AT89C5132 - Complete

Features
• Programmable Audio Output for Interfacing with Common Audio DAC
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
– PCM Format Compatible
– I2S Format Compatible
8-bit MCU C51 Core-based (FMAX = 20 MHz)
2304 Bytes of Internal RAM
64K Bytes of Code Memory
– AT89C5132: Flash (100K Write/Erase Cycles)
4K Bytes of Boot Flash Memory (AT89C5132)
– ISP: Download from USB (standard) or UART (option)
USB Rev 1.1 Device Controller
– “Full Speed” Data Transmission
Built-in PLL
MultiMedia Card® Interface Compatibility
Atmel DataFlash® SPI Interface Compatibility
IDE/ATAPI Interface
2 Channels 10-bit ADC, 8 kHz (8 True Bits)
– Battery Voltage Monitoring
– Voice Recording Controlled by Software
Up to 44 Bits of General-purpose I/Os
– 4-bit Interrupt Keyboard Port for a 4 x n Matrix
– SmartMedia® Software Interface
Two Standard 16-bit Timers/Counters
Hardware Watchdog Timer
Standard Full Duplex UART with Baud Rate Generator
Two Wire Master and Slave Modes Controller
SPI Master and Slave Modes Controller
Power Management
– Power-on Reset
– Software Programmable MCU Clock
– Idle Mode, Power-down Mode
Operating Conditions
– 3V, ±10%, 25 mA Typical Operating at 25°C
– Temperature Range: -40°C to +85°C
Packages
– TQFP80, PLCC84 (Development Board Only)
– Dice
USB
Microcontroller
with 64K Bytes
Flash Memory
AT89C5132
1. Description
The AT89C5132 is a mass storage device controlling data exchange between various
Flash modules, HDD and CD-ROM.
The AT89C5132 includes 64K Bytes of Flash memory and allows In-System Programming through an embedded 4K Bytes of Boot Flash Memory.
The AT89C5132 include 2304 Bytes of RAM memory.
The AT89C5132 provides all the necessary features for man-machine interface
including, timers, keyboard port, serial or parallel interface (USB, SPI, IDE), ADC
input, I2S output, and all external memory interface (NAND or NOR Flash, SmartMedia, MultiMedia, DataFlash cards).
2. Typical Applications
•
•
•
Flash Recorder/Writer
PDA, Camera, Mobile Phone
PC Add-on
4173E–USB–09/07
3. Block Diagram
Figure 3-1.
AT89C5132 Block Diagram
INT0
INT1
1
1
VDD VSS UVDD UVSS AVDD AVSS AREF AIN1:0
Interrupt
Handler Unit
TXD RXD
T0
1
1
1
T1
1
SS MISO MOSI SCK SCL SDA
2
2
2
2
1
1
Flash
RAM
2304 Bytes
64K Bytes
Flash Boot
4K Bytes
C51 (X2 CORE)
10-bit A-to-D
Converter
UART
and
BRG
Timers 0/1
Watchdog
SPI/DataFlash
Controller
TWI
Controller
8-BIT INTERNAL BUS
I2S/PCM
Audio Interface
Clock and PLL
Unit
USB
Controller
MMC
Interface
Keyboard
Interface
I/O
Ports
IDE
Interface
3
FILT
Notes:
2
X1
X2
RST
DOUT DCLK DSEL SCLK
D+
D-
MCLK MDAT MCMD
KIN3:0
P0 - P5
1. Alternate function of Port 3
2. Alternate function of Port 4
3. Alternate function of Port 1
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
4. Pin Description
AT89C5132 80-pin TQFP Package
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
P5.1
P5.0
P0.0/AD0
P0.1/AD1
P0.2/AD2
P0.3/AD3
P0.4/AD4
P0.5/AD5
VSS
VDD
P0.6/AD6
P0.7/AD7
P4.3/SS
P4.2/SCK
P4.1/MOSI
P4.0/MISO
P2.0/A8
P2.1/A9
P4.7
P4.6
Figure 4-1.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
TQFP80
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
P4.5
P4.4
P2.2/A10
P2.3/A11
P2.4/A12
P2.5/A13
P2.6/A14
P2.7/A15
VSS
VDD
MCLK
MDAT
MCMD
RST
SCLK
DSEL
DCLK
DOUT
VSS
VDD
D+
DVDD
VSS
P3.0/RXD
P3.1/TXD
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
AVDD
AVSS
AREFP
AREFN
AIN0
AIN1
P5.2
P5.3
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
ALE
ISP
P1.0/KIN0
P1.1/KIN1
P1.2/KIN2
P1.3/KIN3
P1.4
P1.5
P1.6/SCL
P1.7/SDA
VDD
PVDD
FILT
PVSS
VSS
X2
X1
TST
UVDD
UVSS
3
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132 84-pin PLCC (1)
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
NC
P5.1
P5.0
P0.0/AD0
P0.1/AD1
P0.2/AD2
P0.3/AD3
P0.4/AD4
P0.5/AD5
VSS
VDD
P0.6/AD6
P0.7/AD7
P4.3/SS
P4.2/SCK
P4.1/MOSI
P4.0/MISO
P2.0/A8
P2.1/A9
P4.7
P4.6
Figure 4-2.
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
PLCC84
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
NC
P4.5
P4.4
P2.2/A10
P2.3/A11
P2.4/A12
P2.5/A13
P2.6/A14
P2.7/A15
VSS
VDD
MCLK
MDAT
MCMD
RST
SCLK
DSEL
DCLK
DOUT
VSS
VDD
D+
DVDD
VSS
P3.0/RXD
P3.1/TXD
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
AVDD
AVSS
AREFP
AREFN
AIN0
AIN1
P5.2
P5.3
NC
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
ALE
ISP
P1.0/KIN0
P1.1/KIN1
P1.2/KIN2
P1.3/KIN3
P1.4
P1.5
P1.6/SCL
P1.7/SDA
VDD
PAVDD
FILT
PAVSS
VSS
X2
NC
X1
TST
UVDD
UVSS
Note:
4.1
1. For development board only.
Signals
All the AT89C5132 signals are detailed by functionality in Table 1 to Table 14.
Table 1. Ports Signal Description
Signal
Name
4
Type
Description
P0.7:0
I/O
Port 0
P0 is an 8-bit open-drain bidirectional I/O port. Port 0 pins that have 1s written
to them float and can be used as high impedance inputs. To avoid any parasitic
current consumption, floating P0 inputs must be polarized to VDD or VSS.
P1.7:0
I/O
Port 1
P1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.
Alternate
Function
AD7:0
KIN3:0
SCL
SDA
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Signal
Name
Type
P2.7:0
I/O
Description
Port 2
P2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.
Alternate
Function
A15:8
RXD
TXD
INT0
INT1
T0
T1
WR
RD
I/O
Port 3
P3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.
P4.7:0
I/O
Port 4
P4 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
P5.3:0
I/O
Port 5
P5 is a 4-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.
-
P3.7:0
Table 2. Clock Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
Description
Alternate
Function
X1
I
Input to the on-chip inverting oscillator amplifier
To use the internal oscillator, a crystal/resonator circuit is connected to this pin.
If an external oscillator is used, its output is connected to this pin. X1 is the
clock source for internal timing.
X2
O
Output of the on-chip inverting oscillator amplifier
To use the internal oscillator, a crystal/resonator circuit is connected to this pin.
If an external oscillator is used, leave X2 unconnected.
-
FILT
I
PLL Low Pass Filter input
FILT receives the RC network of the PLL low pass filter.
-
-
Table 3. Timer 0 and Timer 1 Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
Description
Alternate
Function
Timer 0 Gate Input
INT0 serves as external run control for timer 0, when selected by GATE0 bit in
TCON register.
INT0
I
External Interrupt 0
INT0 input sets IE0 in the TCON register. If bit IT0 in this register is set, bit IE0
is set by a falling edge on INT0. If bit IT0 is cleared, bit IE0 is set by a low level
on INT0.
P3.2
Timer 1 Gate Input
INT1 serves as external run control for timer 1, when selected by GATE1 bit in
TCON register.
INT1
I
External Interrupt 1
INT1 input sets IE1 in the TCON register. If bit IT1 in this register is set, bit IE1
is set by a falling edge on INT1. If bit IT1 is cleared, bit IE1 is set by a low level
on INT1.
P3.3
5
4173E–USB–09/07
Signal
Name
Type
T0
I
Timer 0 External Clock Input
When timer 0 operates as a counter, a falling edge on the T0 pin increments
the count.
P3.4
T1
I
Timer 1 External Clock Input
When timer 1 operates as a counter, a falling edge on the T1 pin increments
the count.
P3.5
Description
Alternate
Function
Table 4. Audio Interface Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
DCLK
O
DAC Data Bit Clock
-
DOUT
O
DAC Audio Data
-
DSEL
O
DAC Channel Select Signal
DSEL is the sample rate clock output.
-
SCLK
O
DAC System Clock
SCLK is the oversampling clock synchronized to the digital audio data (DOUT)
and the channel selection signal (DSEL).
-
Description
Alternate
Function
Table 5. USB Controller Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
D+
I/O
USB Positive Data Upstream Port
This pin requires an external 1.5 KΩ pull-up to VDD for full speed operation.
-
D-
I/O
USB Negative Data Upstream Port
-
Description
Alternate
Function
Table 6. MutiMediaCard Interface Signal Description
6
Signal
Name
Type
MCLK
O
MMC Clock output
Data or command clock transfer.
-
MCMD
I/O
MMC Command line
Bidirectional command channel used for card initialization and data transfer
commands. To avoid any parasitic current consumption, unused MCMD input
must be polarized to VDD or VSS.
-
MDAT
I/O
MMC Data line
Bidirectional data channel. To avoid any parasitic current consumption, unused
MDAT input must be polarized to VDD or VSS.
-
Description
Alternate
Function
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Table 7. UART Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
RXD
I/O
Receive Serial Data
RXD sends and receives data in serial I/O mode 0 and receives data in serial
I/O modes 1, 2 and 3.
P3.0
TXD
O
Transmit Serial Data
TXD outputs the shift clock in serial I/O mode 0 and transmits data in serial I/O
modes 1, 2 and 3.
P3.1
Description
Alternate
Function
Table 8. SPI Controller Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
MISO
I/O
SPI Master Input Slave Output Data Line
When in master mode, MISO receives data from the slave peripheral. When in
slave mode, MISO outputs data to the master controller.
P4.0
MOSI
I/O
SPI Master Output Slave Input Data Line
When in master mode, MOSI outputs data to the slave peripheral. When in
slave mode, MOSI receives data from the master controller.
P4.1
SCK
I/O
SPI Clock Line
When in master mode, SCK outputs clock to the slave peripheral. When in
slave mode, SCK receives clock from the master controller.
P4.2
SS
I
SPI Slave Select Line
When in controlled slave mode, SS enables the slave mode.
P4.3
Description
Alternate
Function
Table 9. TWI Controller Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
Description
SCL
I/O
TWI Serial Clock
When TWI controller is in master mode, SCL outputs the serial clock to the
slave peripherals. When TWI controller is in slave mode, SCL receives clock
from the master controller.
SDA
I/O
TWI Serial Data
SDA is the bidirectional Two Wire data line.
Alternate
Function
P1.6
P1.7
Table 10. A/D Converter Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
AIN1:0
I
A/D Converter Analog Inputs
-
AREFP
I
Analog Positive Voltage Reference Input
-
AREFN
I
Analog Negative Voltage Reference Input
This pin is internally connected to AVSS.
-
Description
Alternate
Function
7
4173E–USB–09/07
Table 11. Keypad Interface Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
KIN3:0
I
Description
Keypad Input Lines
Holding one of these pins high or low for 24 oscillator periods triggers a
keypad interrupt.
Alternate
Function
P1.3:0
Table 12. External Access Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
A15:8
I/O
Address Lines
Upper address lines for the external bus.
Multiplexed higher address and data lines for the IDE interface.
P2.7:0
AD7:0
I/O
Address/Data Lines
Multiplexed lower address and data lines for the external memory or the IDE
interface.
P0.7:0
ALE
O
Address Latch Enable Output
ALE signals the start of an external bus cycle and indicates that valid address
information is available on lines A7:0. An external latch is used to demultiplex
the address from address/data bus.
-
ISP
I/O
ISP Enable Input
This signal must be held to GND through a pull-down resistor at the falling
reset to force execution of the internal bootloader.
-
RD
O
Read Signal
Read signal asserted during external data memory read operation.
P3.7
WR
O
Write Signal
Write signal asserted during external data memory write operation.
P3.6
Description
Alternate
Function
Table 13. System Signal Description
Signal
Name
8
Type
Description
RST
I
Reset Input
Holding this pin high for 64 oscillator periods while the oscillator is running
resets the device. The Port pins are driven to their reset conditions when a
voltage lower than VIL is applied, whether or not the oscillator is running.
This pin has an internal pull-down resistor which allows the device to be reset
by connecting a capacitor between this pin and VDD.
Asserting RST when the chip is in Idle mode or Power-Down mode returns the
chip to normal operation.
TST
I
Test Input
Test mode entry signal. This pin must be set to VDD.
Alternate
Function
-
-
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Table 14. Power Signal Description
Signal
Name
Type
Description
Alternate
Function
VDD
PWR
Digital Supply Voltage
Connect these pins to +3V supply voltage.
-
VSS
GND
Circuit Ground
Connect these pins to ground.
-
AVDD
PWR
Analog Supply Voltage
Connect this pin to +3V supply voltage.
-
AVSS
GND
Analog Ground
Connect this pin to ground.
-
PVDD
PWR
PLL Supply voltage
Connect this pin to +3V supply voltage.
-
PVSS
GND
PLL Circuit Ground
Connect this pin to ground.
-
UVDD
PWR
USB Supply Voltage
Connect this pin to +3V supply voltage.
-
UVSS
GND
USB Ground
Connect this pin to ground.
-
9
4173E–USB–09/07
4.2
Internal Pin Structure
Table 15. Detailed Internal Pin Structure
Circuit(1)
Type
Pins
Input
TST
Input/Output
RST
Input/Output
P1(2)
P2(3)
P3
P4
P53:0
RTST
VDD
VDD
P
RRST
Watchdog Output
VSS
2 osc
periods
Latch Output
VDD
VDD
VDD
P1
P2
P3
N
VSS
VDD
P
Input/Output
P0
MCMD
MDAT
ISP
N
PSEN
VSS
ALE
SCLK
DCLK
VDD
P
Output
DOUT
DSEL
MCLK
N
VSS
D+
Input/Output
D+
D-
D-
Notes:
10
1. For information on resistors value, input/output levels, and drive capability, refer to the
Section “DC Characteristics”, page 183.
2. When the Two Wire controller is enabled, P1, P2, and P3 transistors are disabled allowing
pseudo open-drain structure.
3. In Port 2, P1 transistor is continuously driven when outputting a high level bit address (A15:8).
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
5. Address Spaces
The AT8xC5132 derivatives implement four different address spaces:
5.0.1
•
Program/Code Memory
•
Boot Memory
•
Data Memory
•
Special Function Registers (SFRs)
Code Memory
The AT89C5132 implements 64K Bytes of on-chip program/code memory in Flash technology.
The Flash memory increases ROM functionality by enabling in-circuit electrical erasure and programming. Thanks to the internal charge pump, the high voltage needed for programming or
erasing Flash cells is generated on-chip using the standard VDD voltage. Thus, the AT89C5132
can be programmed using only one voltage and allows in application software programming
commonly known as IAP. Hardware programming mode is also available using specific programming tools.
5.0.2
Boot Memory
The AT89C5132 implements 4K Bytes of on-chip boot memory provided in Flash technology.
This boot memory is delivered programmed with a standard bootloader software allowing in system programming commonly known as ISP. It also contains some Application Programming
Interfaces routines commonly known as API allowing user to develop his own bootloader.
5.0.3
Data Memory
The AT89C5132 derivatives implement 2304 bytes of on-chip data RAM. This memory is divided
in two separate areas:
•
256 bytes of on-chip RAM memory (standard C51 memory).
•
2048 bytes of on-chip expanded RAM memory (ERAM accessible via MOVX instructions).
11
4173E–USB–09/07
6. Clock Controller
The AT89C5132 clock controller is based on an on-chip oscillator feeding an on-chip Phase
Lock Loop (PLL). All internal clocks to the peripherals and CPU core are generated by this
controller.
6.1
Oscillator
The AT89C5132 X1 and X2 pins are the input and the output of a single-stage on-chip inverter
(see Figure 6-1) that can be configured with off-chip components such as a Pierce oscillator
(see Figure 6-2). Value of capacitors and crystal characteristics are detailed in the Section “DC
Characteristics”.
The oscillator outputs three different clocks: a clock for the PLL, a clock for the CPU core, and a
clock for the peripherals as shown in Figure 6-1. These clocks are either enabled or disabled,
depending on the power reduction mode as detailed in the section“Power Management” on
page 44. The peripheral clock is used to generate the Timer 0, Timer 1, MMC, ADC, SPI, and
Port sampling clocks.
Figure 6-1.
Oscillator Block Diagram and Symbol
X1
0
÷2
Peripheral
Clock
1
CPU Core
Clock
X2
X2
CKCON.0
IDL
PCON.0
PD
Oscillator
Clock
PCON.1
PER
CLOCK
CPU
CLOCK
Peripheral Clock Symbol
Figure 6-2.
OSC
CLOCK
CPU Core Clock Symbol
Oscillator Clock Symbol
Crystal Connection
X1
C1
Q
C2
VSS
6.2
X2
X2 Feature
Unlike standard C51 products that require 12 oscillator clock periods per machine cycle, the
AT89C5132 needs only 6 oscillator clock periods per machine cycle. This feature called the “X2
feature” can be enabled using the X2 bit(1) in CKCON (see Table 1) and allows the AT89C5132
to operate in 6 or 12 oscillator clock periods per machine cycle. As shown in Figure 6-1, both
CPU and peripheral clocks are affected by this feature. Figure 6-3 shows the X2 mode switching
waveforms. After reset, the standard mode is activated. In standard mode, the CPU and periph-
12
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
eral clock frequency is the oscillator frequency divided by 2 while in X2 mode, it is the oscillator
frequency.
Note:
1. The X2 bit reset value depends on the X2B bit in the Hardware Security Byte (see Table 12 on
page 24). Using the AT89C5132 (Flash Version) the system can boot either in standard or X2
mode depending on the X2B value. Using AT83C51SND1C (ROM Version) the system always
boots in standard mode. X2B bit can be changed to X2 mode later by software.
Figure 6-3.
Mode Switching Waveforms
X1
X1 ÷ 2
X2 Bit
Clock
STD Mode
Note:
6.3
6.3.1
X2 Mode(1)
STD Mode
In order to prevent any incorrect operation while operating in X2 mode, the user must be aware
that all peripherals using clock frequency as time reference (timers…) will have their time reference divided by two. For example, a free running timer generating an interrupt every 20 ms will
then generate an interrupt every 10 ms.
PLL
PLL Description
The AT89C5132 PLL is used to generate internal high frequency clock (the PLL Clock) synchronized with an external low-frequency (the Oscillator Clock). The PLL clock provides the audio
interface, and the USB interface clocks. Figure 6-4 shows the internal structure of the PLL.
The PFLD block is the Phase Frequency Comparator and Lock Detector. This block makes the
comparison between the reference clock coming from the N divider and the reverse clock coming from the R divider and generates some pulses on the Up or Down signal depending on the
edge position of the reverse clock. The PLLEN bit in PLLCON register is used to enable the
clock generation. When the PLL is locked, the bit PLOCK in PLLCON register (see Table 3) is
set.
The CHP block is the Charge Pump that generates the voltage reference for the VCO by injecting or extracting charges from the external filter connected on PFILT pin (see Figure 6-5). Value
of the filter components are detailed in the Section “DC Characteristics”.
The VCO block is the Voltage Controlled Oscillator controlled by the voltage Vref produced by the
charge pump. It generates a square wave signal: the PLL clock.
13
4173E–USB–09/07
Figure 6-4.
PLL Block Diagram and Symbol
PFILT
PLLCON.1
PLLEN
N divider
OSC
CLOCK
Up
N6:0
PFLD
CHP
Vref
PLL
Clock
VCO
Down
PLOCK
R divider
PLLCON.0
R9:0
PLL
CLOCK
OSCclk × ( R + 1 )
PLLclk = ----------------------------------------------N+1
PLL Clock Symbol
Figure 6-5.
PLL Filter Connection
PFILT
R
C2
C1
VSS
6.3.2
VSS
PLL Programming
The PLL is programmed using the flow shown in Figure 6-6. As soon as clock generation is
enabled, the user must wait until the lock indicator is set to ensure the clock output is stable. The
PLL clock frequency will depend on the audio interface clock frequencies.
Figure 6-6.
PLL Programming Flow
PLL
Programming
Configure Dividers
N6:0 = xxxxxxb
R9:0 = xxxxxxxxxxb
Enable PLL
PLLRES = 0
PLLEN = 1
PLL Locked?
PLOCK = 1?
6.4
Registers
Table 1. CKCON Register
14
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
CKCON (S:8Fh) – Clock Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWIX2
WDX2
-
SIX2
-
T1X2
T0X2
X2
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
TWIX2
Two-Wire Clock Control Bit
Set to select the oscillator clock divided by 2 as TWI clock input (X2 independent).
Clear to select the peripheral clock as TWI clock input (X2 dependent).
6
WDX2
Watchdog Clock Control Bit
Set to select the oscillator clock divided by 2 as watchdog clock input (X2 independent).
Clear to select the peripheral clock as watchdog clock input (X2 dependent).
5
-
4
SIX2
3
-
2
T1X2
Timer 1 Clock Control Bit
Set to select the oscillator clock divided by two as Timer 1 clock input (X2 independent).
Clear to select the peripheral clock as Timer 1 clock input (X2 dependent).
1
T0X2
Timer 0 Clock Control Bit
Set to select the oscillator clock divided by two as timer 0 clock input (X2 independent).
Clear to select the peripheral clock as timer 0 clock input (X2 dependent).
0
X2
System Clock Control Bit
Clear to select 12 clock periods per machine cycle (STD mode, FCPU = FPER = FOSC/2).
Set to select 6 clock periods per machine cycle (X2 mode, FCPU = FPER = FOSC).
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Enhanced UART Clock (Mode 0 and 2) Control Bit
Set to select the oscillator clock divided by 2 as UART clock input (X2 independent).
Clear to select the peripheral clock as UART clock input (X2 dependent)..
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = 0000 000Xb
Table 2. PLLNDIV Register
PLLNDIV (S:EEh) – PLL N Divider Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
N6
N5
N4
N3
N2
N1
N0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
-
6-0
N6:0
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
PLL N Divider
7-bit N divider.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
15
4173E–USB–09/07
Table 3. PLLCON Register
PLLCON (S:E9h) – PLL Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R1
R0
-
-
PLLRES
-
PLLEN
PLOCK
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-6
R1:0
5-4
-
3
PLLRES
2
-
1
PLLEN
PLL Enable Bit
Set to enable the PLL.
Clear to disable the PLL.
0
PLOCK
PLL Lock Indicator
Set by hardware when PLL is locked.
Clear by hardware when PLL is unlocked.
PLL Least Significant Bits R Divider
2 LSB of the 10-bit R divider.
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
PLL Reset Bit
Set this bit to reset the PLL.
Clear this bit to free the PLL and allow enabling.
Reserved
The values read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = 0000 1000b
Table 4. PLLRDIV Register
PLLRDIV (S:EFh) – PLL R Divider Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R9
R8
R7
R6
R5
R4
R3
R2
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
R9:2
PLL Most Significant Bits R Divider
8 MSB of the 10-bit R divider.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
16
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
7. Program/Code Memory
The AT89C5132 implements 64K Bytes of on-chip program/code memory. Figure 7-1 shows the
split of internal and external program/code memory spaces depending on the product.
The Flash memory increases EPROM and ROM functionality by in-circuit electrical erasure and
programming. The high voltage needed for programming or erasing Flash cells is generated onchip using the standard VDD voltage, made possible by the internal charge pump. Thus, the
AT89C5132 can be programmed using only one voltage and allows in application software programming. Hardware programming mode is also available using common programming tools.
See the application note ‘Programming T89C51x and AT89C51x with Device Programmers’.
The AT89C5132 implements an additional 4K Bytes of on-chip boot Flash memory provided in
Flash memory. This boot memory is delivered programmed with a standard bootloader software
allowing In-System Programming (ISP). It also contains some Application Programming Interfaces (API), allowing In Application Programming (IAP) by using user’s own bootloader.
Figure 7-1.
Program/Code Memory Organization
FFFFh
FFFFh
F000h
F000h
4K Bytes
Boot Flash
64K Bytes
Code Flash
0000h
7.1
Flash Memory Architecture
As shown in Figure 7-2 the AT89C5132 Flash memory is composed of four spaces detailed in
the following paragraphs.
Figure 7-2.
AT89C5132 Memory Architecture
Hardware Security
Extra Row
FFFFh
FFFFh
4K Bytes
Flash
Memory
F000h
Boot
64K Bytes
User
Flash Memory
0000h
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4173E–USB–09/07
7.1.1
User Space
This space is composed of a 64K Bytes Flash memory organized in 512 pages of 128 Bytes. It
contains the user’s application code. This space can be read or written by both software and
hardware modes.
7.1.2
Boot Space
This space is composed of a 4K Bytes Flash memory. It contains the bootloader for In-System
Programming and the routines for In-System Application Programming.
This space can only be read or written by hardware mode using a parallel programming tool.
7.1.3
Hardware Security Space
This space is composed of one byte: the Hardware Security Byte (HSB see Table 7) divided in
two separate nibbles see Table 7. The MSN contains the X2 mode configuration bit and the Boot
Loader Jump Bit as detailed in section “Boot Memory Execution” and can be written by software
while the LSN contains the lock system level to protect the memory content against piracy as
detailed in section “Hardware Security System” and can only be written by hardware.
7.1.4
Extra Row Space
This space is composed of two Bytes:
7.2
•
The Software Boot Vector (SBV see Table 8).
This byte is used by the software bootloader to build the boot address.
•
The Software Security Byte (SSB see Figure ).
This byte is used to lock the execution of some bootloader commands.
Hardware Security System
The AT89C5132 implements three lock Bits LB2:0 in the LSN of HSB (see Table 7) providing
three levels of security for user’s program as described in Table 7 while the AT83C51SND1C is
always set in read disabled mode.
•
Level 0 is the level of an erased part and does not enable any security feature.
•
Level 1 locks the hardware programming of both user and boot memories.
•
Level 2 locks hardware verifying of both user and boot memories.
•
Level 3 locks the external execution.
Table 5. Lock Bit Features(1)
Level
LB2(2)
LB1
LB0
Internal
Execution
External
Execution
Hardware
Verifying
Hardware
Programming
Software
Programming
0
U
U
U
Enable
Enable
Enable
Enable
Enable
1
U
U
P
Enable
Enable
Enable
Disable
Enable
2
U
P
X
Enable
Enable
Disable
Disable
Enable
P
X
X
Enable
Disable
Disable
Disable
Enable
3(3)
Notes:
18
1. U means unprogrammed, P means programmed and X means don’t care (programmed or
unprogrammed).
2. LB2 is not implemented in the AT89C5132 products.
3. AT89C5132 products are delivered with third level programmed to ensure that the code programmed by software using ISP or user’s bootloader is secured from any hardware piracy.
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
7.3
Boot Memory Execution
As internal C51 code space is limited to 64K Bytes, some mechanisms are implemented to allow
boot memory to be mapped in the code space for execution at addresses from F000h to FFFFh.
The boot memory is enabled by setting the ENBOOT bit in AUXR1 (see Table 6). The three
ways to set this bit are detailed in the following sections.
7.3.1
Software Boot Mapping
The software way to set ENBOOT consists in writing to AUXR1 from the user’s software. This
enables bootloader or API routines execution.
7.3.2
Hardware Condition Boot Mapping
The hardware condition is based on the ISP pin. When driving this pin to low level, the chip reset
sets ENBOOT and forces the reset vector to F000h instead of 0000h in order to execute the
bootloader software.
As shown in Figure 7-3, the hardware condition always allows in-system recovery when user’s
memory has been corrupted.
7.3.3
Programmed Condition Boot Mapping
The programmed condition is based on the Bootloader Jump Bit (BLJB) in HSB. As shown in
Figure 7-3, when this bit is programmed (by hardware or software programming mode), the chip
resets ENBOOT and forces the reset vector to F000h instead of 0000h, in order to execute the
bootloader software.
Figure 7-3.
Hardware Boot Process Algorithm
RESET
Software
Process
Hardware
Process
Hard Cond?
ISP = L?
Prog Cond?
BLJB = P?
Standard Init
ENBOOT = 0
PC = 0000h
FCON = F0h
Prog Cond Init
ENBOOT = 1
PC = F000h
FCON = F0h
User’s
Application
Atmel’s
Boot Loader
Hard Cond Init
ENBOOT = 1
PC = F000h
FCON = 00h
The software process (bootloader) is detailed in the AT89C5132 Bootloader datasheet.
19
4173E–USB–09/07
7.3.4
Preventing Flash Corruption
See “Reset Recommendation to Prevent Flash Corruption” on page 45.
7.4
Registers
Table 6. AUXR1 Register
AUXR1 (S:A2h) – Auxiliary Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
ENBOOT
-
GF3
0
-
DPS
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-6
-
5
ENBOOT
4
-
3
GF3
2
0
Always Zero
This bit is stuck to logic 0 to allow INC AUXR1 instruction without affecting GF3 flag.
1
-
Reserved for Data Pointer Extension.
0
DPS
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are indeterminate. Do not set these Bits.
Enable Boot Flash
Set this bit to map the boot Flash in the code space between at addresses F000h to
FFFFh.
Clear this bit to disable boot Flash.
Reserved
The values read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
General Flag
This bit is a general-purpose user flag.
Data Pointer Select Bit
Set to select second data pointer: DPTR1.
Clear to select first data pointer: DPTR0.
Reset Value = XXXX 00X0b
7.5
Hardware Bytes
Table 7. HSB Byte – Hardware Security Byte
20
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X2B
BLJB
-
-
-
LB2
LB1
LB0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
X2B(1)
X2 Bit
Program this bit to start in X2 mode.
Unprogram (erase) this bit to start in standard mode.
6
BLJB(2)
Boot Loader Jump Bit
Program this bit to execute the boot loader at address F000h on next reset.
Unprogram (erase) this bit to execute user’s application at address 0000h on next reset.
5-4
-
3
-
Reserved
The value read from these bits is always unprogrammed. Do not program these bits.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always unprogrammed. Do not program this bit.
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
2-0
LB2:0
Description
Hardware Lock Bits
Refer to for bits description.
Reset Value = XXUU UXXX, UUUU UUUU after an hardware full chip erase.
Note:
1. X2B initializes the X2 bit in CKCON during the reset phase.
2. In order to ensure boot loader activation at first power-up, AT89C5132 products are delivered
with BLJB programmed.
3. Bits 0 to 3 (LSN) can only be programmed by hardware mode.
Table 8. SBV Byte – Software Boot Vector
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADD15
ADD14
ADD13
ADD12
ADD11
ADD10
ADD9
ADD8
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
ADD15:8
MSB of the user’s bootloader 16-bit address location
Refer to the bootloader datasheet for usage information (bootloader dependent).
Reset Value = XXXX XXXX, UUUU UUUU after an hardware full chip erase.
Table 9. SSB Byte – Software Security Byte
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSB7
SSB6
SSB5
SSB4
SSB3
SSB2
SSB1
SSB0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
SSB7:0
Software Security Byte Data
Refer to the bootloader datasheet for usage information (bootloader dependent).
Reset Value = XXXX XXXX, UUUU UUUU after an hardware full chip erase.
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4173E–USB–09/07
8. Data Memory
The AT89C5132 provides data memory access in two different spaces:
1. The internal space mapped in three separate segments:
–
The lower 128 Bytes RAM segment
–
The upper 128 Bytes RAM segment
–
The expanded 2048 Bytes RAM segment
2. The external space.
A fourth internal segment is available but dedicated to Special Function Registers, SFRs,
(addresses 80h to FFh) accessible by direct addressing mode. For information on this segment,
refer to the section “Special Function Registers”, page 29.
Figure 8-1 shows the internal and external data memory spaces organization.
Figure 8-1.
Internal and External Data Memory Organization
FFFFh
64K Bytes
External XRAM
7FFh
FFh
2K Bytes
Internal ERAM
EXTRAM = 0
80h
7Fh
00h
8.1
8.1.1
FFh
Upper
128 Bytes
Internal RAM
indirect addressing
00h
Special
Function
Registers
direct addressing
80h
Lower
128 Bytes
Internal RAM
direct or indirect
addressing
0800h
EXTRAM = 1
0000h
Internal Space
Lower 128 Bytes RAM
The lower 128 Bytes of RAM (see Figure 8-2) are accessible from address 00h to 7Fh using
direct or indirect addressing modes. The lowest 32 Bytes are grouped into 4 banks of 8 registers
(R0 to R7). Two Bits RS0 and RS1 in PSW register (see Table 13) select which bank is in use
according to Table 10. This allows more efficient use of code space, since register instructions
are shorter than instructions that use direct addressing, and can be used for context switching in
interrupt service routines.
Table 10. Register Bank Selection
22
RS1
RS0
Description
0
0
Register bank 0 from 00h to 07h
0
1
Register bank 1 from 08h to 0Fh
1
0
Register bank 2 from 10h to 17h
1
1
Register bank 3 from 18h to 1Fh
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
The next 16 Bytes above the register banks form a block of bit-addressable memory space. The
C51 instruction set includes a wide selection of single-bit instructions, and the 128 Bits in this
area can be directly addressed by these instructions. The bit addresses in this area are 00h to
7Fh.
Figure 8-2.
Lower 128 Bytes Internal RAM Organization
7Fh
30h
2Fh
20h
18h
10h
08h
00h
8.1.2
Bit-Addressable Space
(Bit Addresses 0 - 7Fh)
1Fh
17h
0Fh
4 Banks of
8 Registers
R0 - R7
07h
Upper 128 Bytes RAM
The upper 128 Bytes of RAM are accessible from address 80h to FFh using only indirect
addressing mode.
8.1.3
Expanded RAM
The on-chip 2K Bytes of expanded RAM (ERAM) are accessible from address 0000h to 07FFh
using indirect addressing mode through MOVX instructions. In this address range, EXTRAM bit
in AUXR register (see Table 14) is used to select the ERAM (default) or the XRAM. As shown in
Figure 8-1 when EXTRAM = 0, the ERAM is selected and when EXTRAM = 1, the XRAM is
selected, See “External Space” on page 23.
The ERAM memory can be resized using XRS1:0 Bits in AUXR register to dynamically increase
external access to the XRAM space. Table 11 details the selected ERAM size and address
range.
Table 11. ERAM Size Selection
Note:
8.2
8.2.1
XRS1
XRS0
ERAM Size
Address
0
0
256 Bytes
0 to 00FFh
0
1
512 Bytes
0 to 01FFh
1
0
1K Byte
0 to 03FFh
1
1
2K Bytes
0 to 07FFh
Lower 128 Bytes RAM, Upper 128 Bytes RAM, and expanded RAM are made of volatile memory
cells. This means that the RAM content is indeterminate after power-up and must then be initialized properly.
External Space
Memory Interface
The external memory interface comprises the external bus (port 0 and port 2) as well as the bus
control signals (RD, WR, and ALE).
23
4173E–USB–09/07
Figure 8-3 shows the structure of the external address bus. P0 carries address A7:0 while P2
carries address A15:8. Data D7:0 is multiplexed with A7:0 on P0. Table 12 describes the external memory interface signals.
