbol
Min Programming Time
Max Programming Time
Flash write (page erase, page write, and write lock
bits by SPM)
3.7ms
4.5ms
24.7.12 Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader
;-the routine writes one page of data from RAM to Flash
; the first data location in RAM is pointed to by the Y pointer
; the first data location in Flash is pointed to by the Z-pointer
;-error handling is not included
;-the routine must be placed inside the Boot space
; (at least the Do_spm sub routine). Only code inside NRWW section can
; be read during Self-Programming (Page Erase and Page Write).
;-registers used: r0, r1, temp1 (r16), temp2 (r17), looplo (r24),
; loophi (r25), spmcrval (r20)
; storing and restoring of registers is not included in the routine
; register usage can be optimized at the expense of code size
;-It is assumed that either the interrupt table is moved to the Boot
; loader section or that the interrupts are disabled.
.equ
PAGESIZEB = PAGESIZE*2
;PAGESIZEB is page size in BYTES, not words
.org SMALLBOOTSTART
Write_page:
;Page Erase
ldi
spmcrval, (1<<PGERS) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
call
Do_spm
;
ldi
call
;
ldi
ldi
Wrloop:
ld
ld
ldi
call
adiw
sbiw
238
re-enable the RWW section
spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
transfer data from RAM to Flash page buffer
looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
loophi, high(PAGESIZEB)
;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
r0, Y+
r1, Y+
spmcrval, (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
ZH:ZL, 2
loophi:looplo, 2
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
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brne
Wrloop
;
subi
sbci
ldi
call
execute Page Write
ZL, low(PAGESIZEB) ;restore pointer
ZH, high(PAGESIZEB) ;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
spmcrval, (1<<PGWRT) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
;
ldi
call
re-enable the RWW section
spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
;
ldi
ldi
subi
sbci
Rdloop:
lpm
ld
cpse
jmp
sbiw
brne
read back and check, optional
looplo, low(PAGESIZEB);init loop variable
loophi, high(PAGESIZEB);not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
YL, low(PAGESIZEB) ;restore pointer
YH, high(PAGESIZEB)
;
;
Return:
in
sbrs
ready yet
ret
;
ldi
call
rjmp
return to RWW section
verify that RWW section is safe to read
Do_spm:
;
Wait_spm:
in
sbrc
rjmp
;
;
in
cli
;
Wait_ee:
sbic
rjmp
;
out
spm
;
out
ret
r0, Z+
r1, Y+
r0, r1
Error
loophi:looplo, 1
Rdloop
temp1, SPMCSR
temp1, RWWSB
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
; If RWWSB is set, the RWW section is not
re-enable the RWW section
spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SELFPRGEN)
Do_spm
Return
check for previous SPM complete
temp1, SPMCSR
temp1, SELFPRGEN
Wait_spm
input: spmcrval determines SPM action
disable interrupts if enabled, store status
temp2, SREG
check that no EEPROM write access is present
EECR, EEPE
Wait_ee
SPM timed sequence
SPMCSR, spmcrval
restore SREG (to enable interrupts if originally enabled)
SREG, temp2
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24.7.13 ATmega88 Boot Loader Parameters
In Table 24-6 through Table 24-8, the parameters used in the description of the self programming are given.
Table 24-6. Boot Size Configuration, ATmega88
BOOTSZ1 BOOTSZ0
Boot Size
Pages
Application
Flash Section
Boot Loader
Flash Section
End Application
Section
Boot Reset
Address (Start
Boot Loader
Section)
1
1
128 words
4
0x000 - 0xF7F
0xF80 - 0xFFF
0xF7F
0xF80
1
0
256 words
8
0x000 - 0xEFF
0xF00 - 0xFFF
0xEFF
0xF00
0
1
512 words
16
0x000 - 0xDFF
0xE00 - 0xFFF
0xDFF
0xE00
0
1024 words
32
0x000 - 0xBFF 0xC00 - 0xFFF
0xBFF
The different BOOTSZ fuse configurations are shown in Figure 24-2 on page 231.
0xC00
0
Note:
Table 24-7. Read-While-Write Limit, ATmega88
Section
Pages
Address
Read-while-write section (RWW)
96
0x000 - 0xBFF
No read-while-write section (NRWW)
32
0xC00 - 0xFFF
For details about these two section, see Section 24.3.2 “NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section” on page 230 and
Section 24.3.1 “RWW – Read-While-Write Section” on page 230.
Table 24-8. Explanation of Different Variables used in Figure 24-3 and the Mapping to the Z-pointer, ATmega88
Corresponding Z-value(1)
Variable
PCMSB
11
Most significant bit in the program counter. (The program
counter is 12 bits PC[11:0])
PAGEMSB
4
Most significant bit which is used to address the words within
one page (32 words in a page requires 5 bits PC [4:0]).
ZPCMSB
Z12
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not
used, the ZPCMSB equals PCMSB + 1.
ZPAGEMSB
Z5
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PAGEMSB. Because Z0 is
not used, the ZPAGEMSB equals PAGEMSB + 1.
PCPAGE
PC[11:5]
Z12:Z6
Program counter page address: page select, for page erase
and page write
PCWORD
PC[4:0]
Z5:Z1
Program counter word address: word select, for filling
temporary buffer (must be zero during page write operation)
Note:
240
Description
1.
Z15:Z13: always ignored
Z0: should be zero for all SPM commands, byte select for the LPM instruction.
See Section 24.6 “Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming” on page 234 for details about the use of
Z-pointer during self-programming.
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24.7.14 ATmega168 Boot Loader Parameters
In Table 24-9 through Table 24-11, the parameters used in the description of the self programming are given.
Table 24-9. Boot Size Configuration, ATmega168
BOOTSZ1 BOOTSZ0
Boot Size
Pages
Application
Flash Section
Boot Loader
Flash Section
0x0000 - 0x1F7F 0x1F80 - 0x1FFF
End Application
Section
Boot Reset
Address (Start
Boot Loader
Section)
0x1F7F
0x1F80
1
1
128 words
2
1
0
256 words
4
0x0000 0x1EFF
0x1F00 - 0x1FFF
0x1EFF
0x1F00
0
1
512 words
8
0x0000 0x1DFF
0x1E00 0x1FFF
0x1DFF
0x1E00
0x0000 0x1C00 0x1BFF
0x1BFF
0x1FFF
The different BOOTSZ fuse configurations are shown in Figure 24-2 on page 231.
0
0
Note:
1024 words
16
0x1C00
Table 24-10. Read-While-Write Limit, ATmega168
Section
Pages
Address
Read-while-write section (RWW)
112
0x0000 - 0x1BFF
No read-while-rite section (NRWW)
16
0x1C00 - 0x1FFF
For details about these two section, see Section 24.3.2 “NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section” on page 230 and
Section 24.3.1 “RWW – Read-While-Write Section” on page 230.
Table 24-11. Explanation of Different Variables used in Figure 24-3 and the Mapping to the Z-pointer, ATmega168
Corresponding Z-value(1)
Variable
PCMSB
12
PAGEMSB
5
Description
Most significant bit in the program counter. (The program
counter is 12 bits PC[11:0])
Most significant bit which is used to address the words within
one page (64 words in a page requires 6 bits PC [5:0])
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not
used, the ZPCMSB equals PCMSB + 1.
ZPCMSB
Z13
ZPAGEMSB
Z6
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PAGEMSB. Because Z0 is
not used, the ZPAGEMSB equals PAGEMSB + 1.
PCPAGE
PC[12:6]
Z13:Z7
Program counter page address: page select, for page erase
and page write
PCWORD
PC[5:0]
Z6:Z1
Program counter word address: Word select, for filling
temporary buffer (must be zero during page write operation)
Note:
1.
Z15:Z14: always ignored
Z0: should be zero for all SPM commands, byte select for the LPM instruction. See Section 24.6 “Addressing
the Flash During Self-Programming” on page 234 for details about the use of Z-pointer during
self-Programming.
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25.
Memory Programming
25.1
Program And Data Memory Lock Bits
The Atmel® ATmega88/168 provides six lock bits which can be left unprogrammed (“1”) or can be programmed (“0”) to
obtain the additional features listed in Table 25-2. The lock bits can only be erased to “1” with the chip erase command.The
Atmel ATmega48 has no separate boot loader section. The SPM instruction is enabled for the whole flash if the
SELFPRGEN fuse is programmed (“0”), otherwise it is disabled.
Table 25-1. Lock Bit Byte(1)
Lock Bit Byte
Notes:
Bit No
Description
Default Value
7
–
1 (unprogrammed)
6
–
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB12
5
Boot lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB11
4
Boot lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB02
3
Boot lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB01
2
Boot lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
LB2
1
Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
LB1
0
Lock bit
“1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
1 (unprogrammed)
1.
2.
Only on Atmel ATmega88/168.
Table 25-2. Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)(2)
Memory Lock Bits
LB Mode
LB2
LB1
1
1
1
No memory lock features enabled.
2
1
0
Further programming of the flash and EEPROM is disabled in parallel and
serial programming mode. The fuse bits are locked in both serial and parallel
programming mode.(1)
1.
Further programming and verification of the flash and EEPROM is disabled in
parallel and serial programming mode. The boot lock bits and fuse bits are
locked in both serial and parallel programming mode.(1)
Program the fuse bits and boot lock bits before programming the LB1 and LB2.
2.
“1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
3
Notes:
242
Protection Type
0
0
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Table 25-3. Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)(2). Only ATmega88/168.
BLB0 Mode
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the application section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the application section.
3
0
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the application section, and LPM executing
from the boot loader section is not allowed to read from the application
section. If interrupt vectors are placed in the boot loader section, interrupts
are disabled while executing from the application section.
4
0
1
LPM executing from the boot loader section is not allowed to read from the
application section. If interrupt vectors are placed in the boot loader section,
interrupts are disabled while executing from the application section.
BLB1 Mode
BLB12
BLB11
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the boot loader section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the boot loader section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the boot loader section, and LPM executing
from the application section is not allowed to read from the boot loader
section. If interrupt vectors are placed in the application section, interrupts
are disabled while executing from the boot loader section.
3
1.
LPM executing from the application section is not allowed to read from the
boot loader section. If interrupt vectors are placed in the application section,
interrupts are disabled while executing from the boot loader section.
Program the fuse bits and boot lock bits before programming the LB1 and LB2.
2.
“1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
4
Notes:
25.2
0
0
1
Fuse Bits
The Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 has three fuse bytes. Table 25-4 - Table 25-7 on page 244 describe briefly the functionality of
all the fuses and how they are mapped into the fuse bytes. Note that the fuses are read as logical zero, “0”, if they are
programmed.
Table 25-4. Extended Fuse Byte for ATmega48
Extended Fuse Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
–
7
–
1
–
6
–
1
–
5
–
1
–
4
–
1
–
3
–
1
–
2
–
1
–
1
–
1
SELFPRGEN
0
Self programming enable
1 (unprogrammed)
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Table 25-5. Extended Fuse Byte for ATmega88/168
Extended Fuse Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
–
7
–
1
–
6
–
1
–
5
–
1
–
4
–
1
Note:
–
3
–
1
BOOTSZ1
2
Select boot size (see Table 113 for details)
0 (programmed)(1)
BOOTSZ0
1
Select boot size (see Table 113 for details)
0 (programmed)(1)
BOOTRST
0
Select reset vector
1 (unprogrammed)
1. The default value of BOOTSZ1..0 results in maximum boot size. See Table 25-8 on page 246 for details.
Table 25-6. Fuse High Byte
High Fuse Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
RSTDISBL(1)
7
External reset disable
1 (unprogrammed)
DWEN
6
debugWIRE enable
1 (unprogrammed)
SPIEN(2)
5
Enable serial program and data
downloading
0 (programmed, SPI programming
enabled)
WDTON(3)
4
Watchdog timer always on
1 (unprogrammed)
3
EEPROM memory is preserved
through the chip erase
1 (unprogrammed), EEPROM not
reserved
BODLEVEL2(4)
2
Brown-out detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
(4)
1
Brown-out detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
EESAVE
BODLEVEL1
BODLEVEL0(4)
0
Brown-out detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
Notes: 1. See Section 10.3.3 “Alternate Functions of Port C” on page 67 for description of RSTDISBL fuse.
2.
The SPIEN fuse is not accessible in serial programming mode.
3.
See Section 8.9.1 “Watchdog Timer Control Register - WDTCSR” on page 46 for details.
4.
See Table 8-2 on page 41 for BODLEVEL fuse decoding.
Table 25-7. Fuse Low Byte
Notes:
Low Fuse Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
CKDIV8(4)
7
Divide clock by 8
0 (programmed)
CKOUT(3)
6
Clock output
1 (unprogrammed)
SUT1
5
Select start-up time
1 (unprogrammed)(1)
SUT0
4
Select start-up time
0 (programmed)(1)
CKSEL3
3
Select clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
CKSEL2
2
Select clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
CKSEL1
1
Select clock source
1 (unprogrammed)(2)
CKSEL0
0
Select clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
1. The default value of SUT1..0 results in maximum start-up time for the default clock source. See
Table 6-9 on page 28 for details.
