cd00292052

AN3319
Application note
STEVAL-ISV006V2: solar battery charger
using the SPV1040
Introduction
The SPV1040 is a high efficiency, low power and low voltage DC-DC converter that provides
a single output voltage up to 5.2 V. Startup is guaranteed at 0.3 V and the device operates
down to 0.45 V when coming out from MPPT mode. It is a 100 kHz fixed frequency PWM
step-up (or boost) converter able to maximize the energy generated by few solar cells
(polycrystalline or amorphous). The duty cycle is controlled by an embedded unit running an
MPPT algorithm with the goal of maximizing the power generated from the panel by
continuously tracking its output voltage and current.
The SPV1040 guarantees the safety of overall application and of converter itself by stopping
the PWM switching in the case of an overcurrent or overtemperature condition.
The IC integrates a 120 mΩ N-channel MOSFET power switch and a 140 mΩ P-channel
MOSFET synchronous rectifier.
March 2013
DocID18265 Rev 8
1/25
www.st.com
Contents
AN3319
Contents
1
Application overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2
Boost switching application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3
SPV1040 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4
Application example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5
Schematic and bill of material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6
External component selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.1
7
Optional Schottky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix A SPV1040 parallel and series connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
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List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Boost application schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
PV cell curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Inductor current in continuous mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Inductor current in discontinuous mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Typical application schematic using the SPV1040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
SPV1040 equivalent circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
MPPT working principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SPV1040 internal block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
STEVAL-ISV006V2 top view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
STEVAL-ISV006V2 bottom view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
STEVAL-ISV006V2 schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
STEVAL-ISV006V2 IOUT filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
STEVAL-ISV006V2 PCB top view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
STEVAL-ISV006V2 PCB bottom view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
SPV1040 output parallel connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
SPV1040 output series connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
DocID18265 Rev 8
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Application overview
1
AN3319
Application overview
Figure 1 shows the typical architecture of a boost converter based solar battery charger:
Figure 1. Boost application schematic
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The SPV1040 adapts the characteristics of load to those of panel. In fact, a PV panel is
made up of a series of PV cells. Each PV cell provides voltage and current which depend on
the PV cell size, on its technology, and on the light irradiation power. The main electrical
parameters of a PV panel (typically provided at light irradiation of 1000 W/m2, Tamb=25 °C)
are:
•
VOC (open circuit voltage)
•
VMP (voltage at maximum power point)
•
ISC (short-circuit current)
•
IMP (current at maximum power point)
Figure 2 shows the typical characteristics of a PV cell:
Figure 2. PV cell curve
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MPP (maximum power point) is the working point of the PV cell at which the product of the
extracted voltage and current provides the maximum power.
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2
Boost switching application
Boost switching application
A step-up (or boost) converter is a switching DC-DC converter able to generate an output
voltage higher than (or at least equal to) the input voltage.
Referring to Figure 1, the switching element (Sw) is typically driven by a fixed frequency
square waveform generated by a PWM controller.
When Sw is closed (ton) the inductor stores energy and its current increases with a slope
depending on the voltage across the inductor and its inductance value. During this time the
output voltage is sustained by COUT and the diode does not allow any charge transfer from
the output to input stage.
When Sw is open (toff), the current in the inductor is forced, flowing toward the output until
voltage at the input is higher than the output voltage. During this phase the current in the
inductor decreases while the output voltage increases.
Figure 3 shows the behavior of inductor current.
Figure 3. Inductor current in continuous mode
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The energy stored in the inductor during ton is ideally equal to the energy released during
toff, therefore the relation between ton and toff can be written as follows:
t on
D = -------------------------( ton + t off )
where “D” is the duty cycle of the square waveform driving the switching element.
Boost applications can work in two different modes depending on the minimum inductor
current within the switching period, that is if it is not null or null respectively:
•
Continuous mode (CM)
•
Discontinuous mode (DCM)
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Boost switching application
AN3319
Figure 4. Inductor current in discontinuous mode
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Obviously the efficiency is normally higher in CM.