Figure 8-3.
External Data Memory Interface Structure
RAM
PERIPHERAL
AT89C5132
A15:8
P2
A15:8
ALE
P0
AD7:0
Latch
A7:0
A7:0
D7:0
RD
WR
OE
WR
Table 12. External Data Memory Interface Signals
8.2.2
Signal
Name
Type
Alternate
Function
A15:8
O
Address Lines
Upper address lines for the external bus.
P2.7:0
AD7:0
I/O
Address/Data Lines
Multiplexed lower address lines and data for the external memory.
P0.7:0
ALE
O
Address Latch Enable
ALE signals indicates that valid address information are available on lines AD7:0.
RD
O
Read
Read signal output to external data memory.
P3.7
WR
O
Write
Write signal output to external memory.
P3.6
Description
-
Page Access Mode
The AT89C5132 implement a feature called Page Access that disables the output of DPH on P2
when executing MOVX @DPTR instruction. Page Access is enable by setting the DPHDIS bit in
AUXR register.
Page Access is useful when application uses both ERAM and 256 Bytes of XRAM. In this case,
software modifies intensively EXTRAM bit to select access to ERAM or XRAM and must save it
if used in interrupt service routine. Page Access allows external access above 00FFh address
without generating DPH on P2. Thus ERAM is accessed using MOVX @Ri or MOVX @DPTR
with DPTR < 0100h, < 0200h, < 0400h or < 0800h depending on the XRS1:0 bits value. Then
XRAM is accessed using MOVX @DPTR with DPTR ≥ 0800h regardless of XRS1:0 bits value
while keeping P2 for general I/O usage.
8.2.3
External Bus Cycles
This section describes the bus cycles that AT89C5132 executes to read (see Figure 8-4), and
write data (see Figure 8-5) in the external data memory.
24
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
External memory cycle takes 6 CPU clock periods. This is equivalent to 12 oscillator clock periods in standard mode or 6 oscillator clock periods in X2 mode. For further information on X2
mode, refer to the section “X2 Feature”, page 12.
Slow peripherals can be accessed by stretching the read and write cycles. This is done using the
M0 bit in AUXR register. Setting this bit changes the width of the RD and WR signals from 3 to
15 CPU clock periods.
For simplicity, the accompanying figures depict the bus cycle waveforms in idealized form and
do not provide precise timing information. For bus cycle timing parameters refer to the section
“AC Characteristics”.
Figure 8-4.
External Data Read Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
RD(1)
P0
P2
Notes:
DPL or Ri
D7:0
DPH or P2(2),(3)
P2
1. RD signal may be stretched using M0 bit in AUXR register.
2. When executing MOVX @Ri instruction, P2 outputs SFR content.
3. When executing MOVX @DPTR instruction, if DPHDIS is set (Page Access Mode), P2 outputs SFR content instead of DPH.
Figure 8-5.
External Data Write Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
WR(1)
P0
P2
Notes:
DPL or Ri
P2
D7:0
DPH or P2(2),(3)
1. WR signal may be stretched using M0 bit in AUXR register.
2. When executing MOVX @Ri instruction, P2 outputs SFR content.
3. When executing MOVX @DPTR instruction, if DPHDIS is set (Page Access Mode), P2 outputs SFR content instead of DPH.
25
4173E–USB–09/07
8.3
8.3.1
Dual Data Pointer
Description
The AT89C5132 implement a second data pointer for speeding up code execution and reducing
code size in case of intensive usage of external memory accesses.
DPTR0 and DPTR1 are seen by the CPU as DPTR and are accessed using the SFR addresses
83h and 84h that are the DPH and DPL addresses. The DPS bit in AUXR1 register (see
Table 15) is used to select whether DPTR is the data pointer 0 or the data pointer 1 (see
Figure 8-6).
Figure 8-6.
Dual Data Pointer Implementation
DPL0
0
DPL1
1
DPL
DPTR0
DPS
DPTR1
8.3.2
DPH0
0
DPH1
1
AUXR1.0
DPTR
DPH
Application
Software can take advantage of the additional data pointers to both increase speed and reduce
code size, for example, block operations (copy, compare, search …) are well served by using
one data pointer as a “source” pointer and the other one as a “destination” pointer.
Below is an example of block move implementation using the two pointers and coded in assembler. The latest C compiler also takes advantage of this feature by providing enhanced algorithm
libraries.
The INC instruction is a short (2 Bytes) and fast (6 CPU clocks) way to manipulate the DPS bit in
the AUXR1 register. However, note that the INC instruction does not directly forces the DPS bit
to a particular state, but simply toggles it. In simple routines, such as the block move example,
only the fact that DPS is toggled in the proper sequence matters, not its actual value. In other
words, the block move routine works the same whether DPS is “0” or “1” on entry.
;
;
;
;
ASCII block move using dual data pointers
Modifies DPTR0, DPTR1, A and PSW
Ends when encountering NULL character
Note: DPS exits opposite of entry state unless an extra INC AUXR1 is added
AUXR1
move:
EQU
mov
inc
mov
mv_loop: inc
movx
inc
inc
movx
inc
jnz
end_move:
26
0A2h
DPTR,#SOURCE
AUXR1
DPTR,#DEST
AUXR1
A,@DPTR
DPTR
AUXR1
@DPTR,A
DPTR
mv_loop
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
address of SOURCE
switch data pointers
address of DEST
switch data pointers
get a byte from SOURCE
increment SOURCE address
switch data pointers
write the byte to DEST
increment DEST address
check for NULL terminator
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
8.4
Registers
Table 13. PSW Register
PSW (S:8Eh) – Program Status Word Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CY
AC
F0
RS1
RS0
OV
F1
P
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
CY
Carry Flag
Carry out from bit 1 of ALU operands.
6
AC
Auxiliary Carry Flag
Carry out from bit 1 of addition operands.
5
F0
User Definable Flag 0.
4-3
RS1:0
Register Bank Select Bits
Refer to Table 10 for Bits description.
2
OV
Overflow Flag
Overflow set by arithmetic operations.
1
F1
User Definable Flag 1
0
P
Parity Bit
Set when ACC contains an odd number of 1’s.
Cleared when ACC contains an even number of 1’s.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 14. AUXR Register
AUXR (S:8Eh) – Auxiliary Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
EXT16
M0
DPHDIS
XRS1
XRS0
EXTRAM
AO
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
-
Reserved
The values read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
External 16-bit Access Enable Bit
Set to enable 16-bit access mode during MOVX instructions.
Clear to disable 16-bit access mode and enable standard 8-bit access mode during
MOVX instructions.
6
EXT16
5
M0
External Memory Access Stretch Bit
Set to stretch RD or WR signals duration to 15 CPU clock periods.
Clear not to stretch RD or WR signals and set duration to 3 CPU clock periods.
4
DPHDIS
DPH Disable Bit
Set to disable DPH output on P2 when executing MOVX @DPTR instruction.
Clear to enable DPH output on P2 when executing MOVX @DPTR instruction.
3-2
XRS1:0
Expanded RAM Size Bits
Refer to Table 11 for ERAM size description.
27
4173E–USB–09/07
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
1
EXTRAM
0
AO
Description
External RAM Enable Bit
Set to select the external XRAM when executing MOVX @Ri or MOVX @DPTR
instructions.
Clear to select the internal expanded RAM when executing MOVX @Ri or MOVX
@DPTR instructions.
ALE Output Enable Bit
Set to output the ALE signal only during MOVX instructions.
Clear to output the ALE signal at a constant rate of FCPU/3.
Reset Value = X000 1101b
28
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
9. Special Function Registers
The Special Function Registers (SFRs) of the AT89C5132 derivatives fall into the categories
detailed in Table 15 to Table 30. The relative addresses of these SFRs are provided together
with their reset values in Table 31. In this table, the bit-addressable registers are identified by
Note 1.
Table 15. C51 Core SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
ACC
E0h
Accumulator
B
F0h
B Register
PSW
D0h
Program Status Word
SP
81h
Stack Pointer
DPL
82h
Data Pointer Low byte
DPH
83h
Data Pointer High byte
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CY
AC
F0
RS1
RS0
OV
F1
P
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SMOD1
SMOD0
-
-
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
Table 16. System Management SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
PCON
87h
Power Control
AUXR
8Eh
Auxiliary Register 0
-
EXT16
M0
DPHDIS
XRS1
XRS0
EXTRAM
AO
AUXR1
A2h
Auxiliary Register 1
-
-
ENBOOT
-
GF3
0
-
DPS
NVERS
FBh
Version Number
NV7
NV6
NV5
NV4
NV3
NV2
NV1
NV0
Table 17. PLL and System Clock SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CKCON
8Fh
Clock Control
-
WDX2
-
-
-
T1X2
T0X2
X2
PLLCON
E9h
PLL Control
R1
R0
-
-
PLLRES
-
PLLEN
PLOCK
PLLNDIV
EEh
PLL N Divider
-
N6
N5
N4
N3
N2
N1
N0
PLLRDIV
EFh
PLL R Divider
R9
R8
R7
R6
R5
R4
R3
R2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 18. Interrupt SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
IEN0
A8h
Interrupt Enable Control 0
EA
EAUD
-
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
IEN1
B1h
Interrupt Enable Control 1
-
EUSB
-
EKB
EADC
ESPI
EI2C
EMMC
IPH0
B7h
Interrupt Priority Control High 0
-
IPHAUD
-
IPHS
IPHT1
IPHX1
IPHT0
IPHX0
IPL0
B8h
Interrupt Priority Control Low 0
-
IPLAUD
-
IPLS
IPLT1
IPLX1
IPLT0
IPLX0
IPH1
B3h
Interrupt Priority Control High 1
-
IPHUSB
-
IPHKB
IPHADC
IPHSPI
IPHI2C
IPHMMC
IPL1
B2h
Interrupt Priority Control Low 1
-
IPLUSB
-
IPLKB
IPLADC
IPLSPI
IPLI2C
IPLMMC
29
4173E–USB–09/07
Table 19. Port SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
P0
80h
8-bit Port 0
P1
90h
8-bit Port 1
P2
A0h
8-bit Port 2
P3
B0h
8-bit Port 3
P4
C0h
8-bit Port 4
P5
D8h
4-bit Port 5
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FPL3
FPL2
FPL1
FPL0
FPS
FMOD1
FMOD0
FBUSY
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 20. Flash Memory SFR
Mnemonic
Add
Name
FCON
D1h
Flash Control
Table 21. Timer SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
TCON
88h
Timer/Counter 0 and 1 Control
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
TMOD
89h
Timer/Counter 0 and 1 Modes
GATE1
C/T1#
M11
M01
GATE0
C/T0#
M10
M00
TL0
8Ah
Timer/Counter 0 Low Byte
TH0
8Ch
Timer/Counter 0 High Byte
TL1
8Bh
Timer/Counter 1 Low Byte
TH1
8Dh
Timer/Counter 1 High Byte
WDTRST
A6h
WatchDog Timer Reset
WDTPRG
A7h
WatchDog Timer Program
-
-
-
-
-
WTO2
WTO1
WTO0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 22. Audio Interface SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
AUDCON0
9Ah
Audio Control 0
JUST4
JUST3
JUST2
JUST1
JUST0
POL
DSIZ
HLR
AUDCON1
9Bh
Audio Control 1
SRC
DRQEN
MSREQ
MUDRN
-
DUP1
DUP0
AUDEN
AUDSTA
9Ch
Audio Status
SREQ
UDRN
AUBUSY
-
-
-
-
-
AUDDAT
9Dh
Audio Data
AUD7
AUD6
AUD5
AUD4
AUD3
AUD2
AUD1
AUD0
AUDCLK
ECh
Audio Clock Divider
-
-
-
AUCD4
AUCD3
AUCD2
AUCD1
AUCD0
30
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Table 23. USB Controller SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USBCON
BCh
USB Global Control
USBE
SUSPCL
K
SDRMWU
P
-
UPRSM
RMWUPE
CONFG
FADDEN
USBADDR
C6h
USB Address
FEN
UADD6
UADD5
UADD4
UADD3
UADD2
UADD1
UADD0
USBINT
BDh
USB Global Interrupt
-
-
WUPCPU
EORINT
SOFINT
-
-
SPINT
USBIEN
BEh
USB Global Interrupt Enable
-
-
EWUPCP
U
EEORINT
ESOFINT
-
-
ESPINT
UEPNUM
C7h
USB Endpoint Number
-
-
-
-
-
-
EPNUM1
EPNUM0
UEPCONX
D4h
USB Endpoint X Control
EPEN
-
-
-
DTGL
EPDIR
UEPSTAX
CEh
USB Endpoint X Status
DIR
-
STALLRQ
TXRDY
STLCRC
RXSETU
P
RXOUT
TXCMP
UEPRST
D5h
USB Endpoint Reset
-
-
-
-
EP3RST
EP2RST
EP1RST
EP0RST
UEPINT
F8h
USB Endpoint Interrupt
-
-
-
-
EP3INT
EP2INT
EP1INT
EP0INT
UEPIEN
C2h
USB Endpoint Interrupt Enable
-
-
-
-
EP3INTE
EP2INTE
EP1INTE
EP0INTE
UEPDATX
CFh
USB Endpoint X FIFO Data
FDAT7
FDAT6
FDAT5
FDAT4
FDAT3
FDAT2
FDAT1
FDAT0
UBYCTX
E2h
USB Endpoint X Byte Counter
–
BYCT6
BYCT5
BYCT4
BYCT3
BYCT2
BYCT1
BYCT0
UFNUML
BAh
USB Frame Number Low
FNUM7
FNUM6
FNUM5
FNUM4
FNUM3
FNUM2
FNUM1
FNUM0
UFNUMH
BBh
USB Frame Number High
-
-
CRCOK
CRCERR
-
FNUM10
FNUM9
FNUM8
USBCLK
EAh
USB Clock Divider
-
-
-
-
-
-
USBCD1
USBCD0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EPTYPE1 EPTYPE0
Table 24. MMC Controller SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
MMCON0
E4h
MMC Control 0
DRPTR
DTPTR
CRPTR
CTPTR
MBLOCK
DFMT
RFMT
CRCDIS
MMCON1
E5h
MMC Control 1
BLEN3
BLEN2
BLEN1
BLEN0
DATDIR
DATEN
RESPEN
CMDEN
MMCON2
E6h
MMC Control 2
MMCEN
DCR
CCR
-
-
DATD1
DATD0
FLOWC
MMSTA
DEh
MMC Control and Status
-
-
CBUSY
CRC16S
DATFS
CRC7S
RESPFS
CFLCK
MMINT
E7h
MMC Interrupt
MCBI
EORI
EOCI
EOFI
F2FI
F1FI
F2EI
F1EI
MMMSK
DFh
MMC Interrupt Mask
MCBM
EORM
EOCM
EOFM
F2FM
F1FM
F2EM
F1EM
MMCMD
DDh
MMC Command
MC7
MC6
MC5
MC4
MC3
MC2
MC1
MC0
MMDAT
DCh
MMC Data
MD7
MD6
MD5
MD4
MD3
MD2
MD1
MD0
MMCLK
EDh
MMC Clock Divider
MMCD7
MMCD6
MMCD5
MMCD4
MMCD3
MMCD2
MMCD1
MMCD0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
Table 25. IDE Interface SFR
Mnemonic
Add
Name
DAT16H
F9h
High Order Data Byte
31
4173E–USB–09/07
Table 26. Serial I/O Port SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
SCON
98h
Serial Control
SBUF
99h
Serial Data Buffer
SADEN
B9h
Slave Address Mask
SADDR
A9h
Slave Address
BDRCON
92h
Baud Rate Control
BRL
91h
Baud Rate Reload
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FE/SM0
SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
-
-
-
BRR
TBCK
RBCK
SPD
SRC
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 27. SPI Controller SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
SPCON
C3h
SPI Control
SPR2
SPEN
SSDIS
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
SPSTA
C4h
SPI Status
SPIF
WCOL
-
MODF
-
-
-
-
SPDAT
C5h
SPI Data
SPD7
SPD6
SPD5
SPD4
SPD3
SPD2
SPD1
SPD0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 28. Special Register
Mnemonic
Add
Name
SSCON
93h
Reserved
SSCR2
SSPE
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
SSCR1
SSCR0
SSSTA
94h
Reserved
SSC4
SSC3
SSC2
SSC1
SSC0
0
0
0
SSDAT
95h
Reserved
SSD7
SSD6
SSD5
SSD4
SSD3
SSD2
SSD1
SSD0
SSADR
96h
Reserved
SSA7
SSA6
SSA5
SSA4
SSA3
SSA2
SSA1
SSGC
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 29. Keyboard Interface SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
KBCON
A3h
Keyboard Control
KINL3
KINL2
KINL1
KINL0
KINM3
KINM2
KINM1
KINM0
KBSTA
A4h
Keyboard Status
KPDE
-
-
-
KINF3
KINF2
KINF1
KINF0
Table 30. A/D Controller SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADCON
F3h
ADC Control
-
ADIDL
ADEN
ADEOC
ADSST
-
-
ADCS
ADCLK
F2h
ADC Clock Divider
-
-
-
ADCD4
ADCD3
ADCD2
ADCD1
ADCD0
ADDL
F4h
ADC Data Low Byte
-
-
-
-
-
-
ADAT1
ADAT0
ADDH
F5h
ADC Data High Byte
ADAT9
ADAT8
ADAT7
ADAT6
ADAT5
ADAT4
ADAT3
ADAT2
32
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Table 31. SFR Addresses and Reset Values
0/8
F8h
UEPINT
0000 0000
F0h
B(1)
0000 0000
1/9
0000 0000
D8h
P5(1)
XXXX 1111
D0h
PSW(1)
0000 0000
4/C
5/D
P4(1)
1111 1111
B8h
IPL0(1)
X000 0000
B0h
ADCON
0000 0000
ADDL
0000 0000
ADDH
0000 0000
USBCLK
0000 0000
AUDCLK
0000 0000
MMCLK
0000 0000
PLLNDIV
0000 0000
PLLRDIV
0000 0000
EFh
UBYCTLX
0000 0000
MMCON0
0000 0000
MMCON1
0000 0000
MMCON2
0000 0000
MMINT
0000 0011
E7h
MMDAT
1111 1111
MMCMD
1111 1111
MMSTA
0000 0000
MMMSK
1111 1111
DFh
UEPCONX
0000 0000
UEPRST
0000 0000
FCON(3)
1111 0000(4)
F7h
D7h
UEPSTAX
0000 0000
UEPDATX
0000 0000
CFh
UEPNUM
0000 0000
C7h
UEPIEN
0000 0000
SPCON
0001 0100
SPSTA
0000 0000
SPDAT
XXXX XXXX
USBADDR
1000 0000
SADEN
0000 0000
UFNUML
0000 0000
UFNUMH
0000 0000
USBCON
0000 0000
USBINT
0000 0000
USBIEN
0001 0000
P3(1)
1111 1111
IEN1
0000 0000
IPL1
0000 0000
IPH1
0000 0000
A8h
IEN0(1)
0000 0000
SADDR
0000 0000
A0h
P2(1)
1111 1111
98h
SCON
0000 0000
90h
88h
80h
7/F
FFh
C8h
C0h
6/E
NVERS
XXXX XXXX
ADCLK
0000 0000
ACC(1)
E0h
3/B
(2)
DAT16H
XXXX XXXX
PLLCON
0000 1000
E8h
2/A
BFh
IPH0
X000 0000
B7h
AFh
AUXR1
XXXX 00X0
KBCON
0000 1111
KBSTA
0000 0000
SBUF
XXXX XXXX
AUDCON0
0000 1000
AUDCON1
1011 0010
AUDSTA
1100 0000
AUDDAT
1111 1111
P1(1)
1111 1111
BRL
0000 0000
BDRCON
XXX0 0000
SSCON
0000 0000
SSSTA
1111 1000
SSDAT
1111 1111
SSADR
1111 1110
TCON(1)
0000 0000
TMOD
0000 0000
TL0
0000 0000
TL1
0000 0000
TH0
0000 0000
TH1
0000 0000
AUXR
X000 1101
P0(1)
1111 1111
SP
0000 0111
DPL
0000 0000
DPH
0000 0000
0/8
1/9
2/A
3/B
4/C
WDTRST
XXX XXXX
5/D
WDTPRG
XXXX X000
A7h
9Fh
6/E
97h
CKCON
0000 000X(5)
8Fh
PCON
00XX 0000
87h
7/F
Reserved
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
SFR registers with least significant nibble address equal to 0 or 8 are bit-addressable.
NVERS reset value depends on the silicon version: 1000 0011 for AT89C5132 product
FCON register is only available in AT89C5132 product.
FCON reset value is 00h in case of reset with hardware condition.
CKCON reset value depends on the X2B bit (programmed or unprogrammed) in the Hardware Byte.
33
4173E–USB–09/07
10. Interrupt System
The AT89C5132, like other control-oriented computer architectures, employ a program interrupt
method. This operation branches to a subroutine and performs some service in response to the
interrupt. When the subroutine terminates, execution resumes at the point where the interrupt
occurred. Interrupts may occur as a result of internal AT89C5132 activity (e.g., timer overflow) or
at the initiation of electrical signals external to the microcontroller (e.g., keyboard). In all cases,
interrupt operation is programmed by the system designer, who determines priority of interrupt
service relative to normal code execution and other interrupt service routines. All of the interrupt
sources are enabled or disabled by the system designer and may be manipulated dynamically.
A typical interrupt event chain occurs as follows:
1. An internal or external device initiates an interrupt-request signal. The AT89C5132, latch
this event into a flag buffer.
2. The priority of the flag is compared to the priority of other interrupts by the interrupt handler. A high priority causes the handler to set an interrupt flag.
3. This signals the instruction execution unit to execute a context switch. This context
switch breaks the current flow of instruction sequences. The execution unit completes
the current instruction prior to a save of the program counter (PC) and reloads the PC
with the start address of a software service routine.
4. The software service routine executes assigned tasks and as a final activity performs a
RETI (return from interrupt) instruction. This instruction signals completion of the interrupt, resets the interrupt-in-progress priority and reloads the program counter. Program
operation then continues from the original point of interruption.
Table 32. Interrupt System Signals
Signal
Name
Type
INT0
I
External Interrupt 0
See Section "External Interrupts", page 37.
P3.2
INT1
I
External Interrupt 1
See Section “External Interrupts”, page 37.
P3.3
KIN3:0
I
Keyboard Interrupt Inputs
See Section “Keyboard Interface”, page 152.
Description
Alternate
Function
P1.3:0
Six interrupt registers are used to control the interrupt system. Two 8-bit registers are used to
enable separately the interrupt sources: IEN0 and IEN1 registers (see Table 35 and Table 36).
Four 8-bit registers are used to establish the priority level of the sources: IPH0, IPL0, IPH1 and
IPL1 registers (see Table 10-1 to Table 39).
10.1
Interrupt System Priorities
Each of the interrupt sources on the AT89C5132 can be individually programmed to one of four
priority levels. This is accomplished by one bit in the Interrupt Priority High registers (IPH0 and
IPH1) and one bit in the Interrupt Priority Low registers (IPL0 and IPL1). This provides each
interrupt source four possible priority levels according to Table 33.
34
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Table 33. Priority Levels
IPHxx
IPLxx
Priority Level
0
0
0 Lowest
0
1
1
1
0
2
1
1
3 Highest
A low-priority interrupt is always interrupted by a higher priority interrupt but not by another interrupt of lower or equal priority. Higher priority interrupts are serviced before lower priority
interrupts. The response to simultaneous occurrence of equal priority interrupts is determined by
an internal hardware polling sequence detailed in Table 34. Thus within each priority level there
is a second priority structure determined by the polling sequence. The interrupt control system is
shown in Figure 10-1.
Table 34. Priority Within Same Level
Priority Number
Interrupt Address Vectors
Interrupt Request Flag
Cleared by Hardware (H)
or by Software (S)
0 (Highest Priority)
C:0003h
H if edge, S if level
Timer 0
1
C:000Bh
H
INT1
2
C:0013h
H if edge, S if level
Timer 1
3
C:001Bh
H
Serial Port
4
C:0023h
S
Reserved
5
Audio Interface
6
C:0033h
S
MMC Interface
7
C:003Bh
S
Two-wire Controller
8
C:0043h
S
SPI Controller
9
C:004Bh
S
A-to-D Converter
10
C:0053h
S
Keyboard
11
C:005Bh
S
Reserved
12
C:0063h
-
USB
13
C:006Bh
S
14 (Lowest Priority)
C:0073h
-
Interrupt Name
INT0
Reserved
35
4173E–USB–09/07
Figure 10-1. Interrupt Control System
INT0
00
01
10
11
External
Interrupt 0
Highest
Priority
Interrupts
EX0
00
01
10
11
IEN0.0
Timer 0
ET0
INT1
External
Interrupt 1
00
01
10
11
IEN0.1
EX1
00
01
10
11
IEN0.2
Timer 1
ET1
TXD
RXD
Serial
Port
00
01
10
11
IEN0.3
ES
IEN0.4
00
01
10
11
Audio
Interface
EAUD
MCLK
MDAT
MCMD
MMC
Controller
00
01
10
11
IEN0.6
EMMC
SCL
SDA
Two-wire
Controller
00
01
10
11
IEN1.0
EI2C
SCK
SI
SO
SPI
Controller
00
01
10
11
IEN1.1
ESPI
AIN1:0
A to D
Converter
00
01
10
11
IEN1.2
EADC
00
01
10
11
IEN1.3
KIN3:0
Keyboard
EKB
D+
D-
USB
Controller
00
01
10
11
IEN1.4
EUSB
EA
IEN1.6
IEN0.7
Interrupt Enable
36
IPH/L
Priority Enable
Lowest Priority Interrupts
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
10.2
10.2.1
External Interrupts
INT1:0 Inputs
External interrupts INT0 and INT1 (INTn, n = 0 or 1) pins may each be programmed to be leveltriggered or edge-triggered, dependent upon bits IT0 and IT1 (ITn, n = 0 or 1) in TCON register
as shown in Figure 10-2. If ITn = 0, INTn is triggered by a low level at the pin. If ITn = 1, INTn is
negative-edge triggered. External interrupts are enabled with bits EX0 and EX1 (EXn, n = 0 or 1)
in IEN0. Events on INTn set the interrupt request flag IEn in TCON register. If the interrupt is
edge-triggered, the request flag is cleared by hardware when vectoring to the interrupt service
routine. If the interrupt is level-triggered, the interrupt service routine must clear the request flag
and the interrupt must be deasserted before the end of the interrupt service routine.
INT0 and INT1 inputs provide both the capability to exit from Power-down mode on low level signals as detailed in Section “Exiting Power-down Mode”, page 47.
Figure 10-2. INT1:0 Input Circuitry
INT0/1
INT0/1
Interrupt
Request
0
IE0/1
1
TCON.1/3
EX0/1
IEN0.0/2
IT0/1
TCON.0/2
10.2.2
KIN3:0 Inputs
External interrupts KIN0 to KIN3 provide the capability to connect a matrix keyboard. For
detailed information on these inputs, refer to Section “Keyboard Interface”, page 152.
10.2.3
Input Sampling
External interrupt pins (INT1:0 and KIN3:0) are sampled once per peripheral cycle (6 peripheral
clock periods) (see Figure 10-3). A level-triggered interrupt pin held low or high for more than 6
peripheral clock periods (12 oscillator in standard mode or 6 oscillator clock periods in X2 mode)
guarantees detection. Edge-triggered external interrupts must hold the request pin low for at
least 6 peripheral clock periods.
Figure 10-3. Minimum Pulse Timings
Level-Triggered Interrupt
> 1 peripheral cycle
1 cycle
Edge-Triggered Interrupt
> 1 peripheral cycle
1 cycle
1 cycle
37
4173E–USB–09/07
10.3
Registers
Table 35. IEN0 Register
IEN0 (S:A8h) – Interrupt Enable Register 0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EA
EAUD
–
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
EA
Enable All Interrupt Bit
Set to enable all interrupts.
Clear to disable all interrupts.
If EA = 1, each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing
its interrupt enable bit.
Audio Interface Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable audio interface interrupt.
Clear to disable audio interface interrupt.
6
EAUD
5
–
4
ES
Serial Port Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable serial port interrupt.
Clear to disable serial port interrupt.
3
ET1
Timer 1 Overflow Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable Timer 1 overflow interrupt.
Clear to disable Timer 1 overflow interrupt.
2
EX1
External Interrupt 1 Enable bit
Set to enable external interrupt 1.
Clear to disable external interrupt 1.
1
ET0
Timer 0 Overflow Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable timer 0 overflow interrupt.
Clear to disable timer 0 overflow interrupt.
0
EX0
External Interrupt 0 Enable Bit
Set to enable external interrupt 0.
Clear to disable external interrupt 0.
Reserved
The values read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 36. IEN1 Register
IEN1 (S:B1h) – Interrupt Enable Register 1
38
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
EUSB
–
EKB
EADC
ESPI
EI2C
EMMC
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7
-
6
EUSB
5
-
4
EKB
3
EADC
A to D Converter Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable ADC interrupt.
Clear to disable ADC interrupt.
2
ESPI
SPI Controller Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable SPI interrupt.
Clear to disable SPI interrupt.
1
EI2C
Two Wire Controller Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable Two Wire interrupt.
Clear to disable Two Wire interrupt.
0
EMMC
Description
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
USB Interface Interrupt Enable Bit
Set this bit to enable USB interrupts.
Clear this bit to disable USB interrupts.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
Keyboard Interface Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable Keyboard interrupt.
Clear to disable Keyboard interrupt.
MMC Interface Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable MMC interrupt.
Clear to disable MMC interrupt.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
39
4173E–USB–09/07
Table 10-1.
IPH0 Register
IPH0 (S:B7h) – Interrupt Priority High Register 0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
IPHAUD
–
IPHS
IPHT1
IPHX1
IPHT0
IPHX0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
-
6
IPHAUD
Audio Interface Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
5
IPHMP3
MP3 Decoder Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
4
IPHS
Serial Port Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
3
IPHT1
Timer 1 Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
2
IPHX1
External Interrupt 1 Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
1
-
0
IPHX0
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
External Interrupt 0 Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
Reset Value = X000 0000b
40
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Table 37. IPH1 Register
IPH1 (S:B3h) – Interrupt Priority High Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
IPHUSB
–
IPHKB
IPHADC
IPHSPI
IPHI2C
IPHMMC
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
-
6
IPHUSB
5
-
4
IPHKB
3
IPHADC
A to D Converter Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
2
IPHSPI
SPI Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
1
IPHI2C
Two Wire Controller Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
0
IPHMMC
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
USB Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
Keyboard Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
MMC Interrupt Priority Level MSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
41
4173E–USB–09/07
Table 38. IPL0 Register
IPL0 (S:B8h) – Interrupt Priority Low Register 0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
IPLAUD
–
IPLS
IPLT1
IPLX1
IPLT0
IPLX0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
-
6
IPLAUD
Audio Interface Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
5
IPLMP3
MP3 Decoder Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
4
IPLS
Serial Port Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
3
IPLT1
Timer 1 Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
2
IPLX1
External Interrupt 1 Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
1
IPLT0
Timer 0 Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
0
IPLX0
External Interrupt 0 Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = X000 0000b
42
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Table 39. IPL1 Register
IPL1 (S:B2h) – Interrupt Priority Low Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
IPLUSB
-
IPLKB
IPLADC
IPLSPI
IPLI2C
IPLMMC
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
-
6
IPLUSB
5
-
4
IPLKB
3
IPLADC
A to D Converter Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
2
IPLSPI
SPI Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
1
IPLI2C
Two Wire Controller Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
0
IPLMMC
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
USB Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
Keyboard Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
MMC Interrupt Priority Level LSB
Refer to Table 33 for priority level description.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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4173E–USB–09/07
11. Power Management
2 power reduction modes are implemented in the AT89C5132: the Idle mode and the Powerdown mode. These modes are detailed in the following sections. In addition to these power
reduction modes, the clocks of the core and peripherals can be dynamically divided by 2 using
the X2 mode detailed in Section “X2 Feature”, page 12.
11.1
Reset
In order to start-up (cold reset) or to restart (warm reset) properly the microcontroller, an high
level has to be applied on the RST pin. A bad level leads to a wrong initialization of the internal
registers like SFRs, Program Counter… and to unpredictable behavior of the microcontroller. A
proper device reset initializes the AT89C5132 and vectors the CPU to address 0000h. RST input
has a pull-down resistor allowing power-on reset by simply connecting an external capacitor to
VDD as shown in Figure 11-1. A warm reset can be applied either directly on the RST pin or indirectly by an internal reset source such as the watchdog timer. Resistor value and input
characteristics are discussed in the Section “DC Characteristics” of the AT89C5132 datasheet.
The status of the Port pins during reset is detailed in Table 16.
Figure 11-1. Reset Circuitry and Power-On Reset
From Internal
Reset Source
VDD
P
VDD
To CPU Core
and Peripherals
+
RRST
RST
RST
VSS
RST input circuitry
Power-on Reset
Table 16. Pin Conditions in Special Operating Modes
Mode
Reset
Idle
Power-down
Note:
11.1.1
Port 0
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 4
Port 5
MMC
Audio
Floating
High
High
High
High
High
Floating
1
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
1. Refer to Section “Audio Output Interface”, page 75.
Cold Reset
2 conditions are required before enabling a CPU start-up:
•
VDD must reach the specified VDD range
•
The level on X1 input pin must be outside the specification (VIH, VIL)
If one of these 2 conditions are not met, the microcontroller does not start correctly and can execute an instruction fetch from anywhere in the program space. An active level applied on the
RST pin must be maintained till both of the above conditions are met. A reset is active when the
level VIH1 is reached and when the pulse width covers the period of time where VDD and the
oscillator are not stabilized. 2 parameters have to be taken into account to determine the reset
pulse width:
44
•
VDD rise time,
•
Oscillator startup time.
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
To determine the capacitor value to implement, the highest value of these 2 parameters has to
be chosen. Table 17 gives some capacitor values examples for a minimum RRST of 50 KΩ and
different oscillator startup and VDD rise times.
Table 17. Minimum Reset Capacitor Value for a 50 kΩ Pull-down Resistor(1)
Note:
11.1.2
VDD Rise Time
Oscillator
Start-Up Time
1 ms
10 ms
100 ms
5 ms
820 nF
1.2 µF
12 µF
20 ms
2.7 µF
3.9 µF
12 µF
1. These values assume VDD starts from 0V to the nominal value. If the time between 2 on/off
sequences is too fast, the power-supply de-coupling capacitors may not be fully discharged,
leading to a bad reset sequence.
Warm Reset
To achieve a valid reset, the reset signal must be maintained for at least 2 machine cycles (24
oscillator clock periods) while the oscillator is running. The number of clock periods is mode
independent (X2 or X1).
11.1.3
Watchdog Reset
As detailed in Section “Watchdog Timer”, page 61, the WDT generates a 96-clock period pulse
on the RST pin. In order to properly propagate this pulse to the rest of the application in case of
external capacitor or power-supply supervisor circuit, a 1 kΩ resistor must be added as shown in
Figure 11-2.
Figure 11-2. Reset Circuitry for WDT Reset-out Usage
VDD
VDD
+
RST
RST
VSS
11.2
1K
To CPU Core
and Peripherals
RRST
VDD
P
From WDT
Reset Source
VSS
To Other
On-board
Circuitry
Reset Recommendation to Prevent Flash Corruption
An example of bad initialization situation may occur in an instance where the bit ENBOOT in
AUXR1 register is initialized from the hardware bit BLJB upon reset. Since this bit allows mapping of the bootloader in the code area, a reset failure can be critical.