2.
The default setting of CKSEL3..0 results in internal RC oscillator at 8MHz. See Table 6-8 on page 28 for
details.
3.
The CKOUT fuse allows the system clock to be output on PORTB0. See
Section 6.9 “Clock Output Buffer” on page 30 for details.
4.
See Section 6.11 “System Clock Prescaler” on page 31 for details.
The status of the fuse bits is not affected by chip erase. Note that the fuse bits are locked if lock bit1 (LB1) is programmed.
program the fuse bits before programming the lock bits.
244
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25.2.1 Latching of Fuses
The fuse values are latched when the device enters programming mode and changes of the fuse values will have no effect
until the part leaves programming mode. This does not apply to the EESAVE fuse which will take effect once it is
programmed. The fuses are also latched on power-up in normal mode.
25.3
Signature Bytes
All Atmel® microcontrollers have a three-byte signature code which identifies the device. This code can be read in both serial
and parallel mode, also when the device is locked. The three bytes reside in a separate address space.
25.3.1 ATmega48 Signature Bytes
1.
0x000: 0x1E (indicates manufactured by Atmel).
2.
0x001: 0x92 (indicates 4KB flash memory).
3.
0x002: 0x05 (indicates Atmel ATmega48 device when 0x001 is 0x92).
25.3.2 ATmega88 Signature Bytes
1.
0x000: 0x1E (indicates manufactured by Atmel).
2.
0x001: 0x93 (indicates 8KB flash memory).
3.
0x002: 0x0A (indicates ATmega88 device when 0x001 is 0x93).
25.3.3 ATmega168 Signature Bytes
25.4
1.
0x000: 0x1E (indicates manufactured by Atmel).
2.
0x001: 0x94 (indicates 16KB flash memory).
3.
0x002: 0x06 (indicates Atmel ATmega168 device when 0x001 is 0x94).
Calibration Byte
The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 has a byte calibration value for the internal RC oscillator. This byte resides in the high byte of
address 0x000 in the signature address space. During reset, this byte is automatically written into the OSCCAL register to
ensure correct frequency of the calibrated RC oscillator.
25.5
Parallel Programming Parameters, Pin Mapping, and Commands
This section describes how to parallel program and verify flash program memory, EEPROM data memory, memory lock bits,
and fuse bits in the Atmel ATmega48/88/168. Pulses are assumed to be at least 250ns unless otherwise noted.
25.5.1 Signal Names
In this section, some pins of the ATmega48/88/168 are referenced by signal names describing their functionality during
parallel programming, see Figure 25-1 on page 246 and Table 25-8 on page 246. Pins not described in the following table
are referenced by pin names.
The XA1/XA0 pins determine the action executed when the XTAL1 pin is given a positive pulse. The bit coding is shown in
Table 25-10 on page 246.
When pulsing WR or OE, the command loaded determines the action executed. The different Commands are shown in
Table 25-11 on page 247.
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Figure 25-1. Parallel Programming
+ 4.5V to 5.5V
RDY/BSY
PD1
OE
PD2
WR
PD3
BS1
PD4
XA0
PD5
XA1
PD6
PAGEL
PD7
VCC
+ 4.5V to 5.5V
AVCC
+12V
PC[1:0]:PB[5:0]
DATA
RESET
PC2
BS2
XTAL1
GND
Table 25-8. Pin Name Mapping
Signal Name in Programming Mode
Pin Name
I/O
Function
RDY/BSY
PD1
O
0: Device is busy programming, 1: Device is ready
for new command
OE
PD2
I
Output enable (active low)
WR
PD3
I
Write pulse (active low)
BS1
PD4
I
Byte select 1 (“0” selects low byte, “1” selects
high byte)
XA0
PD5
I
XTAL Action Bit 0
XA1
PD6
I
XTAL Action Bit 1
PAGEL
PD7
I
Program memory and EEPROM data page load
BS2
PC2
I
Byte select 2 (“0” selects low byte, “1” selects 2’nd
high byte)
DATA
{PC[1:0]: PB[5:0]}
I/O
Bi-directional data bus (output when OE is low)
Table 25-9. Pin Values Used to Enter Programming Mode
Table 25-10.
246
Pin
Symbol
Value
PAGEL
Prog_enable[3]
0
XA1
Prog_enable[2]
0
XA0
Prog_enable[1]
0
BS1
Prog_enable[0]
0
XA1 and XA0 Coding
XA1
XA0
Action when XTAL1 is Pulsed
0
0
Load flash or EEPROM address (high or low address byte determined by BS1).
0
1
Load data (high or low data byte for flash determined by BS1).
1
0
Load command
1
1
No action, idle
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Table 25-11.
Command Byte Bit Coding
Command Byte
Command Executed
1000 0000
Chip erase
0100 0000
Write fuse bits
0010 0000
Write lock bits
0001 0000
Write flash
0001 0001
Write EEPROM
0000 1000
Read signature bytes and calibration byte
0000 0100
Read fuse and lock bits
0000 0010
Read flash
0000 0011
Read EEPROM
Table 25-12. No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the Flash
Device
Flash Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
PCMSB
ATmega48
2Kwords (4Kbytes)
32 words
PC[4:0]
64
PC[10:5]
10
ATmega88
4Kwords (8Kbytes)
32 words
PC[4:0]
128
PC[11:5]
11
ATmega168
8Kwords (16Kbytes)
64 words
PC[5:0]
128
PC[12:6]
12
Table 25-13. No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the EEPROM
25.6
Device
EEPROM Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
EEAMSB
ATmega48
256 bytes
4 bytes
EEA[1:0]
64
EEA[7:2]
7
ATmega88
512 bytes
4 bytes
EEA[1:0]
128
EEA[8:2]
8
ATmega168
512 bytes
4 bytes
EEA[1:0]
128
EEA[8:2]
8
Serial Programming Pin Mapping
Table 25-14. Pin Mapping Serial Programming
25.7
Symbol
Pins
I/O
Description
MOSI
PB3
I
Serial data in
MISO
PB4
O
Serial data out
SCK
PB5
I
Serial clock
Parallel Programming
25.7.1 Enter Programming Mode
The following algorithm puts the device in parallel programming mode:
1. Apply 4.5 - 5.5V between VCC and GND.
2.
Set RESET to “0” and toggle XTAL1 at least six times.
3.
Set the prog_enable pins listed in Table 25-9 on page 246 to “0000” and wait at least 100ns.
4.
Apply 11.5 - 12.5V to RESET. Any activity on prog_enable pins within 100 ns after +12V has been applied to
RESET, will cause the device to fail entering programming mode.
5.
Wait at least 50µs before sending a new command.
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25.7.2 Considerations for Efficient Programming
The loaded command and address are retained in the device during programming. For efficient programming, the following
should be considered.
● The command needs only be loaded once when writing or reading multiple memory locations.
●
Skip writing the data value 0xFF, that is the contents of the entire EEPROM (unless the EESAVE fuse is programmed)
and flash after a chip erase.
●
Address high byte needs only be loaded before programming or reading a new 256 word window in flash or 256 byte
EEPROM. This consideration also applies to signature bytes reading.
25.7.3 Chip Erase
The chip erase will erase the flash and EEPROM(1) memories plus lock bits. The lock bits are not reset until the program
memory has been completely erased. The fuse bits are not changed. A chip erase must be performed before the flash
and/or EEPROM are reprogrammed.
Note:
1.
The EEPRPOM memory is preserved during chip erase if the EESAVE fuse is programmed.
Load command “chip erase”
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2.
Set BS1 to “0”.
3.
Set DATA to “1000 0000”. This is the command for chip erase.
4.
Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command.
5.
Give WR a negative pulse. This starts the chip erase. RDY/BSY goes low.
6.
Wait until RDY/BSY goes high before loading a new command.
25.7.4 Programming the Flash
The flash is organized in pages, see Table 25-12 on page 247. When programming the flash, the program data is latched
into a page buffer. This allows one page of program data to be programmed simultaneously. The following procedure
describes how to program the entire flash memory:
A. Load command “write flash”
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2.
Set BS1 to “0”.
3.
Set DATA to “0001 0000”. This is the command for write flash.
4.
Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command.
B. Load address low byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “00”. This enables address loading.
2.
Set BS1 to “0”. This selects low address.
3.
Set DATA = address low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4.
Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the address low byte.
C. Load data low byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “01”. This enables data loading.
2.
Set DATA = data low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3.
Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the data byte.
D. Load data high byte
1. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high data byte.
2.
Set XA1, XA0 to “01”. This enables data loading.
3.
Set DATA = data high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4.
Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the data byte.
E. Latch data
1. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high data byte.
2.
248
Give pAGEL a positive pulse. This latches the data bytes. (See Figure 25-3 on page 250 for signal waveforms)
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F. Repeat B through E until the entire buffer is filled or until all data within the page is loaded.
While the lower bits in the address are mapped to words within the page, the higher bits address the pages within the
FLASH. This is illustrated in Figure 25-2. Note that if less than eight bits are required to address words in the page (page
size < 256), the most significant bit(s) in the address low byte are used to address the page when performing a page write.
G. Load address high byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “00”. This enables address loading.
2.
Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high address.
3.
Set DATA = address high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4.
Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the address high byte.
H. Program page
1. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts programming of the entire page of data. RDY/BSY goes low.
2.
Wait until RDY/BSY goes high (See Figure 25-3 on page 250 for signal waveforms).
I. Repeat B through H until the entire flash is programmed or until all data has been programmed.
J. End page programming
1. 1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2.
Set DATA to “0000 0000”. This is the command for No operation.
3.
Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command, and the internal write signals are reset.
Figure 25-2. Addressing the Flash Which is Organized in Pages(1)
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
PCWORD
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN PAGE
Program Memory
Page
Page
Instruction Word
PCWORD [PAGEMSB : 0]
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
1.
PCPAGE and PCWORD are listed in Table 25-12 on page 247.
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Figure 25-3. Programming the Flash Waveforms(1)
F
DATA
A
B
C
D
E
B
C
D
E
G
0x10
ADDR. LOW
DATA LOW
DATA HIGH
XX
ADDR. LOW
DATA LOW
DATA HIGH
XX
ADDR. HIGH
H
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
BS2
Note:
1.
“XX” is don’t care. The letters refer to the programming description above.
25.7.5 Programming the EEPROM
The EEPROM is organized in pages, see Table 25-13 on page 247. When programming the EEPROM, the program data is
latched into a page buffer. This allows one page of data to be programmed simultaneously. The programming algorithm for
the EEPROM data memory is as follows (refer to Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248 for details on
command, address and data loading):
1. A: Load command “0001 0001”.
2.
G: Load address high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3.
B: Load address low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4.
C: Load data (0x00 - 0xFF).
5.
E: Latch data (give PAGEL a positive pulse).
K: Repeat 3 through 5 until the entire buffer is filled.
L: Program EEPROM page
1. Set BS1 to “0”.
250
2.
Give WR a negative pulse. This starts programming of the EEPROM page. RDY/BSY goes low.
3.
Wait until to RDY/BSY goes high before programming the next page (See Figure 25-4 for signal waveforms).
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Figure 25-4. Programming the EEPROM Waveforms
K
A
DATA
0x11
G
B
ADDR. HIGH ADDR. LOW
C
E
B
C
E
DATA
XX
ADDR. LOW
DATA
XX
L
XA1
XA0
BS1
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
BS2
25.7.6 Reading the Flash
The algorithm for reading the Flash memory is as follows (refer to Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248 for
details on command and address loading):
1. A: Load command “0000 0010”.
2.
G: Load address high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3.
B: Load address low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4.
Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The flash word low byte can now be read at DATA.
5.
Set BS1 to “1”. The flash word high byte can now be read at DATA.
6.
Set OE to “1”.
25.7.7 Reading the EEPROM
The algorithm for reading the EEPROM memory is as follows (refer to Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248
for details on command and address loading):
1. A: Load command “0000 0011”.
2.
G: Load address high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3.
B: Load address low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4.
Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The EEPROM data byte can now be read at DATA.
5.
Set OE to “1”.
25.7.8 Programming the Fuse Low Bits
The algorithm for programming the fuse low bits is as follows (refer to Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248
for details on command and data loading):
1. A: Load command “0100 0000”.
2.
C: Load data low byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the fuse bit.
3.
Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
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25.7.9 Programming the Fuse High Bits
The algorithm for programming the use high bits is as follows (refer to Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248
for details on command and data loading):
1. A: Load command “0100 0000”.
2.
C: Load data low byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the fuse bit.
3.
Set BS1 to “1” and BS2 to “0”. This selects high data byte.
4.
Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
5.
Set BS1 to “0”. This selects low data byte.
25.7.10 Programming the Extended Fuse Bits
The algorithm for programming the extended fuse bits is as follows (refer to
Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248 for details on command and data loading):
1. 1. A: Load command “0100 0000”.
2.
2. C: Load data low byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the fuse bit.
3.
3. Set BS1 to “0” and BS2 to “1”. This selects extended data byte.
4.
4. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
5.
5. Set BS2 to “0”. This selects low data byte.
Figure 25-5. Programming the FUSES Waveforms
Write Fuse Low byte
DATA
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
Write Fuse High byte
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
Write Extended Fuse byte
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
BS2
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
25.7.11 Programming the Lock Bits
The algorithm for programming the lock bits is as follows (refer to Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248 for
details on command and data loading):
1. A: Load command “0010 0000”.
2.
C: Load data low byte. Bit n = “0” programs the lock bit. If LB mode 3 is programmed (LB1 and LB2 is
programmed), it is not possible to program the boot lock bits by any external programming mode.
3.
Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
The lock bits can only be cleared by executing chip erase.
252
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25.7.12 Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits
The algorithm for reading the fuse and lock bits is as follows (refer to Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248
for details on command loading):
1. A: Load command “0000 0100”.
2.
Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “0” and BS1 to “0”. The status of the fuse low bits can now be read at DATA (“0” means
programmed).
3.
Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “1” and BS1 to “1”. The status of the fuse high bits can now be read at DATA (“0” means
programmed).
4.
Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “1”, and BS1 to “0”. The status of the extended fuse bits can now be read at DATA (“0”
means programmed).
5.
Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “0” and BS1 to “1”. The status of the lock bits can now be read at DATA (“0” means
programmed).
6.
Set OE to “1”.
Figure 25-6. Mapping Between BS1, BS2 and the Fuse and Lock Bits During Read
Fuse Low Byte
0
0
Extended Fuse Byte
1
DATA
BS2
Lock Bits
0
1
BS1
Fuse High Byte
1
BS2
25.7.13 Reading the Signature Bytes
The algorithm for reading the signature bytes is as follows (refer to Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248 for
details on command and address loading):
1. A: Load command “0000 1000”.
2.
B: Load address low byte (0x00 - 0x02).
3.
Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The selected signature byte can now be read at DATA.
4.
Set OE to “1”.
25.7.14 Reading the Calibration Byte
The algorithm for reading the calibration byte is as follows (refer to Section 25.7.4 “Programming the Flash” on page 248 for
details on command and address loading):
1. A: Load command “0000 1000”.
2.
B: Load address low byte, 0x00.
3.
Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “1”. The calibration byte can now be read at DATA.
4.
Set OE to “1”.
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25.7.15 Parallel Programming Characteristics
Figure 25-7. Parallel Programming Timing, Including some General Timing Requirements
tXLWL
XTAL1
tXHXL
tDVXH
tXLDX
Data and Control
(DATA, XA0/1, BS1, BS2)
tBVPH
tPLBX
tBVWL
tWLBX
tPHPL
PAGEL
tWLWH
WR
tPLWL
tWLRL
RDY/BSY
tWLRH
Figure 25-8. Parallel Programming Timing, Loading Sequence with Timing Requirements(1)
Load Address
(Low Byte)
Load Data
(Low Byte)
Load Data
(High Byte)
tXLXH
Load Address
(Low Byte)
Load Data
tXLPH
tPLXH
XTAL1
BS1
PAGEL
DATA
ADDR0 (Low Byte)
DATA (Low Byte)
DATA (High Byte)
ADDR1 (Low Byte)
XA0
XA1
Note:
254
1.
The timing requirements shown in Figure 25-7 (i.e., tDVXH, tXHXL, and tXLDX) also apply to loading operation.
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Figure 25-9. Parallel Programming Timing, Reading Sequence (within the Same Page) with Timing Requirements(1)
Load Address
(Low Byte)
Read Data
(Low Byte)
Read Data
(High Byte)
Load Address
(Low Byte)
tXLOL
XTAL1
tBVDV
BS1
tOLDV
OE
tOHDZ
DATA
ADDR0 (Low Byte)
DATA (Low Byte)
DATA (High Byte)
ADDR1 (Low Byte)
XA0
XA1
Note:
1.
Table 25-15.
The timing requirements shown in Figure 25-7 on page 254 (i.e., tDVXH, tXHXL, and tXLDX) also apply to reading
operation.
Parallel Programming Characteristics, VCC = 5V ±10%
Parameter
Programming enable voltage
Programming enable current
Symbol
Min
VPP
11.5
IPP
Typ
Max
Unit
12.5
V
250
µA
Data and control valid before XTAL1 high
tDVXH
67
ns
XTAL1 low to XTAL1 high
tXLXH
200
ns
XTAL1 pulse width high
tXHXL
150
ns
Data and control hold after XTAL1 low
tXLDX
67
ns
XTAL1 low to WR low
tXLWL
0
ns
XTAL1 low to PAGEL high
tXLPH
0
ns
PAGEL low to XTAL1 high
tPLXH
150
ns
BS1 valid before PAGEL high
tBVPH
67
ns
PAGEL pulse width high
tPHPL
150
ns
BS1 hold after PAGEL low
tPLBX
67
ns
BS2/1 hold after WR low
tWLBX
67
ns
PAGEL low to WR low
tPLWL
67
ns
BS1 valid to WR low
tBVWL
67
ns
WR pulse width low
tWLWH
150
WR low to RDY/BSY low
tWLRL
0
1
µs
WR low to RDY/BSY high(1)
ns
tWLRH
3.7
4.5
ms
tWLRH_CE
7.5
9
ms
XTAL1 low to OE low
tXLOL
0
BS1 valid to DATA valid
tBVDV
0
OE low to DATA valid
tOLDV
WR Low to RDY/BSY high for chip erase(2)
ns
250
ns
250
ns
OE high to DATA tri-stated
tOHDZ
250
Notes: 1. tWLRH is valid for the write flash, write EEPROM, write fuse bits and write lock bits commands.
ns
2.
tWLRH_CE is valid for the chip erase command.
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25.8
Serial Downloading
Both the flash and EEPROM memory arrays can be programmed using the serial SPI bus while RESET is pulled to GND.
The serial interface consists of pins SCK, MOSI (input) and MISO (output). After RESET is set low, the programming enable
instruction needs to be executed first before program/erase operations can be executed. NOTE, in Table 25-14 on page 247,
the pin mapping for SPI programming is listed. Not all parts use the SPI pins dedicated for the internal SPI interface.
Figure 25-10. Serial Programming and Verify(1)
+ 2.7V to 5.5V
VCC
+ 2.7V to 5.5V(2)
MOSI
AVCC
MISO
SCK
XTAL1
RESET
GND
Notes:
1.
If the device is clocked by the internal oscillator, it is no need to connect a clock source to the XTAL1 pin.
2.
VCC – 0.3V < AVCC < VCC + 0.3V, however, AVCC should always be within 1.8 - 5.5V
When programming the EEPROM, an auto-erase cycle is built into the self-timed programming operation (in the serial mode
ONLY) and there is no need to first execute the chip erase instruction. The chip erase operation turns the content of every
memory location in both the program and EEPROM arrays into 0xFF.
Depending on CKSEL fuses, a valid clock must be present. The minimum low and high periods for the serial clock (SCK)
input are defined as follows:
Low: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck ≥ 12MHz
High: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck ≥ 12MHz
25.8.1 Serial Programming Algorithm
When writing serial data to the Atmel® ATmega48/88/168, data is clocked on the rising edge of SCK.
When reading data from the ATmega48/88/168, data is clocked on the falling edge of SCK. See Figure 25-11 on page 257
for timing details.
To program and verify the ATmega48/88/168 in the serial programming mode, the following sequence is recommended (See
four byte instruction formats in Table 25-17 on page 258):
1. Power-up sequence:
Apply power between VCC and GND while RESET and SCK are set to “0”. In some systems, the programmer can
not guarantee that SCK is held low during power-up. In this case, RESET must be given a positive pulse of at
least two CPU clock cycles duration after SCK has been set to “0”.
256
2.
Wait for at least 20 ms and enable serial programming by sending the programming enable serial instruction to pin
MOSI.
3.
The serial programming instructions will not work if the communication is out of synchronization. When in sync.
the second byte (0x53), will echo back when issuing the third byte of the programming enable instruction. Whether
the echo is correct or not, all four bytes of the instruction must be transmitted. If the 0x53 did not echo back, give
RESET a positive pulse and issue a new programming enable command.
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4.
The flash is programmed one page at a time. The memory page is loaded one byte at a time by supplying the 6
LSB of the address and data together with the load program memory page instruction. To ensure correct loading
of the page, the data low byte must be loaded before data high byte is applied for a given address. The program
memory page is stored by loading the write program memory page instruction with the 8MSB of the address. If
polling is not used, the user must wait at least tWD_FLASH before issuing the next page. (See Table 25-16.)
Accessing the serial programming interface before the flash write operation completes can result in incorrect
programming.
5.
The EEPROM array is programmed one byte at a time by supplying the address and data together with the
appropriate Write instruction. An EEPROM memory location is first automatically erased before new data is
written. If polling is not used, the user must wait at least tWD_EEPROM before issuing the next byte.
(See Table 25-16.) In a chip erased device, no 0xFFs in the data file(s) need to be programmed.
6.
Any memory location can be verified by using the read instruction which returns the content at the selected
address at serial output MISO.
7.
At the end of the programming session, RESET can be set high to commence normal operation.
8.
Power-off sequence (if needed):
Set RESET to “1”.
Turn VCC power off.
25.8.2 Data Polling Flash
When a page is being programmed into the flash, reading an address location within the page being programmed will give
the value 0xFF. At the time the device is ready for a new page, the programmed value will read correctly. This is used to
determine when the next page can be written. Note that the entire page is written simultaneously and any address within the
page can be used for polling. Data polling of the flash will not work for the value 0xFF, so when programming this value, the
user will have to wait for at least tWD_FLASH before programming the next page. As a chip-erased device contains 0xFF in all
locations, programming of addresses that are meant to contain 0xFF, can be skipped. See Table 25-16 for tWD_FLASH value.
25.8.3 Data Polling EEPROM
When a new byte has been written and is being programmed into EEPROM, reading the address location being
programmed will give the value 0xFF. At the time the device is ready for a new byte, the programmed value will read
correctly. This is used to determine when the next byte can be written. This will not work for the value 0xFF, but the user
should have the following in mind: As a chip-erased device contains 0xFF in all locations, programming of addresses that
are meant to contain 0xFF, can be skipped. This does not apply if the EEPROM is re-programmed without chip erasing the
device. In this case, data polling cannot be used for the value 0xFF, and the user will have to wait at least tWD_EEPROM before
programming the next byte. See Table 25-16 for tWD_EEPROM value.
Table 25-16.
Minimum Wait Delay Before Writing the Next Flash or EEPROM Location
Symbol
Minimum Wait Delay
tWD_FLASH
4.5ms
tWD_EEPROM
3.6ms
tWD_ERASE
9.0ms
Figure 25-11.Serial Programming Waveforms
SERIAL DATA INPUT
(MOSI)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL DATA OUTPUT
(MISO)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL CLOCK INPUT
(SCK)
SAMPLE
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Table 25-17.
Serial Programming Instruction Set
Instruction Format
Instruction
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte4
Programming enable
1010 1100
0101 0011
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
Enable serial programming after
RESET goes low.
Chip erase
1010 1100
100x xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
Chip erase EEPROM and flash.
Read program memory
0010 H000
000a aaaa
bbbb bbbb
Read H (high or low) data o from
oooo oooo program memory at word address
a:b.
Write H (high or low) data i to
program memory page at word
address b. Data low byte must be
loaded before data high byte is
applied within the same address.
Load program memory page 0100 H000
000x xxxx
xxbb bbbb
iiii iiii
Write program memory page 0100 1100
000a aaaa
bbxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
Operation
Write program memory page at
address a:b.
Read EEPROM memory
1010 0000
000x xxaa
bbbb bbbb
oooo oooo
Read data o from EEPROM memory
at address a:b.
Write EEPROM memory
1100 0000
000x xxaa
bbbb bbbb
iiii iiii
Write data i to EEPROM memory at
address a:b.
Load EEPROM memory
page ( page access)
1100 0001
0000 0000
0000 00bb
iiii iiii
Load data i to EEPROM memory
page buffer. After data is loaded,
program EEPROM page.
Write EEPROM memory
page ( page access)
1100 0010
00xx xxaa
bbbb bb00
xxxx xxxx
Read lock bits
0101 1000
0000 0000
xxxx xxxx
Write lock bits
1010 1100
111x xxxx
xxxx xxxx
Read signature byte
0011 0000
000x xxxx
xxxx xxbb
Write fuse bits
1010 1100
1010 0000
xxxx xxxx
iiii iiii
Set bits = “0” to program, “1” to
unprogram. See
Table 21-1 on page 211 for details.
Write fuse high bits
1010 1100
1010 1000
xxxx xxxx
iiii iiii
Set bits = “0” to program, “1” to
unprogram. See
Table 21-1 on page 211 for details.
Write extended fuse bits
1010 1100
1010 0100
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxii
Set bits = “0” to program, “1” to
unprogram. See
Table 25-4 on page 243 for details.