Inductance and switching frequency (Fsw) impact the working mode. In fact, in order to have
the system working in CM, the rule below should be followed:
V OUT2 ( D ⋅ ( 1 – D ) )2
L > -------------- ⋅ ----------------------------------P IN
2 ⋅ F SW
According to the above, L is minimum for D = 50 %.
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3
SPV1040 description
SPV1040 description
The following is a quick overview of SPV1040 functions, features, and operating modes.
Figure 5. Typical application schematic using the SPV1040
L
VPV
Lx
XSHUT
I CTRL_PLUS
GND
I CTRL_MINUS
R3
CIN
MPP SET
MPP-
CINsns
VBATT
RS
VOUT
RF1
CF
RF2
R1
COUT
VCTRL
D OUT
R2
COUTsns
AM06700v1
The SPV1040 acts as an impedance adapter between the input source and output load
which is:
Figure 6. SPV1040 equivalent circuit
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Through the MPPT algorithm, it sets up the DC working point properly by guaranteeing
ZIN = Zm (assuming Zm is the impedance of the supply source). In this way, the power
extracted from the supply source (PIN = VIN * IIN) is maximum (PM = VM * IM).
The voltage-current curve shows all the available working points of the PV panel at a given
solar irradiation. The voltage-power curve is derived from the voltage-current curve by
plotting the product V*I for each voltage generated.
DocID18265 Rev 8
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SPV1040 description
AN3319
Figure 7. MPPT working principle
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Figure 7 shows the logical sequence followed by the device which proceeds for successive
approximations in the search for the MPP. This method is called “Perturb and Observe”. The
diagram shows that a comparison is made between the digital value of the power Pn
generated by the solar cells and sampled at instant n, and the value acquired at the
previous sampling period Pn-1. This allows the MPPT algorithm to determine the sign of
duty cycle and to increment or decrement it by a predefined amount. In particular, the
direction of adjustment (increment or decrement of duty cycle) remains unchanged until
condition Pn≥Pn-1 occurs, that is, for as long as it registers an increase of the instantaneous
power extracted from the cells string. On the contrary, when it registers a decrease of the
power Pn<Pn-1, the sign of duty cycle adjustment is inverted.
In the meantime, SPV1040 sets its own duty cycle according to the MPPT algorithm, other
controls are simultaneously executed in order to guarantee complete application safety.
These controls are mainly implemented by integrated voltage comparators whose
thresholds are properly set.
Figure 8. SPV1040 internal block diagram
V OUT
Lx
START SIGNAL
ANALOG BLOCK
ZERO CROSSING
DETECTOR
+
VREF
I CTRL_PLUS
VMPP-REF
OVER TEMPERATURE
REVERSE POLARITY
MPP BLOCK
BURST MODE
I CTRL_MINUS
PWM
CLOCK
MPP-SET
+
DRIVERS
CONTROL
OVER CURRENT
CLOCK
Burst Ref
XSHUT
+
DIGITAL
CORE
-
DAC CODE
GND
Iout Reg
Vin Reg
Vout Reg
V MPP-REF
MPP-SET
V CTRL
+
-
VREF
AM06703v1
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SPV1040 description
The duty cycle set by the MPPT algorithm can be overwritten if one of the following is
triggered:
•
Overcurrent protection (OVC), peak current on low side switch ≥ 1.8 A
•
Overtemperature protection (OVT), internal temperature ≥ 155 °C
•
Output voltage regulation, VCTRL pin triggers 1.25 V
•
Output current regulation Rs * (ICTRL_PLUS - ICTRL_MINUS) ≥ 50 mV
•
MPP-SET voltage VMPP-SET ≤ 300 mV at the start-up and VMPP-SET ≤ 450 mV in
working mode.
Application components must be carefully selected to avoid any undesired trigger of the
above thresholds.
In order to improve the overall system efficiency, and to reduce the BOM, the SPV1040 also
integrates a zero crossing block whose role is to turn-off the synchronous rectifier to prevent
reverse current flowing from output to input.