If one wants the ENBOOT cleared in order to unmap the boot from the code area (yet due to a
bad reset) the bit ENBOOT in SFRs may be set. If the value of Program Counter is accidently in
the range of the boot memory addresses then a Flash access (write or erase) may corrupt the
Flash on-chip memory.
It is recommended to use an external reset circuitry featuring power supply monitoring to prevent
system malfunction during periods of insufficient power supply voltage (power supply failure,
power supply switched off).
45
4173E–USB–09/07
11.3
Idle Mode
Idle mode is a power reduction mode that reduces the power consumption. In this mode, program execution halts. Idle mode freezes the clock to the CPU at known states while the
peripherals continue to be clocked (refer to Section “Oscillator”, page 12). The CPU status
before entering Idle mode is preserved, i.e., the program counter and program status word register retain their data for the duration of Idle mode. The contents of the SFRs and RAM are also
retained. The status of the Port pins during Idle mode is detailed in Table 16.
11.3.1
Entering Idle Mode
To enter Idle mode, the user must set the IDL bit in PCON register (see Table 18). The
AT89C5132 enters Idle mode upon execution of the instruction that sets IDL bit. The instruction
that sets IDL bit is the last instruction executed.
Note:
11.3.2
If IDL bit and PD bit are set simultaneously, the AT89C5132 enter Power-down mode. Then it
does not go in Idle mode when exiting Power-down mode.
Exiting Idle Mode
There are 2 ways to exit Idle mode:
1. Generate an enabled interrupt.
–
Hardware clears IDL bit in PCON register which restores the clock to the CPU.
Execution resumes with the interrupt service routine. Upon completion of the
interrupt service routine, program execution resumes with the instruction
immediately following the instruction that activated Idle mode. The general-purpose
flags (GF1 and GF0 in PCON register) may be used to indicate whether an interrupt
occurred during normal operation or during Idle mode. When Idle mode is exited by
an interrupt, the interrupt service routine may examine GF1 and GF0.
2. Generate a reset.
–
Note:
11.4
A logic high on the RST pin clears IDL bit in PCON register directly and
asynchronously. This restores the clock to the CPU. Program execution momentarily
resumes with the instruction immediately following the instruction that activated the
Idle mode and may continue for a number of clock cycles before the internal reset
algorithm takes control. Reset initializes the AT89C5132 and vectors the CPU to
address C:0000h.
During the time that execution resumes, the internal RAM cannot be accessed; however, it is possible for the Port pins to be accessed. To avoid unexpected outputs at the Port pins, the instruction
immediately following the instruction that activated Idle mode should not write to a Port pin or to
the external RAM.
Power-down Mode
The Power-down mode places the AT89C5132 in a very low power state. Power-down mode
stops the oscillator and freezes all clocks at known states (refer to the Section "Oscillator",
page 12). The CPU status prior to entering Power-down mode is preserved, i.e., the program
counter, program status word register retain their data for the duration of Power-down mode. In
addition, the SFRs and RAM contents are preserved. The status of the Port pins during Powerdown mode is detailed in Table 16.
Note:
46
VDD may be reduced to as low as VRET during Power-down mode to further reduce power dissipation. Notice, however, that VDD is not reduced until Power-down mode is invoked.
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
11.4.1
Entering Power-down Mode
To enter Power-down mode, set PD bit in PCON register. The AT89C5132 enters the Powerdown mode upon execution of the instruction that sets PD bit. The instruction that sets PD bit is
the last instruction executed.
11.4.2
Exiting Power-down Mode
If VDD was reduced during the Power-down mode, do not exit Power-down mode until VDD is
restored to the normal operating level.
There are 2 ways to exit the Power-down mode:
1. Generate an enabled external interrupt.
–
Note:
The AT89C5132 provides capability to exit from Power-down using INT0, INT1, and
KIN3:0 inputs. In addition, using KIN input provides high or low level exit capability
(see Section “Keyboard Interface”, page 181).
Hardware clears PD bit in PCON register which starts the oscillator and restores the
clocks to the CPU and peripherals. Using INTn input, execution resumes when the
input is released (see Figure 11-3) while using KINx input, execution resumes after
counting 1024 clock ensuring the oscillator is restarted properly (see Figure 11-4).
This behavior is necessary for decoding the key while it is still pressed. In both
cases, execution resumes with the interrupt service routine. Upon completion of the
interrupt service routine, program execution resumes with the instruction
immediately following the instruction that activated Power-down mode.
1. The external interrupt used to exit Power-down mode must be configured as level sensitive
(INT0 and INT1) and must be assigned the highest priority. In addition, the duration of the
interrupt must be long enough to allow the oscillator to stabilize. The execution will only
resume when the interrupt is deasserted.
2. Exit from power-down by external interrupt does not affect the SFRs nor the internal RAM
content.
Figure 11-3. Power-down Exit Waveform Using INT1:0
INT1:0
OSC
Active phase
Power-down Phase
Oscillator Restart
Active Phase
Figure 11-4. Power-down Exit Waveform Using KIN3:0
KIN3:01
OSC
Active phase
Note:
Power-down
1024 clock count
Active phase
1. KIN3:0 can be high or low-level triggered.
2. Generate a reset.
47
4173E–USB–09/07
–
A logic high on the RST pin clears PD bit in PCON register directly and
asynchronously. This starts the oscillator and restores the clock to the CPU and
peripherals. Program execution momentarily resumes with the instruction
immediately following the instruction that activated Power-down mode and may
continue for a number of clock cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes
control. Reset initializes the AT89C5132 and vectors the CPU to address 0000h.
Notes:
11.5
1. During the time that execution resumes, the internal RAM cannot be accessed; however, it is
possible for the Port pins to be accessed. To avoid unexpected outputs at the Port pins, the
instruction immediately following the instruction that activated the Power-down mode should
not write to a Port pin or to the external RAM.
2. Exit from power-down by reset redefines all the SFRs, but does not affect the internal RAM
content.
Registers
Table 18. PCON Register
PCON (S:87h) – Power Configuration Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SMOD1
SMOD0
-
-
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
SMOD1
Serial Port Mode Bit 1
Set to select double baud rate in mode 1,2 or 3.
6
SMOD0
Serial Port Mode Bit 0
Set to select FE bit in SCON register.
Clear to select SM0 bit in SCON register.
5-4
-
3
GF1
General-Purpose Flag 1
One use is to indicate whether an interrupt occurred during normal operation or during
Idle mode.
2
GF0
General-Purpose Flag 0
One use is to indicate whether an interrupt occurred during normal operation or during
Idle mode.
1
PD
Power-Down Mode Bit
Cleared by hardware when an interrupt or reset occurs.
Set to activate the Power-down mode.
If IDL and PD are both set, PD takes precedence.
0
IDL
Idle Mode Bit
Cleared by hardware when an interrupt or reset occurs.
Set to activate the Idle mode.
If IDL and PD are both set, PD takes precedence.
Reserved
The value read from these bits is indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
Reset Value = 00XX 0000b
48
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
12. Timers/Counters
The AT89C5132 implement two general-purpose, 16-bit Timers/Counters. They are identified as
Timer 0 and Timer 1, and can be independently configured to operate in a variety of modes as a
Timer or as an event Counter. When operating as a Timer, the Timer/Counter runs for a programmed length of time, then issues an interrupt request. When operating as a Counter, the
Timer/Counter counts negative transitions on an external pin. After a preset number of counts,
the Counter issues an interrupt request.
The various operating modes of each Timer/Counter are described in the following sections.
12.1
Timer/Counter Operations
For instance, a basic operation is Timer registers THx and TLx (x = 0, 1) connected in cascade
to form a 16-bit Timer. Setting the run control bit (TRx) in TCON register (see Table 40) turns the
Timer on by allowing the selected input to increment TLx. When TLx overflows it increments
THx; when THx overflows it sets the Timer overflow flag (TFx) in TCON register. Setting the TRx
does not clear the THx and TLx Timer registers. Timer registers can be accessed to obtain the
current count or to enter preset values. They can be read at any time but TRx bit must be
cleared to preset their values, otherwise the behavior of the Timer/Counter is unpredictable.
The C/Tx# control bit selects Timer operation or Counter operation by selecting the divideddown peripheral clock or external pin Tx as the source for the counted signal. TRx bit must be
cleared when changing the mode of operation, otherwise the behavior of the Timer/Counter is
unpredictable.
For Timer operation (C/Tx# = 0), the Timer register counts the divided-down peripheral clock.
The Timer register is incremented once every peripheral cycle (6 peripheral clock periods). The
Timer clock rate is FPER/6, i.e., FOSC/12 in standard mode or FOSC/6 in X2 mode.
For Counter operation (C/Tx# = 1), the Timer register counts the negative transitions on the Tx
external input pin. The external input is sampled every peripheral cycles. When the sample is
high in one cycle and low in the next one, the Counter is incremented. Since it takes 2 cycles (12
peripheral clock periods) to recognize a negative transition, the maximum count rate is FPER/12,
i.e., FOSC/24 in standard mode or FOSC/12 in X2 mode. There are no restrictions on the duty
cycle of the external input signal, but to ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before
it changes, it should be held for at least one full peripheral cycle.
12.2
Timer Clock Controller
As shown in Figure 12-1, the Timer 0 (FT0) and Timer 1 (FT1) clocks are derived from either the
peripheral clock (FPER) or the oscillator clock (FOSC) depending on the T0X2 and T1X2 Bits in
CKCON register. These clocks are issued from the Clock Controller block as detailed in Section
’CKCON Register’, page 14. When T0X2 or T1X2 bit is set, the Timer 0 or Timer 1 clock frequency is fixed and equal to the oscillator clock frequency divided by 2. When cleared, the Timer
clock frequency is equal to the oscillator clock frequency divided by 2 in standard mode or to the
oscillator clock frequency in X2 mode.
49
4173E–USB–09/07
Figure 12-1. Timer 0 and Timer 1 Clock Controller and Symbols
PER
CLOCK
PER
CLOCK
0
Timer 0 Clock
0
Timer 1 Clock
1
OSC
CLOCK
1
OSC
CLOCK
÷2
÷2
T0X2
T1X2
CKCON.1
CKCON.2
TIM0
CLOCK
TIM1
CLOCK
Timer 0 Clock Symbol
12.3
Timer 1 Clock Symbol
Timer 0
Timer 0 functions as either a Timer or event Counter in four modes of operation. Figure 12-2
through Figure 12-8 show the logical configuration of each mode.
Timer 0 is controlled by the four lower Bits of TMOD register (see Table 41) and Bits 0, 1, 4 and
5 of TCON register (see Table 40). TMOD register selects the method of Timer gating (GATE0),
Timer or Counter operation (C/T0#) and mode of operation (M10 and M00). TCON register provides Timer 0 control functions: overflow flag (TF0), run control bit (TR0), interrupt flag (IE0) and
interrupt type control bit (IT0).
For normal Timer operation (GATE0 = 0), setting TR0 allows TL0 to be incremented by the
selected input. Setting GATE0 and TR0 allows external pin INT0 to control Timer operation.
Timer 0 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets TF0 flag generating an interrupt
request.
It is important to stop Timer/Counter before changing mode.
12.3.1
Mode 0 (13-bit Timer)
Mode 0 configures Timer 0 as a 13-bit Timer which is set up as an 8-bit Timer (TH0 register) with
a modulo 32 prescaler implemented with the lower five Bits of TL0 register (see Figure 12-2).
The upper three Bits of TL0 register are indeterminate and should be ignored. Prescaler overflow increments TH0 register. Figure 12-3 gives the overflow period calculation formula.
Figure 12-2. Timer/Counter x (x = 0 or 1) in Mode 0
TIMx
CLOCK
÷6
0
1
TLx
(5 Bits)
THx
(8 Bits)
Overflow
TFx
TCON Reg
Timer x
Interrupt
Request
Tx
C/Tx#
TMOD Reg
INTx
GATEx
TMOD Reg
TRx
TCON Reg
Figure 12-3. Mode 0 Overflow Period Formula
TFxPER=
50
6 ⋅ (16384 – (THx, TLx))
FTIMx
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
12.3.2
Mode 1 (16-bit Timer)
Mode 1 configures Timer 0 as a 16-bit Timer with TH0 and TL0 registers connected in cascade
(see Figure 12-4). The selected input increments TL0 register. Figure 12-5 gives the overflow
period calculation formula when in timer mode.
Figure 12-4. Timer/Counter x (x = 0 or 1) in Mode 1
TIMx
CLOCK
÷6
0
THx
(8 Bits)
1
TLx
(8 Bits)
Overflow
TFx
TCON Reg
Tx
Timer x
Interrupt
Request
C/Tx#
TMOD Reg
INTx
GATEx
TRx
TMOD Reg
TCON Reg
Figure 12-5. Mode 1 Overflow Period Formula
TFxPER=
12.3.3
6 ⋅ (65536 – (THx, TLx))
FTIMx
Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with Auto-Reload)
Mode 2 configures Timer 0 as an 8-bit Timer (TL0 register) that automatically reloads from TH0
register (see Table 42). TL0 overflow sets TF0 flag in TCON register and reloads TL0 with the
contents of TH0, which is preset by software. When the interrupt request is serviced, hardware
clears TF0. The reload leaves TH0 unchanged. The next reload value may be changed at any
time by writing it to TH0 register. Figure 12-7 gives the autoreload period calculation formula
when in timer mode.
Figure 12-6. Timer/Counter x (x = 0 or 1) in Mode 2
TIMx
CLOCK
÷6
0
TLx
(8 Bits)
1
Tx
Overflow
TFx
TCON Reg
Timer x
Interrupt
Request
C/Tx#
TMOD Reg
INTx
GATEx
TMOD Reg
THx
(8 Bits)
TRx
TCON Reg
Figure 12-7. Mode 2 Autoreload Period Formula
TFxPER=
12.3.4
6 ⋅ (256 – THx)
FTIMx
Mode 3 (Two 8-bit Timers)
Mode 3 configures Timer 0 such that registers TL0 and TH0 operate as separate 8-bit Timers
(see Figure 12-8). This mode is provided for applications requiring an additional 8-bit Timer or
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4173E–USB–09/07
Counter. TL0 uses the Timer 0 control Bits C/T0# and GATE0 in TMOD register, and TR0 and
TF0 in TCON register in the normal manner. TH0 is locked into a Timer function (counting
FTF1/6) and takes over use of the Timer 1 interrupt (TF1) and run control (TR1) Bits. Thus, operation of Timer 1 is restricted when Timer 0 is in mode 3. Figure 12-7 gives the autoreload period
calculation formulas for both TF0 and TF1 flags.
Figure 12-8. Timer/Counter 0 in Mode 3: Two 8-bit Counters
TIM0
CLOCK
÷6
0
1
TL0
(8 Bits)
Overflow
TH0
(8 Bits)
Overflow
TF0
TCON.5
T0
Timer 0
Interrupt
Request
C/T0#
TMOD.2
INT0
GATE0
TR0
TMOD.3
TIM0
CLOCK
TCON.4
÷6
TF1
TCON.7
Timer 1
Interrupt
Request
TR1
TCON.6
Figure 12-9. Mode 3 Overflow Period Formula
TF0PER =
12.4
6 ⋅ (256 – TL0)
FTIM0
TF1PER =
6 ⋅ (256 – TH0)
FTIM0
Timer 1
Timer 1 is identical to Timer 0 excepted for Mode 3 which is a hold-count mode. Following comments help to understand the differences:
52
•
Timer 1 functions as either a Timer or event Counter in three modes of operation. Figure 122 through Figure 12-6 show the logical configuration for modes 0, 1, and 2. Timer 1’s mode
3 is a hold-count mode.
•
Timer 1 is controlled by the four high-order Bits of TMOD register (see Table 41) and Bits 2,
3, 6 and 7 of TCON register (see Figure 40). TMOD register selects the method of Timer
gating (GATE1), Timer or Counter operation (C/T1#) and mode of operation (M11 and M01).
TCON register provides Timer 1 control functions: overflow flag (TF1), run control bit (TR1),
interrupt flag (IE1) and interrupt type control bit (IT1).
•
Timer 1 can serve as the Baud Rate Generator for the Serial Port. Mode 2 is best suited for
this purpose.
•
For normal Timer operation (GATE1 = 0), setting TR1 allows TL1 to be incremented by the
selected input. Setting GATE1 and TR1 allows external pin INT1 to control Timer operation.
•
Timer 1 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets the TF1 flag generating an
interrupt request.
•
When Timer 0 is in mode 3, it uses Timer 1’s overflow flag (TF1) and run control bit (TR1).
For this situation, use Timer 1 only for applications that do not require an interrupt (such as a
Baud Rate Generator for the Serial Port) and switch Timer 1 in and out of mode 3 to turn it
off and on.
•
It is important to stop the Timer/Counter before changing modes.
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
12.4.1
Mode 0 (13-bit Timer)
Mode 0 configures Timer 1 as a 13-bit Timer, which is set up as an 8-bit Timer (TH1 register)
with a modulo-32 prescaler implemented with the lower 5 Bits of the TL1 register (see Figure 122). The upper 3 Bits of TL1 register are ignored. Prescaler overflow increments TH1 register.
12.4.2
Mode 1 (16-bit Timer)
Mode 1 configures Timer 1 as a 16-bit Timer with TH1 and TL1 registers connected in cascade
(see Figure 12-4). The selected input increments TL1 register.
12.4.3
Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with
Auto-Reload)
Mode 2 configures Timer 1 as an 8-bit Timer (TL1 register) with automatic reload from TH1 register on overflow (see Figure 12-6). TL1 overflow sets TF1 flag in TCON register and reloads
TL1 with the contents of TH1, which is preset by software. The reload leaves TH1 unchanged.
12.4.4
Mode 3 (Halt)
Placing Timer 1 in mode 3 causes it to halt and hold its count. This can be used to halt Timer 1
when TR1 run control bit is not available i.e. when Timer 0 is in mode 3.
12.5
Interrupt
Each Timer handles one interrupt source that is the timer overflow flag TF0 or TF1. This flag is
set every time an overflow occurs. Flags are cleared when vectoring to the Timer interrupt routine. Interrupts are enabled by setting ETx bit in IEN0 register. This assumes interrupts are
globally enabled by setting EA bit in IEN0 register.
Figure 12-10. Timer Interrupt System
Timer 0
Interrupt Request
TF0
TCON.5
ET0
IEN0.1
Timer 1
Interrupt Request
TF1
TCON.7
ET1
IEN0.3
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4173E–USB–09/07
12.6
Registers
Table 40. TCON Register
TCON (S:88h) – Timer/Counter Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
TF1
Timer 1 Overflow Flag
Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to interrupt routine.
Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow, when Timer 1 register overflows.
6
TR1
Timer 1 Run Control Bit
Clear to turn off Timer/Counter 1.
Set to turn on Timer/Counter 1.
5
TF0
Timer 0 Overflow Flag
Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to interrupt routine.
Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow, when Timer 0 register overflows.
4
TR0
Timer 0 Run Control Bit
Clear to turn off Timer/Counter 0.
Set to turn on Timer/Counter 0.
3
IE1
Interrupt 1 Edge Flag
Cleared by hardware when interrupt is processed if edge-triggered (see IT1).
Set by hardware when external interrupt is detected on INT1 pin.
2
IT1
Interrupt 1 Type Control Bit
Clear to select low level active (level triggered) for external interrupt 1 (INT1).
Set to select falling edge active (edge triggered) for external interrupt 1.
1
IE0
Interrupt 0 Edge Flag
Cleared by hardware when interrupt is processed if edge-triggered (see IT0).
Set by hardware when external interrupt is detected on INT0 pin.
0
IT0
Interrupt 0 Type Control Bit
Clear to select low level active (level triggered) for external interrupt 0 (INT0).
Set to select falling edge active (edge triggered) for external interrupt 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 41. TMOD Register
TMOD (89:h) - Timer/Counter 0 and 1 Modes
54
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
GATE1
C/T1#
M11
M01
GATE0
C/T0#
M10
M00
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7
GATE1
Timer 1 Gating Control Bit
Clear to enable Timer 1 whenever TR1 bit is set.
Set to enable Timer 1 only while INT1 pin is high and TR1 bit is set.
6
C/T1#
Timer 1 Counter/Timer Select Bit
Clear for Timer operation: Timer 1 counts the divided-down system clock.
Set for Counter operation: Timer 1 counts negative transitions on external pin T1.
5
M11
4
M01
Description
Timer 1 Mode Select Bits
M11 M01
Operating mode
0
0
Mode 0: 8-bit Timer/Counter (TH1) with 5-bit prescaler (TL1).
0
1
Mode 1: 16-bit Timer/Counter.
1
0
Mode 2: 8-bit auto-reload Timer/Counter (TL1).(1)
1
1
Mode 3: Timer 1 halted. Retains count.
3
GATE0
Timer 0 Gating Control Bit
Clear to enable Timer 0 whenever TR0 bit is set.
Set to enable Timer/Counter 0 only while INT0 pin is high and TR0 bit is set.
2
C/T0#
Timer 0 Counter/Timer Select Bit
Clear for Timer operation: Timer 0 counts the divided-down system clock.
Set for Counter operation: Timer 0 counts negative transitions on external pin T0.
Timer 0 Mode Select Bit
M10 M00
Operating mode
0
0
Mode 0: 8-bit Timer/Counter (TH0) with 5-bit prescaler (TL0).
0
1
Mode 1: 16-bit Timer/Counter.
1
0
Mode 2: 8-bit auto-reload Timer/Counter (TL0).(2)
M10
1
M00
0
1
1
Mode 3: TL0 is an 8-bit Timer/Counter.
TH0 is an 8-bit Timer using Timer 1’s TR0 and TF0 Bits.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Notes:
1. Reloaded from TH1 at overflow.
2. Reloaded from TH0 at overflow.
Table 42. TH0 Register
TH0 (S:8Ch) – Timer 0 High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7:0
High Byte of Timer 0
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
55
4173E–USB–09/07
Table 43. TL0 Register
TL0 (S:8Ah) – Timer 0 Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
Low Byte of Timer 0
7:0
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 44. TH1 Register
TH1 (S:8Dh) – Timer 1 High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
High Byte of Timer 1
7:0
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 45. TL1 Register
TL1 (S:8Bh) – Timer 1 Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7:0
Low Byte of Timer 1
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
56
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
13. Watchdog Timer
The AT89C5132 implement a hardware Watchdog Timer (WDT) that automatically resets the
chip if it is allowed to time out. The WDT provides a means of recovering from routines that do
not complete successfully due to software or hardware malfunctions.
13.1
Description
The WDT consists of a 14-bit prescaler followed by a 7-bit programmable counter. As shown in
Figure 13-1, the 14-bit prescaler is fed by the WDT clock detailed in section "Watchdog Clock
Controller", page 57.
The Watchdog Timer Reset register (WDTRST, see Table 47) provides control access to the
WDT, while the Watchdog Timer Program register (WDTPRG, see Figure 48) provides time-out
period programming.
Three operations control the WDT:
•
Chip reset clears and disables the WDT.
•
Programming the time-out value to the WDTPRG register.
•
Writing a specific two-byte sequence to the WDTRST register clears and enables the WDT.
Figure 13-1. WDT Block Diagram
WDT
CLOCK
7-bit Counter
14-bit Prescaler
÷6
To internal
reset
OV
RST
RST
SET
WTO2:0
System
Reset
1Eh-E1h Decoder
RST
WDTPRG.2:0
EN
MATCH
OSC
CLOCK
Pulse Generator
RST
WDTRST
13.2
Watchdog Clock Controller
As shown in Figure 13-2 the WDT clock (FWDT) is derived from either the peripheral clock (FPER)
or the oscillator clock (FOSC) depending on the WTX2 bit in CKCON register. These clocks are
issued from the Clock Controller block as detailed in section "Clock Controller", page 12. When
WTX2 bit is set, the WDT clock frequency is fixed and equal to the oscillator clock frequency
divided by 2. When cleared, the WDT clock frequency is equal to the oscillator clock frequency
divided by 2 in standard mode or to the oscillator clock frequency in X2 mode.
Figure 13-2. WDT Clock Controller and Symbol
PER
CLOCK
0
WDT Clock
1
OSC
CLOCK
÷2
WDT
CLOCK
WDT Clock Symbol
WTX2
CKCON.6
57
4173E–USB–09/07
13.3
Watchdog Operation
After reset, the WDT is disabled. The WDT is enabled by writing the sequence 1Eh and E1h into
the WDTRST register. As soon as it is enabled, there is no way except the chip reset to disable
it. If it is not cleared using the previous sequence, the WDT overflows and forces a chip reset.
This overflow generates a high level 96 oscillator periods pulse on the RST pin to globally reset
the application. (refer to Section “Power Management”, page 48)
The WDT time-out period can be adjusted using WTO2:0 Bits located in the WDTPRG register
accordingly to the formula shown in Figure 13-3. In this formula, WTOval represents the decimal
value of WTO2:0 Bits. Table 48 reports the time-out period depending on the WDT frequency.
Figure 13-3. WDT Time-Out Formula
WDTTO=
6 ⋅ (214 ⋅ 2WTOval)
FWDT
Table 46. WDT Time-Out Computation
FWDT (ms)
WTO2
WTO1
WTO0
6 MHz(1)
8 MHz(1)
10 MHz(1)
12 MHz(2)
16 MHz(2)
20 MHz(2)
0
0
0
16.38
12.28
9.83
8.19
6.14
4.92
0
0
1
32.77
24.57
19.66
16.38
12.28
9.83
0
1
0
65.54
49.14
39.32
32.77
24.57
19.66
0
1
1
131.07
98.28
78.64
65.54
49.14
39.32
1
0
0
262.14
196.56
157.29
131.07
98.28
78.64
1
0
1
524.29
393.1
314.57
262.14
196.56
157.29
1
1
0
1049
786.24
629.15
524.29
393.12
314.57
1
1
1
2097
1572
1258
1049
786.24
629.15
Notes:
13.3.1
1. These frequencies are achieved in X1 mode or in X2 mode when WTX2 = 1:
FWDT = FOSC ÷ 2.
2. These frequencies are achieved in X2 mode when WTX2 = 0: FWDT = FOSC.
WDT Behavior During Idle and Power-down Modes
Operation of the WDT during power reduction modes deserves special attention.
The WDT continues to count while the AT89C5132 are in Idle mode. This means that the user
must dedicate some internal or external hardware to service the WDT during Idle mode. One
approach is to use a peripheral Timer to generate an interrupt request when the Timer overflows. The interrupt service routine then clears the WDT, reloads the peripheral Timer for the
next service period and puts the AT89C5132 back into Idle mode.
The Power-down mode stops all phase clocks. This causes the WDT to stop counting and to
hold its count. The WDT resumes counting from where it left off if the Power-down mode is terminated by INT0, INT1 or keyboard interrupt. To ensure that the WDT does not overflow shortly
after exiting the Power-down mode, it is recommended to clear the WDT just before entering
Power-down mode.
The WDT is cleared and disabled if the Power-down mode is terminated by a reset.
58
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
13.4
Registers
Table 47. WDTRST Register
WDTRST (S:A6h Write only) – Watchdog Timer Reset Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
-
Watchdog Control Value.
Reset Value = XXXX XXXXb
Table 48. WDTPRG Register
WDTPRG (S:A7h) – Watchdog Timer Program Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
WTO2
WTO1
WTO0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-3
-
2-0
WTO2:0
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are indeterminate. Do not set these Bits.
Watchdog Timer Time-Out Selection Bits
Refer to Table 46 for time-out periods.
Reset Value = XXXX X000b
59
4173E–USB–09/07
14. Audio Output Interface
The AT89C5132 implement an audio output interface allowing the audio bitstream to be output
in various formats. It is compatible with right and left justification PCM and I2S formats and
thanks to the on-chip PLL (see Section “Clock Controller”, page 12) allows connection of almost
all of the commercial audio DAC families available on the market.
14.1
Description
The C51 core interfaces to the audio interface through five special function registers: AUDCON0
and AUDCON1, the Audio Control registers (see Table 51 and Table 52); AUDSTA, the Audio
Status register (see Table 53); AUDDAT, the Audio Data register (see Table 54); and AUDCLK,
the Audio Clock Divider register (see Table 55).
Figure 14-1 shows the audio interface block diagram, blocks are detailed in the following
sections.
Figure 14-1. Audio Interface Block Diagram
SCLK
AUD
CLOCK
DCLK
Clock Generator
0
DSEL
AUDEN
1
AUDCON1.0
Data Ready
HLR
DSIZ
AUDCON0.0
AUDCON0.1
POL
AUDCON0.2
16
Audio Data
From C51
8
Audio Buffer
AUDDAT
Data Converter
SREQ
JUST4:0
AUDSTA.7
AUDCON0.7:3
DOUT
UDRN
AUDSTA.6
AUBUSY
DUP1:0
AUDSTA.5
AUDCON1.2:1
14.2
Clock Generator
The audio interface clock is generated by division of the PLL clock. The division factor is given
by AUCD4:0 bits in AUDCLK register. Figure 14-2 shows the audio interface clock generator
and its calculation formula. The audio interface clock frequency depends on the audio DAC
used.
60
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Figure 14-2. Audio Clock Generator and Symbol
AUDCLK
PLL
CLOCK
AUCD4:0
AUD
CLOCK
Audio Interface Clock
Audio Clock Symbol
PLLclk
AUDclk = --------------------------AUCD + 1
As soon as audio interface is enabled by setting AUDEN bit in AUDCON1 register, the master
clock generated by the PLL is output on the SCLK pin which is the DAC system clock. This clock
is output at 256 or 384 times the sampling frequency depending on the DAC capabilities. HLR bit
in AUDCON0 register must be set according to this rate for properly generating the audio bit
clock on the DCLK pin and the word selection clock on the DSEL pin. These clocks are not generated when no data is available at the data converter input.
For DAC compatibility, the bit clock frequency is programmable for outputting 16 bits or 32 bits
per channel using the DSIZ bit in AUDCON0 register (see Section "Data Converter", page 61),
and the word selection signal is programmable for outputting left channel on low or high level
according to POL bit in AUDCON0 register as shown in Figure 14-3.
Figure 14-3. DSEL Output Polarity
14.3
POL = 0
Left Channel
Right Channel
POL = 1
Left Channel
Right Channel
Data Converter
The data converter block converts the audio stream input from the 16-bit parallel format to a
serial format. For accepting all PCM formats and I2S format, JUST4:0 bits in AUDCON0 register
are used to shift the data output point. As shown in Figure 14-4, these bits allow MSB justification by setting JUST4:0 = 00000, LSB justification by setting JUST4:0 = 10000, I2S Justification
by setting JUST4:0 = 00001, and more than 16-bit LSB justification by filling the low significant
bits with logic 0.
Table 49. DAC Format Programing Examples
DAC Format
POL
DSIZ
JUST4:0
16-bit I2S
0
0
00001
2
> 16-bit I S
0
1
00001
16-bit PCM
1
0
00000
18-bit PCM LSB justified
1
1
01110
20-bit PCM LSB justified
1
1
01100
20-bit PCM MSB justified
1
1
00000
61
4173E–USB–09/07
Figure 14-4. Audio Output Format
DSEL
DCLK
DOUT
Left Channel
1
2
3
Right Channel
13
14
15
LSB MSB B14
16
B1
1
2
3
13
14
15
LSB MSB B14
16
B1
I2S Format with DSIZ = 0 and JUST4:0 = 00001.
DSEL
DCLK
Left Channel
1
DOUT
2
Right Channel
3
17
MSB B14
LSB
18
32
1
2
3
17
MSB B14
LSB
18
32
I2S Format with DSIZ = 1 and JUST4:0 = 00001.
DSEL
DCLK
DOUT
Left Channel
1
2
3
Right Channel
13
14
MSB B14
15
B1
16
1
2
3
13
14
LSB MSB B15
15
B1
16
LSB
MSB/LSB Justified Format with DSIZ = 0 and JUST4:0 = 00000.
DSEL
DCLK
Left Channel
1
16
DOUT
17
Right Channel
18
31
MSB B14
B1
32
1
16
LSB
17
18
31
MSB B14
B1
32
LSB
16-bit LSB Justified Format with DSIZ = 1 and JUST4:0 = 10000.
DSEL
DCLK
Left Channel
1
15
DOUT
16
MSB B16
Right Channel
30
B2
31
B1
32
LSB
1
15
16
MSB B16
30
B2
31
B1
32
LSB
18-bit LSB Justified Format with DSIZ = 1 and JUST4:0 = 01110.
As soon as first audio data is input to the data converter, it enables the clock generator for generating the bit and word clocks.
14.4
Audio Buffer
In voice or sound playing mode, the audio stream comes from the C51 core through an audio
buffer. The data is in 8-bit format and is sampled at 8 kHz. The audio buffer adapts the sample
format and rate. The sample format is extended to 16 bits by filling the LSB to 00h. Rate is
adapted to the DAC rate by duplicating the data using DUP1:0 bits in AUDCON1 register
according to Table 50.
The audio buffer interfaces to the C51 core through three flags: the sample request flag (SREQ
in AUDSTA register), the under-run flag (UNDR in AUDSTA register) and the busy flag
(AUBUSY in AUDSTA register). SREQ and UNDR can generate an interrupt request as
explained in Section "Interrupt Request", page 63. The buffer size is 8 Bytes large. SREQ is set
when the samples number switches from 4 to 3 and reset when the samples number switches
from 4 to 5; UNDR is set when the buffer becomes empty signaling that the audio interface ran
out of samples; and AUBUSY is set when the buffer is full.
62
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
Table 50. Sample Duplication Factor
14.5
DUP1
DUP0
Factor
0
0
No sample duplication, DAC rate = 8 kHz (C51 rate).
0
1
One sample duplication, DAC rate = 16 kHz (2 x C51 rate).
1
0
Two samples duplication, DAC rate = 32 kHz (4 x C51 rate).
1
1
Three samples duplication, DAC rate = 48 kHz (6 x C51 rate).
Interrupt Request
The audio interrupt request can be generated by two sources when in C51 audio mode: a sample request when SREQ flag in AUDSTA register is set to logic 1, and an under-run condition
when UDRN flag in AUDSTA register is set to logic 1. Both sources can be enabled separately
by masking one of them using the MSREQ and MUDRN bits in AUDCON1 register. A global
enable of the audio interface is provided by setting the EAUD bit in IEN0 register.
The interrupt is requested each time one of the two sources is set to one. The source flags are
cleared by writing some data in the audio buffer through AUDDAT, but the global audio interrupt
flag is cleared by hardware when the interrupt service routine is executed.
Figure 14-5. Audio Interface Interrupt System
UDRN
AUDSTA.6
Audio
Interrupt
Request
MUDRN
AUDCON1.4
SREQ
EAUD
AUDSTA.7
IEN0.6
MSREQ
AUDCON1.5
14.6
Voice or Sound Playing
In voice or sound playing mode, the operations required are to configure the PLL and the audio
interface according to the DAC selected. The audio clock is programmed to generate the 256·Fs
or 384·Fs. The data flow sent by the C51 is then regulated by interrupt and data is loaded 4
Bytes by 4 Bytes. Figure 14-6 shows the configuration flow of the audio interface when in voice
or sound mode.
63
4173E–USB–09/07
Figure 14-6. Voice or Sound Mode Audio Flows
Voice/Song Mode
Configuration
Audio Interrupt
Service Routine
Wait for DAC
Enable Time
Program Audio Clock
Configure Interface
HLR = X
DSIZ = X
POL = X
JUST4:0 = XXXXXb
DUP1:0 = XX
Sample Request?