Read fuse bits
0101 0000
0000 0000
xxxx xxxx
Write EEPROM page at address a:b.
Read lock bits. “0” = programmed, “1”
xxoo oooo = unprogrammed. See
Table 25-1 on page 242 for details.
11ii iiii
Write lock bits. Set bits = “0” to
program lock bits. See
Table 25-1 on page 242 for details.
oooo oooo Read signature byte o at address b.
Read Fuse bits. “0” = programmed,
oooo oooo “1” = unprogrammed. See
Table 21-1 on page 211 for details.
Read fuse high bits. “0” =
programmed, “1” = unprogrammed.
Read fuse high bits
0101 1000 0000 1000
xxxx xxxx oooo oooo
See Table 21-1 on page 211 for
details.
Note:
a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - low byte, 1 - high byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t
care
258
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Table 25-17.
Serial Programming Instruction Set (Continued)
Instruction Format
Instruction
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte4
Operation
Read extended fuse bits
0101 0000
0000 1000
xxxx xxxx
Read extended fuse bits. “0” =
programmed, “1” = unprogrammed.
oooo oooo
See Table 25-4 on page 243 for
details.
Read calibration byte
0011 1000
000x xxxx
0000 0000
oooo oooo Read calibration byte
If o = “1”, a programming operation is
still busy. Wait until this bit returns to
Poll RDY/BSY
1111 0000
0000 0000
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxo
“0” before applying another
command.
Note:
a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - low byte, 1 - high byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t
care
25.8.4 SPI Serial Programming Characteristics
For characteristics of the SPI module see Section 27.1 “SPI Timing Characteristics” on page 268.
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26.
Electrical Characteristics
A
26.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating
only and functional operation of the device at these or other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of this
specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Parameter
Min
Operating temperature
–55
Typ
Max
Unit
+125
°C
Storage temperature
–65
+150
°C
Voltage on any pin except RESET with respect to ground
–0.5
VCC + 0.5
V
Voltage on RESET with respect to ground
–0.5
+13.0
V
6.0
V
DC current per I/O pin
40.0
mA
DC current VCC and GND pins
200.0
mA
Maximum operating voltage
26.2
DC Characteristics
TA = –40°C to +125°C, VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Min.(5)
VCC = 2.7V - 5.5V
VIL
VCC = 2.7V - 5.5V
VIL1
Parameter
Condition
Input low Voltage, except
XTAL1 and reset pin
Input low voltage,
XTAL1 pin
Max.(5)
Unit
–0.5
0.3VCC(1)
V
–0.5
0.1VCC(1)
V
0.1VCC(1)
V
Typ.
Input low voltage, RESET
VCC = 2.7V - 5.5V
VIL2
–0.5
pin
Notes: 1. “Max” means the highest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as low
260
2.
“Min” means the lowest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as high
3.
Although each I/O port can sink more than the test conditions (20mA at VCC = 5V, 10mA at VCC = 3V) under steady
state conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
Atmel ATmega48:
1] The sum of all IOL, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 70mA.
2] The sum of all IOL, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 70mA.
3] The sum of all IOL, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 70mA.
ATmega88/168:
1] The sum of all IOL, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 100mA.
2] The sum of all IOL, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 100mA.
3] The sum of all IOL, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 100mA.
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current
greater than the listed test condition.
4.
Although each I/O port can source more than the test conditions (20mA at VCC = 5V, 10mA at VCC = 3V) under steady
state conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
ATmega48:
1] The sum of all IOH, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 70mA.
2] The sum of all IOH, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 70mA.
3] The sum of all IOH, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 70mA.
ATmega88/168:
1] The sum of all IOH, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 100mA.
2] The sum of all IOH, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 100mA.
3] The sum of all IOH, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 100mA.
If IOH exceeds the test condition, VOH may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to source current
greater than the listed test condition.
5.
All DC characteristics contained in this datasheet are based on actual ATmega88 microcontrollers characterization.
6.
Values with Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 enabled (0xEF).
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26.2
DC Characteristics (Continued)
TA = –40°C to +125°C, VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Min.(5)
VCC = 2.7V - 5.5V
VIH
VCC = 2.7V - 5.5V
Input high voltage, RESET
VCC = 2.7V - 5.5V
pin
Parameter
Condition
Input high voltage, except
XTAL1 and RESET pins
Input high voltage, XTAL1
pin
Max.(5)
Unit
0.6VCC(2)
VCC + 0.5
V
VIH1
0.7VCC(2)
VCC + 0.5
V
VIH2
0.9VCC(2)
VCC + 0.5
V
0.8
0.5
V
Typ.
Output low voltage(3)
IOL = 20mA, VCC = 5V
IOL = 5mA, VCC = 3V
VOL
Output high voltage(4)
IOH = –20mA, VCC = 5V
IOH = –10mA, VCC = 3V
VOH
Input leakage
current I/O pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin low
(absolute value)
IIL
50
nA
Input leakage
current I/O pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin high
(absolute value)
IIH
50
nA
Reset pull-up resistor
Vcc = 5.0V, Vin = 0V
RRST
60
k
50
k
4.1
2.3
30
I/O pin pull-up resistor
RPU
20
Notes: 1. “Max” means the highest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as low
V
2.
“Min” means the lowest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as high
3.
Although each I/O port can sink more than the test conditions (20mA at VCC = 5V, 10mA at VCC = 3V) under steady
state conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
Atmel ATmega48:
1] The sum of all IOL, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 70mA.
2] The sum of all IOL, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 70mA.
3] The sum of all IOL, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 70mA.
ATmega88/168:
1] The sum of all IOL, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 100mA.
2] The sum of all IOL, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 100mA.
3] The sum of all IOL, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 100mA.
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current
greater than the listed test condition.
4.
Although each I/O port can source more than the test conditions (20mA at VCC = 5V, 10mA at VCC = 3V) under steady
state conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
ATmega48:
1] The sum of all IOH, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 70mA.
2] The sum of all IOH, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 70mA.
3] The sum of all IOH, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 70mA.
ATmega88/168:
1] The sum of all IOH, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 100mA.
2] The sum of all IOH, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 100mA.
3] The sum of all IOH, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 100mA.
If IOH exceeds the test condition, VOH may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to source current
greater than the listed test condition.
5.
All DC characteristics contained in this datasheet are based on actual ATmega88 microcontrollers characterization.
6.
Values with Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 enabled (0xEF).
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26.2
DC Characteristics (Continued)
TA = –40°C to +125°C, VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted)
Parameter
Typ.
Max.(5)
Unit
Active 4MHz, VCC = 3V
(ATmega48/88/168L)
1.8
3.0
mA
Active 8MHz, VCC = 5V
(ATmega48/88/168)
6.0
10
mA
Active 15MHz, VCC = 5V
(ATmega48/88/168)
10.0
16
mA
Idle 4MHz, VCC = 3V
(ATmega48/88/168V)
0.4
1
mA
1.4
2.4
mA
2.8
4
mA
WDT enabled, VCC = 3V
8
30
µA
WDT enabled, VCC = 5V
12.6
50
µA
WDT disabled, VCC = 3V
5
24
µA
WDT disabled, VCC = 5V
6.6
36
µA
10
40
mV
50
nA
Condition
Power supply current(6)
Symbol
Min.(5)
ICC
Idle 8MHz, VCC = 5V
(ATmega48/88/168L)
Idle 15MHz, VCC = 5V
(ATmega48/88/168)
Power-down mode
Analog comparator
input offset voltage
VCC = 5V Vin = VCC/2
VACIO
Analog comparator
input leakage current
VCC = 5V Vin = VCC/2
IACLK
–50
Analog comparator
VCC = 4.5V
tACID
140
propagation delay
Notes: 1. “Max” means the highest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as low
262
ns
2.
“Min” means the lowest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as high
3.
Although each I/O port can sink more than the test conditions (20mA at VCC = 5V, 10mA at VCC = 3V) under steady
state conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
Atmel ATmega48:
1] The sum of all IOL, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 70mA.
2] The sum of all IOL, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 70mA.
3] The sum of all IOL, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 70mA.
ATmega88/168:
1] The sum of all IOL, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 100mA.
2] The sum of all IOL, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 100mA.
3] The sum of all IOL, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 100mA.
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current
greater than the listed test condition.
4.
Although each I/O port can source more than the test conditions (20mA at VCC = 5V, 10mA at VCC = 3V) under steady
state conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
ATmega48:
1] The sum of all IOH, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 70mA.
2] The sum of all IOH, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 70mA.
3] The sum of all IOH, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 70mA.
ATmega88/168:
1] The sum of all IOH, for ports C0 - C5, should not exceed 100mA.
2] The sum of all IOH, for ports C6, D0 - D4, should not exceed 100mA.
3] The sum of all IOH, for ports B0 - B7, D5 - D7, should not exceed 100mA.
If IOH exceeds the test condition, VOH may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to source current
greater than the listed test condition.
5.
All DC characteristics contained in this datasheet are based on actual ATmega88 microcontrollers characterization.
6.
Values with Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35 enabled (0xEF).
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26.3
External Clock Drive Waveforms
Figure 26-1. External Clock Drive Waveforms
tCHCX
tCLCH
tCHCX
tCHCL
VIH1
VIL1
tCLCX
tCLCL
26.4
External Clock Drive
Table 26-1. External Clock Drive
VCC=2.7 to 5.5V
VCC=4.5 to 5.5V
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Unit
Oscillator frequency
1/tCLCL
0
8
0
16
MHz
Clock period
tCLCL
125
62.5
ns
High time
tCHCX
50
25
ns
50
Low time
tCLCX
Rise time
tCLCH
1.6
0.5
µs
Fall time
tCHCL
1.6
0.5
µs
Change in period from one clock
cycle to the next
DtCLCL
2
2
%
26.5
25
ns
Maximum Speed versus VCC
Maximum frequency is dependent on VCC. As shown in Figure 26-2, the maximum frequency versus VCC curve is linear
between 2.7V < VCC < 4.5V.
Figure 26-2. Maximum Frequency versus VCC, ATmega48/88/168
16MHz
8MHz
Safe Operating Area
4MHz
2.7V
4.5V
5.5V
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26.6
LIN Re-synchronization Algorithm
26.7
Synchronization Algorithm
The possibility to change the value of OSCCAL during the oscillator operation allows for in-situ calibration of the slave node
to entering Master frames. The principle of operation is to measure the TBit during the SYNCH byte and to change the
calibration value of OSCCAL to recover from local frequency drifts due to local voltage or temperature deviation. The
algorithm used for the synchronization of the internal RC oscillator is depicted in Figure 26-3 on page 264.
Figure 26-3. Dichotomic Algorithm Used for LIN Slave Clock Re-synchronization
Measuring
actual TBit
-2% < Delta
(TBit) < 2%
Y
STOP:
Oscillator
Calibrated
N
Decrement
OSCCAL
Delta(TBit) < 2%
N
Increment
OSCCAL
26.8
Delta(TBit) < -2%
Precaution Against OSCCAL Discontinuity
The Figure 28-23 on page 281 illustrates the on-purpose discontinuity of RC frequency versus OSCCAL value. For one
correct re-synchronization, the frequency change must be kept on the same side of the discontinuity (no change of
OSCCAL[7]). Since there will be no device having frequency changed by more than 10% (see Figure 28-21 on page 280),
thus no reason to change the frequency value by more than 10%. Therefore, when calibration tries to cross the border
because of subsequent increase (or decrease) in OSCCAL values, then the routine must be stopped.
Example:
264
For parts operating in the lower part of the curve, if new_OSCCAL >127 then new_OSCCAL = 127. Similar for
parts operating on the high side of the discontinuity.
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26.8.1 RC Oscillator Precision for LIN Slave implementation
For LIN slave devices, the precision of the RC oscillator before and after re-synchronization are described in the Table 26-2.
Table 26-2. Oscillator Tolerance Before and After Re-Synchronization Algorithm (2.7V < VCC < 5.5V,
–40°C to +125°C)
F/FMaster
Parameter
Clock Tolerance
FTOL_UNSYNCH
Deviation of slave node clock from the nominal clock rate before
synchronization; relevant for nodes making use of synchronization and direct
SYNCH BREAK detection.
FTOL_SYNCH
Deviation of slave node clock relative to the master node clock after
synchronization; relevant for nodes making use of synchronization; any
slave node must stay within this tolerance for all fields of a frame which
follow the SYNCH FIELD.
±14.0%
±2.0%
Note: For communication between any two nodes their bit rate must not
differ by more than ±2%.
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27.
2-wire Serial Interface Characteristics
Table 27-1 describes the requirements for devices connected to the 2-wire serial bus. The Atmel® ATmega48/88/168 2-wire
serial interface meets or exceeds these requirements under the noted conditions.
Timing symbols refer to Figure 27-1.