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Application example
4
AN3319
Application example
Figure 9 and 10 show the demonstration board of a solar battery charger based on
SPV1040 and on a status of charge indication circuit.
Figure 9. STEVAL-ISV006V2 top view
Figure 10. STEVAL-ISV006V2 bottom view
STEVAL-ISV006V2 has been designed to recharge any type of battery (except lithium
compound) which maximum voltage (VBATT_max) ≤ 5.2 V and supplied by up to 5 W PV
panels (constrained by VOC<VBATT_max).
By default STEVAL-ISV006V2 is set as follows:
•
Loaded by a 220 mF super capacitor
•
Supplyed by a 200 mW PV panel (VOC = 1.65 V, ISC = 150 mA)
•
Maximum output current 1 A
The output trimmer VR2 allow regulating VCTRL across battery.
Maximum output current can be regulated by replacing Rs current sensing resistor
according to application requirements.
Please refer to Section 6: external component selection for details about the whole
application set-up.
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Application example
Further, STEVAL-ISV006V2 provides a simple charge status circuit with 2 LEDs:
•
Red LED on and green LED off, if the battery voltage is lower than charge threshold
•
Red LED off and green LED on, if the battery voltage is higher than charge threshold
Charge threshold can be regulated by trimmer VR10. Charge status circuit can be bypassed
by opening jumper J1.
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Schematic and bill of material
5
AN3319
Schematic and bill of material
Figure 11. STEVAL-ISV006V2 schematic
optional
Vbat+
J1
L1
PV+
XSHUT
R3
V OUT
Lx
R5
I CTRL_MINUS
GND
MPP SET
MPP-
CIN1
RF1
I CTRL_PLUS
XSHUT
VLOAD+
VR4
( DNM)
Super
Cap
V CTRL
C4
VR10
R1
RF2
CF
COUT1
VR2
PV-
Battery Charge
Monitor circuit
RS1
COUT2
D OUT
R9
C2
R11
VLOAD
LOAD-
VbatAM06706v1
Table 1 shows the list of external components used in the demonstration board.
Table 1. BOM
Component
(alternate
label)
Name
U25/26
Solar battery charger
PV panel
Poly-crystalline PV panel
CIN1
Supplier
Serial number
STMicroelectronics
SPV1040T
200 mW
NBSZGD
SZGD7050-3P
Input capacitor
10 μF
EPCOS
C2012X5R1A106K
C4
Voltage sensing capacitor
100 nF
EPCOS
C2012X5R1H104K
C2
Voltage sensing capacitor
1 nF
EPCOS
C2012C0G1H102J
COUT1
Output capacitor
4.7 μF
EPCOS
C2012X5R0J475K
COUT2
Output capacitor
10 μF
EPCOS
C2012X5R1A106K
R3
Input voltage partitioning
resistor
1 kΩ
Cyntec
RG2012P1001BN
VR2, VR10
VR4 (DNM)
OUT, MPP-SET and charge
indication partitioning
resistor
0-1 MkΩ
VISHAY
63M-105
R1
Output voltage partitioning
resistor
1 MΩ
Cyntec
RG2012P105BN
R11
Output voltage partitioning
resistor
330 kΩ
Cyntec
RG2012P334BN
R5
Pull-up resistor
0
Cyntec
RL1220TR010FN
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Value
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Schematic and bill of material
Table 1. BOM (continued)
Component
(alternate
label)
Name
Value
Supplier
Serial number
L1
Inductor
10 μH
Coilcraft
Coilcraft
EPCOS
XAL6060-103
MSS7341-103
B82442T1103K050
J28
Super capacitor
220 nF
Panasonic
EECS0HD224H
Dout1
Protection diode
STMicroelectronics
SMM4F5.0
RS1
Output current sense
10 mΩ
Cyntec
RL1220TR000FN
RF1, RF2
Noise filterirng resistors
1 kΩ
Cyntec
RG2012P1001BN
CF1
Noise filtering capacitor
1 μF
EPCOS
C2012X7R1C105K
U27
QUAD comparator
STMicroelectronics
TS339
D1
Green LED
1.8 V, 2 mA
Avago Tech.