SREQ = 1?
Load 8 Samples in the
Audio Buffer
Under-run Condition1
Load 4 Samples in the
Audio Buffer
Enable Interrupt
Set MSREQ & MUDRN1
EAUD = 1
Enable DAC System
Clock
AUDEN = 1
Note:
1. An under-run occurrence signifies that the C51 core did not respond to the previous sample request interrupt. It may never
occur for a correct voice/sound generation. It is the user’s responsibility to mask it or not.
14.7
Registers
Table 51. AUDCON0 Register
AUDCON0 (S:9Ah) – Audio Interface Control Register 0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
JUST4
JUST3
JUST2
JUST1
JUST0
POL
DSIZ
HLR
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-3
JUST4:0
2
POL
DSEL Signal Output Polarity
Set to output the left channel on high level of DSEL output (PCM mode).
Clear to output the left channel on the low level of DSEL output (I2S mode).
1
DSIZ
Audio Data Size
Set to select 32-bit data output format.
Clear to select 16-bit data output format.
0
HLR
High/Low Rate Bit
Set by software when the PLL clock frequency is 384·Fs.
Clear by software when the PLL clock frequency is 256·Fs.
Audio Stream Justification Bits
Refer to Section "Data Converter", page 61 for bits description.
Reset Value = 0000 1000b
Table 52. AUDCON1 Register
AUDCON1 (S:9Bh) – Audio Interface Control Register 1
64
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
MSREQ
MUDRN
-
DUP1
DUP0
AUDEN
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7-6
–
Reserved
The value read from these bits is always 0. Do not set these bits.
5
MSREQ
Audio Sample Request Flag Mask Bit
Set to prevent the SREQ flag from generating an audio interrupt.
Clear to allow the SREQ flag to generate an audio interrupt.
4
MUDRN
Audio Sample Under-run Flag Mask Bit
Set to prevent the UDRN flag from generating an audio interrupt.
Clear to allow the UDRN flag to generate an audio interrupt.
3
–
2-1
DUP1:0
Audio Duplication Factor
Refer to Table 50 for bits description.
0
AUDEN
Audio Interface Enable Bit
Set to enable the audio interface.
Clear to disable the audio interface.
Description
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = 1011 0010b
Table 53. AUDSTA Register
AUDSTA (S:9Ch Read Only) – Audio Interface Status Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SREQ
UDRN
AUBUSY
-
-
-
-
-
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
SREQ
Audio Sample Request Flag
Set in C51 audio source mode when the audio interface request samples (buffer half
empty). This bit generates an interrupt if not masked and if enabled in IEN0.
Cleared by hardware when samples are loaded in AUDDAT.
UDRN
Audio Sample Under-run Flag
Set in C51 audio source mode when the audio interface runs out of samples (buffer
empty). This bit generates an interrupt if not masked and if enabled in IEN0.
Cleared by hardware when samples are loaded in AUDDAT.
5
AUBUSY
Audio Interface Busy Bit
Set in C51 audio source mode when the audio interface cannot accept more sample
(buffer full).
Cleared by hardware when buffer is no more full.
4-0
-
7
6
Reserved
The value read from these bits is always 0. Do not set these bits.
Reset Value = 1100 0000b
Table 54. AUDDAT Register
AUDDAT (S:9Dh) – Audio Interface Data Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
AUD7
AUD6
AUD5
AUD4
AUD3
AUD2
AUD1
AUD0
65
4173E–USB–09/07
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7-0
AUD7:0
Description
Audio Data
8-bit sampling data for voice or sound playing.
Reset Value = 1111 1111b
Table 55. AUDCLK Register
AUDCLK (S:ECh) – Audio Clock Divider Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
AUCD4
AUCD3
AUCD2
AUCD1
AUCD0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-5
-
4-0
AUCD4:0
Reserved
The value read from these bits is always 0. Do not set these bits.
Audio Clock Divider
5-bit divider for audio clock generation.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
66
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
15. Universal Serial Bus
The AT89C5132 implement a USB device controller supporting Full-speed data transfer. In addition to the default control endpoint 0, it provides 3 other endpoints, which can be configured in
Control, Bulk, Interrupt or Isochronous types.
This allows to develop firmware conforming to most USB device classes, for example the
AT89C5132 support:
15.0.1
•
USB Mass Storage Class Control/Bulk/Interrupt (CBI) Transport, Revision 1.0 – December
14, 1998
•
USB Mass Storage Class Bulk-Only Transport, Revision 1.0 – September 31, 1999
•
USB Device Firmware Upgrade Class, Revision 1.0 – May 13, 1999
USB Mass Storage Class CBI Transport
Within the CBI framework, the Control endpoint is used to transport command blocks as well as
to transport standard USB requests. One Bulk Out endpoint is used to transport data from the
host to the device. One Bulk In endpoint is used to transport data from the device to the host.
And one interrupt endpoint may also be used to signal command completion (protocol 0) but it is
optional and may not be used (protocol 1).
The following AT89C5132 configuration adheres to that requirements:
15.0.2
•
Endpoint 0: 32 Bytes, Control In-Out
•
Endpoint 1: 64 Bytes, Bulk Out
•
Endpoint 2: 64 Bytes, Bulk In
•
Endpoint 3: 8 Bytes, Interrupt In
USB Mass Storage Class Bulk-Only Transport
Within the Bulk-only framework, the Control endpoint is only used to transport class-specific and
standard USB requests for device set-up and configuration. One Bulk-out endpoint is used to
transport commands and data from the host to the device. One Bulk in endpoint is used to transport status and data from the device to the host. No interrupt endpoint is needed.
The following AT89C5132 configuration adheres to that requirements:
15.0.3
•
Endpoint 0: 32 Bytes, Control In-Out
•
Endpoint 1: 64 Bytes, Bulk Out
•
Endpoint 2: 64 Bytes, Bulk In
•
Endpoint 3: not used
USB Device Firmware Upgrade (DFU)
The USB Device Firmware Update (DFU) protocol can be used to upgrade the on-chip Flash
memory of the AT89C5132. This allows installing product enhancements and patches to devices
that are already in the field. Two different configurations and descriptor sets are used to support
DFU functions. The Run-Time configuration co-exist with the usual functions of the device,
which shall be USB Mass Storage for AT89C5132. It is used to initiate DFU from the normal
operating mode. The DFU configuration is used to perform the firmware update after device reconfiguration and USB reset. It excludes any other function. Only the default control pipe (endpoint 0) is used to support DFU services in both configurations.
The only possible value for the MaxPacketSize in the DFU configuration is 32 Bytes, which is the
size of the FIFO implemented for endpoint 0.
67
4173E–USB–09/07
15.1
Description
The USB device controller provides the hardware that the AT89C5132 need to interface a USB
link to data flow stored in a double port memory.
It requires a 48 MHz reference clock provided by the clock controller as detailed in Section
"Clock Controller", page 68. This clock is used to generate a 12 MHz Full Speed bit clock from
the received USB differential data flow and to transmit data according to full speed USB device
tolerance. Clock recovery is done by a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL) block.
The Serial Interface Engine (SIE) block performs NRZI encoding and decoding, bit stuffing, CRC
generation and checking, and the serial-parallel data conversion.
The Universal Function Interface (UFI) controls the interface between the data flow and the Dual
Port RAM, but also the interface with the C51 core itself.
Figure 15-3 shows how to connect the AT89C5132 to the USB connector. D+ and D- pins are
connected through 2 termination resistors. A pull-up resistor is implemented on D+ to inform the
host of a full speed device connection. Value of these resistors is detailed in the section “DC
Characteristics”.
Figure 15-1. USB Device Controller Block Diagram
USB
CLOCK
D+
D-
48 MHz
12 MHz
DPLL
USB
Buffer
UFI
To/From
C51 Core
SIE
Figure 15-2. USB Connection
VDD
VBUS
To Power
Supply
D+
RFS
RUSB
D-
RUSB
D+
D-
GND
VSS
15.1.1
Clock Controller
The USB controller clock is generated by division of the PLL clock. The division factor is given by
USBCD1:0 Bits in USBCLK register (see Table 70). Figure 15-3 shows the USB controller clock
68
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
generator and its calculation formula. The USB controller clock frequency must always be 48
MHz.
Figure 15-3. USB Clock Generator and Symbol
USBCLK
PLL
CLOCK
USBCD1:0
USB
CLOCK
48 MHz USB Clock
USB Clock Symbol
PLLclk
USBclk = -------------------------------USBCD + 1
15.1.2
Serial Interface Engine (SIE)
The SIE performs the following functions:
•
NRZI data encoding and decoding
•
Bit stuffing and unstuffing
•
CRC generation and checking
•
ACKs and NACKs automatic generation
•
TOKEN type identifying
•
Address checking
•
Clock recovery (using DPLL)
Figure 15-4. SIE Block Diagram
End of Packet
Detector
SYNC Detector
Start of Packet
Detector
NRZI ‘ NRZ
Bit Unstuffing
Packet Bit Counter
Address Decoder
Serial to Parallel
Converter
D+
DUSB 48 MHz
CLOCK
Clock
Recover
PID Decoder
8
Data Out
SysClk
(12 MHz)
CRC5 & CRC16
Generator/Check
USB Pattern Generator
Parallel to Serial Converter
Bit Stuffing
NRZI Converter
CRC16 Generator
8
Data In
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4173E–USB–09/07
15.1.3
Function Interface Unit (UFI)
The Function Interface Unit provides the interface between the AT89C5132 and the SIE. It manages transactions at the packet level with minimal intervention from the device firmware, which
reads and writes the endpoint FIFOs.
Figure 15-6 shows typical USB IN and OUT transactions reporting the split in the hardware (UFI)
and software (C51) load.
Figure 15-5. UFI Block Diagram
12 MHz DPLL
Transfer
Control
FSM
To/From SIE
Endpoint Control
USB side
Asynchronous Information
Endpoint 2
USBCON
USBADDR
USBINT
USBIEN
UEPNUM
UEPCONX
UEPSTAX
UEPRST
UEPINT
UEPIEN
UEPDATX
UBYCTX
UFNUMH
UFNUML
To/From C51 Core
Endpoint Control
C51 side
Endpoint 1
Endpoint 0
Figure 15-6. USB Typical Transaction Load
OUT Transactions:
HOST
OUT
DATA0 (n Bytes)
UFI
C51
OUT
ACK
DATA1
C51 interrupt
OUT
DATA1
NACK
ACK
Endpoint FIFO read (n Bytes)
IN Transactions:
HOST
UFI
C51
15.2
IN
IN
NACK
Endpoint FIFO Write
IN
DATA1
ACK
DATA1
C51 interrupt
Endpoint FIFO write
USB Interrupt System
As shown in Figure 15-7, the USB controller of the AT89C5132 handle sixteen interrupt sources.
These sources are separated in two groups: the endpoints interrupts and the controller interrupts, combined together to appear as single interrupt source for the C51 core. The USB
interrupt is enabled by setting the EUSB bit in IEN1.
70
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
15.2.1
Controller Interrupt Sources
There are four controller interrupt sources which can be enabled separately in USBIEN:
15.2.2
•
SPINT: Suspend Interrupt Flag.
This flag triggers an interrupt when a USB Suspend (Idle bus for three frame periods: a J
state for 3 ms) is detected.
•
SOFINT: Start Of Frame Interrupt Flag.
This flag triggers an interrupt when a USB start of frame packet has been received.
•
EORINT: End Of Reset Interrupt Flag.
This flag triggers an interrupt when a End Of Reset has been detected by the USB
controller.
•
WUPCPU: Wake Up CPU Interrupt Flag.
This flag triggers an interrupt when the USB controller is in SUSPEND state and is reactivated by a non-idle signal from USB line.
Endpoint Interrupt Sources
Each endpoint supports four interrupt sources reported in UEPSTAX and combined together to
appear as a single endpoint interrupt source in UEPINT. Each endpoint interrupt can be enabled
separately in UEPIEN.
•
TXCMP: Transmitted In Data Interrupt Flag.
This flag triggers an interrupt after an IN packet has been transmitted for Isochronous
endpoints or after it has been accepted (ACK’ed) by the host for Control, Bulk and Interrupt
endpoints.
•
RXOUT: Received Out Data Interrupt Flag.
This flag triggers an interrupt after a new packet has been received.
•
RXSETUP: Receive Setup Interrupt Flag.
This flag triggers an interrupt when a valid SETUP packet has been received from the host.
•
STLCRC: Stall Sent Interrupt Flag/CRC Error Interrupt Flag.
This flag triggers an interrupt after a STALL handshake has been sent on the bus, for
Control, Bulk and Interrupt endpoints.
This flag triggers an interrupt when the last data received is corrupted for Isochronous
endpoints.
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4173E–USB–09/07
Figure 15-7. USB Interrupt Control Block Diagram
Endpoint x (x = 0.3)
TXCMP
UEPSTAX.0
RXOUT
UEPSTAX.1
EPxINT
UEPINT.x
RXSETUP
EPxIE
UEPSTAX.2
UEPIEN.x
STLCRC
UEPSTAX.3
USB interrupt
WUPCPU
USBINT.5
EWUPCPU
EUSB
USBIEN.5
IEN1.6
EORINT
USBINT.4
EEORINT
USBIEN.4
SOFINT
USBINT.3
ESOFINT
USBIEN.3
SPINT
USBINT.0
ESPINT
USBIEN.0
15.3
Registers
Table 56. USBCON Register
USBCON (S:BCh) – USB Global Control Register
72
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USBE
SUSPCLK
SDRMWUP
-
UPRSM
RMWUPE
CONFG
FADDEN
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7
USBE
6
SUSPCLK
5
USB Enable Bit
Set to enable the USB controller.
Clear to disable and reset the USB controller.
Suspend USB Clock Bit
Set to disable the 48 MHz clock input (Resume Detection is still active).
Clear to enable the 48 MHz clock input.
Send Remote Wake-up Bit
Set to force an external interrupt on the USB controller for Remote Wake UP
purpose.
SDRMWUP An upstream resume is send only if the bit RMWUPE is set, all USB clocks are
enabled AND the USB bus was in SUSPEND state for at least 5 ms. See
UPRSM below.
Cleared by software.
4
-
3
UPRSM
2
Description
RMWUPE
Reserved
The values read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
Upstream Resume Bit (read only)
Set by hardware when SDRMWUP has been set and if RMWUPE is enabled.
Cleared by hardware after the upstream resume has been sent.
Remote Wake-up Enable Bit
Set to enable request an upstream resume signalling to the host.
Clear after the upstream resume has been indicated by RSMINPR.
Note: Do not set this bit if the host has not set the
DEVICE_REMOTE_WAKEUP feature for the device.
1
0
CONFG
Configuration Bit
Set after a SET_CONFIGURATION request with a non-zero value has been
correctly processed.
Cleared by software when a SET_CONFIGURATION request with a zero value
is received.
Cleared by hardware on hardware reset or when an USB reset is detected on
the bus.
FADDEN
Function Address Enable Bit
Set by the device firmware after a successful status phase of a
SET_ADDRESS transaction. It shall not be cleared afterwards by the device
firmware.
Cleared by hardware on hardware reset or when an USB reset is received.
When this bit is cleared, the default function address is used (0).
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 57. USBADDR Register
USBADDR (S:C6h) – USB Address Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FEN
UADD6
UADD5
UADD4
UADD3
UADD2
UADD1
UADD0
73
4173E–USB–09/07
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
6-0
Function Enable Bit
Set to enable the function. The device firmware shall set this bit after it has
received a USB reset and participate in the following configuration process with
the default address (FEN is reset to 0).
Cleared by hardware at power-up, should not be cleared by the device firmware
once set.
FEN
UADD6:0
USB Address Bits
This field contains the default address (0) after power-up or USB bus reset.
It shall be written with the value set by a SET_ADDRESS request received by
the device firmware.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 58. USBINT Register
USBINT (S:BDh) – USB Global Interrupt Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
WUPCPU
EORINT
SOFINT
-
-
SPINT
Bit
Bit
Number Mnemonic Description
7-6
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
-
WUPCPU
Wake Up CPU Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when the USB controller is in SUSPEND state and is re-activated
by a non-idle signal from USB line (not by an upstream resume). This triggers a USB
interrupt when EWUPCPU is set in the USBIEN.
Cleared by software after re-enabling all USB clocks.
EORINT
End of Reset Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when a End of Reset has been detected by the USB controller. This
triggers a USB interrupt when EEORINT is set in USBIEN.
Cleared by software.
3
SOFINT
Start of Frame Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when a USB Start of Frame packet (SOF) has been properly
received. This triggers a USB interrupt when ESOFINT is set in USBIEN.
Cleared by software.
2-1
-
5
4
0
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
SPINT
Suspend Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when a USB Suspend (Idle bus for three frame periods: a J state for
3 ms) is detected. This triggers a USB interrupt when ESPINT is set in USBIEN.
Cleared by software.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 59. USBIEN Register
USBIEN (S:BEh) – USB Global Interrupt Enable Register
74
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
EWUPCPU
EEORINT
ESOFINT
-
-
ESPINT
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7-6
-
5
Description
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
Wake up CPU Interrupt Enable Bit
EWUPCPU Set to enable the Wake Up CPU interrupt.
Clear to disable the Wake Up CPU interrupt.
4
EEOFINT
End Of Reset Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable the End Of Reset interrupt. This bit is set after reset.
Clear to disable End Of Reset interrupt.
3
ESOFINT
Start Of Frame Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable the SOF interrupt.
Clear to disable the SOF interrupt.
2-1
-
0
ESPINT
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
Suspend Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable Suspend interrupt.
Clear to disable Suspend interrupt.
Reset Value = 0001 0000b
Table 60. UEPNUM Register
UEPNUM (S:C7h) – USB Endpoint Number
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
EPNUM1
EPNUM0
Bit
Number
7-2
1-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
-
Endpoint Number Bits
EPNUM1:0 Set this field with the number of the endpoint which shall be accessed when
reading or writing to registers UEPSTAX, UEPDATX, UBYCTLX or UEPCONX.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 61. UEPCONX Register
UEPCONX (S:D4h) – USB Endpoint X Control Register (X = EPNUM set in UEPNUM)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EPEN
-
-
-
DTGL
EPDIR
EPTYPE1
EPTYPE0
75
4173E–USB–09/07
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
EPEN
6-4
-
Endpoint Enable Bit
Set to enable the endpoint according to the device configuration. Endpoint 0 shall
always be enabled after a hardware or USB bus reset and participate in the
device configuration.
Clear to disable the endpoint according to the device configuration.
Reserved
The values read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
Data Toggle Status Bit (Read-only)
Set by hardware when a DATA1 packet is received.
Cleared by hardware when a DATA0 packet is received.
3
2
1-0
DTGL
EPDIR
Note: When a new data packet is received without DTGL toggling from 1 to 0 or 0
to 1, a packet may have been lost. When this occurs for a Bulk endpoint, the
device firmware shall consider the host has retried transmitting a properly
received packet because the host has not received a valid ACK, then the
firmware shall discard the new packet (N.B. The endpoint resets to DATA0 only
upon configuration).
For interrupt endpoints, data toggling is managed as for Bulk endpoints when
used.
For Control endpoints, each SETUP transaction starts with a DATA0 and data
toggling is then used as for Bulk endpoints until the end of the Data stage (for a
control write transfer); the Status stage completes the data transfer with a DATA1
(for a control read transfer).
For Isochronous endpoints, the device firmware shall retrieve every new data
packet and may ignore this bit.
Endpoint Direction Bit
Set to configure IN direction for Bulk, Interrupt and Isochronous endpoints.
Clear to configure OUT direction for Bulk, Interrupt and Isochronous endpoints.
This bit has no effect for Control endpoints.
Endpoint Type Bits
Set this field according to the endpoint configuration (Endpoint 0 shall always be
configured as Control):
EPTYPE1:
0 0
Control endpoint
0
0 1
Isochronous endpoint
1 0
Bulk endpoint
1 1
Interrupt endpoint
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 62. UEPSTAX Register
UEPSTAX (Soh) – USB Endpoint X Status and Control Register (X = EPNUM set in UEPNUM)
76
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DIR
-
STALLRQ
TXRDY
STLCRC
RXSETUP
RXOUT
TXCMP
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Control Endpoint Direction Bit
This bit is relevant only if the endpoint is configured in Control type.
Set for the data stage. Clear otherwise.
7
DIR
6
-
5
STALLRQ
Stall Handshake Request Bit
Set to send a STALL answer to the host for the next handshake.Clear otherwise.
TXRDY
TX Packet Ready Control Bit
Set after a packet has been written into the endpoint FIFO for IN data transfers.
Data shall be written into the endpoint FIFO only after this bit has been cleared.
Set this bit without writing data to the endpoint FIFO to send a Zero Length
Packet, which is generally recommended and may be required to terminate a
transfer when the length of the last data packet is equal to MaxPacketSize (e.g.,
for control read transfers).
Cleared by hardware, as soon as the packet has been sent for Isochronous
endpoints, or after the host has acknowledged the packet for Control, Bulk and
Interrupt endpoints.
STLCRC
Stall Sent Interrupt Flag/CRC Error Interrupt Flag
For Control, Bulk and Interrupt Endpoints:
Set by hardware after a STALL handshake has been sent as requested by
STALLRQ. Then, the endpoint interrupt is triggered if enabled in UEPIEN.
Cleared by hardware when a SETUP packet is received (see RXSETUP).
For Isochronous Endpoints:
Set by hardware if the last data received is corrupted (CRC error on data). Then,
the endpoint interrupt is triggered if enabled in UEPIEN.
Cleared by hardware when a non corrupted data is received.
RXSETUP
Received SETUP Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when a valid SETUP packet has been received from the host.
Then, all the other Bits of the register are cleared by hardware and the endpoint
interrupt is triggered if enabled in UEPIEN.
Clear by software after reading the SETUP data from the endpoint FIFO.
RXOUT
Received OUT Data Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware after an OUT packet has been received. Then, the endpoint
interrupt is triggered if enabled in UEPIEN and all the following OUT packets to
the endpoint are rejected (NACK’ed) until this bit is cleared. However, for Control
endpoints, an early SETUP transaction may overwrite the content of the endpoint
FIFO, even if its Data packet is received while this bit is set.
Clear by software after reading the OUT data from the endpoint FIFO.
TXCMP
Transmitted IN Data Complete Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware after an IN packet has been transmitted for Isochronous
endpoints and after it has been accepted (ACK’ed) by the host for Control, Bulk
and Interrupt endpoints. Then, the endpoint interrupt is triggered if enabled in
UEPIEN.
Clear by software before setting again TXRDY.
4
3
2
1
0
Note: This bit should be configured on RXSETUP interrupt before any other bit is
changed. This also determines the status phase (IN for a control write and OUT
for a control read). This bit should be cleared for status stage of a Control Out
transaction.
Reserved
The values read from this Bits are always 0. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 63. UEPRST Register
UEPRST (S:D5h) – USB Endpoint FIFO Reset Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
EP3RST
EP2RST
EP1RST
EP0RST
77
4173E–USB–09/07
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
7-4
-
3
EP3RST
Endpoint 3 FIFO Reset
Set and clear to reset the endpoint 3 FIFO prior to any other operation, upon
hardware reset or when an USB bus reset has been received.
2
EP2RST
Endpoint 2 FIFO Reset
Set and clear to reset the endpoint 2 FIFO prior to any other operation, upon
hardware reset or when an USB bus reset has been received.
1
EP1RST
Endpoint 1 FIFO Reset
Set and clear to reset the endpoint 1 FIFO prior to any other operation, upon
hardware reset or when an USB bus reset has been received.
0
EP0RST
Endpoint 0 FIFO Reset
Set and clear to reset the endpoint 0 FIFO prior to any other operation, upon
hardware reset or when an USB bus reset has been received.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 64. UEPINT Register
UEPINT (S:F8h Read-only) – USB Endpoint Interrupt Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
EP3INT
EP2INT
EP1INT
EP0INT
Bit
Number
7-4
3
2
1
0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
EP3INT
Endpoint 3 Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when an interrupt is triggered in UEPSTAX and the endpoint 3
interrupt is enabled in UEPIEN.
Must be cleared by software.
EP2INT
Endpoint 2 Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when an interrupt is triggered in UEPSTAX and the endpoint 2
interrupt is enabled in UEPIEN.
Must be cleared by software.
EP1INT
Endpoint 1 Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when an interrupt is triggered in UEPSTAX and the endpoint 1
interrupt is enabled in UEPIEN.
Must be cleared by software.
EP0INT
Endpoint 0 Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when an interrupt is triggered in UEPSTAX and the endpoint 0
interrupt is enabled in UEPIEN.
Must be cleared by software.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 65. UEPIEN Register
UEPIEN (S:C2h) – USB Endpoint Interrupt Enable Register
78
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
EP3INTE
EP2INTE
EP1INTE
EP0INTE
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
7-4
-
3
EP3INTE
Endpoint 3 Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable the interrupts for endpoint 3.
Clear to disable the interrupts for endpoint 3.
2
EP2INTE
Endpoint 2 Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable the interrupts for endpoint 2.
Clear this bit to disable the interrupts for endpoint 2.
1
EP1INTE
Endpoint 1 Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable the interrupts for the endpoint 1.
Clear to disable the interrupts for the endpoint 1.
0
EP0INTE
Endpoint 0 Interrupt Enable Bit
Set to enable the interrupts for the endpoint 0.
Clear to disable the interrupts for the endpoint 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 66. UEPDATX Register
UEPDATX (S:CFh) – USB Endpoint X FIFO Data Register (X = EPNUM set in UEPNUM)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FDAT7
FDAT6
FDAT5
FDAT4
FDAT3
FDAT2
FDAT1
FDAT0
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
FDAT7:0
Endpoint X FIFO Data
Data byte to be written to FIFO or data byte to be read from the FIFO, for the
Endpoint X (see EPNUM).
Reset Value = XXh
Table 67. UBYCTLX Register
UBYCTX (S:E2h) – USB Endpoint X Byte Count Register (X = EPNUM set in UEPNUM)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
BYCT6
BYCT5
BYCT4
BYCT3
BYCT2
BYCT1
BYCT0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
6-0
BYCT7:0
Reserved
The values read from this Bits are always 0. Do not set this bit.
Byte Count
Byte count of a received data packet. This byte count is equal to the number of
data Bytes received after the Data PID.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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Table 68. UFNUML Register
UFNUML (S:BAh, Read-only) – USB Frame Number Low Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FNUM7
FNUM6
FNUM5
FNUM4
FNUM3
FNUM2
FNUM1
FNUM0
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
FNUM7:0
Frame Number
Lower 8 Bits of the 11-bit Frame Number.
Reset Value = 00h
Table 69. UFNUMH Register
UFNUMH (S:BBh, Read-only) – USB Frame Number High Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
CRCOK
CRCERR
-
FNUM10
FNUM9
FNUM8
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7-3
-
5
Description
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
CRCOK
Frame Number CRC OK Bit
Set by hardware after a non corrupted Frame Number in Start of Frame Packet is
received.
Updated after every Start Of Frame packet reception.
Note: The Start Of Frame interrupt is generated just after the PID receipt.
4
CRCERR
Frame Number CRC Error Bit
Set by hardware after a corrupted Frame Number in Start of Frame Packet is
received.
Updated after every Start Of Frame packet reception.
Note: The Start Of Frame interrupt is generated just after the PID receipt.
Reserved
The values read from this Bits are always 0. Do not set this bit.
3
-
2-0
FNUM10:8
Frame Number
Upper 3 Bits of the 11-bit Frame Number. It is provided in the last received SOF
packet. FNUM does not change if a corrupted SOF is received.
Reset Value = 00h
Table 70. USBCLK Register
USBCLK (S:EAh) – USB Clock Divider Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
USBCD1
USBCD0
Bit
Number
7-2
80
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Bit
Number
1-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
USBCD1:0
USB Controller Clock Divider
2-bit divider for USB controller clock generation.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
81
4173E–USB–09/07
16. MultiMedia Card Controller
The AT89C5132 implements a MultiMedia Card (MMC) controller. The MMC is used to store
files in removable Flash memory cards that can be easily plugged or removed from the
application.
16.1
Card Concept
The basic MultiMedia Card concept is based on transferring data via a minimal number of
signals.
16.1.1
Card Signals
The communication signals are:
16.1.2
•
CLK: with each cycle of this signal an one bit transfer on the command and data lines is
done. The frequency may vary from zero to the maximum clock frequency.
•
CMD: is a bidirectional command channel used for card initialization and data transfer
commands. The CMD signal has two operation modes: open-drain for initialization mode
and push-pull for fast command transfer. Commands are sent from the MultiMedia Card bus
master to the card and responses from the cards to the host.
•
DAT: is a bidirectional data channel. The DAT signal operates in push-pull mode. Only one
card or the host is driving this signal at a time.
Card Registers
Within the card interface five registers are defined: OCR, CID, CSD, RCA and DSR. These can
be accessed only by corresponding commands.
The 32-bit Operation Conditions Register (OCR) stores the VDD voltage profile of the card. The
register is optional and can be read only.
The 128-bit wide CID register carries the card identification information (Card ID) used during
the card identification procedure.
The 128-bit wide Card-Specific Data register (CSD) provides information on how to access the
card contents. The CSD defines the data format, error correction type, maximum data access
time, data transfer speed, and whether the DSR register can be used.
The 16-bit Relative Card Address register (RCA) carries the card address assigned by the host
during the card identification. This address is used for the addressed host-card communication
after the card identification procedure
The 16-bit Driver Stage Register (DSR) can be optionally used to improve the bus performance
for extended operating conditions (depending on parameters like bus length, transfer rate or
number of cards).
16.2
Bus Concept
The MultiMedia Card bus is designed to connect either solid-state mass-storage memory or I/Odevices in a card format to multimedia applications. The bus implementation allows the coverage of application fields from low-cost systems to systems with a fast data transfer rate. It is a
single master bus with a variable number of slaves. The MultiMedia Card bus master is the bus
controller and each slave is either a single mass storage card (with possibly different technologies such as ROM, OTP, Flash etc.) or an I/O-card with its own controlling unit (on card) to
perform the data transfer.
The MultiMedia Card bus also includes power connections to supply the cards.
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The bus communication uses a special protocol (MultiMedia Card bus protocol) which is applicable for all devices. Therefore, the payload data transfer between the host and the cards can be
bidirectional.
16.2.1
Bus Lines
The MultiMedia Card bus architecture requires all cards to be connected to the same set of
lines. No card has an individual connection to the host or other devices, which reduces the connection costs of the MultiMedia Card system.
The bus lines can be divided into three groups:
16.2.2
•
Power supply: VSS1 and VSS2, VDD – used to supply the cards.
•
Data transfer: MCMD, MDAT – used for bidirectional communication.
•
Clock: MCLK – used to synchronize data transfer across the bus.
Bus Protocol
After a Power-on reset, the host must initialize the cards by a special message-based MultiMedia Card bus protocol. Each message is represented by one of the following tokens:
•
Command: a command is a token which starts an operation. A command is transferred
serially from the host to the card on the MCMD line.
•
Response: a response is a token which is sent from an addressed card (or all connected
cards) to the host as an answer to a previously received command. It is transferred serially
on the MCMD line.
•
Data: data can be transferred from the card to the host or vice-versa. Data is transferred
serially on the MDAT line.
Card addressing is implemented using a session address assigned during the initialization
phase, by the bus controller to all currently connected cards. Individual cards are identified by
their CID number. This method requires that every card will have an unique CID number. To
ensure uniqueness of CIDs the CID register contains 24 Bits (MID and OID fields) which are
defined by the MMCA. Every card manufacturers is required to apply for an unique MID (and
optionally OID) number.
MultiMedia Card bus data transfers are composed of these tokens. One data transfer is a bus
operation. There are different types of operations. Addressed operations always contain a command and a response token. In addition, some operations have data token, the others transfer
their information directly within the command or response structure. In this case no data token is
present in an operation. The Bits on the MDAT and the MCMD lines are transferred synchronous
to the host clock.
Two types of data transfer commands are defined:
•
Sequential commands: These commands initiate a continuous data stream, they are
terminated only when a stop command follows on the MCMD line. This mode reduces the
command overhead to an absolute minimum.
•
Block-oriented commands: These commands send data block succeeded by CRC Bits. Both
read and write operations allow either single or multiple block transmission. A multiple block
transmission is terminated when a stop command follows on the MCMD line similarly to the
stream read.
Figure 16-1 to Figure 16-5 show the different types of operations, on these figures, grayed
tokens are from host to card(s) while white tokens are from card(s) to host.
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Figure 16-1. Sequential Read Operation
Stop Command
MCMD
Command
Response
Command
MDAT
Response
Data Stream
Data Transfer Operation
Data Stop Operation
Figure 16-2. (Multiple) Block Read Operation
Stop Command
MCMD
Command
MDAT
Response
Command
Response
Data Block CRC Data Block CRC Data Block CRC
Block Read Operation
Data Stop Operation
Multiple Block Read Operation
As shown in Figure 16-3 and Figure 16-4 the data write operation uses a simple busy signalling
of the write operation duration on the data line (MDAT).
Figure 16-3. Sequential Write Operation
Stop Command
MCMD
Command
Response
Command
MDAT
Data Stream
Data Transfer Operation
Response
Busy
Data Stop Operation
Figure 16-4. (Multiple) Block Write Operation
Stop Command
MCMD
Command
Response
MDAT
Command
Data Block CRC Status Busy
Response
Data Block CRC Status Busy
Block Write Operation
Data Stop Operation
Multiple Block Write Operation
Figure 16-5. No Response and No Data Operation
MCMD
Command
Command
Response
MDAT
No Response Operation
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16.2.3
Command Token Format
As shown in Figure 16-6, commands have a fixed code length of 48 Bits. Each command token
is preceded by a Start bit: a low level on MCMD line and succeeded by an End bit: a high level
on MCMD line. The command content is preceded by a Transmission bit: a high level on MCMD
line for a command token (host to card) and succeeded by a 7-bit CRC so that transmission
errors can be detected and the operation may be repeated.
Command content contains the command index and address information or parameters.
Figure 16-6. Command Token Format
0
1
Content
CRC
1
Total Length = 48 Bits
Table 71. Command Token Format
Bit Position
47
46
45:40
39:8
7:1
0
Width (Bits)
1
1
6
32
7
1
Value
‘0’
‘1’
-
-
-
‘1’
Start bit
Transmission
bit
Command
Index
Argument
CRC7
End bit
Description
16.2.4
Response Token Format
There are five types of response tokens (R1 to R5). As shown in Figure 16-7, responses have a
code length of 48 Bits or 136 Bits. A response token is preceded by a Start bit: a low level on
MCMD line and succeeded by an End bit: a high level on MCMD line. The command content is
preceded by a Transmission bit: a low level on MCMD line for a response token (card to host)
and succeeded (R1,R2,R4,R5) or not (R3) by a 7-bit CRC.
Response content contains mirrored command and status information (R1 response), CID register or CSD register (R2 response), OCR register (R3 response), or RCA register (R4 and R5
response).