Table 27-1. 2-wire Serial Bus Requirements
Parameter
Condition
Input low-voltage
Input high-voltage
3mA sink current
Rise time for both SDA and SCL
Output fall time from VIHmin to VILmax
10pF < Cb < 400pF(3)
Spikes suppressed by input filter
Input current each I/O pin
0.1VCC < Vi < 0.9VCC
Capacitance for each I/O Pin
SCL clock frequency
fCK(4)
> max(16fSCL, 250kHz)
Min
Max
Unit
VIL
–0.5
0.3 VCC
V
0.7 VCC
VCC + 0.5
V
–
V
VIH
(1)
Vhys
(1)
VOL
(1)
tr
(1)
tof
(1)
tSP
Hysteresis of schmitt trigger inputs
Output low-voltage
Symbol
(5)
Low period of the SCL clock
High period of the SCL clock
Set-up time for a repeated START condition
Data hold time
Notes:
266
1.
0.4
V
300
ns
20 + 0.1Cb(3)(2)
250
ns
(2)
ns
0
–10
10
µA
–
10
pF
fSCL
0
400
kHz
V CC – 0,4V
---------------------------3mA
1000ns
----------------Cb

V CC – 0,4V
---------------------------3mA
300ns
-------------Cb

4.0
–
µs
0.6
–
µs
4.7
–
µs
1.3
–
µs
4.0
–
µs
0.6
–
µs
4.7
–
µs
0.6
–
µs
0
3.45
µs
0
0.9
µs
Rp
fSCL ≤ 100kHz
fSCL > 100kHz
fSCL ≤ 100kHz
tHD;STA
(6)
(7)
fSCL > 100kHz
fSCL ≤ 100kHz
fSCL > 100kHz
fSCL ≤ 100kHz
fSCL > 100kHz
fSCL ≤ 100kHz
tLOW
tHIGH
tSU;STA
tHD;DAT
fSCL > 100kHz
In Atmel ATmega48/88/168, this parameter is characterized and not 100% tested.
2.
Required only for fSCL > 100kHz.
3.
Cb = capacitance of one bus line in pF.
50
Ii
fSCL > 100kHz
Hold time (repeated) START Condition
0
20 + 0.1Cb(3)(2)
Ci(1)
fSCL ≤ 100kHz
Value of pull-up resistor
0.05
VCC(2)
4.
fCK = CPU clock frequency
5.
This requirement applies to all ATmega48/88/168 2-wire serial interface operation. Other devices connected to the 2wire serial bus need only obey the general fSCL requirement.
6.
The actual low period generated by the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 2-wire serial interface is (1/fSCL – 2/fCK), thus fCK must
be greater than 6MHz for the low time requirement to be strictly met at fSCL = 100kHz.
7.
The actual low period generated by the ATmega48/88/168 2-wire serial interface is (1/fSCL – 2/fCK), thus the low time
requirement will not be strictly met for fSCL > 308kHz when fCK = 8MHz. Still, ATmega48/88/168 devices connected to
the bus may communicate at full speed (400kHz) with other ATmega48/88/168 devices, as well as any other device
with a proper tLOW acceptance margin.
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Table 27-1. 2-wire Serial Bus Requirements (Continued)
Parameter
Condition
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
250
–
ns
100
–
ns
4.0
–
µs
0.6
–
µs
–
µs
–
µs
1.
fSCL ≤ 100kHz
4.7
tBUF
fSCL > 100kHz
1.3
In Atmel ATmega48/88/168, this parameter is characterized and not 100% tested.
2.
Required only for fSCL > 100kHz.
3.
Cb = capacitance of one bus line in pF.
4.
fCK = CPU clock frequency
5.
This requirement applies to all ATmega48/88/168 2-wire serial interface operation. Other devices connected to the 2wire serial bus need only obey the general fSCL requirement.
6.
The actual low period generated by the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 2-wire serial interface is (1/fSCL – 2/fCK), thus fCK must
be greater than 6MHz for the low time requirement to be strictly met at fSCL = 100kHz.
7.
The actual low period generated by the ATmega48/88/168 2-wire serial interface is (1/fSCL – 2/fCK), thus the low time
requirement will not be strictly met for fSCL > 308kHz when fCK = 8MHz. Still, ATmega48/88/168 devices connected to
the bus may communicate at full speed (400kHz) with other ATmega48/88/168 devices, as well as any other device
with a proper tLOW acceptance margin.
fSCL ≤ 100kHz
Data setup time
tSU;DAT
fSCL > 100kHz
fSCL ≤ 100kHz
Setup time for STOP condition
tSU;STO
fSCL > 100kHz
Bus free time between a STOP and START
condition
Notes:
Figure 27-1. 2-wire Serial Bus Timing
tof
tHIGH
tLOW
tr
tLOW
SCL
tSU,STA
tHD,STA
tHD,DAT
tSU,DAT
tSU,STO
SDA
tBUF
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27.1
SPI Timing Characteristics
See Figure 27-2 and Figure 27-3 for details.
Table 27-2. SPI Timing Parameters
No.
Description
Mode
1
SCK period
Master
See Table 16-4
2
SCK high/low
Master
50% duty cycle
3
Rise/fall time
Master
3.6
4
Setup
Master
10
5
Hold
Master
10
6
Out to SCK
Master
0.5  tsck
7
SCK to out
Master
10
8
SCK to out high
Master
10
9
SS low to out
Slave
15
10
SCK period
Slave
4  tck
11
SCK high/low(1)
Slave
2  tck
12
Rise/fall time
Slave
13
Setup
Slave
10
14
Hold
Slave
tck
15
SCK to out
Slave
16
SCK to SS high
Slave
17
SS high to tri-state
Slave
18
Note:
1.
Min
Typ
Max
ns
1600
15
20
10
SS low to SCK
Slave
20
In SPI programming mode the minimum SCK high/low period is:
– 2 tCLCL for fCK < 12MHz
– 3 tCLCL for fCK > 12MHz
Figure 27-2. SPI Interface Timing Requirements (Master Mode)
SS
6
1
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
2
2
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
4
MISO
(Data Input)
5
3
...
MSB
LSB
8
7
MOSI
(Data Output)
268
MSB
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
...
Unit
LSB
Figure 27-3. SPI Interface Timing Requirements (Slave Mode)
SS
16
10
9
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
11
11
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
13
MOSI
(Data Input)
14
12
...
MSB
LSB
17
15
MISO
(Data Output)
27.2
...
MSB
LSB
X
ADC Characteristics
Table 27-3. ADC Characteristics
Parameter
Condition
Symbol
Min
Resolution
Typ
Max
10
Unit
Bits
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200kHz
2
3.5
LSB
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200kHz
noise reduction mode
2
3.5
LSB
Integral non-linearity (INL)
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200kHz
0.6
2.5
LSB
Differential non-linearity (DNL)
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200kHz
0.30
1.0
LSB
Gain error
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200kHz
–1.3
3.5
LSB
Offset error
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200kHz
1.8
3.5
LSB
Conversion time
Free running conversion
50
200
kHz
Absolute accuracy (including
INL, DNL, quantization error,
gain and offset error)
–3.5
13 cycles
Clock frequency
µs
Analog supply voltage
AVCC
VCC – 0.3
VCC + 0.3
V
Reference voltage
VREF
1.0
AVCC
V
VIN
GND
Input voltage
Input bandwidth
VREF
38.5
V
kHz
Internal voltage reference
VINT
1.0
1.1
1.2
V
Reference input resistance
RREF
25.6
32
38.4
k
Analog input resistance
RAIN
100
M
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
269
28.
ATmega48/88/168 Typical Characteristics
28.1
Active Supply Current
Figure 28-1. Active Supply Current versus Frequency (1 to 20MHz)
20
18
16
5.5V
14
ICC (mA)
5.0V
12
4.5V
10
8
3.3V
3.0V
2.7V
6
4
2
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 28-2. Idle Supply Current versus Frequency (1 to 20MHz)
6
4
ICC (mA)
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
2
3.3V
3.0V
2.7V
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Frequency (MHz)
270
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
14
16
18
20
28.1.1 Power-Down Supply Current
Figure 28-3. Power-Down Supply Current versus VCC (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
8
7
6
125
ICC (µA)
5
85
4
25
3
-40
2
1
0
0
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 28-4. Power-Down Supply Current versus VCC (Watchdog Timer Enabled)
8
7
6
125
ICC (µA)
5
85
25
4
-40
3
2
1
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
271
28.1.2 Pin Pull-up
Figure 28-5. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current versus Input Voltage (VCC = 5V)
160
125
140
-40
120
IOP (µA)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
VOP (V)
Figure 28-6. Output Low Voltage versus Output Low Current (VCC = 5V)
0.8
0.7
125°C
0.6
85°C
VOL (V)
0.5
25°C
0.4
-40°C
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
IOL (mA)
272
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
12
14
16
18
20
Figure 28-7. Output Low Voltage versus Output Low Current (VCC = 3V)
1.2
125°C
1
85°C
IOL (mA)
0.8
25°C
0.6
-40°C
0.4
0.2
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
VOL (V)
Figure 28-8. Output High Voltage versus Output High Current (VCC = 5V)
5.2
5
VOH (V)
4.8
4.6
-40°C
25°C
85°C
125°C
4.4
4.2
4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
IOH (mA)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
273
Figure 28-9. Output High Voltage versus Output High Current (VCC = 3V)
3.5
3
Current (V)
2.5
-40°C
25°C
85°C
125°C
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
IOH (mA)
Figure 28-10. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current versus Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 5V)
160
125
140
-40
120
IOP (µA)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
1
2
3
VOP (V)
274
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
4
5
6
28.1.3 Pin Driver Strength
Figure 28-11. Output Low Voltage versus Output Low Current (VCC = 5.0V)
0.8
0.7
125°C
0.6
85°C
VOL (V)
0.5
25°C
0.4
-40°C
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
IOL (mA)
Figure 28-12. Output Low Voltage versus Output Low Current (VCC = 3.0V)
1.2
125°C
1
85°C
IOL (mA)
0.8
25°C
0.6
-40°C
0.4
0.2
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
VOL (V)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
275
Figure 28-13. Output High Voltage versus Output High Current (VCC = 5.0V)
5.2
5
VOH (V)
4.8
4.6
-40°C
25°C
85°C
125°C
4.4
4.2
4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
IOH (mA)
Figure 28-14. Output High Voltage versus Output High Current (VCC = 3.0V)
3.5
3
Current (V)
2.5
-40°C
25°C
85°C
125°C
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
IOH (mA)
276
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
12
14
16
18
20
28.1.4 Pin Thresholds and Hysteresis
Figure 28-15. I/O Pin Input Threshold versus VCC (VIH, I/O Pin Read as ‘1
3.5
3
IIH (V)
2.5
125
85
2
25
-40
1.5
1
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 28-16. I/O Pin Input Threshold versus VCC (VIL, I/O Pin Read as ‘0’)
3
125°C
-40°C
2.5
VIL (V)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
VCC (V)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
277
Figure 28-17. Reset Input Threshold Voltage versus VCC (VIH, Reset Pin Read as ‘1’)
4
3.5
Threshold (V)
3
-40°C
25°C
85°C
125°C
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 28-18. Reset Input Threshold Voltage versus VCC (VIL, Reset Pin Read as ‘0’)
2.5
125°C
85°C
25°C
-40°C
Threshold (V)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
VCC (V)
278
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
4.5
5
5.5
28.1.5 Internal Oscillator Speed
Figure 28-19. Watchdog Oscillator Frequency versus VCC
130
FRC (kHz)
128
126
-40°C
124
25°C
122
120
85°C
125°C
118
116
114
112
110
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 28-20. Calibrated 8MHz RC Oscillator Frequency versus Temperature
8.4
8.3
FRC (MHz)
8.2
5.0V
8.1
2.7V
8
7.9
7.8
7.7
7.6
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
Temperature (°C)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
279
Figure 28-21. Calibrated 8MHz RC Oscillator Frequency versus VCC
8.4
FRC (MHz)
8.2
8
125°C
85°C
25°C
7.8
-40°C
7.6
7.4
7.2
7
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 28-22. Calibrated 8MHz RC Oscillator Frequency versus OSCCAL Value (for ATmega48-15AZ and
ATmega168-15AZ)
16
125°C
85°C
25°C
-40°C
14
FRC (MHz)
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
OSCCAL (X1)
280
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
160
176
192
208
224
240
Figure 28-23. Calibrated 8MHz RC Oscillator Frequency versus OSCCAL Value (for ATmega88-15AZ only)
14
125°C
85°C
25°C
-40°C
12
FRC (MHz)
10
8
6
4
2
0
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
176
192
208
65
75
85
224
240
OSCCAL (X1)
28.1.6 BOD Thresholds and Analog Comparator Offset
Figure 28-24. BOD Threshold versus Temperature (BODLEVEL is 4.0V)
4.6
4.5
Threshold (V)
Rising VCC
4.4
4.3
Falling VCC
4.2
4.1
4
-55
-45
-35
-25
-15
-5
5
15
25
35
45
55
95
105
115 125
Temperature (°C)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
281
Figure 28-25. BOD Threshold versus Temperature (BODLEVEL is 2.7V)
3
2.9
Threshold (V)
Rising VCC
2.8
2.7
Falling VCC
2.6
2.5
2.4
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
Temperature (°C)
Figure 28-26. Bandgap Voltage versus VCC
1.1
Bandgap Voltage (V)
1.095
1.09
85°C
25°C
125°C
1.085
1.08
-40°C
1.075
2.5
3
3.5
4
VCC (V)
282
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
4.5
5
5.5
28.1.7 Peripheral Units
Figure 28-27. Analog to Digital Converter GAIN versus VCC
0
-0.2
Error (LSB)
-0.4
-0.6
4V IDLE
-0.8
4V STD
-1
-1.2
-1.4
-1.6
-50
0
50
100
150
Temperature (°C)
Figure 28-28. Analog to Digital Converter OFFSET versus VCC
2.5
Error (LSB)
2
1.5
4V IDLE
4V STD
1
0.5
0
-50
0
50
100
150
Temperature (°C)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
283
Figure 28-29. Analog to Digital Converter DNL versus VCC
0.4
0.35
Error (LSB)
0.3
0.25
4V IDLE
0.2
4V STD
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
-50
0
50
100
150
Temperature (°C)
Figure 28-30. Analog to Digital Converter INL versus VCC
0.7
0.6
Error (LSB)
0.5
0.4
4V IDLE
4V STD
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-50
0
50
Temperature (°C)
284
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
100
150
29.