HLMP-1790
D4
Red LED
1.8 V, 2 mA
Avago Tech.
HLMP-1700
D5
Reference diode
STMicroelectronics
STPS160U
R6, R7
LED protection resistors
1 kΩ
Cyntec
RG2012P1001BN
R8
Reference resistors
1 MΩ
Cyntec
RG2012P105BN
R9
Charge status threshold
resistors
27 kΩ
Cyntec
RG2012P2701BN
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External component selection
6
AN3319
External component selection
SPV1040 requires a set of external components and their proper selection guarantees both
the best chip functionality and system efficiency.
Input voltage capacitor
CIN is the input capacitor connected to the input rail in order to reduce the voltage ripple.
According to the maximum current (ISC) provided by the PV panel connected at the input,
the following formula should be considered to select the proper capacitance value for a
specified maximum input voltage ripple (VIN_rp_max):
I SC
C IN ≥ ------------------------FSW ⋅ VIN _rp_max
Maximum voltage of this capacitor is strictly dependent on the input source (typically
between 1 V and 3 V).
Low-ESR capacitors are a good choice to increase the whole system efficiency. In order to
reduce the ESR effect, it is suggested to split the input capacitance into two capacitors
placed in parallel.
Input voltage partitioning
VMPP-SET is the pin used to monitor the voltage generated by the solar cells.
The VMPP-SET pin can be directly connected to PV+ rail through a 1 kΩ R3 resistor.
With regard to the VMPP-SET pin, two constraints must be taken into account:
•
•
When SPV1040 is off, VMPP-SET voltage must be ≥0.3 to turn-on the device
When SPV1040 is in operating mode, it enters BURST MODE if VMPP-SET decreases
triggering the 450 mV threshold.
Input voltage sensing capacitor
C4 is placed as close as possible to the VMPP-SET pin to reject noise on VMPP-SET voltage.
However, VMPP-SET must be able to follow the VIN waveform to allow SPV1040 to monitor
input voltage variations.
It means that the time constant R3*C4 must be chosen according to system properties,
which is the MPPT tracking time (TMPP ≅1 ms). The rule below must be followed in order to
select C4 capacitance:
1
–3
1
C 4 ≤ T MPP ⋅ ------- = 10 ⋅ --------3R3
10
Assuming R3= 1 kΩ then: C 4 ≤ 10μF
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External component selection
Inductor selection
Inductor selection is a crucial point for this application. The following application constraints
must be taken into account:
•
Maximum input current (i.e. IMP and ISC of PV panel)
•
Maximum input voltage (i.e. VMP and Voc of PV panel)
•
Overcurrent threshold of SPV1040 (1.8 A)
•
Maximum duty cycle of SPV1040 (90 %).
The input current from the PV panel flows into the inductor, so:
I Lxrms ≅ I MP < I SC
According to Figure 3, during the charge phase (switch on), peak current on the inductor
depends on the applied voltage (VIN) on the inductance (Lx), and on the duty cycle (ton).
Considering the maximum duty cycle (90 %):
–6
9 ⋅ 10 VMP
ILXpeak = ILXrms + ------------------------------2L x
Taking into account the overcurrent threshold:
I LXpeak < 1.8A
Finally, inductance should be chosen according to the following formula:
–6
–6
1 9 ⋅ 10 V MP 1 9 ⋅ 10 V MP
L X > --- ⋅ ------------------------------- = --- ⋅ ------------------------------2 2 – I LXrms
2
2 – I MP
A safer choice is to replace VMP with VOC.
Usually, inductances ranging between 10 μH to 100 μH satisfy most application
requirements.
Other critical parameters for the inductor choice are Irms, saturation current, and size.
Irms is the self rising temperature of the inductor, affecting the nominal inductance value. In
particular, the inductance decreases with Irms and the temperature increases. As a
consequence the inductor current peak can reach or surpass 1.8 A.
Inductor size also affects the maximum current deliverable to the load. In any case, the
saturation current of the choke should be higher than the peak current limit of the input
source. Hence, the suggested saturation current must be > 1.8 A.