Figure 16-7. Response Token Format
R1, R4, R5
0
0
Content
CRC
1
Total Length = 48 Bits
R3
0
0
Content
1
Total Length = 48 Bits
R2
0
0
Content = CID or CSD
CRC
1
Total Length = 136 Bits
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Table 72. R1 Response Format (Normal Response)
Bit Position
47
46
45:40
39:8
7:1
0
Width (Bits)
1
1
6
32
7
1
Value
‘0’
‘0’
-
-
-
‘1’
Start bit
Transmission
bit
Command
Index
Card Status
CRC7
End bit
Description
Table 73. R2 Response Format (CID and CSD registers)
Bit Position
135
134
[133:128]
[127:1]
0
Width (Bits)
1
1
6
32
1
Value
‘0’
‘0’
‘111111’
-
‘1’
Description
Start bit
Transmission bit
Reserved
Argument
End bit
Table 74. R3 Response Format (OCR Register)
Bit Position
47
46
[45:40]
[39:8]
[7:1]
0
Width (Bits)
1
1
6
32
7
1
Value
‘0’
‘0’
‘111111’
-
‘1111111’
‘1’
Start bit
Transmission
bit
Reserved
OCR register
Reserved
End bit
Description
Table 75. R4 Response Format (Fast I/O)
Bit Position
47
46
[45:40]
[39:8]
[7:1]
0
Width (Bits)
1
1
6
32
7
1
Value
‘0’
‘0’
‘100111’
-
-
‘1’
Start bit
Transmission
bit
Command
Index
Argument
CRC7
End bit
Description
Table 76. R5 Response Format
Bit Position
47
46
[45:40]
[39:8]
[7:1]
0
Width (Bits)
1
1
6
32
7
1
Value
‘0’
‘0’
‘101000’
-
-
‘1’
Start bit
Transmission bit
Command
Index
Argument
CRC7
End bit
Description
16.2.5
Data Packet Format
There are two types of data packets: stream and block. As shown in Figure 16-8, stream data
packets have an indeterminate length while block packets have a fixed length depending on the
block length. Each data packet is preceded by a Start bit: a low level on MCMD line and succeeded by an End bit: a high level on MCMD line. Due to the fact that there is no predefined end
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in stream packets, CRC protection is not included in this case. The CRC protection algorithm for
block data is a 16-bit CCITT polynomial.
Figure 16-8. Data Token Format
Sequential Data
0
Block Data
0
Content
Content
1
CRC
1
Block Length
16.2.6
Clock Control
The MMC bus clock signal can be used by the host to turn the cards into energy saving mode or
to control the data flow (to avoid under-run or over-run conditions) on the bus. The host is
allowed to lower the clock frequency or shut it down.
There are a few restrictions the host must follow:
16.3
•
The bus frequency can be changed at any time (under the restrictions of maximum data
transfer frequency, defined by the cards, and the identification frequency defined by the
specification document).
•
It is an obvious requirement that the clock must be running for the card to output data or
response tokens. After the last MultiMedia Card bus transaction, the host is required, to
provide 8 (eight) clock cycles for the card to complete the operation before shutting down
the clock. Following is a list of the various bus transactions:
•
A command with no response. 8 clocks after the host command End bit.
•
A command with response. 8 clocks after the card command End bit.
•
A read data transaction. 8 clocks after the End bit of the last data block.
•
A write data transaction. 8 clocks after the CRC status token.
•
The host is allowed to shut down the clock of a “busy” card. The card will complete the
programming operation regardless of the host clock. However, the host must provide a clock
edge for the card to turn off its busy signal. Without a clock edge the card (unless previously
disconnected by a deselect command-CMD7) will force the MDAT line down, forever.
Description
The MMC controller interfaces to the C51 core through the following eight special function
registers:
MMCON0, MMCON1, MMCON2, the three MMC control registers (see Figure 78 to Figure );
MMSTA, the MMC status register (see Figure 81); MMINT, the MMC interrupt register (see
Figure ); MMMSK, the MMC interrupt mask register (see Figure 83); MMCMD, the MMC command register (see Figure 84); MMDAT, the MMC data register (see Figure ); and MMCLK, the
MMC clock register (see Figure 86).
As shown in Figure 16-9, the MMC controller is divided in four blocks: the clock generator that
handles the MCLK (formally the MMC CLK) output to the card, the command line controller that
handles the MCMD (formally the MMC CMD) line traffic to or from the card, the data line controller that handles the MDAT (formally the MMC DAT) line traffic to or from the card, and the
interrupt controller that handles the MMC controller interrupt sources. These blocks are detailed
in the following sections.
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Figure 16-9. MMC Controller Block Diagram
MCLK
Clock
Generator
OSC
CLOCK
Command Line
Controller
MCMD
MMC
Interrupt
Request
Interrupt
Controller
Data Line
Controller
Internal
Bus
16.4
MDAT
8
Clock Generator
The MMC clock is generated by division of the oscillator clock (FOSC) issued from the Clock Controller block as detailed in Section "Oscillator", page 12. The division factor is given by MMCD7:0
Bits in MMCLK register. Figure 16-10 shows the MMC clock generator and its output clock calculation formula.
Figure 16-10. MMC Clock Generator and Symbol
OSC
CLOCK
Controller Clock
OSCclk
MMCclk = ----------------------------MMCD + 1
MMCLK
MMCEN
MMCON2.7
MMCD7:0
MMC Clock
MMC
CLOCK
MMC Clock Symbol
As soon as MMCEN bit in MMCON2 is set, the MMC controller receives its system clock. The
MMC command and data clock is generated on MCLK output and sent to the command line and
data line controllers. Figure 16-11 shows the MMC controller configuration flow.
As exposed in Section “Clock Control”, MMCD7:0 Bits can be used to dynamically increase or
reduce the MMC clock.
Figure 16-11. Configuration Flow
MMC Controller
Configuration
Configure MMC Clock
MMCLK = XXh
MMCEN = 1
FLOWC = 0
16.5
Command Line Controller
As shown in Figure 16-12, the command line controller is divided in two channels: the command
transmitter channel that handles the command transmission to the card through the MCMD line
and the command receiver channel that handles the response reception from the card through
the MCMD line. These channels are detailed in the following sections.
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Figure 16-12. Command Line Controller Block Diagram
TX Pointer
5-byte FIFO
CTPTR
MMCMD
Write
MMCON0.4
Data Converter
// -> Serial
CRC7
Generator
TX COMMAND Line
Finished State Machine
CFLCK
MMSTA.0
Command Transmitter
RX Pointer
17-byte FIFO
EOCI
CMDEN
MCMD
MMCON1.0
Data Converter
Serial -> //
MMSTA.2
MMSTA.1
CRC7S
RESPFS
CRC7 and Format
Checker
MMCMD
Read
CRPTR
MMCON0.5
RX COMMAND Line
Finished State Machine
RESPEN
Command Receiver
16.5.1
MMINT.5
RFMT
MMINT.6
EORI
CRCDIS
MMCON1.1 MMCON0.1 MMCON0.0
Command Transmitter
To send a command to the card, the user must load the command index (1 byte) and argument
(4 Bytes) in the command transmit FIFO using the MMCMD register. Before starting transmission by setting and clearing the CMDEN bit in MMCON1 register, the user must first configure:
•
RESPEN bit in MMCON1 register to indicate whether a response is expected or not.
•
RFMT bit in MMCON0 register to indicate the response size expected.
•
CRCDIS bit in MMCON0 register to indicate whether the CRC7 included in the response will
be computed or not. In order to avoid CRC error, CRCDIS may be set for responses that do
not include CRC7.
Figure 16-13 summarizes the command transmission flow.
As soon as command transmission is enabled, the CFLCK flag in MMSTA is set indicating that
write to the FIFO is locked. This mechanism is implemented to avoid command over-run.
The end of the command transmission is signalled by the EOCI flag in MMINT register becoming
set. This flag may generate an MMC interrupt request as detailed in Section "Interrupt", page 96.
The end of the command transmission also resets the CFLCK flag.
The user may abort command loading by setting and clearing the CTPTR bit in MMCON0 register which resets the write pointer to the transmit FIFO.
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Figure 16-13. Command Transmission Flow
Command
Transmission
Configure Response
RESPEN = X
RFMT = X
CRCDIS = X
Load Command in
Buffer
MMCMD = Index
MMCMD = Argument
Transmit Command
CMDEN = 1
CMDEN = 0
16.5.2
Command Receiver
The end of the response reception is signalled by the EORI flag in MMINT register. This flag may
generate an MMC interrupt request as detailed in Section "Interrupt", page 96. When this flag is
set, two other flags in MMSTA register: RESPFS and CRC7S give a status on the response
received. RESPFS indicates if the response format is correct or not: the size is the one expected
(48 Bits or 136 Bits) and a valid End bit has been received, and CRC7S indicates if the CRC7
computation is correct or not. These Flags are cleared when a command is sent to the card and
updated when the response has been received.
The user may abort response reading by setting and clearing the CRPTR bit in MMCON0 register which resets the read pointer to the receive FIFO.
According to the MMC specification delay between a command and a response (formally NCR
parameter) cannot exceed 64 MMC clock periods. To avoid any locking of the MMC controller
when card does not send its response (e.g. physically removed from the bus), user must launch
a timeout period to exit from such situation. In case of timeout user may reset the command controller and its internal state machine by setting and clearing the CCR bit in MMCON2 register.
This timeout may be disarmed when receiving the response.
16.6
Data Line Controller
The data line controller is based on a 16-byte FIFO used both by the data transmitter channel
and by the data receiver channel.
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Figure 16-14. Data Line Controller Block Diagram
MMINT.0
MMINT.2
MMSTA.3
MMSTA.4
F1EI
F1FI
DATFS
CRC16S
CRC16 and Format
Checker
Data Converter
Serial -> //
8-byte
TX Pointer
FIFO 1
DTPTR
MMCON0.6
RX Pointer
DRPTR
MMCON0.7
16.6.1
16-byte FIFO
MMDAT
MCBI
CBUSY
MMINT.1
MMSTA.5
MDAT
Data Converter
// -> Serial
CRC16
Generator
8-byte
F2EI
F2FI
MMINT.1
MMINT.3
MMINT.4
DATA Line
Finished State Machine
FIFO 2
DFMT
MBLOCK
DATEN
MMCON0.2
MMCON0.3
MMCON1.2
DATDIR
EOFI
BLEN3:0
MMCON1.3 MMCON1.7:4
FIFO Implementation
The 16-byte FIFO is based on a dual 8-byte FIFO managed using two pointers and four flags
indicating the status full and empty of each FIFO.
Pointers are not accessible to user but can be reset at any time by setting and clearing DRPTR
and DTPTR Bits in MMCON0 register. Resetting the pointers is equivalent to abort the writing or
reading of data.
F1EI and F2EI flags in MMINT register signal when set that respectively FIFO1 and FIFO2 are
empty. F1FI and F2FI flags in MMINT register signal when set that respectively FIFO1 and
FIFO2 are full. These flags may generate an MMC interrupt request as detailed in
Section “Interrupt”.
16.6.2
Data Configuration
Before sending or receiving any data, the data line controller must be configured according to
the type of the data transfer considered. This is achieved using the Data Format bit: DFMT in
MMCON0 register. Clearing DFMT bit enables the data stream format while setting DFMT bit
enables the data block format. In data block format, user must also configure the single or multiblock mode by clearing or setting the MBLOCK bit in MMCON0 register and the block length
using BLEN3:0 Bits in MMCON1 according to Table 77. Figure 16-15 summarizes the data
modes configuration flows.
Table 77. Block Length Programming
BLEN3:0
BLEN = 0000 to 1011
> 1011
Block Length (Byte)
Length = 2BLEN: 1 to 2048
Reserved: do not program BLEN3:0 > 1011
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Figure 16-15. Data Controller Configuration Flows
16.6.3
16.6.3.1
Data Stream
Configuration
Data Single Block
Configuration
Data Multi-block
Configuration
Configure Format
DFMT = 0
Configure Format
DFMT = 1
MBLOCK = 0
BLEN3:0 = XXXXb
Configure Format
DFMT = 1
MBLOCK = 1
BLEN3:0 = XXXXb
Data Transmitter
Configuration
For transmitting data to the card, user must first configure the data controller in transmission
mode by setting the DATDIR bit in MMCON1 register.
Figure 16-16 summarizes the data stream transmission flows in both polling and interrupt modes
while Figure 16-17 summarizes the data block transmission flows in both polling and interrupt
modes, these flows assume that block length is greater than 16 data.
16.6.3.2
Data Loading
Data is loaded in the FIFO by writing to MMDAT register. Number of data loaded may vary from
1 to 16 Bytes. Then if necessary (more than 16 Bytes to send) user must wait that one FIFO
becomes empty (F1EI or F2EI set) before loading 8 new data.
16.6.3.3
Data Transmission
Transmission is enabled by setting and clearing DATEN bit in MMCON1 register.
Data is transmitted immediately if the response has already been received, or is delayed after
the response reception if its status is correct. In both cases transmission is delayed if a card
sends a busy state on the data line until the end of this busy condition.
According to the MMC specification, the data transfer from the host to the card may not start
sooner than 2 MMC clock periods after the card response was received (formally NWR parameter). To address all card types, this delay can be programmed using DATD1:0 Bits in MMCON2
register from 3 MMC clock periods when DATD1:0 Bits are cleared to 9 MMC clock periods
when DATD2:0 Bits are set, by step of 2 MMC clock periods.
16.6.3.4
End of Transmission
The end of data frame (block or stream) transmission is signalled by the EOFI flag in MMINT
register. This flag may generate an MMC interrupt request as detailed in Section "Interrupt",
page 96.
In data stream mode, EOFI flag is set, after reception of the End bit. This assumes user has previously sent the STOP command to the card, which is the only way to stop stream transfer.
In data block mode, EOFI flag is set, after reception of the CRC status token (see Figure 16-4).
Two other flags in MMSTA register: DATFS and CRC16S report a status on the frame sent.
DATFS indicates if the CRC status token format is correct or not, and CRC16S indicates if the
card has found the CRC16 of the block correct or not.
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16.6.3.5
Busy Status
As shown in Figure 16-4 the card uses a busy token during a block write operation. This busy
status is reported by the CBUSY flag in MMSTA register and by the MCBI flag in MMINT which
is set every time CBUSY toggles, i.e. when the card enters and exits its busy state. This flag
may generate an MMC interrupt request as detailed in Section "Interrupt", page 96.
Figure 16-16. Data Stream Transmission Flows
Data Stream
Transmission
Data Stream
Initialization
Data Stream
Transmission ISR
FIFOs Filling
Write 16 Data to MMDAT
FIFOs Filling
Write 16 Data to MMDAT
Start Transmission
DATEN = 1
DATEN = 0
Unmask FIFOs Empty
F1EM = 0
F2EM = 0
FIFO Empty?
F1EI or F2EI = 1?
Start Transmission
DATEN = 1
DATEN = 0
FIFO Empty?
F1EI or F2EI = 1?
FIFO Filling
Write 8 Data to MMDAT
FIFO Filling
Write 8 Data to MMDAT
Mask FIFOs Empty
F1EM = 1
F2EM = 1
No More Data
to Send?
Send
STOP Command
No More Data
To Send?
Send
STOP Command
b. Interrupt Mode
a. Polling Mode
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Figure 16-17. Data Block Transmission Flows
Data Block
Transmission
Data Block
Initialization
FIFOs Filling
Write 16 Data to MMDAT
FIFOs Filling
Write 16 Data to MMDAT
Start Transmission
DATEN = 1
DATEN = 0
Unmask FIFOs Empty
F1EM = 0
F2EM = 0
FIFO Empty?
F1EI or F2EI = 1?
Start Transmission
DATEN = 1
DATEN = 0
FIFO Filling
Write 8 Data to MMDAT
No More Data
to Send?
Data Block
Transmission ISR
FIFO Empty?
F1EI or F2EI = 1?
FIFO Filling
Write 8 Data to MMDAT
No More Data
To Send?
Mask FIFOs Empty
F1EM = 1
F2EM = 1
b. Interrupt Mode
a. Polling Mode
16.6.4
16.6.4.1
Data Receiver
Configuration
To receive data from the card, the user must first configure the data controller in reception mode
by clearing the DATDIR bit in MMCON1 register.
Figure 16-18 summarizes the data stream reception flows in both polling and interrupt modes
while Figure 16-19 summarizes the data block reception flows in both polling and interrupt
modes, these flows assume that block length is greater than 16 Bytes.
16.6.4.2
Data Reception
The end of data frame (block or stream) reception is signalled by the EOFI flag in MMINT register. This flag may generate an MMC interrupt request as detailed in Section "Interrupt", page 96.
When this flag is set, two other flags in MMSTA register: DATFS and CRC16S give a status on
the frame received. DATFS indicates if the frame format is correct or not: a valid End bit has
been received, and CRC16S indicates if the CRC16 computation is correct or not. In case of
data stream CRC16S has no meaning and stays cleared.
According to the MMC specification data transmission, the card starts after the access time
delay (formally NAC parameter) beginning from the End bit of the read command. To avoid any
locking of the MMC controller when card does not send its data (e.g. physically removed from
the bus), the user must launch a time-out period to exit from such situation. In case of time-out
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the user may reset the data controller and its internal state machine by setting and clearing the
DCR bit in MMCON2 register.
This time-out may be disarmed after receiving 8 data (F1FI flag set) or after receiving end of
frame (EOFI flag set) in case of block length less than 8 data (1, 2 or 4).
16.6.4.3
Data Reading
Data is read from the FIFO by reading to MMDAT register. Each time one FIFO becomes full
(F1FI or F2FI set), user is requested to flush this FIFO by reading 8 data.
Figure 16-18. Data Stream Reception Flows
Data Stream
Reception
Data Stream
Initialization
Data Stream
Reception ISR
FIFO Full?
F1FI or F2FI = 1?
Unmask FIFOs Full
F1FM = 0
F2FM = 0
FIFO Full?
F1FI or F2FI = 1?
FIFO Reading
read 8 data from MMDAT
FIFO Reading
read 8 data from MMDAT
No More Data
To Receive?
No More Data
To Receive?
Send
STOP Command
Mask FIFOs Full
F1FM = 1
F2FM = 1
a. Polling Mode
Send
STOP Command
b. Interrupt Mode
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Figure 16-19. Data Block Reception Flows
Data Block
Reception
Data Block
Initialization
Data Block
Reception ISR
Start Transmission
DATEN = 1
DATEN = 0
Unmask FIFOs Full
F1FM = 0
F2FM = 0
FIFO Full?
F1EI or F2EI = 1?
FIFO Full?
F1EI or F2EI = 1?
Start Transmission
DATEN = 1
DATEN = 0
FIFO Reading
read 8 data from MMDAT
FIFO Reading
read 8 data from MMDAT
16.6.5
No More Data
To Receive?
No More Data
To Receive?
Mask FIFOs Full
F1FM = 1
F2FM = 1
a. Polling Mode
b. Interrupt Mode
Flow Control
To allow transfer at high speed without taking care of CPU oscillator frequency, the FLOWC bit
in MMCON2 allows control of the data flow in both transmission and reception.
During transmission, setting the FLOWC bit has the following effects:
•
MMCLK is stopped when both FIFOs become empty: F1EI and F2EI set.
•
MMCLK is restarted when one of the FIFOs becomes full: F1EI or F2EI cleared.
During reception, setting the FLOWC bit has the following effects:
•
MMCLK is stopped when both FIFOs become full: F1FI and F2FI set.
•
MMCLK is restarted when one of the FIFOs becomes empty: F1FI or F2FI cleared.
As soon as the clock is stopped, the MMC bus is frozen and remains in its state until the clock is
restored by writing or reading data in MMDAT.
16.7
16.7.1
Interrupt
Description
As shown in Figure 16-20, the MMC controller implements eight interrupt sources reported in
MCBI, EORI, EOCI, EOFI, F2FI, F1FI, and F2EI flags in MMCINT register. These flags were
detailed in the previous sections.
All of these sources are maskable separately using MCBM, EORM, EOCM, EOFM, F2FM,
F1FM, and F2EM mask bits, respectively, in MMMSK register.
96
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The interrupt request is generated each time an unmasked flag is set, and the global MMC controller interrupt enable bit is set (EMMC in IEN1 register).
Reading the MMINT register automatically clears the interrupt flags (acknowledgment). This
implies that register content must be saved and tested interrupt flag by interrupt flag to be sure
not to overlook any interrupts.
Figure 16-20. MMC Controller Interrupt System
MCBI
MMINT.7
MCBM
MMMSK.7
EORI
MMINT.6
EORM
EOCI
MMMSK.6
MMINT.5
EOCM
MMMSK.5
EOFI
MMINT.4
MMC Interface
Interrupt Request
EOFM
F2FI
MMMSK.4
EMMC
MMINT.3
IEN1.0
F2FM
MMMSK.3
F1FI
MMINT.2
F1FM
F2EI
MMMSK.2
MMINT.1
F2EM
MMMSK.1
F1EI
MMINT.0
F1EM
MMMSK.0
16.8
Registers
Table 78. MMCON0 Register
MMCON0 (S:E4h) – MMC Control Register 0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DRPTR
DTPTR
CRPTR
CTPTR
MBLOCK
DFMT
RFMT
CRCDIS
Bit
Number
7
Bit
Mnemonic Description
DRPTR
Data Receive Pointer Reset Bit
Set to reset the read pointer of the data FIFO.
Clear to release the read pointer of the data FIFO.
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Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
6
DTPTR
Data Transmit Pointer Reset Bit
Set to reset the write pointer of the data FIFO.
Clear to release the write pointer of the data FIFO.
5
CRPTR
Command Receive Pointer Reset Bit
Set to reset the read pointer of the receive command FIFO.
Clear to release the read pointer of the receive command FIFO.
4
CTPTR
Command Transmit Pointer Reset Bit
Set to reset the write pointer of the transmit command FIFO.
Clear to release the read pointer of the transmit command FIFO.
3
MBLOCK
2
DFMT
Data Format Bit
Set to select the block-oriented data format.
Clear to select the stream data format.
1
RFMT
Response Format Bit
Set to select the 48-bit response format.
Clear to select the 136-bit response format.
0
CRCDIS
Multi-block Enable Bit
Set to select multi-block data format.
Clear to select single block data format.
CRC7 Disable Bit
Set to disable the CRC7 computation when receiving a response.
Clear to enable the CRC7 computation when receiving a response.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 79. MMCON1 Register
MMCON1 (S:E5h) – MMC Control Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BLEN3
BLEN2
BLEN1
BLEN0
DATDIR
DATEN
RESPEN
CMDEN
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-4
BLEN3:0
Block Length Bits
Refer to Table 77 for Bits description. Do not program value > 1011b.
3
DATDIR
Data Direction Bit
Set to select data transfer from host to card (write mode).
Clear to select data transfer from card to host (read mode).
2
DATEN
Data Transmission Enable Bit
Set and clear to enable data transmission immediately or after response has
been received.
1
RESPEN
Response Enable Bit
Set and clear to enable the reception of a response following a command
transmission.
0
CMDEN
Command Transmission Enable Bit
Set and clear to enable transmission of the command FIFO to the card.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 80. MMCON2 Register
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MMCON2 (S:E6h) – MMC Control Register 2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MMCEN
DCR
CCR
-
-
DATD1
DATD0
FLOWC
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
MMC Clock Enable Bit
Set to enable the MCLK clocks and activate the MMC controller.
Clear to disable the MMC clocks and freeze the MMC controller.
7
MMCEN
6
DCR
Data Controller Reset Bit
Set and clear to reset the data line controller in case of transfer abort.
5
CCR
Command Controller Reset Bit
Set and clear to reset the command line controller in case of transfer abort.
4-3
-
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
2-1
DATD1:0
Data Transmission Delay Bits
Used to delay the data transmission after a response from 3 MMC clock periods
(all Bits cleared) to 9 MMC clock periods (all Bits set) by step of 2 MMC clock
periods.
0
FLOWC
MMC Flow Control Bit
Set to enable the flow control during data transfers.
Clear to disable the flow control during data transfers.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 81. MMSTA Register
MMSTA (S:DEh Read Only) – MMC Control and Status Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
CBUSY
CRC16S
DATFS
CRC7S
RESPFS
CFLCK
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-6
-
5
CBUSY
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
Card Busy Flag
Set by hardware when the card sends a busy state on the data line.
Cleared by hardware when the card no more sends a busy state on the data line.
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Bit
Number
4
3
2
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CRC16S
DATFS
CRC7S
CRC16 Status Bit
Transmission mode
Set by hardware when the token response reports a good CRC.
Cleared by hardware when the token response reports a bad CRC.
Reception mode
Set by hardware when the CRC16 received in the data block is correct.
Cleared by hardware when the CRC16 received in the data block is not correct.
Data Format Status Bit
Transmission mode
Set by hardware when the format of the token response is correct.
Cleared by hardware when the format of the token response is not correct.
Reception mode
Set by hardware when the format of the frame is correct.
Cleared by hardware when the format of the frame is not correct.
CRC7 Status Bit
Set by hardware when the CRC7 computed in the response is correct.
Cleared by hardware when the CRC7 computed in the response is not correct.
This bit is not relevant when CRCDIS is set.
1
0
RESPFS
CFLCK
Response Format Status Bit
Set by hardware when the format of a response is correct.
Cleared by hardware when the format of a response is not correct.
Command FIFO Lock Bit
Set by hardware to signal user not to write in the transmit command FIFO: busy
state.
Cleared by hardware to signal user the transmit command FIFO is available: idle
state.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 82. MMINT Register
MMINT (S:E7h Read Only) – MMC Interrupt Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MCBI
EORI
EOCI
EOFI
F2FI
F1FI
F2EI
F1EI
Bit
Number
7
100
Bit
Mnemonic Description
MCBI
MMC Card Busy Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when the card enters or exits its busy state (when the busy
signal is asserted or deasserted on the data line).
Cleared when reading MMINT.
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
6
EORI
End of Response Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware at the end of response reception.
Cleared when reading MMINT.
5
EOCI
End of Command Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware at the end of command transmission.
Clear when reading MMINT.
4
EOFI
End of Frame Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware at the end of frame (stream or block) transfer.
Clear when reading MMINT.
3
F2FI
FIFO 2 Full Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when second FIFO becomes full.
Cleared by hardware when second FIFO becomes empty.
2
F1FI
FIFO 1 Full Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when first FIFO becomes full.
Cleared by hardware when first FIFO becomes empty.
1
F2EI
FIFO 2 Empty Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when second FIFO becomes empty.
Cleared by hardware when second FIFO becomes full.
0
F1EI
FIFO 1 Empty Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when first FIFO becomes empty.
Cleared by hardware when first FIFO becomes full.
Reset Value = 0000 0011b
Table 83. MMMSK Register
MMMSK (S:DFh) – MMC Interrupt Mask Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MCBM
EORM
EOCM
EOFM
F2FM
F1FM
F2EM
F1EM
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
MCBM
MMC Card Busy Interrupt Mask Bit
Set to prevent MCBI flag from generating an MMC interrupt.
Clear to allow MCBI flag to generate an MMC interrupt.
6
EORM
End Of Response Interrupt Mask Bit
Set to prevent EORI flag from generating an MMC interrupt.
Clear to allow EORI flag to generate an MMC interrupt.
5
EOCM
End Of Command Interrupt Mask Bit
Set to prevent EOCI flag from generating an MMC interrupt.
Clear to allow EOCI flag to generate an MMC interrupt.
4
EOFM
End Of Frame Interrupt Mask Bit
Set to prevent EOFI flag from generating an MMC interrupt.
Clear to allow EOFI flag to generate an MMC interrupt.
3
F2FM
FIFO 2 Full Interrupt Mask Bit
Set to prevent F2FI flag from generating an MMC interrupt.
Clear to allow F2FI flag to generate an MMC interrupt.
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Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
2
F1FM
FIFO 1 Full Interrupt Mask Bit
Set to prevent F1FI flag from generating an MMC interrupt.
Clear to allow F1FI flag to generate an MMC interrupt.
1
F2EM
FIFO 2 Empty Interrupt Mask Bit
Set to prevent F2EI flag from generating an MMC interrupt.
Clear to allow F2EI flag to generate an MMC interrupt.
0
F1EM
FIFO 1 Empty Interrupt Mask Bit
Set to prevent F1EI flag from generating an MMC interrupt.
Clear to allow F1EI flag to generate an MMC interrupt.
Reset Value = 1111 1111b
Table 84. MMCMD Register
MMCMD (S:DDh) – MMC Command Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MC7
MC6
MC5
MC4
MC3
MC2
MC1
MC0
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
MC7:0
MMC Command Receive Byte
Output (read) register of the response FIFO.
MMC Command Transmit Byte
Input (write) register of the command FIFO.
Reset Value = 1111 1111b
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Table 85. MMDAT Register
MMDAT (S:DCh) – MMC Data Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MD7
MD6
MD5
MD4
MD3
MD2
MD1
MD0
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
MD7:0
MMC Data Byte
Input (write) or output (read) register of the data FIFO.
Reset Value = 1111 1111b
Table 86. MMCLK Register
MMCLK (S:EDh) – MMC Clock Divider Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MMCD7
MMCD6
MMCD5
MMCD4
MMCD3
MMCD2
MMCD1
MMCD0
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
MMCD7:0
MMC Clock Divider
8-bit divider for MMC clock generation.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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17. IDE/ATAPI Interface
The AT89C5132 provide an IDE/ATAPI interface allowing connection of devices such as CDROM reader, CompactFlash cards, hard disk drive, etc. It consists of a 16-bit data transfer (read
or write) between the AT89C5132 and the IDE devices.
17.1
Description
The IDE interface mode is enabled by setting the EXT16 bit in AUXR (see Table 14 on page 27).
As soon as this bit is set, all MOVX instructions read or write are done in a 16-bit mode compare
to the standard 8-bit mode. P0 carries the low order multiplexed address and data bus (A7:0,
D7:0) while P2 carries the high order multiplexed address and data bus (A15:8, D15:8). When
writing data in IDE mode, the ACC contains D7:0 data (as in 8-bit mode) while DAT16H register
(see Table 88) contains D15:8 data. When reading data in IDE mode, D7:0 data is returned in
ACC while D15:8 data is returned in DAT16H.
Figure 17-1 shows the IDE read bus cycle while Figure 17-2 shows the IDE write bus cycle. For
simplicity, these figures depict the bus cycle waveforms in idealized form and do not provide precise timing information. For IDE bus cycle timing parameters refer to the Section “AC
Characteristics”.
IDE cycle takes 6 CPU clock periods which is equivalent to 12 oscillator clock periods in standard mode or 6 oscillator clock periods in X2 mode. For further information on X2 mode, refer to
the Section “X2 Feature”, page 12.
Slow IDE devices can be accessed by stretching the read and write cycles. This is done using
the M0 bit in AUXR. Setting this bit changes the width of the RD and WR signals from 3 to 15
CPU clock periods.
Figure 17-1. IDE Read Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
RD(1)
P0
P2
Notes:
104
P2
DPL or Ri
D7:0
DPH or P2(2),(3)
D15:8
P2
1. RD signal may be stretched using M0 bit in AUXR register.
2. When executing MOVX @Ri instruction, P2 outputs SFR content.
3. When executing MOVX @DPTR instruction, if DPHDIS is set (Page Access Mode), P2 outputs SFR content instead of DPH.
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
Figure 17-2. IDE Write Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
WR(1)
P0
P2
Notes:
17.1.1
P2
DPL or Ri
D7:0
DPH or P2(2),(3)
D15:8
P2
1. WR signal may be stretched using M0 bit in AUXR register.
2. When executing MOVX @Ri instruction, P2 outputs SFR content.
3. When executing MOVX @DPTR instruction, if DPHDIS is set (Page Access Mode), P2 outputs SFR content instead of DPH.
IDE Device Connection
Figure 17-3 and Figure 17-4 show two examples on how to interface up to two IDE devices to
the AT89C5132. In both examples P0 carries IDE low order data bits D7:0, P2 carries IDE high
order data bits D15:8, while RD and WR signals are respectively connected to the IDE nIOR and
nIOW signals. Other IDE control signals are generated by the external address latch outputs in
the first example while they are generated by some port I/Os in the second one. Using an external latch will achieve higher transfer rate.
Figure 17-3. IDE Device Connection Example 1
AT89C5132
IDE Device 0
P2
IDE Device 1
D15-8
D15-8
D7:0
D7:0
A2:0
A2:0
ALE
nCS1:0
nCS1:0
Px.y
nRESET
nRESET
RD
WR
nIOR
nIOW
nIOR
nIOW
P0
Latch
Figure 17-4. IDE Device Connection Example 2
AT89C5132
IDE Device 0
IDE Device 1
P2/A15:8
D15-8
D15-8
P0/AD7:0
D7:0
D7:0
A2:0
nCS1:0
nRESET
nIOR
nIOW
A2:0
nCS1:0
nRESET
nIOR
nIOW
P4.2:0
P4.4:3
P4.5
RD
WR
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Table 87. External Data Memory Interface Signals
17.2
Signal
Name
Type
Alternate
Function
A15:8
I/O
Address Lines
Upper address lines for the external bus.
Multiplexed higher address and data lines for the IDE interface.
P2.7:0
AD7:0
I/O
Address/Data Lines
Multiplexed lower address and data lines for the IDE interface.
P0.7:0
ALE
O
Address Latch Enable
ALE signals indicates that valid address information is available on lines AD7:0.
RD
O
Read
Read signal output to external data memory.
P3.7
WR
O
Write
Write signal output to external memory.
P3.6
Description
-
Registers
Table 88. DAT16H Register
DAT16H (S:F9h) – Data 16 High Order Byte
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
D15:8
Data 16 High Order Byte
When EXT16 bit is set, DAT16H is set by software with the high order data byte prior any
MOVX write instruction.
When EXT16 bit is set, DAT16H contains the high order data byte after any MOVX read
instruction.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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18. Serial I/O Port
The serial I/O port in the AT89C5132 provides both synchronous and asynchronous communication modes. It operates as a Synchronous Receiver and Transmitter in one single mode
(Mode 0) and operates as an Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) in three
full-duplex modes (modes 1, 2 and 3). Asynchronous modes support framing error detection and
multiprocessor communication with automatic address recognition.
18.1
Mode Selection
SM0 and SM1 Bits in SCON register (see Figure 91) are used to select a mode among the single synchronous and the three asynchronous modes according to Table 89.
Table 89. Serial I/O Port Mode Selection
18.2
SM0
SM1
Mode
Description
Baud Rate
0
0
0
Synchronous Shift Register
Fixed/Variable
0
1
1
8-bit UART
Variable
1
0
2
9-bit UART
Fixed
1
1
3
9-bit UART
Variable
Baud Rate Generator
Depending on the mode and the source selection, the baud rate can be generated from either
the Timer 1 or the Internal Baud Rate Generator. The Timer 1 can be used in Modes 1 and 3
while the Internal Baud Rate Generator can be used in Modes 0, 1
and 3.
The addition of the Internal Baud Rate Generator allows freeing of the Timer 1 for other purposes in the application. It is highly recommended to use the Internal Baud Rate Generator as it
allows higher and more accurate baud rates than Timer 1.
Baud rate formulas depend on the modes selected and are given in the following mode sections.
18.2.1
Timer 1
When using Timer 1, the Baud Rate is derived from the overflow of the timer. As shown in
Figure 18-1 Timer 1 is used in its 8-bit auto-reload mode (detailed in Section "Mode 2 (8-bit
Timer with Auto-Reload)", page 51). SMOD1 bit in PCON register allows doubling of the generated baud rate.
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Figure 18-1. Timer 1 Baud Rate Generator Block Diagram
PER
CLOCK
÷6
0
TL1
(8 bits)
1
Overflow
÷2
T1
0
To serial
Port
1
C/T1#
TMOD.6
SMOD1
INT1
PCON.7
TH1
(8 bits)
GATE1
T1
CLOCK
TMOD.7
TR1
TCON.6
18.2.2
Internal Baud Rate Generator
When using the Internal Baud Rate Generator, the Baud Rate is derived from the overflow of the
timer. As shown in Figure 18-2, the Internal Baud Rate Generator is an 8-bit auto-reload timer
feed by the peripheral clock or by the peripheral clock divided by 6 depending on the SPD bit in
BDRCON register (see Table 95). The Internal Baud Rate Generator is enabled by setting BBR
bit in BDRCON register. SMOD1 bit in PCON register allows doubling of the generated baud
rate.