Register Summary
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0xFF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xED)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Notes:
Page
1.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory
addresses should never be written.
2.
I/O registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In
these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3.
Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVR®, the CBI and
SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status
flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4.
When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega48/88/168
is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in opcode
for the IN and OUT instructions. For the extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
5.
Only valid for Atmel® ATmega88/168
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
285
29.
Register Summary (Continued)
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0xDB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Page
(0xDA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC6)
UDR0
(0xC5)
UBRR0H
(0xC4)
UBRR0L
(0xC3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC2)
UCSR0C
UMSEL01
UMSEL00
UPM01
UPM00
USBS0
UCSZ01
/UDORD0
UCSZ00 /
UCPHA0
UCPOL0
163/173
(0xC1)
UCSR0B
RXCIE0
TXCIE0
UDRIE0
RXEN0
TXEN0
UCSZ02
RXB80
TXB80
162
(0xC0)
UCSR0A
RXC0
TXC0
UDRE0
FE0
DOR0
UPE0
U2X0
MPCM0
161
USART I/O data register
–
–
–
–
161
USART baud rate register high
164
USART Baud Rate Register Low
164
(0xBF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xBE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xBD)
TWAMR
TWAM6
TWAM5
TWAM4
TWAM3
TWAM2
TWAM1
TWAM0
–
185
(0xBC)
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
182
(0xBB)
TWDR
(0xBA)
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
184
(0xB9)
TWSR
TWS7
TWS6
TWS5
TWS4
TWS3
–
TWPS1
TWPS0
183
Notes:
286
2-wire serial interface data register
184
1.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory
addresses should never be written.
2.
I/O registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In
these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3.
Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVR®, the CBI and
SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status
flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4.
When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega48/88/168
is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in opcode
for the IN and OUT instructions. For the extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
5.
Only valid for Atmel® ATmega88/168
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
29.
Register Summary (Continued)
Address
Name
(0xB8)
TWBR
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
(0xB7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
–
–
2-wire serial interface bit rate register
–
–
Page
182
(0xB6)
ASSR
–
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
(0xB5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
OCR2AUB OCR2BUB TCR2AUB
(0xB4)
OCR2B
Timer/Counter2 output compare register B
132
(0xB3)
OCR2A
Timer/Counter2 output compare register A
132
–
–
–
TCR2BUB
135
–
(0xB2)
TCNT2
(0xB1)
TCCR2B
FOC2A
FOC2B
–
Timer/Counter2 (8-bit)
–
WGM22
CS22
CS21
CS20
131
132
(0xB0)
TCCR2A
COM2A1
COM2A0
COM2B1
COM2B0
–
–
WGM21
WGM20
129
(0xAF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9B)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x99)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x98)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x97)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x96)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x95)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Notes:
1.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory
addresses should never be written.
2.
I/O registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In
these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3.
Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVR®, the CBI and
SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status
flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4.
When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega48/88/168
is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in opcode
for the IN and OUT instructions. For the extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
5.
Only valid for Atmel® ATmega88/168
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
287
29.
Register Summary (Continued)
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0x94)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x93)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x92)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x91)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x90)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8B)
OCR1BH
Page
Timer/Counter1 - Output compare register B high byte
117
(0x8A)
OCR1BL
Timer/Counter1 - Output compare register B low byte
117
(0x89)
OCR1AH
Timer/Counter1 - Output compare register A high byte
117
(0x88)
OCR1AL
Timer/Counter1 - Output compare register A low byte
117
(0x87)
ICR1H
Timer/Counter1 - Input capture register high byte
117
(0x86)
ICR1L
Timer/Counter1 - Input capture register low byte
117
(0x85)
TCNT1H
Timer/Counter1 - Counter register high byte
116
(0x84)
TCNT1L
Timer/Counter1 - Counter register low byte
(0x83)
Reserved
–
–
–
(0x82)
TCCR1C
FOC1A
FOC1B
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x81)
TCCR1B
ICNC1
ICES1
–
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
115
(0x80)
TCCR1A
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
–
–
WGM11
WGM10
113
(0x7F)
DIDR1
–
–
–
–
–
–
AIN1D
AIN0D
205
(0x7E)
DIDR0
–
–
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
220
(0x7D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x7C)
ADMUX
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
–
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
217
(0x7B)
ADCSRB
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
220
(0x7A)
ADCSRA
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
218
(0x79)
ADCH
ADC data register high byte
(0x78)
ADCL
ADC data register low byte
(0x77)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x76)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x75)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x74)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x73)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x72)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x71)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Notes:
288
–
–
–
116
–
–
116
219
219
1.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory
addresses should never be written.
2.
I/O registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In
these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3.
Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVR®, the CBI and
SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status
flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4.
When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega48/88/168
is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in opcode
for the IN and OUT instructions. For the extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
5.
Only valid for Atmel® ATmega88/168
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
29.
Register Summary (Continued)
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
(0x70)
TIMSK2
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE2B
OCIE2A
TOIE2
133
(0x6F)
TIMSK1
–
–
ICIE1
–
–
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
117
91
(0x6E)
TIMSK0
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE0B
OCIE0A
TOIE0
(0x6D)
PCMSK2
PCINT23
PCINT22
PCINT21
PCINT20
PCINT19
PCINT18
PCINT17
PCINT16
76
(0x6C)
PCMSK1
–
PCINT14
PCINT13
PCINT12
PCINT11
PCINT10
PCINT9
PCINT8
76
(0x6B)
PCMSK0
PCINT7
PCINT6
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
76
(0x6A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x69)
EICRA
–
–
–
–
ISC11
ISC10
ISC01
ISC00
(0x68)
PCICR
–
–
–
–
–
PCIE2
PCIE1
PCIE0
(0x67)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Oscillator calibration register
73
(0x66)
OSCCAL
(0x65)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
29
(0x64)
PRR
PRTWI
PRTIM2
PRTIM0
–
PRTIM1
PRSPI
PRUSART0
PRADC
(0x63)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x62)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x61)
CLKPR
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
31
(0x60)
WDTCSR
WDIF
WDIE
WDP3
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
46
0x3F (0x5F)
SREG
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
10
(SP10)
(5)
35
0x3E (0x5E)
SPH
–
–
–
–
–
SP9
SP8
12
0x3D (0x5D)
SPL
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
12
0x3C (0x5C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x3B (0x5B)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x3A (0x5A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x39 (0x59)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x38 (0x58)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x37 (0x57)
SPMCSR
SPMIE
(RWWSB)(5)
–
(RWWSRE)(5)
BLBSET
PGWRT
PGERS
SELFPRGEN
0x36 (0x56)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x35 (0x55)
MCUCR
–
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
0x34 (0x54)
MCUSR
–
–
–
–
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
0x33 (0x53)
SMCR
–
–
–
–
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
0x32 (0x52)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x31 (0x51)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x30 (0x50)
ACSR
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
0x2F (0x4F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x2E (0x4E)
SPDR
0x2D (0x4D)
SPSR
SPIF
WCOL
–
–
–
SPI2X
Notes:
SPI Data Register
–
–
233
33
204
144
143
1.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory
addresses should never be written.
2.
I/O registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In
these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3.
Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVR®, the CBI and
SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status
flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4.
When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega48/88/168
is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in opcode
for the IN and OUT instructions. For the extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
5.
Only valid for Atmel® ATmega88/168
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
289
29.
Register Summary (Continued)
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
0x2C (0x4C)
SPCR
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
142
0x2B (0x4B)
GPIOR2
General purpose I/O register 2
22
0x2A (0x4A)
GPIOR1
0x29 (0x49)
Reserved
General purpose I/O register 1
0x28 (0x48)
OCR0B
Timer/Counter0 output compare register B
0x27 (0x47)
OCR0A
Timer/Counter0 output compare register A
–
–
–
–
22
–
–
–
–
0x26 (0x46)
TCNT0
0x25 (0x45)
TCCR0B
FOC0A
FOC0B
–
Timer/Counter0 (8-bit)
–
WGM02
CS02
CS01
CS00
0x24 (0x44)
TCCR0A
COM0A1
COM0A0
COM0B1
COM0B0
–
–
WGM01
WGM00
0x23 (0x43)
GTCCR
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSRASY
PSRSYNC
0x22 (0x42)
EEARH
(EEPROM address register high byte)
0x21 (0x41)
EEARL
EEPROM address register low byte
0x20 (0x40)
EEDR
EEPROM data register
0x1F (0x3F)
EECR
–
–
EEPM1
EEPM0
93/137
(5)
17
17
18
EERIE
EEMPE
EEPE
EERE
General purpose I/O register 0
18
0x1E (0x3E)
GPIOR0
0x1D (0x3D)
EIMSK
–
–
–
–
–
–
INT1
INT0
22
74
0x1C (0x3C)
EIFR
–
–
–
–
–
–
INTF1
INTF0
74
0x1B (0x3B)
PCIFR
–
–
–
–
–
PCIF2
PCIF1
PCIF0
0x1A (0x3A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x19 (0x39)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x18 (0x38)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x17 (0x37)
TIFR2
–
–
–
–
–
OCF2B
OCF2A
TOV2
133
0x16 (0x36)
TIFR1
–
–
ICF1
–
–
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
118
0x15 (0x35)
TIFR0
–
–
–
–
–
OCF0B
OCF0A
TOV0
0x14 (0x34)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x13 (0x33)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x12 (0x32)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x11 (0x31)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x10 (0x30)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0F (0x2F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0E (0x2E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0D (0x2D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0C (0x2C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0B (0x2B)
PORTD
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
72
0x0A (0x2A)
DDRD
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
72
0x09 (0x29)
PIND
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
72
Notes:
290
1.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory
addresses should never be written.
2.
I/O registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In
these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3.
Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVR®, the CBI and
SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status
flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4.
When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega48/88/168
is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in opcode
for the IN and OUT instructions. For the extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
5.
Only valid for Atmel® ATmega88/168
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
29.
Register Summary (Continued)
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
0x08 (0x28)
PORTC
–
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
71
0x07 (0x27)
DDRC
–
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
72
0x06 (0x26)
PINC
–
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
72
0x05 (0x25)
PORTB
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
71
0x04 (0x24)
DDRB
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
71
0x03 (0x23)
PINB
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
71
0x02 (0x22)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x01 (0x21)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0 (0x20)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Notes:
1.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory
addresses should never be written.
2.
I/O registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In
these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3.
Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVR®, the CBI and
SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status
flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4.
When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega48/88/168
is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in opcode
for the IN and OUT instructions. For the extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
5.
Only valid for Atmel® ATmega88/168
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
291
30.
Instruction Set Summary
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
Arithmetic and Logic Instructions
ADD
Rd, Rr
Add two registers
Rd  Rd + Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
1
ADC
Rd, Rr
Add with carry two registers
Rd  Rd + Rr + C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
ADIW
Rdl, K
Add immediate to word
Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl + K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
SUB
Rd, Rr
Subtract two registers
Rd  Rd – Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SUBI
Rd, K
Subtract constant from register
Rd  Rd – K
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBC
Rd, Rr
Subtract with carry two registers
Rd  Rd – Rr – C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBCI
Rd, K
Subtract with carry constant from reg.