At the same size, small inductance values guarantee both faster response to load transients
and higher efficiency.
Inductors with low series resistance are suggested in order to guarantee high efficiency.
Output voltage capacitor
A minimum output capacitance must be added at the output in order to reduce the voltage
ripple.
Critical parameters for capacitors are: capacitance, maximum voltage, and ESR.
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External component selection
AN3319
According to the maximum current (ISC) provided by the PV panel connected at the input,
the following formula can be used to select the proper capacitance value (COUT) for a
specified maximum output voltage ripple (VOUT_rp_max):
I SC
C OUT ≥ -------------------F SW ⋅ VOUT_rp_max
Maximum voltage of this capacitor is strictly dependent on the output voltage range.
SPV1040 can support up to 5.2 V, so the suggested maximum voltage for these capacitors
is 10 V.
Low-ESR capacitors are a good choice to increase the whole system efficiency.
Output voltage partitioning
R1 and R2 are the two resistors used for partitioning the output voltage.
The said VOUT_max the maximum output voltage of the battery, R1 and R2 must be selected
according to the following rule:
R1
V OUT
------- = --------------_max -1
R2
1.25
Also, in order to optimize the efficiency of the whole system, when selecting R1 and R2, their
power dissipation must be taken into account.
Assuming a negligible current flowing into the VCTRL pin, maximum power dissipation on the
series R1+R2 is:
( V OUTmax
)
_
PVCTRL_sns = ------------------------------R1 + R2
2
As an empirical rule, R1 and R2 should be selected to get:
P VCTRLsns
« 0.01 ⋅ ( V OUTmax
⋅ IOUTmax
)
_
_
_
Note:
In order to guarantee proper functionality of the VCTRL pin, the current flowing into the series
R1+R2 should be in the range between 2 µA and 20 µA.
Output voltage sensing capacitor
C2 is placed in parallel to R2 and as close as possible to the VCTRL pin.
Its role is to reject the noise on the voltage sensed by the VCTRL pin.
Capacitance value depends on the time constant resulting from R2 (τOUT= C2*R1//R2) and
from the system switching frequency (100 kHz), as follows:
τ out ≅ 10 ∗
C 2 ≅ 10 *
16/25
1
Fssw
1
1
*
Fssw R1 // R 2
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AN3319
External component selection
Output current sensing filter
Rs is placed in the output rail between the ICTRL_MINUS and ICTRL_PLUS pins.
Its role is to sense the output current (IOUT) flowing toward the load. Voltage drop on Rs is
sensed by the ICTRL_MINUS and ICTRL_PLUS pins and compared with the 50 mV internal
threshold.
50mV
R S ≅ ---------------------I OUTmax
_
The triangular waveform of the current and noise may cause unexpected triggering of the
50 mV threshold. This can be avoided with a filter such as the one shown below:
Figure 12. STEVAL-ISV006V2 IOUT filter
RS
VOUT
RF1
ICTRL_PLUS
ICTRL_MINUS
VBAT+
CF
RF2
AM06707v1
Suggested values are:
RF1=RF2 = 1 kΩ
CF = 1 μF
Output protection diode
If the load is not a battery, DOUT is required and placed in parallel to the output load. Its role
is to protect the devices in case a PV cell providing IMP > 0.5 A is connected when very low
load is connected.
In fact, SPV1040 is supplied by the VOUT pin, so in the above condition the device is still off
when the PV cell is connected and a voltage spike can occur damaging the converter and
the battery.
In order to guarantee the best system performance and reliability, DOUT should be selected
as follows:
VBR > VOUT_max
VCL ≤ 5.5 V
DOUT must be able to dissipate the following maximum power:
Pmax = ISC*VCL
XSHUT resistor
The XSHUT pin controls SPV1040 turn-on (0.3 V ≤ XSHUT ≤ 5.2 V) or turn-off (XSHUT <
0.3 V).
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External component selection
AN3319
R5 is a 0 Ω pull-up resistor shorting the XSHUT and MPP-SET pins.
Removing R5 enables the external control of the XSHUT pin to turn the SPV1040 on/off.