Figure 18-2. Internal Baud Rate Generator Block Diagram
PER
CLOCK
÷6
0
BRG
(8 bits)
1
Overflow
÷2
0
To serial
Port
1
SPD
BRR
BDRCON.1
BDRCON.4
To serial
Port (M0)
BRL
(8 bits)
18.3
IBRG0
CLOCK
SMOD1
PCON.7
IBRG
CLOCK
Synchronous Mode (Mode 0)
Mode 0 is a half-duplex, synchronous mode, which is commonly used to expand the I/0 capabilities of a device with shift registers. The transmit data (TXD) pin outputs a set of eight clock
pulses while the receive data (RXD) pin transmits or receives a byte of data. The 8-bit data are
transmitted and received least-significant bit (LSB) first. Shifts occur at a fixed Baud Rate (see
Section "Baud Rate Selection (Mode 0)", page 110). Figure 18-3 shows the serial port block diagram in Mode 0.
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Figure 18-3. Serial I/O Port Block Diagram (Mode 0)
SCON.6
SCON.7
SM1
SM0
SBUF Tx SR
Mode Decoder
RXD
M3 M2 M1 M0
SBUF Rx SR
Mode
Controller
18.3.1
TI
RI
SCON.1
SCON.0
Baud Rate
Controller
TXD
Transmission
(Mode 0)
To start a transmission mode 0, write to SCON register clearing Bits SM0, SM1.
As shown in Figure 18-4, writing the byte to transmit to SBUF register starts the transmission.
Hardware shifts the LSB (D0) onto the RXD pin during the first clock cycle composed of a high
level then low level signal on TXD. During the eighth clock cycle the MSB (D7) is on the RXD
pin. Then, hardware drives the RXD pin high and asserts TI to indicate the end of the
transmission.
Figure 18-4. Transmission Waveforms (Mode 0)
TXD
Write to SBUF
RXD
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
TI
18.3.2
Reception
(Mode 0)
To start a reception in mode 0, write to SCON register clearing SM0, SM1 and RI Bits and setting the REN bit.
As shown in Figure 18-5, Clock is pulsed and the LSB (D0) is sampled on the RXD pin. The D0
bit is then shifted into the shift register. After eight sampling, the MSB (D7) is shifted into the shift
register, and hardware asserts RI bit to indicate a completed reception. Software can then read
the received byte from SBUF register.
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Figure 18-5. Reception Waveforms (Mode 0)
TXD
Set REN, Clear RI
Write to SCON
RXD
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RI
18.3.3
Baud Rate Selection
(Mode 0)
In mode 0, the baud rate can be either fixed or variable.
As shown in Figure 18-6, the selection is done using M0SRC bit in BDRCON register.
Figure 18-7 gives the baud rate calculation formulas for each baud rate source.
Figure 18-6. Baud Rate Source Selection (mode 0)
PER
CLOCK
÷6
0
To Serial Port
IBRG0
CLOCK
1
M0SRC
BDRCON.0
Figure 18-7. Baud Rate Formulas (Mode 0)
Baud_Rate=
Baud_Rate=
FPER
6
a. Fixed Formula
110
BRL= 256 -
FPER
6(1-SPD) ⋅ 16 ⋅ (256 -BRL)
FPER
6(1-SPD) ⋅ 16 ⋅ Baud_Rate
b. Variable Formula
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
18.4
Asynchronous Modes (Modes 1, 2 and 3)
The Serial Port has one 8-bit and two 9-bit asynchronous modes of operation. Figure 18-8
shows the Serial Port block diagram in asynchronous modes.
Figure 18-8. Serial I/O Port Block Diagram (Modes 1, 2 and 3)
SCON.6
SCON.7
SCON.3
SM1
SM0
TB8
Mode Decoder
SBUF Tx SR
TXD
Rx SR
RXD
M3 M2 M1 M0
T1
CLOCK
Mode & Clock
Controller
IBRG
CLOCK
SBUF Rx
PER
CLOCK
18.4.0.1
SM2
TI
RI
SCON.4
SCON.1
SCON.0
RB8
SCON.2
Mode 1
Mode 1 is a full-duplex, asynchronous mode. The data frame (see Figure 18-9) consists of 10
Bits: one start, eight data Bits and one stop bit. Serial data is transmitted on the TXD pin and
received on the RXD pin. When data is received, the stop bit is read in the RB8 bit in SCON
register.
Figure 18-9. Data Frame Format (Mode 1)
Mode 1
D0
D1
D2
Start bit
18.4.0.2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
8-bit data
Stop bit
Modes 2 and 3
Modes 2 and 3 are full-duplex, asynchronous modes. The data frame (see Figure 18-10) consists of 11 Bits: one start bit, eight data Bits (transmitted and received LSB first), one
programmable ninth data bit and one stop bit. Serial data is transmitted on the TXD pin and
received on the RXD pin. On receive, the ninth bit is read from RB8 bit in SCON register. On
transmit, the ninth data bit is written to TB8 bit in SCON register. Alternatively, the ninth bit can
be used as a command/data flag.
Figure 18-10. Data Frame Format (Modes 2 and 3)
D0
Start bit
18.4.1
D1
D2
D3
D4
9-bit data
D5
D6
D7
D8
Stop bit
Transmission
(Modes 1, 2 and 3)
To initiate a transmission, write to SCON register, setting SM0 and SM1 Bits according to
Table 89, and setting the ninth bit by writing to TB8 bit. Then, writing the byte to be transmitted to
SBUF register starts the transmission.
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18.4.2
Reception
(Modes 1, 2 and 3)
To prepare for reception, write to SCON register, setting SM0 and SM1 Bits according to
Table 89, and set the REN bit. The actual reception is then initiated by a detected high-to-low
transition on the RXD pin.
18.4.3
Framing Error Detection
(Modes 1, 2 and 3)
Framing error detection is provided for the three asynchronous modes. To enable the framing bit
error detection feature, set SMOD0 bit in PCON register as shown in Figure 18-11.
When this feature is enabled, the receiver checks each incoming data frame for a valid stop bit.
An invalid stop bit may result from noise on the serial lines or from simultaneous transmission by
two devices. If a valid stop bit is not found, the software sets FE bit in SCON register.
Software may examine FE bit after each reception to check for data errors. Once set, only software or a chip reset clears FE bit. Subsequently received frames with valid stop Bits cannot
clear FE bit. When the framing error detection feature is enabled, RI rises on stop bit instead of
the last data bit as detailed in Figure 18-17.
Figure 18-11. Framing Error Block Diagram
Framing Error
Controller
FE
1
SM0/FE
0
SCON.7
SM0
SMOD0
PCON.6
18.4.4
Baud Rate Selection (Modes 1 and 3)
In modes 1 and 3, the Baud Rate is derived either from the Timer 1 or the Internal Baud Rate
Generator and allows different baud rate in reception and transmission.
As shown in Figure 18-12, the selection is done using RBCK and TBCK Bits in BDRCON
register.
Figure 18-13 gives the baud rate calculation formulas for each baud rate source. Table 90
details Internal Baud Rate Generator configuration for different peripheral clock frequencies and
gives baud rates closer to the standard baud rates.
Figure 18-12. Baud Rate Source Selection (Modes 1 and 3)
T1
CLOCK
0
÷ 16
IBRG
CLOCK
1
RBCK
BDRCON.2
112
To Serial
Rx Port
T1
CLOCK
0
÷ 16
IBRG
CLOCK
1
To Serial
Tx Port
TBCK
BDRCON.3
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Figure 18-13. Baud Rate Formulas (Modes 1 and 3)
Baud_Rate=
BRL= 256 -
6
6
2SMOD1 ⋅ FPER
⋅ 32 ⋅ (256 -BRL)
Baud_Rate=
(1-SPD)
2SMOD1 ⋅ FPER
⋅ 32 ⋅ Baud_Rate
TH1= 256 -
(1-SPD)
a. IBRG Formula
2SMOD1 ⋅ FPER
6 ⋅ 32 ⋅ (256 -TH1)
2SMOD1 ⋅ FPER
192 ⋅ Baud_Rate
b. T1 Formula
Table 90. Baud Rate Generator Configuration
FPER = 6 MHz(1)
FPER = 8 MHz(1)
Baud
Rate
SPD
SMOD
1
BRL
Error
%
SPD
SMOD
1
BRL
Error
%
SPD
SMOD
1
BRL
Error
%
115200
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
57600
-
-
-
-
1
1
247
3.55
1
1
245
1.36
38400
1
1
246
2.34
1
1
243
0.16
1
1
240
1.73
19200
1
1
236
2.34
1
1
230
0.16
1
1
223
1.36
9600
1
1
217
0.16
1
1
204
0.16
1
1
191
0.16
4800
1
1
178
0.16
1
1
152
0.16
1
1
126
0.16
FPER = 12 MHz(2)
Notes:
18.4.5
FPER = 10 MHz(1)
FPER = 16 MHz(2)
FPER = 20 MHz(2)
Baud
Rate
SPD
SMOD
1
BRL
Error
%
SPD
SMOD
1
BRL
Error
%
SPD
SMOD
1
BRL
Error
%
115200
-
-
-
-
1
1
247
3.55
1
1
245
1.36
57600
1
1
243
0.16
1
1
239
2.12
1
1
234
1.36
38400
1
1
236
2.34
1
1
230
0.16
1
1
223
1.36
19200
1
1
217
0.16
1
1
204
0.16
1
1
191
0.16
9600
1
1
178
0.16
1
1
152
0.16
1
1
126
0.16
4800
1
1
100
0.16
1
1
48
0.16
1
0
126
0.16
1. These frequencies are achieved in X1 mode, FPER = FOSC ÷ 2.
2. These frequencies are achieved in X2 mode, FPER = FOSC.
Baud Rate Selection
(Mode 2)
In mode 2, the baud rate can only be programmed to two fixed values: 1/16 or 1/32 of the peripheral clock frequency.
As shown in Figure 18-14 the selection is done using SMOD1 bit in PCON register.
Figure 18-15 gives the baud rate calculation formula depending on the selection.
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Figure 18-14. Baud Rate Generator Selection (mode 2)
PER
CLOCK
÷2
0
÷ 16
To Serial Port
1
SMOD1
PCON.7
Figure 18-15. Baud Rate Formula (Mode 2)
Baud_Rate =
18.5
2SMOD1 ⋅ FPER
32
Multiprocessor Communication
(Modes 2 and 3)
Modes 2 and 3 provide a ninth-bit mode to facilitate multiprocessor communication. To enable
this feature, set SM2 bit in SCON register. When the multiprocessor communication feature is
enabled, the Serial Port can differentiate between data frames (ninth bit clear) and address
frames (ninth bit set). This allows the AT89C5132 to function as a slave processor in an environment where multiple slave processors share a single serial line.
When the multiprocessor communication feature is enabled, the receiver ignores frames with
the ninth bit clear. The receiver examines frames with the ninth bit set for an address match. If
the received address matches the slaves address, the receiver hardware sets RB8 and RI bits in
SCON register, generating an interrupt.
The addressed slave’s software then clears SM2 bit in SCON register and prepares to receive
the data Bytes. The other slaves are unaffected by these data Bytes because they are waiting to
respond to their own addresses.
18.6
Automatic Address Recognition
The automatic address recognition feature is enabled when the multiprocessor communication
feature is enabled (SM2 bit in SCON register is set).
Implemented in hardware, automatic address recognition enhances the multiprocessor communication feature by allowing the Serial Port to examine the address of each incoming command
frame. Only when the Serial Port recognizes its own address, the receiver sets RI bit in SCON
register to generate an interrupt. This ensures that the CPU is not interrupted by command
frames addressed to other devices.
If desired, the automatic address recognition feature in mode 1 may be enabled. In this configuration, the stop bit takes the place of the ninth data bit. Bit RI is set only when the received
command frame address matches the device’s address and is terminated by a valid stop bit.
To support automatic address recognition, a device is identified by a given address and a broadcast address.
Note:
18.6.1
The multiprocessor communication and automatic address recognition features cannot be
enabled in mode 0 (i.e, setting SM2 bit in SCON register in mode 0 has no effect).
Given Address
Each device has an individual address that is specified in SADDR register; the SADEN register
is a mask byte that contains don’t care Bits (defined by zeros) to form the device’s given
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AT89C5132
address. The don’t care Bits provide the flexibility to address one or more slaves at a time. The
following example illustrates how a given address is formed.
To address a device by its individual address, the SADEN mask byte must be 1111 1111b.
For example:
SADDR = 0101 0110b
SADEN = 1111 1100b
Given = 0101 01XXb
The following is an example of how to use given addresses to address different slaves:
Slave A: SADDR
SADEN
Given
Slave B: SADDR
SADEN
Given
Slave C: SADDR
SADEN
Given
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1111
1111
1111
1111
1111
1111
1111
1111
1111
0001b
1010b
0X0Xb
0011b
1001b
0XX1b
0011b
1101b
00X1b
The SADEN byte is selected so that each slave may be addressed separately.
For slave A, bit 0 (the LSB) is a don’t-care bit; for slaves B and C, bit 0 is a 1. To communicate
with slave A only, the master must send an address where bit 0 is clear (e.g. 1111 0000B).
For slave A, bit 1 is a 0; for slaves B and C, bit 1 is a don’t care bit. To communicate with slaves
A and B, but not slave C, the master must send an address with bits 0 and 1 both set (e.g.
1111 0011B).
To communicate with slaves A, B and C, the master must send an address with bit 0 set, bit 1
clear, and bit 2 clear (e.g. 1111 0001B).
18.6.2
Broadcast Address
A broadcast address is formed from the logical OR of the SADDR and SADEN registers with
zeros defined as don’t-care bits, e.g.:
SADDR = 0101 0110b
SADEN = 1111 1100b
(SADDR | SADEN)=1111 111Xb
The use of don’t-care bits provides flexibility in defining the broadcast address, however in most
applications, a broadcast address is FFh.
The following is an example of using broadcast addresses:
Slave A: SADDR = 1111 0001b
SADEN = 1111 1010b
Given = 1111 1X11b,
Slave B: SADDR = 1111 0011b
SADEN = 1111 1001b
Given = 1111 1X11b,
Slave C: SADDR = 1111 0010b
SADEN = 1111 1101b
Given = 1111 1111b,
For slaves A and B, bit 2 is a don’t care bit; for slave C, bit 2 is set. To communicate with all of
the slaves, the master must send the address FFh.
To communicate with slaves A and B, but not slave C, the master must send the address FBh.
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18.6.3
Reset Address
On reset, the SADDR and SADEN registers are initialized to 00h, i.e. the given and broadcast
addresses are XXXX XXXXb (all don’t-care bits). This ensures that the Serial Port is backwards
compatible with the 80C51 microcontrollers that do not support automatic address recognition.
18.7
Interrupt
The Serial I/O Port handles two interrupt sources that are the “end of reception” (RI in SCON)
and “end of transmission” (TI in SCON) flags. As shown in Figure 18-16 these flags are combined together to appear as a single interrupt source for the C51 core. Flags must be cleared by
software when executing the serial interrupt service routine.
The serial interrupt is enabled by setting ES bit in IEN0 register. This assumes interrupts are globally enabled by setting EA bit in IEN0 register.
Depending on the selected mode and whether the framing error detection is enabled or not, RI
flag is set during the stop bit or during the ninth bit as detailed in Figure 18-17.
Figure 18-16. Serial I/O Interrupt System
SCON.0
RI
Serial I/O
Interrupt Request
TI
SCON.1
ES
IEN0.4
Figure 18-17. Interrupt Waveforms
a. Mode 1
RXD
D0
D1
D2
Start Bit
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
8-bit Data
Stop Bit
RI
SMOD0 = X
FE
SMOD0 = 1
b. Mode 2 and 3
RXD
D0
Start bit
D1
D2
D3
D4
9-bit data
D5
D6
D7
D8
Stop bit
RI
SMOD0 = 0
RI
SMOD0 = 1
FE
SMOD0 = 1
18.8
Registers
Table 91. SCON Register
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AT89C5132
SCON (S:98h) – Serial Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FE/SM0
OVR/SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
FE
7
Framing Error Bit
To select this function, set SMOD0 bit in PCON register.
Set by hardware to indicate an invalid stop bit.
Must be cleared by software.
SM0
Serial Port Mode Bit 0
Refer to Table 89 for mode selection.
SM1
Serial Port Mode Bit 1
Refer to Table 89 for mode selection.
5
SM2
Serial Port Mode Bit 2
Set to enable the multiprocessor communication and automatic address recognition
features.
Clear to disable the multiprocessor communication and automatic address recognition
features.
4
REN
Receiver Enable Bit
Set to enable reception.
Clear to disable reception.
3
TB8
Transmit Bit 8
Modes 0 and 1: Not used.
Modes 2 and 3: Software writes the ninth data bit to be transmitted to TB8.
2
RB8
Receiver Bit 8
Mode 0: Not used.
Mode 1 (SM2 cleared): Set or cleared by hardware to reflect the stop bit received.
Modes 2 and 3 (SM2 set): Set or cleared by hardware to reflect the ninth bit received.
1
TI
Transmit Interrupt Flag
Set by the transmitter after the last data bit is transmitted.
Must be cleared by software.
0
RI
Receive Interrupt Flag
Set by the receiver after the stop bit of a frame has been received.
Must be cleared by software.
6
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 92. SBUF Register
SBUF (S:99h) – Serial Buffer Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SD7
SD6
SD5
SD4
SD3
SD2
SD1
SD0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
SD7:0
Serial Data Byte
Read the last data received by the Serial I/O Port.
Write the data to be transmitted by the Serial I/O Port.
Reset value = XXXX XXXXb
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Table 93. SADDR Register
SADDR (S:A9h) – Slave Individual Address Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SAD7
SAD6
SAD5
SAD4
SAD3
SAD2
SAD1
SAD0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
SAD7:0
Slave Individual Address.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 94. SADEN Register
SADEN (S:B9h) – Slave Individual Address Mask Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SAE7
SAE6
SAE5
SAE4
SAE3
SAE2
SAE1
SAE0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
SAE7:0
Slave Address Mask Byte.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 95. BDRCON Register
BDRCON (S:92h) – Baud Rate Generator Control Register
118
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
BRR
TBCK
RBCK
SPD
M0SRC
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-5
-
4
BRR
Baud Rate Run Bit
Set to enable the baud rate generator.
Clear to disable the baud rate generator.
3
TBCK
Transmission Baud Rate Selection Bit
Set to select the baud rate generator as transmission baud rate generator.
Clear to select the Timer 1 as transmission baud rate generator.
2
RBCK
Reception Baud Rate Selection Bit
Set to select the baud rate generator as reception baud rate generator.
Clear to select the Timer 1 as reception baud rate generator.
1
SPD
0
M0SRC
Reserved
The value read from these bits is indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
Baud Rate Speed Bit
Set to select high speed baud rate generation.
Clear to select low speed baud rate generation.
Mode 0 Baud Rate Source Bit
Set to select the variable baud rate generator in Mode 0.
Clear to select fixed baud rate in Mode 0.
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Reset Value = XXX0 0000b
Table 96. BRL Register
BRL (S:91h) – Baud Rate Generator Reload Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BRL7
BRL6
BRL5
BRL4
BRL3
BRL2
BRL1
BRL0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
BRL7:0
Baud Rate Reload Value.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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19. Synchronous Peripheral Interface
The AT89C5132 implement a Synchronous Peripheral Interface with master and slave modes
capability.
Figure 19-1 shows an SPI bus configuration using the AT89C5132 as master connected to slave
peripherals. Figure 19-2 shows an SPI bus configuration using the AT89C5132 as slave of an
other master.
The bus is made of three wires connecting all the devices together:
•
Master Output Slave Input (MOSI): it is used to transfer data in series from the master to a
slave. It is driven by the master.
•
Master Input Slave Output (MISO): it is used to transfer data in series from a slave to the
master. It is driven by the selected slave.
•
Serial Clock (SCK): it is used to synchronize the data transmission both in and out of the
devices through their MOSI and MISO lines. It is driven by the master for eight clock cycles
which allows to exchange one byte on the serial lines.
Each slave peripheral is selected by one Slave Select pin (SS). If there is only one slave, it may
be continuously selected with SS tied to a low level. Otherwise, the AT89C5132 may select each
device by software through port pins (Pn.x). Special care should be taken not to select two
slaves at the same time to avoid bus conflicts.
Figure 19-1. Typical Master SPI Bus Configuration
Pn.z
Pn.y
Pn.x
SS
AT89C5132
P4.0
P4.1
P4.2
SO
DataFlash 1
SI
SCK
SS DataFlash 2
SO
SI
SCK
SS
SO
LCD
Controller
SI
SCK
MISO
MOSI
SCK
Figure 19-2. Typical Slave SPI Bus Configuration
SSn
SS
SS1
SS0
MASTER
SS
SO
Slave 1
SI
SCK
SS
SO
Slave 2
SI
SCK
AT89C5132
Slave n
MISO MOSI SCK
MISO
MOSI
SCK
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4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
19.1
Description
The SPI controller interfaces with the C51 core through three special function registers: SPCON,
the SPI control register (see Table 98); SPSTA, the SPI status register (see Table 99); and
SPDAT, the SPI data register (see Table 100).
19.1.1
Master Mode
The SPI operates in master mode when the MSTR bit in SPCON is set.
Figure 19-3 shows the SPI block diagram in master mode. Only a master SPI module can initiate
transmissions. Software begins the transmission by writing to SPDAT. Writing to SPDAT writes
to the shift register while reading SPDAT reads an intermediate register updated at the end of
each transfer.
The byte begins shifting out on the MOSI pin under the control of the bit rate generator. This
generator also controls the shift register of the slave peripheral through the SCK output pin. As
the byte shifts out, another byte shifts in from the slave peripheral on the MISO pin. The byte is
transmitted most significant bit (MSB) first. The end of transfer is signalled by SPIF being set.
In case of the AT89C5132 is the only master on the bus, it can be useful not to use SS pin and
get it back to I/O functionality. This is achieved by setting SSDIS bit in SPCON.
Figure 19-3. SPI Master Mode Block Diagram
MOSI/P4.1
I
8-bit Shift Register
SPDAT WR
SCK/P4.2
SPDAT RD
Q
Internal Bus
MISO/P4.0
SS/P4.3
SSDIS
SPCON.5
MODF
Control and Clock Logic
SPSTA.4
WCOL
SPSTA.6
PER
CLOCK
Bit Rate Generator
SPIF
SPSTA.7
SPEN
SPCON.6
Note:
19.1.2
SPR2:0
CPHA
CPOL
SPCON
SPCON.2
SPCON.3
MSTR bit in SPCON is set to select master mode.
Slave Mode
The SPI operates in slave mode when the MSTR bit in SPCON is cleared and data has been
loaded in SPDAT.
Figure 19-4 shows the SPI block diagram in slave mode. In slave mode, before data transmission occurs, the SS pin of the slave SPI must be asserted to low level. SS must remain low until
the transmission of the byte is complete. In the slave SPI module, data enters the shift register
through the MOSI pin under the control of the serial clock provided by the master SPI module on
the SCK input pin. When the master starts a transmission, the data in the shift register begins
shifting out on the MISO pin. The end of transfer is signaled by SPIF being set.
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In case of the AT89C5132 is the only slave on the bus, it can be useful not to use SS pin and get
it back to I/O functionality. This is achieved by setting SSDIS bit in SPCON. This bit has no effect
when CPHA is cleared (see Section "SS Management", page 123).
Figure 19-4. SPI Slave Mode Block Diagram
MISO/P4.2
I
8-bit Shift Register
SPDAT WR
SPDAT RD
SCK/P4.2
Q
Internal Bus
MOSI/P4.1
Control and Clock Logic
SS/P4.3
SPIF
SPSTA.7
SSDIS
SPCON.5
Note:
19.1.3
CPHA
CPOL
SPCON.2
SPCON.3
MSTR bit in SPCON is cleared to select slave mode.
Bit Rate
The bit rate can be selected from seven predefined bit rates using the SPR2, SPR1 and SPR0
control Bits in SPCON according to Table 97. These bit rates are derived from the peripheral
clock (FPER) issued from the Clock Controller block as detailed in Section “Clock Controller”,
page 12.
Table 97. Serial Bit Rates
Bit Rate (kHz) Vs FPER
SPR2
SPR1
SPR0
6 MHz(1)
8 MHz(1)
10 MHz(1)
12 MHz(2)
16 MHz(2)
20 MHz(2)
FPER Divider
0
0
0
3000
4000
5000
6000
8000
10000
2
0
0
1
1500
2000
2500
3000
4000
5000
4
0
1
0
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500
8
0
1
1
375
500
625
750
1000
1250
16
1
0
0
187.5
250
312.5
375
500
625
32
1
0
1
93.75
125
156.25
187.5
250
312.5
64
1
1
0
46.875
62.5
78.125
93.75
125
156.25
128
1
1
1
6000
8000
10000
12000
16000
20000
1
Notes:
19.1.4
1. These frequencies are achieved in X1 mode, FPER = FOSC ÷ 2.
2. These frequencies are achieved in X2 mode, FPER = FOSC.
Data Transfer
The Clock Polarity bit (CPOL in SPCON) defines the default SCK line level in idle state(1) while
the Clock Phase bit (CPHA in SPCON) defines the edges on which the input data are sampled
and the edges on which the output data are shifted (see Figure 19-5 and Figure 19-6). The SI
signal is output from the selected slave and the SO signal is the output from the master. The
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AT89C5132
AT89C5132 captures data from the SI line while the selected slave captures data from the SO
line.
For simplicity, the following figures depict the SPI waveforms in idealized form and do not provide precise timing information. For timing parameters refer to the Section “AC Characteristics”.
Note:
1. When the peripheral is disabled (SPEN = 0), default SCK line is high level.
Figure 19-5. Data Transmission Format (CPHA = 0)
SCK Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
MSB
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
LSB
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
LSB
SPEN (Internal)
SCK (CPOL = 0)
SCK (CPOL = 1)
MOSI (from Master)
MISO (from Slave)
MSB
SS (to Slave)
to Capture Point
Figure 19-6. Data Transmission Format (CPHA = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
MOSI (from Master)
MSB
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
LSB
MISO (from Slave)
MSB
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
SCK Cycle Number
SPEN (Internal)
SCK (CPOL = 0)
SCK (CPOL = 1)
LSB
SS (to Slave)
Capture Point
19.1.5
SS Management
Figure 19-5 shows an SPI transmission with CPHA = 0, where the first SCK edge is the MSB
capture point. Therefore the slave starts to output its MSB as soon as it is selected: SS asserted
to low level. SS must then be deasserted between each byte transmission (see Figure 19-7).
SPDAT must be loaded with data before SS is asserted again.
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Figure 19-6 shows an SPI transmission with CPHA = 1, where the first SCK edge is used by the
slave as a start of transmission signal. Therefore SS may remain asserted between each byte
transmission (see Figure 19-7).
Figure 19-7. SS Timing Diagram
SI/SO
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
SS (CPHA = 0)
SS (CPHA = 1)
19.1.6
Error Conditions
The following flags signal the SPI error conditions:
19.2
•
MODF in SPSTA signals a mode fault.
MODF flag is relevant only in master mode when SS usage is enabled (SSDIS bit cleared).
It signals when set that another master on the bus has asserted SS pin and so, may create
a conflict on the bus with two masters sending data at the same time.
A mode fault automatically disables the SPI (SPEN cleared) and configures the SPI in slave
mode (MSTR cleared).
MODF flag can trigger an interrupt as explained in Section "Interrupt", page 124.
MODF flag is cleared by reading SPSTA and re-configuring SPI by writing to SPCON.
•
WCOL in SPSTA signals a write collision.
WCOL flag is set when SPDAT is loaded while a transfer is on-going. In this case, data is not
written to SPDAT and transfer continues uninterrupted. WCOL flag does not trigger any
interrupt and is relevant jointly with SPIF flag.
WCOL flag is cleared after reading SPSTA and writing new data to SPDAT while no transfer
is ongoing.
Interrupt
The SPI handles two interrupt sources; the “end of transfer” and the “mode fault” flags.
As shown in Figure 19-8 these flags are combined together to appear as a single interrupt
source for the C51 core. The SPIF flag is set at the end of an 8-bit shift in and out and is cleared
by reading SPSTA and then reading from or writing to SPDAT.
The MODF flag is set in case of mode fault error and is cleared by reading SPSTA and then writing to SPCON.
The SPI interrupt is enabled by setting ESPI bit in IEN1 register. This assumes interrupts are
globally enabled by setting EA bit in IEN0 register.
Figure 19-8. SPI Interrupt System
SPIF
SPI Controller
Interrupt Request
SPSTA.7
MODF
SPSTA.4
ESPI
IEN1.2
19.3
Configuration
The SPI configuration is made through SPCON.
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19.3.1
Master Configuration
The SPI operates in master mode when the MSTR bit in SPCON is set.
19.3.2
Slave Configuration
The SPI operates in slave mode when the MSTR bit in SPCON is cleared and data has been
loaded in SPDAT.
19.3.3
Data Exchange
There are two possible Policies to exchange data in master and slave modes:
19.3.4
•
polling
•
interrupts
Master Mode with Polling Policy
Figure 19-9 shows the initialization phase and the transfer phase flows using the polling policy.
Using this flow prevents any overrun error occurrence.
•
The bit rate is selected according to Table 97.
•
The transfer format depends on the slave peripheral.
•
SS may be deasserted between transfers depending also on the slave peripheral.
•
SPIF flag is cleared when reading SPDAT (SPSTA has been read before by the “end of
transfer” check).
This policy provides the fastest effective transmission and is well adapted when communicating
at high speed with other Microcontrollers. However, the procedure may then be interrupted at
any time by higher priority tasks.
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Figure 19-9. Master SPI Polling Policy Flows
SPI Initialization
Polling Policy
SPI Transfer
Polling Policy
Disable Interrupt
SPIE = 0
Select Slave
Pn.x = L
Select Master Mode
MSTR = 1
Start Transfer
Write Data in SPDAT
Select Bit Rate
program SPR2:0
End Of Transfer?
SPIF = 1?
Select Format
program CPOL & CPHA
Get Data Received
Read SPDAT
Enable SPI
SPEN = 1
Last Transfer?
Deselect Slave
Pn.x = H
19.3.5
Master Mode with Interrupt Policy
Figure 19-10 shows the initialization phase and the transfer phase flows using the interrupt policy. Using this flow prevents any overrun error occurrence.
•
The bit rate is selected according to Table 97.
•
The transfer format depends on the slave peripheral.
•
SS may be deasserted between transfers depending also on the slave peripheral.
Reading SPSTA at the beginning of the ISR is mandatory for clearing the SPIF flag. Clear is
effective when reading SPDAT.
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Figure 19-10. Master SPI Interrupt Policy Flows
SPI Initialization
Interrupt Policy
SPI Interrupt
Service Routine
Select Master Mode
MSTR = 1
Read Status
Read SPSTA
Select Bit Rate
Program SPR2:0
Get Data Received
Read SPDAT
Select Format
Program CPOL & CPHA
Start New Transfer
Write Data in SPDAT
Enable Interrupt
ESPI =1
Last Transfer?
Enable SPI
SPEN = 1
Deselect Slave
Pn.x = H
Select Slave
Pn.x = L
Disable Interrupt
SPIE = 0
Start Transfer
Write Data in SPDAT
19.3.6
Slave Mode with Polling Policy
Figure 19-11 shows the initialization phase and the transfer phase flows using the polling policy.
The transfer format depends on the master controller.
SPIF flag is cleared when reading SPDAT (SPSTA has been read before by the “end of reception” check).
This policy provides the fastest effective transmission and is well adapted when communicating
at high speed with other Microcontrollers. However, the procedure may be interrupted at any
time by higher priority tasks.
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Figure 19-11. Slave SPI Polling Policy Flows
SPI Initialization
Polling Policy
Disable interrupt
SPIE = 0
SPI Transfer
Polling Policy
Data Received?
SPIF = 1?
Select Slave Mode
MSTR = 0
Get Data Received
Read SPDAT
Select Format
Program CPOL & CPHA
Prepare Next Transfer
Write Data in SPDAT
Enable SPI
SPEN = 1
Prepare Transfer
write data in SPDAT
19.3.7
Slave Mode with Interrupt Policy
Figure 19-10 shows the initialization phase and the transfer phase flows using the interrupt
policy.
The transfer format depends on the master controller.
Reading SPSTA at the beginning of the ISR is mandatory for clearing the SPIF flag. Clear is
effective when reading SPDAT.
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Figure 19-12. Slave SPI Interrupt Policy Flows
SPI Initialization
Interrupt Policy
SPI Interrupt
Service Routine
Select Slave Mode
MSTR = 0
Get Status
Read SPSTA
Select Format
Program CPOL & CPHA
Get Data Received
Read SPDAT
Enable Interrupt
ESPI =1
Prepare New Transfer
Write Data in SPDAT
Enable SPI
SPEN = 1
Prepare Transfer
Write Data in SPDAT
19.4
Registers
Table 98. SPCON Register
SPCON (S:C3h) – SPI Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPR2
SPEN
SSDIS
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
SPR2
SPI Rate Bit 2
Refer to Table 97 for bit rate description.
6
SPEN
SPI Enable Bit
Set to enable the SPI interface.
Clear to disable the SPI interface.
5
SSDIS
Slave Select Input Disable Bit
Set to disable SS in both master and slave modes. In slave mode this bit has no effect if
CPHA = 0.
Clear to enable SS in both master and slave modes.
4
MSTR
Master Mode Select
Set to select the master mode.
Clear to select the slave mode.
3
CPOL
2
CPHA
SPI Clock Polarity Bit(1)
Set to have the clock output set to high level in idle state.
Clear to have the clock output set to low level in idle state.
SPI Clock Phase Bit
Set to have the data sampled when the clock returns to idle state (see CPOL).
Clear to have the data sampled when the clock leaves the idle state (see CPOL).
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Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
1-0
SPR1:0
Description
SPI Rate Bits 0 and 1
Refer to Table 97 for bit rate description.
Reset Value = 0001 0100b
Note:
1. When the SPI is disabled, SCK outputs high level.
Table 99. SPSTA Register
SPSTA (S:C4h) – SPI Status Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIF
WCOL
-
MODF
-
-
-
-
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
SPIF
6
WCOL
5
-
4
MODF
3:0
-
SPI Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when an 8-bit shift is completed.
Cleared by hardware when reading or writing SPDAT after reading SPSTA.
Write Collision Flag
Set by hardware to indicate that a collision has been detected.
Cleared by hardware to indicate that no collision has been detected.
Reserved
The values read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Mode Fault
Set by hardware to indicate that the SS pin is at an appropriate level.
Cleared by hardware to indicate that the SS pin is at an inappropriate level.
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are indeterminate. Do not set these Bits.
Reset Value = 00000 0000b
Table 100. SPDAT Register
SPDAT (S:C5h) – Synchronous Serial Data Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPD7
SPD6
SPD5
SPD4
SPD3
SPD2
SPD1
SPD0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
SPD7:0
Synchronous Serial Data
Reset Value = XXXX XXXXb
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20. Two-wire Interface (TWI) Controller
The AT89C5132 implements a TWI controller supporting the four standard master and slave
modes with multimaster capability. Thus, it allows connection of slave devices like LCD controller, audio DAC, etc., but also external master controlling where the AT89C5132 is used as a
peripheral of a host.