Rd  Rd – K – C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBIW
Rdl, K
Subtract immediate from word
Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl - K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
AND
Rd, Rr
Logical AND registers
Rd Rd Rr
Z,N,V
1
ANDI
Rd, K
Logical AND register and constant
Rd  Rd K
Z,N,V
1
OR
Rd, Rr
Logical OR registers
Rd  Rd v Rr
Z,N,V
1
ORI
Rd, K
Logical OR register and constant
Rd Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
EOR
Rd, Rr
Exclusive OR registers
Rd  Rd  Rr
Z,N,V
1
COM
Rd
One’s complement
Rd  0xFF  Rd
Z,C,N,V
1
NEG
Rd
Two’s complement
Rd  0x00  Rd
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBR
Rd, K
Set bit(s) in register
Rd  Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
CBR
Rd, K
Clear bit(s) in register
Rd  Rd  (0xFF - K)
Z,N,V
1
INC
Rd
Increment
Rd  Rd + 1
Z,N,V
1
DEC
Rd
Decrement
Rd  Rd – 1
Z,N,V
1
TST
Rd
Test for zero or minus
Rd  Rd  Rd
Z,N,V
1
CLR
Rd
Clear register
Rd  Rd  Rd
Z,N,V
1
SER
Rd
Set register
Rd  0xFF
None
1
MUL
Rd, Rr
Multiply unsigned
R1:R0  Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
MULS
Rd, Rr
Multiply signed
R1:R0  Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
MULSU
Rd, Rr
Multiply signed with unsigned
R1:R0  Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
FMUL
Rd, Rr
Fractional multiply unsigned
R1:R0  (Rd x Rr) << 1
Z,C
2
FMULS
Rd, Rr
Fractional multiply signed
R1:R0  (Rd x Rr) << 1
Z,C
2
FMULSU
Rd, Rr
Fractional multiply signed with unsigned
R1:R0  (Rd x Rr) << 1
Z,C
2
Relative jump
PC PC + k + 1
None
2
Indirect jump to (Z)
PC  Z
None
2
Branch Instructions
RJMP
k
IJMP
(1)
JMP
k
Direct jump
PC k
None
3
RCALL
k
Relative subroutine call
PC  PC + k + 1
None
3
Indirect call to (Z)
PC  Z
None
3
Direct subroutine call
PC  k
None
4
RET
Subroutine return
PC  STACK
None
4
RETI
Interrupt return
PC  STACK
I
4
ICALL
CALL(1)
k
CPSE
Rd, Rr
Compare, skip if equal
if (Rd = Rr) PC PC + 2 or 3
CP
Rd, Rr
Compare
Rd  Rr
Rd, Rr
Compare with carry
Rd  Rr  C
These instructions are only available in Atmel® ATmega168.
CPC
Note:
1.
292
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
None
1/2/3
Z,N,V,C,H
1
Z,N,V,C,H
1
30.
Instruction Set Summary (Continued)
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
CPI
Rd, K
Compare register with immediate
Rd  K
Z,N,V,C,H
1
SBRC
Rr, b
Skip if bit in register cleared
if (Rr(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBRS
Rr, b
Skip if bit in register is set
if (Rr(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIC
P, b
Skip if bit in I/O register cleared
if (P(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIS
P, b
Skip if bit in I/O register is set
if (P(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
None
1/2
BRBS
s, k
Branch if status flag set
if (SREG(s) = 1) then PC 
PC + k + 1
BRBC
s, k
Branch if status flag cleared
if (SREG(s) = 0) then PC 
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BREQ
k
Branch if equal
if (Z = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRNE
k
Branch if not equal
if (Z = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCS
k
Branch if carry set
if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCC
k
Branch if carry cleared
if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRSH
k
Branch if same or higher
if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLO
k
Branch if lower
if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRMI
k
Branch if minus
if (N = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRPL
k
Branch if plus
if (N = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
None
1/2
BRGE
k
Branch if greater or equal, signed
if (N  V= 0) then PC 
PC + k + 1
BRLT
k
Branch if less than zero, signed
if (N  V= 1) then PC 
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHS
k
Branch if half carry flag set
if (H = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHC
k
Branch if half carry flag cleared
if (H = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTS
k
Branch if T flag set
if (T = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTC
k
Branch if T flag cleared
if (T = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVS
k
Branch if overflow flag is set
if (V = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVC
k
Branch if overflow flag is cleared
if (V = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRIE
k
Branch if interrupt enabled
if (I = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRID
k
Branch if interrupt disabled
if (I = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
Bit and Bit-test Instructions
SBI
P, b
Set bit in I/O register
I/O(P,b)  1
None
2
CBI
P, b
Clear Bit in I/O register
I/O(P,b)  0
None
2
LSL
Rd
Logical shift left
Rd(n+1)  Rd(n), Rd(0)  0
Z,C,N,V
1
LSR
Rd
Logical shift right
Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), Rd(7)  0
Z,C,N,V
1
ROL
Rd
Rotate left through carry
Rd(0) C,Rd(n+1)  Rd(n),
C Rd(7)
Z,C,N,V
1
ROR
Rd
Rotate right through carry
Rd(7) C,Rd(n)  Rd(n+1),
C Rd(0)
Z,C,N,V
1
ASR
Rd
Arithmetic shift right
Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), n=0..6
Z,C,N,V
1
SWAP
Rd
Swap nibbles
Rd(3..0) Rd(7..4),
Rd(7..4) Rd(3..0)
None
1
BSET
s
Flag set
SREG(s)  1
SREG(s)
1
s
Flag clear
SREG(s)  0
These instructions are only available in Atmel® ATmega168.
SREG(s)
1
BCLR
Note:
1.
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
293
30.
Instruction Set Summary (Continued)
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
BST
Rr, b
Bit store from register to T
BLD
Rd, b
Bit load from T to register
T  Rr(b)
T
1
Rd(b)  T
None
1
SEC
Set carry
C1
C
1
CLC
Clear carry
C0
C
1
SEN
Set negative flag
N1
N
1
CLN
Clear negative flag
N0
N
1
SEZ
Set zero flag
Z1
Z
1
CLZ
Clear zero flag
Z0
Z
1
SEI
Global interrupt enable
I1
I
1
CLI
Global interrupt disable
I 0
I
1
SES
Set signed test flag
S1
S
1
CLS
Clear signed test flag
S0
S
1
SEV
Set twos complement overflow.
V1
V
1
CLV
Clear twos complement overflow
V0
V
1
SET
Set T in SREG
T1
T
1
CLT
Clear T in SREG
T0
T
1
SEH
Set half carry flag in SREG
H1
H
1
CLH
Clear half carry flag in SREG
H0
H
1
Data Transfer Instructions
MOV
Rd, Rr
Move between registers
Rd  Rr
None
1
MOVW
Rd, Rr
Copy register word
Rd+1:Rd  Rr+1:Rr
None
1
LDI
Rd, K
Load immediate
Rd  K
None
1
LD
Rd, X
Load indirect
Rd  (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, X+
Load indirect and post-inc.
Rd  (X), X  X + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - X
Load indirect and pre-dec.
X  X - 1, Rd  (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, Y
Load indirect
Rd  (Y)
None
2
LD
Rd, Y+
Load indirect and post-inc.
Rd  (Y), Y  Y + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - Y
Load indirect and pre-dec.
Y  Y - 1, Rd  (Y)
None
2
LDD
Rd, Y+q
Load indirect with displacement
Rd  (Y + q)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z
Load indirect
Rd  (Z)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z+
Load indirect and post-inc.
Rd  (Z), Z  Z+1
None
2
LD
Rd, -Z
Load indirect and pre-dec.
Z  Z - 1, Rd  (Z)
None
2
LDD
Rd, Z+q
Load indirect with displacement
Rd  (Z + q)
None
2
LDS
Rd, k
Load direct from SRAM
Rd  (k)
None
2
ST
X, Rr
Store indirect
(X) Rr
None
2
ST
X+, Rr
Store indirect and post-inc.
(X) Rr, X  X + 1
None
2
ST
- X, Rr
Store indirect and pre-dec.
X  X - 1, (X)  Rr
None
2
ST
Y, Rr
Store indirect
(Y)  Rr
None
2
ST
Y+, Rr
Store indirect and post-inc.
(Y)  Rr, Y  Y + 1
None
2
ST
- Y, Rr
Store indirect and pre-dec.
Y  Y - 1, (Y)  Rr
None
2
None
2
Y+q, Rr
Store indirect with displacement
(Y + q)  Rr
These instructions are only available in Atmel® ATmega168.
STD
Note:
1.
294
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
30.
Instruction Set Summary (Continued)
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
ST
Z, Rr
Store indirect
(Z)  Rr
None
2
ST
Z+, Rr
Store indirect and post-inc.
(Z)  Rr, Z  Z + 1
None
2
ST
-Z, Rr
Store ndirect and pre-dec.
Z  Z – 1, (Z)  Rr
None
2
STD
Z+q,Rr
Store indirect with displacement
(Z + q)  Rr
None
2
STS
k, Rr
Store direct to SRAM
(k)  Rr
None
2
Load program memory
R0  (Z)
None
3
LPM
LPM
Rd, Z
Load program memory
Rd  (Z)
None
3
LPM
Rd, Z+
Load program memory and post-inc
Rd  (Z), Z  Z + 1
None
3
Store program memory
(Z)  R1:R0
None
-
IN
Rd, P
In port
Rd  P
None
1
OUT
P, Rr
Out port
P  Rr
None
1
PUSH
Rr
Push register on stack
STACK  Rr
None
2
POP
Rd
Pop register from stack
Rd  STACK
None
2
None
1
SPM
MCU Control Instructions
NOP
No operation
SLEEP
Sleep
(see specific description for
sleep function)
None
1
WDR
Watchdog reset
(see specific description for
WDR/timer)
None
1
None
N/A
BREAK
Note:
1.
Break
For on-chip debug Only
These instructions are only available in Atmel® ATmega168.
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
295
31.
Ordering Information
31.1
ATmega48
Power Supply
Ordering Code
Package(1)
Operation Range
16(2)
2.7 - 5.5
ATmega48-15AT
ATmega48-15AT1
ATmega48-15AZ
MA
–40°C to +85°C
–40°C to +105°C
–40°C to +125°C
16(2)
2.7 - 5.5
ATmega48-15MT
ATmega48-15MT1
ATmega48-15MZ
PN
–40°C to 85°C
–40°C to +105°C
–40°C to 125°C
Speed (MHz)
Notes:
31.2
1.
Green and ROHS packaging
2.
See Figure 26-2 on page 263.
3.
Tape and reel with dry-pack delivery
ATmega88
Speed (MHz)
Power Supply
Ordering Code
Package(1)
Operation Range
16(2)
2.7 - 5.5
ATmega88-15AT
ATmega88-15AT1
ATmega88-15AZ
MA
–40°C to +85°C
–40°C to +105°C
–40°C to +125°C
16(2)
2.7 - 5.5
ATmega88-15MT
ATmega88-15MT1
ATmega88-15MZ
PN
–40°C to 85°C
–40°C to +105°C
–40°C to 125°C
Notes:
31.3
1.
Green and ROHS packaging.
2.
See Figure 26-2 on page 263.
3.
Tape and reel with dry-pack deliver
ATmega168
Speed (MHz)
Power Supply
Ordering Code
Package(1)
Operation Range
16(2)
2.7 - 5.5
ATmega168-15AT
ATmega168-15AT1
ATmega168-15AZ
MA
–40°C to 85°C
–40°C to +105°C
–40°C to 125°C
16(2)
2.7 - 5.5
ATmega168-15MT
ATmega168-15MT1
ATmega168-15MZ
PN
–40°C to 85°C
–40°C to +105°C
–40°C to 125°C
Notes:
31.4
1.
Green and ROHS packaging
2.
See Figure 26-2 on page 263
3.
Tape and Reel with Dry-pack delivery
Package information
Package Information
296
MA
32 - lead, 7 7mm body size, 1.0mm body thickness, 0.8mm lead pitch, thin profile plastic quad flat package (TQFP)
PN
32-pad, 5  5 1.0mm body, lead pitch 0.50mm, quad flat no-lead (QFN)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
32.
Packaging Information
32.1
MA
Drawings not scaled
A
A2
A1
D1
32
1
E1
e
L
0°~7°
Top View
C
Side View
D
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
Symbol
MIN
NOM
A
MAX
A1
0.05
A2
0.95
1.00
1.05
D/E
8.75
9.00
9.25
D1/E1
6.90
7.00
7.10
C
0.09
0.20
L
0.45
0.75
b
0.30
0.45
E
b
Bottom View
NOTE
1.20
0.15
e
0.80 TYP.
n
32
2
Notes: 1. This drawing is for general information only. Refer to JEDEC Drawing MS-026, Variation ABA.
2. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion. Allowable protrusion is 0.25mm per side.
Dimensions D1 and E1 are maximum plastic body size dimensions including mold mismatch.
3. Lead coplanarity is 0.10mm maximum.
02/29/12
Package Drawing Contact:
packagedrawings@atmel.com
TITLE
GPC
DRAWING NO.
REV.