6.1
Optional Schottky
An external Schottky diode between Lx and VOUT pins is mandatory in all the applications
with VBATT_max > 4.8 V.
In fact, voltage on Lx pin can go above the maximum absolute voltage threshold (5.5 V) due
to the voltage drop on the high side integrated switch when this is off (discontinuous mode)
and current needs to flow from input to output.
This Schottky diode should be chosen according to the following criteria:
V F ≤ 5.5V - VBATT_max and I F ≥ I Lmax
For setting up the application and simulating the related test results please go to
www.st.com/edesignstudio.
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7
Layout
Layout
Figure 13. STEVAL-ISV006V2 PCB top view
Figure 14. STEVAL-ISV006V2 PCB bottom view
Layout guidelines
PCB layout is very important in order to minimize voltage and current ripple, high frequency
resonance problems, and electromagnetic interference. It is essential to keep the paths
where the high switching current circulates as small as possible in order to reduce radiation
and resonance problems.
Large traces for high current paths and an extended ground plane reduce noise and
increase efficiency.
The output and input capacitors should be placed as close as possible to the device.
The external resistor dividers, if used, should be as close as possible to the VMPP-SET and
VCTRL pins of the device, and as far as possible from the high current circulating paths, in
order to avoid picking up noise.
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SPV1040 parallel and series connection
Appendix A
AN3319
SPV1040 parallel and series connection
Output pins of many SPV1040s can be connected either in parallel or in series. In both
cases the output power (Pout) depends on light irradiation of each panel, on application
efficiency, and on the specific constraints of the selected topology.
The objective of this section is to explain how the output power is impacted by the selected
topology.
An example with 3 PV panels (panel1, panel2, panel3) is presented, but the conclusion can
be extended to a larger number of PV panels.
If the panel is lighted and the SPV1040 is on (it means that light irradiation intensity is such
that VMPP-SET ≥ 0.3 V):
POUTx = ηPINx
[x = 1..3]
If the panel is completely shaded: POUTx=0
SPV1040 parallel connection
This topology guarantees the desired output voltage even when only one panel is irradiated.
The obvious constraint of this topology is that VOUT is limited to the SPV1040 maximum
output voltage.
Figure 15 shows the parallel connection topology:
Figure 15. SPV1040 output parallel connection
VOUT+
PV3+
PV3
PV2
PV1
Vo3+
SPV1040
PV3-
Vo3-
PV2+
Vo2+
SPV1040
PV2
PV2-
Vo2-
PV1+
Vo1+
SPV1040
PV1-
Vo1-
VOUT-
AM06711v1
The output partitioning (R1/R2) of each SPV1040 must be coherent with the desired VOUTX.
According to the topology:
VOUT=VOUT1=VOUT2=VOUT3
IOUT=IOUT1+IOUT2+IOUT3
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SPV1040 parallel and series connection
According to the light irradiation on each panel and to the system efficiency (η), the output
power results:
POUT = POUT1 + POUT 2 + POUT 3
POUTx = VOUTx * IOUTx
[x = 1..3]
PINx = VINx * IINx
[x = 1..3]
Therefore:
POUT = VOUT (IOUT1 + IOUT 2 + IOUT 3 ) = ηPIN1 + ηPIN2 + ηPIN3
Each SPV1040 contributes to the output power providing IOUTX.
Finally, the desired VOUT is guaranteed if at least one of the 3 PV panels provides enough
power to turn-on the SPV1040 relating to it.
SPV1040 series connection
This topology provides an output voltage that is the sum of the output voltages of the
SPV1040 connected in series. The objective of this section is to explain how the output
power is impacted by the selected topology.