The TWI bus is a bi-directional TWI serial communication standard. It is designed primarily for
simple but efficient integrated circuit control. The system is comprised of 2 lines, SCL (Serial
Clock) and SDA (Serial Data) that carry information between the ICs connected to them. The
serial data transfer is limited to 100 Kbit/s in low speed mode, however, some higher bit rates
can be achieved depending on the oscillator frequency. Various communication configurations
can be designed using this bus. Figure 20-1 shows a typical TWI bus configuration using the
AT89C5132 in master and slave modes. All the devices connected to the bus can be master and
slave.
Figure 20-1. Typical TWI Bus Configuration
AT89C5132
Master/Slave
LCD
Display
Rp
Audio
DAC
Rp
P1.6/SCL
P1.7/SDA
20.1
HOST
Microprocessor
SCL
SDA
Description
The CPU interfaces to the TWI logic via the following four 8-bit special function registers: the
Synchronous Serial Control register (SSCON SFR, see Table 26), the Synchronous Serial Data
register (SSDAT SFR, see Table 28), the Synchronous Serial Status register (SSSTA SFR, see
Table 27) and the Synchronous Serial Address register (SSADR SFR, see Table 29).
SSCON is used to enable the controller, to program the bit rate (see Table 26), to enable slave
modes, to acknowledge or not a received data, to send a START or a STOP condition on the
TWI bus, and to acknowledge a serial interrupt. A hardware reset disables the TWI controller.
SSSTA contains a status code which reflects the status of the TWI logic and the TWI bus. The
three least significant bits are always zero. The five most significant bits contains the status
code. There are 26 possible status codes. When SSSTA contains F8h, no relevant state information is available and no serial interrupt is requested. A valid status code is available in SSSTA
after SSI is set by hardware and is still present until SSI has been reset by software. Table 20 to
Table 20-6 give the status for both master and slave modes and miscellaneous states.
SSDAT contains a Byte of serial data to be transmitted or a Byte which has just been received. It
is addressable while it is not in process of shifting a Byte. This occurs when TWI logic is in a
defined state and the serial interrupt flag is set. Data in SSDAT remains stable as long as SSI is
set. While data is being shifted out, data on the bus is simultaneously shifted in; SSDAT always
contains the last Byte present on the bus.
SSADR may be loaded with the 7 - bit slave address (7 most significant bits) to which the controller will respond when programmed as a slave transmitter or receiver. The LSB is used to
enable general call address (00h) recognition.
Figure 20-2 shows how a data transfer is accomplished on the TWI bus.
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Figure 20-2. Complete Data Transfer on TWI Bus
SDA
MSB
Slave Address
SCL
1
R/W
ACK
direction signal
bit
from
receiver
2
8
Nth data Byte
9
S
1
2
ACK
signal
from
receiver
8
9
Clock Line Held Low While Serial Interrupts Are Serviced
P/S
The four operating modes are:
•
Master transmitter
•
Master receiver
•
Slave transmitter
•
Slave receiver
Data transfer in each mode of operation are shown in Figure 20-3 through Figure 20-6. These
figures contain the following abbreviations:
A
Acknowledge bit (low level at SDA)
A
Not acknowledge bit (high level on SDA)
Data
8-bit data Byte
S
START condition
P
STOP condition
MR
Master Receive
MT
Master Transmit
SLA
Slave Address
GCA
General Call Address (00h)
R
Read bit (high level at SDA)
W
Write bit (low level at SDA)
In Figure 20-3 through Figure 20-6, circles are used to indicate when the serial interrupt flag is
set. The numbers in the circles show the status code held in SSSTA. At these points, a service
routine must be executed to continue or complete the serial transfer. These service routines are
not critical since the serial transfer is suspended until the serial interrupt flag is cleared by
software.
When the serial interrupt routine is entered, the status code in SSSTA is used to branch to the
appropriate service routine. For each status code, the required software action and details of the
following serial transfer are given in Table 20 through Table 20-6.
20.1.1
Bit Rate
The bit rate can be selected from seven predefined bit rates or from a programmable bit rate
generator using the SSCR2, SSCR1, and SSCR0 control bits in SSCON (see Table 26). The
predefined bit rates are derived from the peripheral clock (FPER) issued from the Clock Controller
block as detailed in Section "Oscillator", page 12, while bit rate generator is based on timer 1
overflow output.
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Table 19. Serial Clock Rates
SSCRx
2
1
0
FPER = 6 MHz
FPER = 8 MHz
FPER = 10 MHz
FPER Divided By
0
0
0
47
62.5
78.125
128
0
0
1
53.5
71.5
89.3
112
0
1
0
62.5
83
104.2(1)
96
(1)
0
1
1
75
100
125
1
0
0
12.5
16.5
20.83
1
0
1
100
1
1
0
200(1)
1
1
Note:
20.1.2
Bit Frequency (kHz)
1
0.5 < ⋅ < 125
133.3
(1)
166.7
266.7(1)
(1)
0.67 < ⋅ < 166.7
80
480
(1)
60
333.3(1)
(1)
0.81 < ⋅ < 208.3
30
(1)
96 ⋅ (256 – reload value Timer 1)
1. These bit rates are outside of the low speed standard specification limited to 100 kHz but can
be used with high speed TWI components limited to 400 kHz.
Master Transmitter Mode
In the master transmitter mode, a number of data Bytes are transmitted to a slave receiver (see
Figure 20-3). Before the master transmitter mode can be entered, SSCON must be initialized as
follows:
SSCR2
SSPE
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
SSCR1
SSCR0
Bit Rate
1
0
0
0
X
Bit Rate
Bit Rate
SSCR2:0 define the serial bit rate (see Table 19). SSPE must be set to enable the controller.
SSSTA, SSSTO and SSI must be cleared.
The master transmitter mode may now be entered by setting the SSSTA bit. The TWI logic will
now monitor the TWI bus and generate a START condition as soon as the bus becomes free.
When a START condition is transmitted, the serial interrupt flag (SSI bit in SSCON) is set, and
the status code in SSSTA is 08h. This status must be used to vector to an interrupt routine that
loads SSDAT with the slave address and the data direction bit (SLA+W). The serial interrupt flag
(SSI) must then be cleared before the serial transfer can continue.
When the slave address and the direction bit have been transmitted and an acknowledgment bit
has been received, SSI is set again and a number of status code in SSSTA are possible. There
are 18h, 20h or 38h for the master mode and also 68h, 78h or B0h if the slave mode was
enabled (SSAA = logic 1). The appropriate action to be taken for each of these status code is
detailed in Table 20. This scheme is repeated until a STOP condition is transmitted.
SSPE and SSCR2:0 are not affected by the serial transfer and are not referred to in Table 20.
After a repeated START condition (state 10h) the controller may switch to the master receiver
mode by loading SSDAT with SLA+R.
20.1.3
Master Receiver Mode
In the master receiver mode, a number of data Bytes are received from a slave transmitter (see
Figure 20-4). The transfer is initialized as in the master transmitter mode. When the START condition has been transmitted, the interrupt routine must load SSDAT with the 7 - bit slave address
and the data direction bit (SLA+R). The serial interrupt flag (SSI) must then be cleared before
the serial transfer can continue.
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When the slave address and the direction bit have been transmitted and an acknowledgment bit
has been received, the serial interrupt flag is set again and a number of status code in SSSTA
are possible. There are 40h, 48h or 38h for the master mode and also 68h, 78h or B0h if the
slave mode was enabled (SSAA = logic 1). The appropriate action to be taken for each of these
status code is detailed in Table 20-6. This scheme is repeated until a STOP condition is
transmitted.
SSPE and SSCR2:0 are not affected by the serial transfer and are not referred to in Table 20-6.
After a repeated START condition (state 10h) the controller may switch to the master transmitter
mode by loading SSDAT with SLA+W.
20.1.4
Slave Receiver Mode
In the slave receiver mode, a number of data Bytes are received from a master transmitter (see
Figure 20-5). To initiate the slave receiver mode, SSADR and SSCON must be loaded as
follows:
SSA6
SSA5
SSA4
SSA3
SSA2
Own Slave Address
←
SSA1
SSA0
SSGC
→
X
The upper 7 bits are the addresses to which the controller will respond when addressed by a
master. If the LSB (SSGC) is set, the controller will respond to the general call address (00h);
otherwise, it ignores the general call address.
SSCR2
SSPE
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
SSCR1
SSCR0
X
1
0
0
0
1
X
X
SSCR2:0 have no effect in the slave mode. SSPE must be set to enable the controller. The
SSAA bit must be set to enable the own slave address or the general call address acknowledgment. SSSTA, SSSTO and SSI must be cleared.
When SSADR and SSCON have been initialized, the controller waits until it is addressed by its
own slave address followed by the data direction bit which must be logic 0 (W) for operating in
the slave receiver mode. After its own slave address and the W bit has been received, the serial
interrupt flag is set and a valid status code can be read from SSSTA. This status code is used to
vector to an interrupt service routine, and the appropriate action to be taken for each of these
status code is detailed in Table 20-6 and Table 24. The slave receiver mode may also be
entered if arbitration is lost while the controller is in the master mode (see states 68h and 78h).
If the SSAA bit is reset during a transfer, the controller will return a not acknowledge (logic 1) to
SDA after the next received data Byte. While SSAA is reset, the controller does not respond to
its own slave address. However, the TWI bus is still monitored and address recognition may be
resumed at any time by setting SSAA. This means that the SSAA bit may be used to temporarily
isolate the controller from the TWI bus.
20.1.5
Slave Transmitter Mode
In the slave transmitter mode, a number of data Bytes are transmitted to a master receiver (see
Figure 20-6). Data transfer is initialized as in the slave receiver mode. When SSADR and
SSCON have been initialized, the controller waits until it is addressed by its own slave address
followed by the data direction bit which must be logic 1 (R) for operating in the slave transmitter
mode. After its own slave address and the R bit have been received, the serial interrupt flag is
set and a valid status code can be read from SSSTA. This status code is used to vector to an
interrupt service routine, and the appropriate action to be taken for each of these status code is
detailed in Table 24. The slave transmitter mode may also be entered if arbitration is lost while
the controller is in the master mode (see state B0h).
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If the SSAA bit is reset during a transfer, the controller will transmit the last Byte of the transfer
and enter state C0h or C8h. The controller is switched to the not addressed slave mode and will
ignore the master receiver if it continues the transfer. Thus the master receiver receives all 1’s
as serial data. While SSAA is reset, the controller does not respond to its own slave address.
However, the TWI bus is still monitored and address recognition may be resumed at any time by
setting SSAA. This means that the SSAA bit may be used to temporarily isolate the controller
from the TWI bus.
20.1.6
Miscellaneous States
There are 2 SSSTA codes that do not correspond to a defined TWI hardware state (see
Table 25). These are discussed below.
Status F8h indicates that no relevant information is available because the serial interrupt flag is
not yet set. This occurs between other states and when the controller is not involved in a serial
transfer.
Status 00h indicates that a bus error has occurred during a serial transfer. A bus error is caused
when a START or a STOP condition occurs at an illegal position in the format frame. Examples
of such illegal positions are during the serial transfer of an address Byte, a data Byte, or an
acknowledge bit. When a bus error occurs, SSI is set. To recover from a bus error, the SSSTO
flag must be set and SSI must be cleared. This causes the controller to enter the not addressed
slave mode and to clear the SSSTO flag (no other bits in S1CON are affected). The SDA and
SCL lines are released and no STOP condition is transmitted.
Note:
The TWI controller interfaces to the external TWI bus via 2 port 1 pins: P1.6/SCL (serial clock line)
and P1.7/SDA (serial data line). To avoid low level asserting and conflict on these lines when the
TWI controller is enabled, the output latches of P1.6 and P1.7 must be set to logic 1.
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Figure 20-3. Format and States in the Master Transmitter Mode
MT
Successful transmission to a slave receiver
S
SLA
W
A
08h
Data
18h
A
P
28h
Next transfer started with
a repeated start condition
S
SLA
W
10h
R
Not acknowledge received
after the slave address
A
P
MR
20h
Not acknowledge received
after a data Byte
A
P
30h
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data Byte
A or A
Other master
continues
38h
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
A
From slave to master
136
Data
nnh
Other master
continues
38h
Other master
continues
68h 78h B0h
From master to slave
A or A
A
To corresponding
states in slave mode
Any number of data Bytes and their associated
acknowledge bits
This number (contained in SSSTA) corresponds
to a defined state of the TWI bus
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
Figure 20-4. Format and States in the Master Receiver Mode
MR
Successful reception
from a slave transmitter
S
SLA
08h
R
A
Data
A
40h
50h
Data
A
P
58h
Next transfer started with
a repeated start condition
S
SLA
R
10h
W
Not acknowledge received
after the slave address
A
P
MT
48h
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data Byte
A or A
Other master
continues
38h
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
A
From slave to master
Data
nnh
Other master
continues
38h
Other master
continues
68h 78h B0h
From master to slave
A
A
To corresponding
states in slave mode
Any number of data Bytes and their associated
acknowledge bits
This number (contained in SSSTA) corresponds
to a defined state of the TWI bus
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Figure 20-5. Format and States in the Slave Receiver Mode
Reception of the own slave
address and one or more
data Bytes.
All are acknowledged
S
SLA
W
A
Data
60h
A
Data
80h
Last data Byte received
is not acknowledged
A
P or S
80h
A0h
A
P or S
88h
Arbitration lost as master and
addressed as slave
A
68h
Reception of the general call
address and one or more data Bytes
General Call
A
Data
70h
Last data Byte received
is not acknowledged
A
90h
Data
A
P or S
90h
A0h
A
P or S
98h
Arbitration lost as master and
addressed as slave by general call
A
78h
From master to slave
From slave to master
138
Data
nnh
A
Any number of data Bytes and their associated
acknowledge bits
This number (contained in SSSTA) corresponds
to a defined state of the TWI bus
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
Figure 20-6. Format and States in the Slave Transmitter Mode
Reception of the own slave
address and transmission
of one or more data Bytes.
S
SLA
R
A
Data
A8h
Arbitration lost as master and
addressed as slave
A
B8h
Data
A
P or S
C0h
A
B0h
Last data Byte transmitted.
Switched to not addressed
slave (SSAA = 0).
A
All 1’s
P or S
C8h
From master to slave
From slave to master
Data
nnh
A
Any number of data Bytes and their associated
acknowledge bits
This number (contained in SSSTA) corresponds
to a defined state of the TWI bus
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Table 20. Status for Master Transmitter Mode
Application Software Response
Status
Code
SSSTA
To SSCON
Status of the TWI Bus
and TWI Hardware
To/From SSDAT
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
08h
A START condition has
Write SLA+W
been transmitted
X
0
0
X
Write SLA+W
X
0
0
X
10h
A repeated START
condition has been
transmitted
Write SLA+R
X
0
0
X
Write data Byte
0
0
0
X
No SSDAT action
1
0
0
X
No SSDAT action
0
1
0
X
STOP condition will be transmitted and SSSTO flag
will be reset.
No SSDAT action
1
1
0
X
STOP condition followed by a START condition will
be transmitted and SSSTO flag will be reset.
Write data Byte
0
0
0
X
No SSDAT action
1
0
0
X
No SSDAT action
0
1
0
X
STOP condition will be transmitted and SSSTO flag
will be reset.
No SSDAT action
1
1
0
X
STOP condition followed by a START condition will
be transmitted and SSSTO flag will be reset.
Write data Byte
0
0
0
X
No SSDAT action
1
0
0
X
No SSDAT action
0
1
0
X
STOP condition will be transmitted and SSSTO flag
will be reset.
No SSDAT action
1
1
0
X
STOP condition followed by a START condition will
be transmitted and SSSTO flag will be reset.
Write data Byte
0
0
0
X
No SSDAT action
1
0
0
X
No SSDAT action
0
1
0
X
STOP condition will be transmitted and SSSTO flag
will be reset.
No SSDAT action
1
1
0
X
STOP condition followed by a START condition will
be transmitted and SSSTO flag will be reset.
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
X
TWI bus will be released and not addressed slave
mode will be entered.
No SSDAT action
1
0
0
X
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free.
18h
20h
28h
30h
38h
140
SLA+W has been
transmitted; ACK has
been received
SLA+W has been
transmitted; NOT ACK
has been received
Data Byte has been
transmitted; ACK has
been received
Data Byte has been
transmitted; NOT ACK
has been received
Arbitration lost in
SLA+W or data Bytes
SLA+W will be transmitted.
SLA+W will be transmitted.
SLA+R will be transmitted.
Logic will switch to master receiver mode
Data Byte will be transmitted.
Repeated START will be transmitted.
Data Byte will be transmitted.
Repeated START will be transmitted.
Data Byte will be transmitted.
Repeated START will be transmitted.
Data Byte will be transmitted.
Repeated START will be transmitted.
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
Table 21. Status for Master Receiver Mode
Application Software Response
Status
Code
SSSTA
To SSCON
Status of the TWI Bus
and TWI Hardware
To/From SSDAT
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
08h
A START condition has
Write SLA+R
been transmitted
X
0
0
X
Write SLA+R
X
0
0
X
10h
A repeated START
condition has been
transmitted
Write SLA+W
X
0
0
X
SLA+W will be transmitted.
Logic will switch to master transmitter mode.
Arbitration lost in
SLA+R or NOT ACK
bit
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
X
TWI bus will be released and not addressed slave
mode will be entered.
No SSDAT action
1
0
0
X
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free.
SLA+R has been
transmitted; ACK has
been received
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
0
Data Byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned.
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
1
Data Byte will be received and ACK will be returned.
No SSDAT action
1
0
0
X
No SSDAT action
0
1
0
X
STOP condition will be transmitted and SSSTO flag
will be reset.
No SSDAT action
1
1
0
X
STOP condition followed by a START condition will
be transmitted and SSSTO flag will be reset.
Read data Byte
0
0
0
0
Data Byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned.
Read data Byte
0
0
0
1
Data Byte will be received and ACK will be returned.
Read data Byte
1
0
0
X
Read data Byte
0
1
0
X
STOP condition will be transmitted and SSSTO flag
will be reset.
Read data Byte
1
1
0
X
STOP condition followed by a START condition will
be transmitted and SSSTO flag will be reset.
38h
40h
48h
50h
58h
SLA+R has been
transmitted; NOT ACK
has been received
Data Byte has been
received; ACK has
been returned
Data Byte has been
received; NOT ACK
has been returned
SLA+R will be transmitted.
SLA+R will be transmitted.
Repeated START will be transmitted.
Repeated START will be transmitted.
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Table 22. Status for Slave Receiver Mode with Own Slave Address
Application Software Response
Status
Code
SSSTA
60h
68h
80h
88h
To SSCON
Status of the TWI Bus
and TWI Hardware
To/From SSDAT
Own SLA+W has been
received; ACK has
been returned
Arbitration lost in
SLA+R/W as master;
own SLA+W has been
received; ACK has
been returned
Previously addressed
with own SLA+W; data
has been received;
ACK has been
returned
Previously addressed
with own SLA+W; data
has been received;
NOT ACK has been
returned
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
No SSDAT action
X
0
0
0
Data Byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned.
No SSDAT action
X
0
0
1
Data Byte will be received and ACK will be returned.
No SSDAT action
X
0
0
0
Data Byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned.
No SSDAT action
X
0
0
1
Data Byte will be received and ACK will be returned.
Read data Byte
X
0
0
0
Data Byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned.
Read data Byte
X
0
0
1
Data Byte will be received and ACK will be returned.
Read data Byte
0
0
0
0
Read data Byte
0
0
0
1
Read data Byte
Read data Byte
A0h
A STOP condition or
repeated START
condition has been
received while still
addressed as slave
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
0
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
1
No SSDAT action
No SSDAT action
142
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA. A START condition
will be transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1. A START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA. A START condition
will be transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1. A START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes free.
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
Table 23. Status for Slave Receiver Mode with General Call Address
Application Software Response
Status
Code
SSSTA
70h
78h
90h
98h
To SSCON
Status of the TWI Bus
and TWI Hardware
To/From SSDAT
General call address
has been received;
ACK has been
returned
Arbitration lost in
SLA+R/W as master;
general call address
has been received;
ACK has been
returned
Previously addressed
with general call; data
has been received;
ACK has been
returned
Previously addressed
with general call; data
has been received;
NOT ACK has been
returned
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
No SSDAT action
X
0
0
0
Data Byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned.
No SSDAT action
X
0
0
1
Data Byte will be received and ACK will be returned.
No SSDAT action
X
0
0
0
Data Byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned.
No SSDAT action
X
0
0
1
Data Byte will be received and ACK will be returned.
Read data Byte
X
0
0
0
Data Byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned.
Read data Byte
X
0
0
1
Data Byte will be received and ACK will be returned.
Read data Byte
0
0
0
0
Read data Byte
0
0
0
1
Read data Byte
Read data Byte
A0h
A STOP condition or
repeated START
condition has been
received while still
addressed as slave
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
0
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
1
No SSDAT action
No SSDAT action
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA. A START condition
will be transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1. A START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA. A START condition
will be transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1. A START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes free.
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Table 24. Status for Slave Transmitter Mode
Application Software Response
Status
Code
SSSTA
A8h
B0h
B8h
C0h
Status of the TWI Bus
and TWI Hardware
To SSCON
To/From SSDAT
Own SLA+R has been
received; ACK has
been returned
Arbitration lost in
SLA+R/W as master;
own SLA+R has been
received; ACK has
been returned
Data Byte in SSDAT
has been transmitted;
ACK has been
received
Data Byte in SSDAT
has been transmitted;
NOT ACK has been
received
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
Write data Byte
X
0
0
0
Last data Byte will be transmitted.
Write data Byte
X
0
0
1
Data Byte will be transmitted.
Write data Byte
X
0
0
0
Last data Byte will be transmitted.
Write data Byte
X
0
0
1
Data Byte will be transmitted.
Write data Byte
X
0
0
0
Last data Byte will be transmitted.
Write data Byte
X
0
0
1
Data Byte will be transmitted.
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
0
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
1
No SSDAT action
No SSDAT action
C8h
Last data Byte in
SSDAT has been
transmitted
(SSAA= 0); ACK has
been received
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
0
No SSDAT action
0
0
0
1
No SSDAT action
No SSDAT action
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA. A START condition
will be transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1. A START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; no
recognition of own SLA or GCA. A START condition
will be transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Switched to the not addressed slave mode; own
SLA will be recognized; GCA will be recognized if
SSGC = logic 1. A START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes free.
Table 25. Status for Miscellaneous States
Application Software Response
Status
Code
SSSTA
To SSCON
Status of the TWI Bus
and TWI Hardware
To/From SSDAT
F8h
No relevant state
information available;
SSI = 0
No SSDAT action
00h
Bus error due to an
illegal START or STOP
condition
No SSDAT action
144
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
No SSCON action
0
1
0
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Wait or proceed current transfer.
X
Only the internal hardware is affected, no STOP
condition is sent on the bus. In all cases, the bus is
released and SSSTO is reset.
AT89C5132
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AT89C5132
20.2
Registers
Table 26. SSCON Register
SSCON (S:93h) – Synchronous Serial Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSCR2
SSPE
SSSTA
SSSTO
SSI
SSAA
SSCR1
SSCR0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
SSCR2
6
SSPE
Synchronous Serial Peripheral Enable Bit
Set to enable the controller.
Clear to disable the controller.
5
SSSTA
Synchronous Serial Start Flag
Set to send a START condition on the bus.
Clear not to send a START condition on the bus.
4
SSSTO
Synchronous Serial Stop Flag
Set to send a STOP condition on the bus.
Clear not to send a STOP condition on the bus.
3
SSI
Synchronous Serial Control Rate Bit 2
Refer to Table 19 for rate description.
Synchronous Serial Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when a serial interrupt is requested.
Must be cleared by software to acknowledge interrupt.
Synchronous Serial Assert Acknowledge Flag
Set to enable slave modes. Slave modes are entered when SLA or GCA (if SSGC set) is
recognized.
Clear to disable slave modes.
Master Receiver Mode in progress
Clear to force a not acknowledge (high level on SDA).
Set to force an acknowledge (low level on SDA).
Master Transmitter Mode in progress
This bit has no specific effect when in master transmitter mode.
Slave Receiver Mode in progress
Clear to force a not acknowledge (high level on SDA).
Set to force an acknowledge (low level on SDA).
Slave Transmitter Mode in progress
Clear to isolate slave from the bus after last data Byte transmission.
Set to enable slave mode.
2
SSAA
1
SSCR1
Synchronous Serial Control Rate Bit 1
Refer to Table 19 for rate description.
0
SSCR0
Synchronous Serial Control Rate Bit 0
Refer to Table 19 for rate description.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 27. SSSTA Register
SSSTA (S:94h) – Synchronous Serial Status Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSC4
SSC3
SSC2
SSC1
SSC0
0
0
0
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Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7:3
SSC4:0
2:0
0
Description
Synchronous Serial Status Code Bits 0 to 4
Refer to Table 20 to Table 20-6 for status description.
Always 0.
Reset Value = F8h
Table 28. SSDAT Register
SSDAT (S:95h) – Synchronous Serial Data Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSD7
SSD6
SSD5
SSD4
SSD3
SSD2
SSD1
SSD0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7:1
SSD7:1
0
SSD0
Synchronous Serial Address bits 7 to 1 or Synchronous Serial Data Bits 7 to 1
Synchronous Serial Address bit 0 (R/W) or Synchronous Serial Data Bit 0
Reset Value = 1111 1111b
Table 29. SSADR Register
SSADR (S:96h) – Synchronous Serial Address Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSA7
SSA6
SSA5
SSA4
SSA3
SSA2
SSA1
SSGC
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7:1
SSA7:1
Synchronous Serial Slave Address Bits 7 to 1
0
SSGC
Synchronous Serial General Call Bit
Set to enable the general call address recognition.
Clear to disable the general call address recognition.
Reset Value = 1111 1110b
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AT89C5132
21. Analog to Digital Converter
The AT89C5132 implement a 2-channel 10-bit (8 true bits) analog to digital converter (ADC).
First channel of this ADC can be used for battery monitoring while the second one can be used
for voice sampling at 8 kHz.
21.1
Description
The A/D converter interfaces with the C51 core through four special function registers: ADCON,
the ADC control register (see Table 31); ADDH and ADDL, the ADC data registers (see Table 33
and Table 34); and ADCLK, the ADC clock register (see Table 32).
As shown in Figure 21-1, the ADC is composed of a 10-bit cascaded potentiometric digital to
analog converter, connected to the negative input of a comparator. The output voltage of this
DAC is compared to the analog voltage stored in the Sample and Hold and coming from AIN0 or
AIN1 input depending on the channel selected (see Table 30). The 10-bit ADDAT converted
value (see formula in Figure 21-1) is delivered in ADDH and ADDL registers, ADDH is giving the
8 most significant bits while ADDL is giving the 2 least significant bits. ADDAT
Figure 21-1. ADC Structure
ADCON.5
ADCON.3
ADEN
ADSST
ADC
Interrupt
Request
ADCON.4
ADEOC
ADC
CLOCK
CONTROL
EADC
IEN1.3
AIN1
0
AIN0
1
8
ADDH
2
ADDL
+
SAR
AVSS
ADCS
Sample and Hold
10
ADCON.0
R/2R DAC
1023 ⋅ V IN
ADDAT = --------------------------V REF
AREFP AREFN
Figure 21-2 shows the timing diagram of a complete conversion. For simplicity, the figure depicts
the waveforms in idealized form and do not provide precise timing information. For ADC characteristics and timing parameters refer to the section “AC Characteristics”.
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Figure 21-2. Timing Diagram
CLK
TADCLK
ADEN
TSETUP
ADSST
TCONV
ADEOC
21.1.1
Clock Generator
The ADC clock is generated by division of the peripheral clock (see details in Section “X2 Feature”, page 12). The division factor is then given by ADCP4:0 bits in ADCLK register. Figure 213 shows the ADC clock generator and its calculation formula(1).
Figure 21-3. ADC Clock Generator and Symbol Caution:
ADCLK
PER
CLOCK
÷2
ADCD4:0
ADC
CLOCK
ADC Clock
ADC Clock Symbol
PERclk
ADCclk = ------------------------2 ⋅ ADCD
Note:
1. In all cases, the ADC clock frequency may be higher than the maximum FADCLK parameter
reported in the Section “Analog to Digital Converter”, page 201.
2. The ADCD value of 0 is equivalent to an ADCD value of 32.
21.1.2
Channel Selection
The channel on which conversion is performed is selected by the ADCS bit in ADCON register
according to Table 30.
Table 30. ADC Channel Selection
21.1.3
ADCS
Channel
0
AIN1
1
AIN0
Conversion Precision
The 10-bit precision conversion is achieved by stopping the CPU core activity during conversion
for limiting the digital noise induced by the core. This mode called the Pseudo-Idle mode(1),(2) is
enabled by setting the ADIDL bit in ADCON register(3). Thus, when conversion is launched (see
Section "Conversion Launching", page 149), the CPU core is stopped until the end of the con-
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AT89C5132
version (see Section "End Of Conversion", page 149). This bit is cleared by hardware at the end
of the conversion.
Notes:
21.1.4
1. Only the CPU activity is frozen, peripherals are not affected by the Pseudo-Idle mode.
2. If some interrupts occur during the Pseudo-Idle mode, they will be delayed and processed,
according to their priority after the end of the conversion.
3. Concurrently with ADSST bit.
Configuration
The ADC configuration consists in programming the ADC clock as detailed in the Section "Clock
Generator", page 148. The ADC is enabled using the ADEN bit in ADCON register. As shown in
Figure 93, user must wait the setup time (TSETUP) before launching any conversion.
Figure 21-4. ADC Configuration Flow
ADC
Configuration
Program ADC Clock
ADCD4:0 = xxxxxb
Enable ADC
ADIDL = x
ADEN = 1
Wait Setup Time
21.1.5
Conversion Launching
The conversion is launched by setting the ADSST bit in ADCON register, this bit remains set
during the conversion. As soon as the conversion is started, it takes 11 clock periods (TCONV)
before the data is available in ADDH and ADDL registers.
Figure 21-5. ADC Conversion Launching Flow
ADC
Conversion Start
Select Channel
ADCS = 0-1
Start Conversion
ADSST = 1
21.1.6
End Of Conversion
The end of conversion is signalled by the ADEOC flag in ADCON register becoming set or by the
ADSST bit in ADCON register becoming cleared. ADEOC flag can generate an interrupt if
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enabled by setting EADC bit in IEN1 register. This flag is set by hardware and must be reset by
software.
21.2
Registers
Table 31. ADCON Register
ADCON (S:F3h) – ADC Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
ADIDL
ADEN
ADEOC
ADSST
-
-
ADCS
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
-
6
ADIDL
ADC Pseudo-Idle Mode
Set to suspend the CPU core activity (pseudo-idle mode) during conversion.
Clear by hardware at the end of conversion.
5
ADEN
ADC Enable Bit
Set to enable the A to D converter.
Clear to disable the A to D converter and put it in low power stand by mode.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is always 0. Do not set this bit.
4
ADEOC
End Of Conversion Flag
Set by hardware when ADC result is ready to be read. This flag can generate an
interrupt.
Must be cleared by software.
3
ADSST
Start and Status Bit
Set to start an A to D conversion on the selected channel.
Cleared by hardware at the end of conversion.
2-1
-
0
ADCS
Reserved
The value read from these bits is always 0. Do not set these bits.
Channel Selection Bit
Set to select channel 0 for conversion.
Clear to select channel 1 for conversion.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 32. ADCLK Register
ADCLK (S:F2h) – ADC Clock Divider Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
ADCD4
ADCD3
ADCD2
ADCD1
ADCD0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-5
-
4-0
ADCD4:0
Reserved
The value read from these bits is always 0. Do not set these bits.
ADC Clock Divider
5-bit divider for ADC clock generation.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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AT89C5132
Table 33. ADDH Register
ADDH (S:F5h Read Only) – ADC Data High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADAT9
ADAT8
ADAT7
ADAT6
ADAT5
ADAT4
ADAT3
ADAT2
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-0
ADAT9:2
ADC Data
8 Most Significant Bits of the 10-bit ADC data.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 34. ADDL Register
ADDL (S:F4h Read Only) – ADC Data Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
ADAT1
ADAT0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-2
-
1-0
ADAT1:0
Reserved
The value read from these bits is always 0. Do not set these bits.
ADC Data
2 Least Significant Bits of the 10-bit ADC data.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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22. Keyboard Interface
The AT89C5132 implements a keyboard interface allowing the connection of a 4 x n matrix keyboard. It is based on 4 inputs with programmable interrupt capability on both high or low level.
These inputs are available as alternate function of P1.3:0 and allow exit from idle and power
down modes.
22.1
Description
The keyboard interfaces with the C51 core through two special function registers: KBCON, the
keyboard control register (see Table 101); and KBSTA, the keyboard control and status register
(see Table 102).
The keyboard inputs are considered as 4 independent interrupt sources sharing the same interrupt vector. An interrupt enable bit (EKB in IEN1 register) allows global enable or disable of the
keyboard interrupt (see Figure 22-1). As detailed in Figure 22-2 each keyboard input has the
capability to detect a programmable level according to KINL3:0 bit value in KBCON register.
Level detection is then reported in interrupt flags KINF3:0 in KBSTA register.
Any of the KINF3:0 flags can trigger a keyboard interrupt. To do so, corresponding mask bits
KINM3:0 in KBCON register must be cleared. The keyboard interrupt service routine is executed
each time an unmasked KINFx flag is set. The interrupt must be acknowledged by reading
KBSTA which automatically clears KINF3:0 flags.
This structure allows keyboard arrangement from 1 by n to 4 by n matrix and allow usage of KIN
inputs for any other purposes.
Figure 22-1. Keyboard Interface Block Diagram
KIN0
Input Circuitry
KIN1
Input Circuitry
KIN2
Input Circuitry
KIN3
Input Circuitry
Keyboard Interface
Interrupt Request
EKB
IEN1.4
Figure 22-2. Keyboard Input Circuitry
0
KIN3:0
KINF3:0
1
KBSTA.3:0
KINM3:0
KINL3:0
KBCON.3:0
KBCON.7:4
22.1.1
Power Reduction Mode
KIN3:0 inputs allow exit from idle and power down modes as detailed in Section “Power Management”, page 44. To enable this feature, KPDE bit in KBSTA register must be set to logic 1.
Due to the asynchronous keypad detection in power down mode (all clocks are stopped), exit
may happen on parasitic key press. In this case, no key is detected and software must enter
power-down again.
22.2
Registers
Table 101. KBCON Register
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KBCON (S:A3h) – Keyboard Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
KINL3
KINL2
KINL1
KINL0
KINM3
KINM2
KINM1
KINM0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-4
KINL3:0
Keyboard Input Level Bit
Set to enable a high level detection on the respective KIN3:0 input.
Clear to enable a low level detection on the respective KIN3:0 input.
3-0
KINM3:0
Keyboard Input Mask Bit
Set to prevent the respective KINF3:0 flag from generating a keyboard interrupt.
Clear to allow the respective KINF3:0 flag to generate a keyboard interrupt.
Reset Value = 0000 1111b
22.2.0.1
Table 102. KBSTA Register
KBSTA (S:A4h) – Keyboard Control and Status Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
KPDE
-
-
-
KINF3
KINF2
KINF1
KINF0
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7
KPDE
Keyboard Power Down Enable Bit
Set to enable exit of power down mode by the keyboard interrupt.
Clear to disable exit of power down mode by the keyboard interrupt.
6-4
-
Reserved
The values read from these Bits are always 0. Do not set these Bits.