MA, 32 Lds - 0.80mm Pitch, 7x7x1.00mm Body size
Thin Profile Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
AUT
MA
C
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
297
32.2
PN
Drawings not scaled
A
A3
D
A1
N
1
0.30
Dia. Typ. Laser Marking
E
Seating Plane
C
0.080 C
Top View
L
Side View
D2
COMMON DIMENSIONS
b
(Unit of Measure = mm)
Option A
Pin 1# Chamfer
(C 0.30)
E2
Option B
PIN1 ID
1
Pin 1# Notch
(C 0.20 R)
See Options
A, B
e
Symbol
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
0.80
0.85
0.90
A1
A3
0.00
NOTE
0.05
0.20 REF
D/E
5.00 BSC
D2/E2
3.00
3.10
3.20
L
0.30
0.40
0.50
b
0.18
0.25
0.30
e
0.50 BSC
n
32
2
Bottom View
Notes: 1. This drawing is for general information only. Refer to JEDEC Drawing MO-220, Variation VHHD-2, for proper dimensions, tolerances, datums, etc.
2. Dimensions b applies to metallized terminal and is measured between 0.15mm and 0.30mm from the terminal tip.
If the terminal has the optical radius on the other end of the terminal, the dimensions should not be measured in that radius area.
01/31/12
Package Drawing Contact:
packagedrawings@atmel.com
298
TITLE
GPC
DRAWING NO.
REV.
PN, 32 Leads - 0.50mm Pitch, 5x5mm
Very Thin Quad Flat no Lead Package (VQFN) Sawn
ZMF
PN
I
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
33.
Errata ATmega48
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the Atmel® ATmega48 device.
33.1
Rev. E
●
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1.
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
If one of the timer registers which is synchronized to the asynchronous Timer2 clock is written in the cycle before an
overflow interrupt occurs, the interrupt may be lost.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Always check that the Timer2 Timer/Counter register, TCNT2, does not have the value 0xFF before writing the
Timer2 control register, TCCR2, or output compare register, OCR2.
33.2
Rev. D
●
●
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
POR sensitivity with Vcc ramp up from a very low supply voltage
1.
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
If one of the timer registers which is synchronized to the asynchronous Timer2 clock is written in the cycle before an
overflow interrupt occurs, the interrupt may be lost.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Always check that the Timer2 Timer/Counter register, TCNT2, does not have the value 0xFF before writing the
Timer2 control register, TCCR2, or output compare register, OCR2.
2.
POR sensitivity with Vcc ramp up from a very low supply voltage
If Vcc ramp up from a stable 150mV to 300mV plateau, the power on reset (POR) may not reset the device properly.
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
33.3
Rev. A
●
●
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
POR sensitivity with Vcc ramp up from a very low supply voltage
1.
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
If one of the timer registers which is synchronized to the asynchronous Timer2 clock is written in the cycle before an
overflow interrupt occurs, the interrupt may be lost.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Always check that the Timer2 Timer/Counter register, TCNT2, does not have the value 0xFF before writing the
Timer2 control register, TCCR2, or output compare register, OCR2.
2.
POR sensitivity with Vcc ramp up from a very low supply voltage
If Vcc ramp up from a stable 150mV to 300mV plateau, the power on reset (POR) may not reset the device properly.
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
Note:
Please note from datasheet 7530F-AVR-09/07 we introduce a new errata numbering scheme (errata Rev E of
datasheet 7530E-AVR-03/07 is equivalent to errata rev D of datasheet 7530F-AVR-09/07)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
299
34.
Errata ATmega88
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATmega88 device.
34.1
Rev. G
●
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1.
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
If one of the timer registers which is synchronized to the asynchronous Timer2 clock is written in the cycle before an
overflow interrupt occurs, the interrupt may be lost.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Always check that the Timer2 Timer/Counter register, TCNT2, does not have the value 0xFF before writing the
Timer2 control register, TCCR2, or output compare register, OCR2.
34.2
Rev. E
●
●
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
POR sensitivity with Vcc ramp up from a very low supply voltage
1.
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
If one of the timer registers which is synchronized to the asynchronous Timer2 clock is written in the cycle before an
overflow interrupt occurs, the interrupt may be lost.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Always check that the Timer2 Timer/Counter register, TCNT2, does not have the value 0xFF before writing the
Timer2 control register, TCCR2, or output compare register, OCR2.
2.
POR sensitivity with Vcc ramp up from a very low supply voltage
If Vcc ramp up from a stable 150mV to 300mV plateau, the power on reset (POR) may not reset the device properly.
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
Note:
300
Please note from datasheet 7530F-AVR-09/07 we introduce a new errata numbering scheme (Errata Rev F of
datasheet 7530E-AVR-03/07 is equivalent to Errata Rev E of datasheet 7530F-AVR-09/07)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
35.
Errata ATmega168
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATmega168 device.
35.1
Rev. F
●
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1.
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
If one of the timer registers which is synchronized to the asynchronous Timer2 clock is written in the cycle before an
overflow interrupt occurs, the interrupt may be lost.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Always check that the Timer2 Timer/Counter register, TCNT2, does not have the value 0xFF before writing the
Timer2 control register, TCCR2, or output compare register, OCR2.
35.2
Rev. E
●
●
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
POR sensitivity with Vcc ramp up from a very low supply voltage
1.
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
If one of the timer registers which is synchronized to the asynchronous Timer2 clock is written in the cycle before an
overflow interrupt occurs, the interrupt may be lost.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Always check that the Timer2 Timer/Counter register, TCNT2, does not have the value 0xFF before writing the
Timer2 control register, TCCR2, or output compare register, OCR2.
2.
POR sensitivity with Vcc ramp up from a very low supply voltage
If Vcc ramp up from a stable 150mV to 300mV plateau, the power on reset (POR) may not reset the device properly.
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
Note:
Please note from datasheet 7530F-AVR-09/07 we introduce a new errata numbering scheme (Errata Rev F of
datasheet 7530E-AVR-03/07 is equivalent to Errata Rev E of datasheet 7530F-AVR-09/07)
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
301
36.
Revision History
Please note that the following page numbers referred to in this section refer to the specific revision mentioned, not to this
document.
Revision No.
History
7530K-AVR-07/14
Put datasheet in the latest template
7530J-AVR-03/12
Package updated
7530I-AVR-02/10
Package updated
7530H-AVR-02/09
Update Section 7.7.1 “Power Reduction Register - PRR” on page 35
7530G-AVR-10/07
Update to errata section
Modification to POR. Table 8-1 on page 40. VPOT value modified
7530F-AVR-09/07
7530E-AVR-03/07
7530D-AVR-02/07
Errata list numbering scheme modified. Section 33. “Errata ATmega48” on page 299,
Section 34. “Errata ATmega88” on page 300,
Section 35. “Errata ATmega168” on page 301
Modification to POR. Section 8.3 “Power-on Reset” on page 39
D2 / E2 tolerance on Mechanical outline. Section 32.2 “PN” on page 298
Clarification of Power On Reset Specifications table, Table 8-1 on page 40
Errata list updated.
7530C-AVR-09/06
Correction of package codification and drawings
7530B-AVR-03/06
Re-synchronization algorithm detailed
Internal RC oscillator typical graphs added. Internal RC oscillator tolerance at ±10%
Reference input resistance specification at 32 ±20%
Added oscillator (watchdog and RC) typical characteristics curves
7530A-AVR-08/05
Parametric and analog values modified according to characterization results: Reference
input resistance specification at 22.4, 32, 41.6K
Tacit typical value indicated at 140nS for 4.5V. Reference to 2.7V removed
VIL1 Xtal1 limit similar to RESET pin.
VOH for VCC = 3V limit at 0.5V max
VOL for VCC = 3V limit at 2.3V max
Tape and reel + dry-pack delivery notice added
EEPROM and FLASH endurance extended to reflect qualification results.
Added Green/ROHS compliance
Creation of the Automotive version starting from Industrial version. Temperature and
voltage ranges reflecting Automotive requirements
302
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
37.
Table of Contents
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.
Pin Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1
2.
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.
4.
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Status Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
General Purpose Register File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Stack Pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Instruction Execution Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Reset and Interrupt Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
AVR ATmega48/88/168 Memories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SRAM Data Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EEPROM Data Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
16
17
22
System Clock and Clock Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
7.
4
5
6
6
AVR CPU Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
6.
Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automotive Quality Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison Between ATmega48, ATmega88, and ATmega168 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Code Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
5.
Disclaimer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Clock Systems and their Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clock Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low Power Crystal Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full Swing Crystal Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
128 kHz Internal Oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clock Output Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer/Counter Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Clock Prescaler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
24
25
26
28
28
29
30
30
31
31
Power Management and Sleep Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
Sleep Mode Control Register – SMCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idle Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADC Noise Reduction Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power-down Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power-save Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standby Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Reduction Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
33
34
34
34
34
35
35
303
8.
Minimizing Power Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
9.
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer/Counter Clock Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Counter Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Compare Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compare Match Output Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modes of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
78
78
79
80
81
85
87
Internal Clock Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Prescaler Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
External Clock Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Accessing 16-bit Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Timer/Counter Clock Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Counter Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Input Capture Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Output Compare Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Compare Match Output Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
73
74
74
75
75
76
76
76
16-bit Timer/Counter1 with PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
304
External Interrupt Control Register A – EICRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Interrupt Mask Register – EIMSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Interrupt Flag Register – EIFR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Change Interrupt Control Register - PCICR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Change Interrupt Flag Register - PCIFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Change Mask Register 2 – PCMSK2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Change Mask Register 1 – PCMSK1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Change Mask Register 0 – PCMSK0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
13.1
13.2
13.3
14.
57
58
62
71
8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
13.
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ports as General Digital I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternate Port Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Register Description for I/O Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
12.
Interrupt Vectors in ATmega48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Interrupt Vectors in ATmega88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Interrupt Vectors in ATmega168 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
I/O-Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
11.
38
38
38
39
41
41
42
43
43
44
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
9.1
9.2
9.3
10.
System Control and Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the AVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power-on Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brown-out Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Watchdog System Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MCU Status Register – MCUSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal Voltage Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Watchdog Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8 Modes of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
14.9 Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
14.10 16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
15.
8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
15.8
15.9
15.10
16.
147
148
150
151
152
154
157
160
161
165
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clock Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPI Data Modes and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frame Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
USART MSPIM Register Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AVR USART MSPIM versus AVR SPI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
168
168
169
169
171
172
174
2-wire Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
19.6
19.7
19.8
19.9
20.
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clock Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frame Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
USART Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Transmission – The USART Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Reception – The USART Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asynchronous Data Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-processor Communication Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
USART Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples of Baud Rate Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
USART in SPI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
18.7
19.
SS Pin Functionality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Data Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
USART0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9
17.10
18.
119
120
120
121
122
123
127
129
134
136
Serial Peripheral Interface – SPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
16.1
16.2
17.
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer/Counter Clock Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Counter Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Compare Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compare Match Output Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modes of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asynchronous operation of the Timer/Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer/Counter Prescaler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-wire Serial Interface Bus Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Transfer and Frame Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-master Bus Systems, Arbitration and Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of the TWI Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TWI Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the TWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmission Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-master Systems and Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
175
175
176
178
180
182
185
188
201
Analog Comparator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
20.1
20.2
20.3
ADC Control and Status Register B – ADCSRB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Analog Comparator Control and Status Register – ACSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
305
21.
Analog-to-Digital Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6
22.
Program And Data Memory Lock Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuse Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signature Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration Byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Programming Parameters, Pin Mapping, and Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Programming Pin Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Downloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Absolute Maximum Ratings* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DC Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Clock Drive Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Clock Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum Speed versus VCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIN Re-synchronization Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synchronization Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Precaution Against OSCCAL Discontinuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
242
243
245
245
245
247
247
256
260
260
263
263
263
264
264
264
SPI Timing Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
ADC Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
229
229
230
232
233
234
235
2-wire Serial Interface Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
27.1
27.2
306
Boot Loader Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application and Boot Loader Flash Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boot Loader Lock Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
“Entering the Boot Loader Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-Programming the Flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
26.1
26.2
26.3
26.4
26.5
26.6
26.7
26.8
27.
Performing Page Erase by SPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Performing a Page Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming 224
Memory Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
25.5
25.6
25.7
25.8
26.
221
221
221
222
222
222
Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and
ATmega168 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
24.5
24.6
24.7
25.
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Break Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations of debugWIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
debugWIRE Related Register in I/O Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-Programming the Flash, ATmega48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
24.
206
208
209
212
213
217
debugWIRE On-chip Debug System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
23.
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting a Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prescaling and Conversion Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Channel or Reference Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADC Noise Canceler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADC Conversion Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.
ATmega48/88/168 Typical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
28.1
Active Supply Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
29.
Register Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
30.
Instruction Set Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
31.
Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
31.1
31.2
31.3
31.4
32.
Rev. E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Rev. D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Rev. A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Errata ATmega88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
34.1
34.2
35.
MA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
PN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Errata ATmega48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
33.1
33.2
33.3
34.
296
296
296
296
Packaging Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
32.1
32.2
33.
ATmega48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATmega88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATmega168 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Package information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rev. G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Rev. E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Errata ATmega168 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
35.1
35.2
Rev. F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Rev. E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
36.
Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
37.
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
ATmega48/88/168 Automotive [DATASHEET]
7530K–AVR–07/14
307
XXXXXX
Atmel Corporation
1600 Technology Drive, San Jose, CA 95110 USA
T: (+1)(408) 441.0311
F: (+1)(408) 436.4200
|
www.atmel.com
© 2014 Atmel Corporation. / Rev.: 7530K–AVR–07/14
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