Figure 16 shows the series connection topology:
Figure 16. SPV1040 output series connection
VOUT+
PV3+
PV3
Vo3+
SPV1040
PV3-
Vo3-
PV2+
Vo2+
PV2
SPV1040
PV1
PV2
PV2-
Vo2-
PV1+
Vo1+
SPV1040
PV1-
Vo1-
VOUT-
AM06710v1
In this case, the topology imposes:
IOUT = IOUT 1 = IOUT 2 = IOUT 3
VOUT = VOUT1 + VOUT 2 + VOUT 3
In case irradiation is the same for each panel:
POUT 1 = POUT 2 = POUT 3
POUT = 3 * POUTx
POUTx =
[x = 1..3]
1
POUT
3
POUTx = VOUTx * IOUTx = VOUT1 * IOUT
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SPV1040 parallel and series connection
AN3319
Therefore:
VOUTx =
1
VOUT
3
For example, assuming POUT = 3 W and VOUT = 12 V, then
VOUTx = 4 V.
Lower irradiation for one panel, for example on panel 2, causes lower output power, so
lower VOUT2 due to the IOUT imposed by the topology:
VOUTx =
POUTx
IOUT
The output voltage required by the load can be provided by the 1st and the 3rd SPV1040 but
only up to the limit imposed by each of their R1/R2 partitionings.
Some examples can help in understanding the various scenarios assuming that each R1/R2
limits VOUTx to 4.8 V.
Example 1:
Panel 2 has 75 % irradiation of panels 1 and 3:
VOUT 2 =
3
3
* VOUT1 = * VOUT3
4
4
POUT 1 = POUT 3 = 1W
POUT2 =
3
POUT1 = 0.75W
4
POUT = POUT1 + POUT 2 + POUT 3 = 2.75 W
IOUT =
POUT 2.75
=
= 0.23A
VOUT
12
VOUT1 = VOUT3 =
VOUT 2 =
1
= 4.35 V
0 .23
0.75
= 3.26V
0.23
Two SPV1040s (1st and 3rd) supply the voltage drop caused by the lower irradiation on
panel 2.
Warning:
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SPV1040 is a boost controller, so VOUTx must be higher than
VINx, otherwise the SPV1040 turns off and the input power is
transferred to the output stage through the integrated Pchannel MOS without entering the switching mode.
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SPV1040 parallel and series connection
Example 2:
Panel 2 has 50 % irradiation of panels 1 and 3:
1
1
P OUT2 = --- ⋅ P OUT1 = --- ⋅ P OUT3
2
2
P OUT1 = POUT3 = 1W
1
P OUT2 = --- P OUT1 = 0.5W
2
P OUT = P OUT1 + P OUT2 + P OUT 3 = 2.5W
P OUT 2.5
I OUT = -------------- = -------- = 0.21A
V OUT 12
1
V OUT1 = V OUT3 = ----------- = 4.76V
0.21
0.5
V OUT2 = ----------- = 2.38V
0.21
In this case the system is close to its maximum voltage limit, in fact, a lower irradiation on
panel 2 impacts VOUT1 and/or VOUT3 which are very close to the maximum output voltage
threshold (4.8 V) imposed by R1/R2 partitioning.
Example 3:
Panel 2 completely shaded.
In this case the maximum VOUT can be 9.6 V (VOUT1+VOUT3).
The current flow is guaranteed by the body diodes of the power MOSFETs integrated in the
SPV1040 (or by the bypass diodes, if any, placed between VOUT- and VOUT+).
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Revision history
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Revision history
Table 2. Document revision history
24/25
Date
Revision
Changes
02-Feb-2011
1
Initial release
18-Apr-2011
2
– Demonstration board changed: from STEVAL-ISV006V1 to
STEVAL-ISV006V2
– Figure 9, 10, 11, 13 and 14 modified
– Section 4 modified
– Table 1 modified
04-May-2011
3
Modified: Table 1
08-Sep-2011
4
–
–
–
–
12-Sep-2011
5
Minor text changes
21-Sep-2011
6
– Modified: Figure 5, 8 and 11
– Modified: text and equation for Input voltage sensing capacitor in
Section 6: External component selection
18-Nov-2011
7
Modified: value of the component RS1 in Table 1
21-Mar-2013
8
Updated Figure 8.
Modified: Section 3 and 4
Changed: Table 1: BOM
Changed: Figure 5, 8, 9 and 11
Modified: Input voltage partitioning, Input voltage sensing capacitor
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AN3319
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