3-0
KINF3:0
Keyboard Input Interrupt Flag
Set by hardware when the respective KIN3:0 input detects a programmed level.
Cleared when reading KBSTA.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
153
4173E–USB–09/07
23. Electrical Characteristics
23.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Storage Temperature ..................................... -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on any other Pin to VSS
*NOTICE:
..................................... -0.3 to +4.0V
IOL per I/O Pin ................................................................. 5 mA
Power Dissipation ............................................................. 1 W
Stressing the device beyond the “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage.
These are stress ratings only. Operation beyond
the “operating conditions” is not recommended
and extended exposure beyond the “Operating
Conditions” may affect device reliability.
Ambient Temperature Under Bias.................... -40°C to +85°C
VDD
....................................................................................... 2.7V
23.2
to 3.3V
DC Characteristics
23.2.1
Digital Logic
Table 103. Digital DC Characteristics
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V , TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
Parameter
Min
VIL
Input Low Voltage
VIH1
Input High Voltage (except RST, X1)
VIH2
Input High Voltage (RST, X1)
VOL1
Typ(1)
Max
Units
-0.5
0.2·VDD - 0.1
V
0.2·VDD + 1.1
VDD
V
0.7·VDD(2)
VDD + 0.5
V
Output Low Voltage
(except P0, ALE, MCMD, MDAT, MCLK,
SCLK, DCLK, DSEL, DOUT)
0.45
V
IOL= 1.6 mA
VOL2
Output Low Voltage
(P0, ALE, MCMD, MDAT, MCLK, SCLK,
DCLK, DSEL, DOUT)
0.45
V
IOL= 3.2 mA
VOH1
Output High Voltage
(P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5)
VDD - 0.7
V
IOH= -30 µA
VOH2
Output High Voltage
(P0, P2 address mode, ALE, MCMD,
MDAT, MCLK, SCLK, DCLK, DSEL,
DOUT, D+, D-)
VDD - 0.7
V
IOH= -3.2 mA
µA
Vin = 0.45 V
IIL
154
Logical 0 Input Current (P1, P2, P3, P4
and P5)
-50
Test Conditions
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Table 103. Digital DC Characteristics
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V , TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
Parameter
ILI
Input Leakage Current (P0, ALE, MCMD,
MDAT, MCLK, SCLK, DCLK, DSEL,
DOUT)
ITL
Logical 1 to 0 Transition Current
(P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5)
RRST
CIO
VRET
IDD
Typ(1)
Min
Pull-Down Resistor
50
90
Pin Capacitance
Max
Units
10
µA
0.45< VIN< VDD
-650
µA
Vin = 2.0 V
200
kΩ
10
VDD Data Retention Limit
pF
1.8
Operating Current
mA
µA
Idle Mode Current
(3)
IPD
Power-Down Mode Current
20
500
Notes:
23.2.2
VDD < 3.3 V
X1 / X2 mode
6.5 / 10.5
8 / 13.5
9.5 / 17
IDL
TA= 25°C
V
(3)
X1 / X2 mode
5.3 / 8.1
6.4 / 10.3
7.5 / 13
Test Conditions
mA
12 MHz
16 MHz
20 MHz
VDD < 3.3 V
12 MHz
16 MHz
20 MHz
VRET < VDD < 3.3 V
1. Typical values are obtained using VDD= 3 V and TA= 25°C. They are not tested and there is no
guarantee on these values.
2. Flash retention is guaranteed with the same formula for VDD min down to 0V.
3. See Table 154 for typical consumption in player mode.
IDD, IDL and IPD Test Conditions
Figure 23-1. IDD Test Condition, Active Mode
VDD
VDD
RST
(NC)
Clock Signal
VDD
PVDD
UVDD
AVDD
X2
X1
IDD
VDD
P0
VSS
PVSS
UVSS
AVSS
VSS
TST
All other pins are unconnected
155
4173E–USB–09/07
Figure 23-2. IDL Test Condition, Idle Mode
VDD
VDD
PVDD
UVDD
AVDD
RST
VSS
(NC)
Clock Signal
X2
X1
IDL
VDD
P0
VSS
PVSS
UVSS
AVSS
VSS
TST
All other pins are unconnected
Figure 23-3. IPD Test Condition, Power-Down Mode
VDD
VDD
PVDD
UVDD
AVDD
RST
VSS
(NC)
X2
X1
23.2.3
MCMD
MDAT
TST
All other pins are unconnected
A-to-D Converter
Table 104. A-to-D Converter DC Characteristics
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V , TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
Parameter
Min
AVDD
Analog Supply Voltage
2.7
AIDD
Analog Operating Supply Current
AIPD
Analog Standby Current
AVIN
Analog Input Voltage
AVREF
Reference Voltage
AREFN
AREFP
RREF
AREF Input Resistance
CIA
156
VDD
P0
VSS
PVSS
UVSS
AVSS
VSS
IPD
Analog Input capacitance
Typ
Max
Units
Test Conditions
3.3
V
600
µA
AVDD = 3.3V
AIN1:0 = 0 to AVDD
2
µA
AVDD = 3.3V
ADEN = 0 or PD = 1
AVSS
AVDD
V
AVSS
2.4
AVDD
V
V
10
30
kΩ
TA = 25°C
10
pF
TA = 25°C
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
23.2.4
23.2.4.1
Oscillator and Crystal
Schematic
Figure 23-4. Crystal Connection
X1
C1
Q
C2
VSS
Note:
23.2.4.2
X2
For operation with most standard crystals, no external components are needed on X1 and X2. It
may be necessary to add external capacitors on X1 and X2 to ground in special cases (max 10
pF). X1 and X2 may not be used to drive other circuits.
Parameters
Table 105. Oscillator and Crystal Characteristics
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V , TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
23.2.5.1
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
CX1
Internal Capacitance (X1 - VSS)
10
pF
CX2
Internal Capacitance (X2 - VSS)
10
pF
CL
Equivalent Load Capacitance (X1 - X2)
5
pF
DL
Drive Level
50
µW
Crystal Frequency
20
MHz
RS
Crystal Series Resistance
40
Ω
CS
Crystal Shunt Capacitance
6
pF
F
23.2.5
Parameter
Phase Lock Loop
Schematic
Figure 23-5. PLL Filter Connection
FILT
R
C2
C1
VSS
VSS
157
4173E–USB–09/07
23.2.5.2
Parameters
Table 106. PLL Filter Characteristics
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V , TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
23.2.6
23.2.6.1
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
R
Filter Resistor
100
Ω
C1
Filter Capacitance 1
10
nF
C2
Filter Capacitance 2
2.2
nF
USB Connection
Schematic
Figure 23-6. USB Connection
VDD
To Power
Supply
VBUS
D+
RFS
D+
RUSB
D-
D-
RUSB
GND
VSS
23.2.6.2
Parameters
Table 35. USB Characteristics
VDD = 3 to 3.3 V, TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
23.2.7
23.2.7.1
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
RUSB
USB Termination Resistor
27
Ω
RFS
USB Full Speed Resistor
1.5
KΩ
In-system Programming
Schematic
Figure 23-7. ISP Pull-down Connection
ISP
RISP
VSS
23.2.7.2
Parameters
Table 107. ISP Pull-Down Characteristics
VDD = 3 to 3.3V , TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
RISP
158
Parameter
ISP Pull-Down Resistor
Min
Typ
2.2
Max
Unit
kΩ
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
23.3
AC Characteristics
23.3.1
23.3.1.1
External 8-bit Bus Cycles
Definition of Symbols
Table 108. External 8-bit Bus Cycles Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
23.3.1.2
Conditions
A
Address
H
High
D
Data In
L
Low
L
ALE
V
Valid
Q
Data Out
X
No Longer Valid
R
RD
Z
Floating
W
WR
Timings
Test conditions: capacitive load on all pins = 50 pF.
Table 109. External 8-bit Bus Cycle – Data Read AC Timings
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V, TA = -40° to +85°C
Variable Clock
Standard Mode
Symbol
Parameter
TCLCL
Clock Period
TLHLL
ALE Pulse Width
TAVLL
Min
Max
Variable Clock
X2 Mode
Min
Max
Unit
50
50
ns
2·TCLCL-15
TCLCL-15
ns
Address Valid to ALE Low
TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TLLAX
Address hold after ALE Low
TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TLLRL
ALE Low to RD Low
3·TCLCL-30
1.5·TCLCL-30
ns
TRLRH
RD Pulse Width
6·TCLCL-25
3·TCLCL-25
ns
TRHLH
RD high to ALE High
TAVDV
Address Valid to Valid Data In
TAVRL
Address Valid to RD Low
TRLDV
RD Low to Valid Data
TRLAZ
RD Low to Address Float
TRHDX
Data Hold After RD High
TRHDZ
Instruction Float After RD High
TCLCL-20
TCLCL+20
0.5·TCLCL-20
9·TCLCL-65
4·TCLCL-30
0.5·TCLCL+20
ns
4.5·TCLCL-65
ns
2·TCLCL-30
ns
5·TCLCL-30
2.5·TCLCL-30
ns
0
0
ns
0
0
2·TCLCL-25
ns
TCLCL-25
ns
159
4173E–USB–09/07
Table 110. External 8-bit Bus Cycle – Data Write AC Timings
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V, TA = -40° to +85°C
Variable Clock
Standard Mode
Symbol
23.3.1.3
Parameter
TCLCL
Clock Period
TLHLL
ALE Pulse Width
TAVLL
Min
Max
Variable Clock
X2 Mode
Min
Max
Unit
50
50
ns
2·TCLCL-15
TCLCL-15
ns
Address Valid to ALE Low
TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TLLAX
Address hold after ALE Low
TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TLLWL
ALE Low to WR Low
3·TCLCL-30
1.5·TCLCL-30
ns
TWLWH
WR Pulse Width
6·TCLCL-25
3·TCLCL-25
ns
TWHLH
WR High to ALE High
TAVWL
Address Valid to WR Low
4·TCLCL-30
2·TCLCL-30
ns
TQVWH
Data Valid to WR High
7·TCLCL-20
3.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TWHQX
Data Hold after WR High
TCLCL-15
0.5·TCLCL-15
ns
TCLCL-20
TCLCL+20
0.5·TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL+20
ns
Waveforms
Figure 23-8. External 8-bit Bus Cycle – Data Read Waveforms
ALE
TLHLL
TLLRL
TRLRH
TRHLH
RD
TRLDV
TRHDZ
TRLAZ
TAVLL
P0
TLLAX
TRHDX
A7:0
D7:0
TAVRL
Data In
TAVDV
P2
160
A15:8
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
Figure 23-9. External 8-bit Bus Cycle – Data Write Waveforms
ALE
TLHLL
TLLWL
TWHLH
TWLWH
WR
TAVWL
TAVLL
P0
TLLAX
TQVWH
A7:0
TWHQX
D7:0
Data Out
P2
23.3.2
23.3.2.1
A15:8
External IDE 16-bit Bus Cycles
Definition of Symbols
Table 111. External IDE 16-bit Bus Cycles Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
23.3.2.2
Conditions
A
Address
H
High
D
Data In
L
Low
L
ALE
V
Valid
Q
Data Out
X
No Longer Valid
R
RD
Z
Floating
W
WR
Timings
Test conditions: capacitive load on all pins = 50 pF.
161
4173E–USB–09/07
Table 112. External IDE 16-bit Bus Cycle – Data Read AC Timings
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V, TA = -40° to +85°C
Variable Clock
Standard Mode
Symbol
Parameter
TCLCL
Clock Period
TLHLL
ALE Pulse Width
TAVLL
Min
Max
Variable Clock
X2 Mode
Min
Max
Unit
50
50
ns
2·TCLCL-15
TCLCL-15
ns
Address Valid to ALE Low
TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TLLAX
Address hold after ALE Low
TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TLLRL
ALE Low to RD Low
3·TCLCL-30
1.5·TCLCL-30
ns
TRLRH
RD Pulse Width
6·TCLCL-25
3·TCLCL-25
ns
TRHLH
RD high to ALE High
TAVDV
Address Valid to Valid Data In
TAVRL
Address Valid to RD Low
TRLDV
RD Low to Valid Data
TRLAZ
RD Low to Address Float
TRHDX
Data Hold After RD High
TRHDZ
Instruction Float After RD High
TCLCL-20
TCLCL+20
0.5·TCLCL-20
9·TCLCL-65
4·TCLCL-30
0.5·TCLCL+20
ns
4.5·TCLCL-65
ns
2·TCLCL-30
ns
5·TCLCL-30
2.5·TCLCL-30
ns
0
0
ns
0
0
ns
2·TCLCL-25
TCLCL-25
ns
Table 113. External IDE 16-bit Bus Cycle – Data Write AC Timings
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V, TA = -40° to +85°C
Variable Clock
Standard Mode
Symbol
162
Parameter
TCLCL
Clock Period
TLHLL
ALE Pulse Width
TAVLL
Min
Max
Variable Clock
X2 Mode
Min
Max
Unit
50
50
ns
2·TCLCL-15
TCLCL-15
ns
Address Valid to ALE Low
TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TLLAX
Address hold after ALE Low
TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TLLWL
ALE Low to WR Low
3·TCLCL-30
1.5·TCLCL-30
ns
TWLWH
WR Pulse Width
6·TCLCL-25
3·TCLCL-25
ns
TWHLH
WR High to ALE High
TAVWL
Address Valid to WR Low
4·TCLCL-30
2·TCLCL-30
ns
TQVWH
Data Valid to WR High
7·TCLCL-20
3.5·TCLCL-20
ns
TWHQX
Data Hold after WR High
TCLCL-15
0.5·TCLCL-15
ns
TCLCL-20
TCLCL+20
0.5·TCLCL-20
0.5·TCLCL+20
ns
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
23.3.2.3
Waveforms
Figure 23-10. External IDE 16-bit Bus Cycle – Data Read Waveforms
ALE
TLHLL
TLLRL
TRLRH
TRHLH
RD
TRLDV
TRHDZ
TRLAZ
TAVLL
P0
TLLAX
TRHDX
A7:0
D7:0
TAVRL
Data In
TAVDV
P2
A15:8
D15:81
Data In
Note:
D15:8 is written in DAT16H SFR.
Figure 23-11. External IDE 16-bit Bus Cycle – Data Write Waveforms
ALE
TLHLL
TLLWL
TWHLH
TWLWH
WR
TAVWL
TAVLL
P0
TLLAX
A7:0
TQVWH
TWHQX
D7:0
Data Out
P2
A15:8
D15:81
Data Out
Note:
23.3.3
23.3.3.1
D15:8 is the content of DAT16H SFR.
SPI Interface
Definition of Symbols
Table 114. SPI Interface Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
Conditions
C
Clock
H
High
I
Data In
L
Low
O
Data Out
V
Valid
X
No Longer Valid
Z
Floating
163
4173E–USB–09/07
23.3.3.2
Timings
Table 115. SPI Interface Master AC Timing
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V, TA = -40° to +85°C
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
Slave Mode
TCHCH
Clock Period
8
TOSC
TCHCX
Clock High Time
3.2
TOSC
TCLCX
Clock Low Time
3.2
TOSC
TSLCH, TSLCL
SS Low to Clock edge
200
ns
TIVCL, TIVCH
Input Data Valid to Clock Edge
100
ns
TCLIX, TCHIX
Input Data Hold after Clock Edge
100
ns
TCLOV, TCHOV
Output Data Valid after Clock Edge
TCLOX, TCHOX
Output Data Hold Time after Clock Edge
0
ns
TCLSH, TCHSH
SS High after Clock Edge
0
ns
TIVCL, TIVCH
Input Data Valid to Clock Edge
100
ns
TCLIX, TCHIX
Input Data Hold after Clock Edge
100
ns
TSLOV
SS Low to Output Data Valid
130
ns
TSHOX
Output Data Hold after SS High
130
ns
TSHSL
SS High to SS Low
TILIH
Input Rise Time
2
µs
TIHIL
Input Fall Time
2
µs
TOLOH
Output Rise Time
100
ns
TOHOL
Output Fall Time
100
ns
100
ns
(1)
Master Mode
TCHCH
Clock Period
4
TOSC
TCHCX
Clock High Time
1.6
TOSC
TCLCX
Clock Low Time
1.6
TOSC
TIVCL, TIVCH
Input Data Valid to Clock Edge
50
ns
TCLIX, TCHIX
Input Data Hold after Clock Edge
50
ns
TCLOV, TCHOV
Output Data Valid after Clock Edge
TCLOX, TCHOX
Output Data Hold Time after Clock Edge
TILIH
Input Data Rise Time
2
µs
TIHIL
Input Data Fall Time
2
µs
TOLOH
Output Data Rise Time
50
ns
TOHOL
Output Data Fall Time
50
ns
Notes:
164
65
0
ns
ns
1. Value of this parameter depends on software.
2. Test conditions: capacitive load on all pins = 100 pF
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
23.3.3.3
Waveforms
Figure 23-12. SPI Slave Waveforms (SSCPHA = 0)
SS
(input)
TSLCH
TSLCL
SCK
(SSCPOL = 0)
(input)
TCHCH
TCHCX
TCLCH
TCLSH
TCHSH
TSHSL
TCLCX
TCHCL
SCK
(SSCPOL = 1)
(input)
TCLOV
TCHOV
TSLOV
MISO
(output)
SLAVE MSB OUT
BIT 6
TCLOX
TCHOX
TSHOX
SLAVE LSB OUT
1
TIVCH TCHIX
TIVCL TCLIX
MOSI
(input)
Note:
MSB IN
BIT 6
LSB IN
1. Not Defined but generally the MSB of the character which has just been received.
Figure 23-13. SPI Slave Waveforms (SSCPHA = 1)
SS1
(output)
TCHCH
SCK
(SSCPOL = 0)
(output)
TCHCX
TCLCH
TCLCX
TCHCL
SCK
(SSCPOL = 1)
(output)
TIVCH TCHIX
TIVCL TCLIX
SI
(input)
MSB IN
BIT 6
LSB IN
TCLOX
TCLOV
TCHOV
SO
(output)
Note:
Port Data
MSB OUT
BIT 6
TCHOX
LSB OUT
Port Data
1. Not Defined but generally the LSB of the character which has just been received.
165
4173E–USB–09/07
Figure 23-14. SPI Master Waveforms (SSCPHA = 0)
SS1
(input)
TSLCH
TSLCL
SCK
(SSCPOL = 0)
(input)
TCHCH
TCHCX
TCLCH
TCLSH
TCHSH
TSHSL
TCLCX
TCHCL
SCK
(SSCPOL = 1)
(input)
TCHOV
TCLOV
TSLOV
MISO
(output)
1
SLAVE MSB OUT
BIT 6
TCHOX
TCLOX
TSHOX
SLAVE LSB OUT
TIVCH TCHIX
TIVCL TCLIX
MOSI
(input)
Note:
MSB IN
BIT 6
LSB IN
1. SS handled by software using general purpose port pin.
Figure 23-15. SPI Master Waveforms (SSCPHA = 1)
SS1
(output)
TCHCH
SCK
(SSCPOL = 0)
(output)
TCHCX
TCLCH
TCLCX
TCHCL
SCK
(SSCPOL = 1)
(output)
TIVCH TCHIX
TIVCL TCLIX
SI
(input)
SO
(output)
Note:
MSB IN
BIT 6
TCLOV
TCLOX
TCHOX
TCHOV
Port Data
MSB OUT
BIT 6
LSB IN
LSB OUT
Port Data
1. SS handled by software using general purpose port pin.
23.3.4
23.3.4.1
Two-wire Interface
Timings
Table 36. TWI Interface AC Timing
166
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3 V, TA = -40 to +85°C
INPUT
Min
Max
OUTPUT
Min
Max
Start condition hold time
14·TCLCL(4)
4.0 µs(1)
TLOW
SCL low time
16·TCLCL(4)
4.7 µs(1)
THIGH
SCL high time
14·TCLCL(4)
4.0 µs(1)
TRC
SCL rise time
1 µs
-(2)
TFC
SCL fall time
0.3 µs
0.3 µs(3)
TSU; DAT1
Data set-up time
250 ns
20·TCLCL(4)- TRD
TSU; DAT2
SDA set-up time (before repeated START condition)
250 ns
1 µs(1)
TSU; DAT3
SDA set-up time (before STOP condition)
250 ns
8·TCLCL(4)
THD; DAT
Data hold time
0 ns
8·TCLCL(4) - TFC
TSU; STA
Repeated START set-up time
14·TCLCL(4)
4.7 µs(1)
TSU; STO
STOP condition set-up time
14·TCLCL(4)
4.0 µs(1)
TBUF
Bus free time
14·TCLCL(4)
4.7 µs(1)
TRD
SDA rise time
1 µs
-(2)
TFD
SDA fall time
0.3 µs
0.3 µs(3)
Symbol
Parameter
THD; STA
Notes:
23.3.4.2
1. At 100 kbit/s. At other bit-rates this value is inversely proportional to the bit-rate of 100 kbit/s.
2. Determined by the external bus-line capacitance and the external bus-line pull-up resistor, this
must be < 1 µs.
3. Spikes on the SDA and SCL lines with a duration of less than 3·TCLCL will be filtered out. Maximum capacitance on bus-lines SDA and
SCL= 400 pF.
4. TCLCL= TOSC= one oscillator clock period.
Waveforms
Figure 23-16. Two Wire Waveforms
Repeated START condition
START or Repeated START condition
START condition
STOP condition
Trd
Tsu;STA
0.7 VDD
0.3 VDD
SDA
(INPUT/OUTPUT)
Tsu;STO
Tfd
Trc
Tfc
Tbuf
Tsu;DAT3
0.7 VDD
0.3 VDD
SCL
(INPUT/OUTPUT)
Thd;STA
Tlow Thigh Tsu;DAT1
Thd;DAT
Tsu;DAT2
167
4173E–USB–09/07
23.3.5
23.3.5.1
MMC Interface
Definition of Symbols
Table 116. MMC Interface Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
23.3.5.2
Conditions
C
Clock
H
High
D
Data In
L
Low
O
Data Out
V
Valid
X
No Longer Valid
Min
Max
Timings
Table 117. MMC Interface AC Timings
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3 V, TA = -40 to +85°C, CL ≤ 100pF (10 cards)
Symbol
23.3.5.3
Parameter
Unit
TCHCH
Clock Period
50
ns
TCHCX
Clock High Time
10
ns
TCLCX
Clock Low Time
10
ns
TCLCH
Clock Rise Time
10
ns
TCHCL
Clock Fall Time
10
ns
TDVCH
Input Data Valid to Clock High
3
ns
TCHDX
Input Data Hold after Clock High
3
ns
TCHOX
Output Data Hold after Clock High
5
ns
TOVCH
Output Data Valid to Clock High
5
ns
Waveforms
Figure 23-17. MMC Input Output Waveforms
TCHCH
TCHCX
TCLCX
MCLK
TCHCL
TCHIX
TCLCH
TIVCH
MCMD Input
MDAT Input
TCHOX
TOVCH
MCMD Output
MDAT Output
168
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
23.3.6
23.3.6.1
Audio Interface
Definition of Symbols
Table 118. Audio Interface Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
23.3.6.2
Conditions
C
Clock
H
High
O
Data Out
L
Low
S
Data Select
V
Valid
X
No Longer Valid
Timings
Table 119. Audio Interface AC timings
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V, TA = -40 to +85°C, CL ≤ 30pF
Symbol
Parameter
TCHCH
Clock Period
TCHCX
Clock High Time
30
ns
TCLCX
Clock Low Time
30
ns
TCLCH
Clock Rise Time
10
ns
TCHCL
Clock Fall Time
10
ns
TCLSV
Clock Low to Select Valid
10
ns
Clock Low to Data Valid
10
ns
TCLOV
Note:
23.3.6.3
Min
Max
Unit
325.5(1)
ns
32-bit format with Fs = 48 kHz.
Waveforms
Figure 23-18. Audio Interface Waveforms
TCHCH
TCHCX
TCLCX
DCLK
TCHCL
TCLCH
TCLSV
DSEL
Right
Left
TCLOV
DDAT
169
4173E–USB–09/07
23.3.7
23.3.7.1
Analog to Digital Converter
Definition of Symbols
Table 120. Analog to Digital Converter Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
23.3.7.2
Conditions
C
Clock
H
High
E
Enable (ADEN bit)
L
Low
S
Start Conversion
(ADSST bit)
Characteristics
Table 37. Analog to Digital Converter AC Characteristics
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3 V, TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
TCLCL
Clock Period
TEHSH
Start-up Time
TSHSL
Min
Max
4
Unit
µs
4
µs
Conversion Time
11·TCLCL
µs
DLe
Differential nonlinearity error(1)(2)
1
LSB
ILe
Integral non-linearity
errorss(1)(3)
2
LSB
OSe
Offset error(1)(4)
4
LSB
Ge
Gain error(1)(5)
4
LSB
Notes:
170
Parameter
1. AVDD= AVREFP= 3.0 V, AVSS= AVREFN= 0 V. ADC is monotonic with no missing code.
2. The differential non-linearity is the difference between the actual step width and the ideal step
width (see Figure 23-20).
3. The integral non-linearity is the peak difference between the center of the actual step and the
ideal transfer curve after appropriate adjustment of gain and offset errors (see Figure 23-20).
4. The offset error is the absolute difference between the straight line which fits the actual transfer curve (after removing of gain error), and the straight line which fits the ideal transfer curve
(see Figure 23-20).
5. The gain error is the relative difference in percent between the straight line which fits the actual
transfer curve (after removing of offset error), and the straight line which fits the ideal transfer
curve (see Figure 23-20).
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
23.3.7.3
Waveforms
Figure 23-19. Analog-to-Digital Converter Internal Waveforms
CLK
TCLCL
ADEN Bit
TEHSH
ADSST Bit
TSHSL
Figure 23-20. Analog-to-Digital Converter Characteristics
Offset Gain
Error Error
OSe
Ge
Code Out
1023
1022
1021
1020
1019
1018
Ideal Transfer Curve
7
Example of an Actual Transfer Curve
6
5
Center of a Step
4
Integral Non-linearity (ILe)
3
Differential Non-linearity (DLe)
2
1
0
0
1 LSB
(Ideal)
AVIN (LSBideal)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024
Offset
Error
OSe
171
4173E–USB–09/07
23.3.8
23.3.8.1
Flash Memory
Definition of Symbols
Table 121. Flash Memory Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
23.3.8.2
Conditions
S
ISP
L
Low
R
RST
V
Valid
B
FBUSY flag
X
No Longer Valid
Timings
Table 122. Flash Memory AC Timing
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V, TA = -40° to +85°C
Symbol
23.3.8.3
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
TSVRL
Input ISP Valid to RST Edge
50
ns
TRLSX
Input ISP Hold after RST Edge
50
ns
TBHBL
FLASH Internal Busy (Programming) Time
NFCY
Number of Flash Write Cycles
TFDR
Flash Data Retention Time
10
ms
100K
Cycle
10
Year
Waveforms
Figure 23-21. Flash Memory – ISP Waveforms
RST
TSVRL
TRLSX
ISP(1)
Note:
1. ISP must be driven through a pull-down resistor (see Section “In-system Programming”,
page 158).
Figure 23-22. Flash Memory – Internal Busy Waveforms
FBUSY bit
23.3.9
23.3.9.1
TBHBL
External Clock Drive and Logic Level References
Definition of Symbols
Table 123. External Clock Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
C
172
Clock
Conditions
H
High
L
Low
X
No Longer Valid
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
23.3.9.2
Timings
Table 124. External Clock AC Timings
VDD = 2.7 to 3.3V, TA= -40 to +85°C
Symbol
Parameter
Max
Unit
TCLCL
Clock Period
50
ns
TCHCX
High Time
10
ns
TCLCX
Low Time
10
ns
TCLCH
Rise Time
3
ns
TCHCL
Fall Time
3
ns
Cyclic Ratio in X2 Mode
40
TCR
23.3.9.3
Min
60
%
Waveforms
Figure 23-23. External Clock Waveform
TCLCH
VDD - 0.5
0.45 V
VIH1
TCHCX
TCLCX
VIL
TCHCL
TCLCL
Figure 23-24. AC Testing Input/Output Waveforms
INPUTS
VDD - 0.5
0.45 V
Notes:
OUTPUTS
0.7
VDD
VIH min
0.3
VDD
VIL max
1. During AC testing, all inputs are driven at VDD -0.5V for a logic 1 and 0.45V for a logic 0.
2. Timing measurements are made on all outputs at VIH min for a logic 1 and VIL max for a logic 0.
Figure 23-25. Float Waveforms
VLOAD
VLOAD + 0.1V
VLOAD - 0.1V
Note:
Timing Reference Points
VOH - 0.1V
VOL + 0.1V
For timing purposes, a port pin is no longer floating when a 100 mV change from load voltage occurs and begins to float when a
100 mV change from the loading VOH/VOL level occurs with IOL/IOH = ±20 mA.
173
4173E–USB–09/07
24. Ordering Information
Possible Order Entries(1)
Temperature
Range
Max
Frequency
(MHz)
3V
Industrial
40
TQFP80
Tray
895132-IL
3V
Industrial &
Green
40
TQFP80
Tray
895132-UL
Part Number
Memory Size
(Bytes)
Supply
Voltage
AT89C5132-ROTIL
64K Flash
AT89C5132-ROTUL
Note:
174
64K Flash
Package
Packing
Product
Marking
1. PLCC84 package only available for development board.
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
25. Package Information
25.1
TQFP80
175
4173E–USB–09/07
25.2
176
PLCC84
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
26. Datasheet Revision History for AT89C5132
26.1
Changes from 4173A-08/02 to 4173B-03/04
1. Suppression of ROM product version.
2. Suppression of TQFP64 package.
26.2
Changes from 4173B-03/04 - 4173C - 07/04
1. Add USB connection schematic in USB section.
2. Add USB termination characteristics in DC Characteristics section.
3. Page access mode clarification in Data Memory section.
26.3
Changes from 4173C-07/04 - 4173D - 01/05
1. Interrupt priority number clarification to match number defined by development tools.
26.4
Changes from to 4317D - 01/05 to 4173E - 09/07
1. Added green product ordering information.
2. Removed ‘Preliminary’ status. Product now fully Industrialised.
177
4173E–USB–09/07
1
Description ............................................................................................... 1
2
Typical Applications ................................................................................ 1
3
Block Diagram .......................................................................................... 2
4
Pin Description ......................................................................................... 3
4.1 Signals ......................................................................................................................4
4.2 Internal Pin Structure ..............................................................................................10
5
Address Spaces ..................................................................................... 11
6
Clock Controller ..................................................................................... 12
6.1 Oscillator ................................................................................................................12
6.2 X2 Feature ..............................................................................................................12
6.3 PLL .........................................................................................................................13
6.4 Registers ................................................................................................................14
7
Program/Code Memory ......................................................................... 17
7.1 Flash Memory Architecture ....................................................................................17
7.2 Hardware Security System .....................................................................................18
7.3 Boot Memory Execution .........................................................................................19
7.4 Registers ................................................................................................................20
7.5 Hardware Bytes ......................................................................................................20
8
Data Memory .......................................................................................... 22
8.1 Internal Space ........................................................................................................22
8.2 External Space .......................................................................................................23
8.3 Dual Data Pointer ...................................................................................................26
8.4 Registers ................................................................................................................27
9
Special Function Registers ................................................................... 29
10 Interrupt System .................................................................................... 34
10.1 Interrupt System Priorities ....................................................................................34
10.2 External Interrupts ................................................................................................37
10.3 Registers ..............................................................................................................38
11 Power Management ............................................................................... 44
11.1 Reset ....................................................................................................................44
11.2 Reset Recommendation to Prevent Flash Corruption ..........................................45
11.3 Idle Mode ..............................................................................................................46
11.4 Power-down Mode ...............................................................................................46
i
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
11.5 Registers ..............................................................................................................48
12 Timers/Counters .................................................................................... 49
12.1 Timer/Counter Operations ....................................................................................49
12.2 Timer Clock Controller ..........................................................................................49
12.3 Timer 0 .................................................................................................................50
12.4 Timer 1 .................................................................................................................52
12.5 Interrupt ................................................................................................................53
12.6 Registers ..............................................................................................................54
13 Watchdog Timer ..................................................................................... 57
13.1 Description ...........................................................................................................57
13.2 Watchdog Clock Controller ...................................................................................57
13.3 Watchdog Operation ............................................................................................58
13.4 Registers ..............................................................................................................59
14 Audio Output Interface .......................................................................... 60
14.1 Description ...........................................................................................................60
14.2 Clock Generator ...................................................................................................60
14.3 Data Converter .....................................................................................................61
14.4 Audio Buffer ..........................................................................................................62
14.5 Interrupt Request ..................................................................................................63
14.6 Voice or Sound Playing ........................................................................................63
14.7 Registers ..............................................................................................................64
15 Universal Serial Bus .............................................................................. 67
15.1 Description ...........................................................................................................68
15.2 USB Interrupt System ...........................................................................................70
15.3 Registers ..............................................................................................................72
16 MultiMedia Card Controller ................................................................... 82
16.1 Card Concept .......................................................................................................82
16.2 Bus Concept .........................................................................................................82
16.3 Description ...........................................................................................................87
16.4 Clock Generator ...................................................................................................88
16.5 Command Line Controller ....................................................................................88
16.6 Data Line Controller .............................................................................................90
16.7 Interrupt ................................................................................................................96
16.8 Registers ..............................................................................................................97
ii
4173E–USB–09/07
17 IDE/ATAPI Interface ............................................................................. 104
17.1 Description .........................................................................................................104
17.2 Registers ............................................................................................................106
18 Serial I/O Port ....................................................................................... 107
18.1 Mode Selection ...................................................................................................107
18.2 Baud Rate Generator .........................................................................................107
18.3 Synchronous Mode (Mode 0) .............................................................................108
18.4 Asynchronous Modes (Modes 1, 2 and 3) ..........................................................111
18.5 Multiprocessor Communication
(Modes 2 and 3) 114
18.6 Automatic Address Recognition .........................................................................114
18.7 Interrupt ..............................................................................................................116
18.8 Registers ............................................................................................................116
19 Synchronous Peripheral Interface ..................................................... 120
19.1 Description .........................................................................................................121
19.2 Interrupt ..............................................................................................................124
19.3 Configuration ......................................................................................................124
19.4 Registers ............................................................................................................129
20 Two-wire Interface (TWI) Controller ................................................... 131
20.1 Description .........................................................................................................131
20.2 Registers ............................................................................................................145
21 Analog to Digital Converter ................................................................ 147
21.1 Description .........................................................................................................147
21.2 Registers ............................................................................................................150
22 Keyboard Interface .............................................................................. 152
22.1 Description .........................................................................................................152
22.2 Registers ............................................................................................................152
23 Electrical Characteristics .................................................................... 154
23.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings ................................................................................154
23.2 DC Characteristics .............................................................................................154
23.3 AC Characteristics ..............................................................................................159
24 Ordering Information ........................................................................... 174
25 Package Information ............................................................................ 175
25.1 TQFP80 .............................................................................................................175
iii
AT89C5132
4173E–USB–09/07
AT89C5132
25.2 PLCC84 ..............................................................................................................176
26 Datasheet Revision History for AT89C5132 ...................................... 177
26.1 Changes from 4173A-08/02 to 4173B-03/04 ......................................................177
26.2 Changes from 4173B-03/04 - 4173C - 07/04 .....................................................177
26.3 Changes from 4173C-07/04 - 4173D - 01/05 .....................................................177
26.4 Changes from to 4317D - 01/05 to 4173E - 09/07 .............................................177
iv
4173E–USB–09/07
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