AN_372 FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge

Application Note
AN_372
FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge
Version 1.0
Issue Date: 2015-10-06
This Application Note describes and explains the FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge.
The FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge allows the GPIO pins on the FT90x chip to be
controlled via commands issued over a UART.
Use of FTDI devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the user’s risk, and the
user agrees to defend, indemnify and hold FTDI harmless from any and all damages, claims, suits
or expense resulting from such use.
Future Technology Devices International Limited (FTDI)
Unit 1, 2 Seaward Place, Glasgow G41 1HH, United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 (0) 141 429 2777 Fax: + 44 (0) 141 429 2758
Web Site: http://ftdichip.com
Copyright © 2015 Future Technology Devices International Limited
Application Note
AN_372 FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge
Version 1.0
Document Reference No.: FT_001167
Clearance No.: FTDI# 447
Table of Contents
1 Introduction .............................................................. 2
1.1 Overview .............................................................................2
1.2 Licence ................................................................................2
2 Protocol ..................................................................... 3
3 Implementation ......................................................... 4
3.1 Command Interpreter .........................................................4
3.1.1
Setup ............................................................................................................ 4
3.1.2
Reading in a byte ........................................................................................... 4
3.1.3
Parsing Commands ......................................................................................... 6
3.2 Main Application ..................................................................7
4 Examples ................................................................... 9
4.1 Output .................................................................................9
4.2 Input ...................................................................................9
5 Using the GUI .......................................................... 10
5.1 Selecting a Serial Port ....................................................... 10
5.2 Controlling GPIO Pins ........................................................ 10
5.3 Sending Scripts .................................................................11
6 Contact Information ................................................ 13
Appendix A – References ............................................. 14
Document References ............................................................... 14
Acronyms and Abbreviations..................................................... 14
Appendix B – List of Tables & Figures .......................... 15
List of Tables............................................................................. 15
List of Figures ........................................................................... 15
Appendix C – Revision History ..................................... 16
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AN_372 FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge
Version 1.0
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1 Introduction
This Application Note describes and explains the FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge. The FT90x UART to
GPIO Bridge allows the GPIO pins on the FT90x chip to be controlled via commands issued over a
UART.
1.1 Overview
This document describes the design and implementation of the FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge. The
FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge allows a user to:




Set up GPIO Pins as Inputs or Outputs.
Read the value of a GPIO Pin.
Set a GPIO Pin High or Low.
Enable and Disable Pullups.
This document is intended to demonstrate the bridging capabilities of the FT90x family of
microcontrollers.
1.2 License
© Copyright 2015, Future Technology Devices International Ltd.
This source code ("the Software") is provided by Future Technology Devices International Limited
("FTDI")
subject
to
the
license
terms
set
out
http://www.ftdichip.com/FTSourceCodeLicenceTerms.htm ("the License Terms"). You must read
the License Terms before downloading or using the Software. By installing or using the Software
you agree to the License Terms. If you do not agree to the License Terms then do not download or
use the Software.
Without prejudice to the License Terms, here is a summary of some of the key terms of the
License Terms (and in the event of any conflict between this summary and the License Terms then
the text of the License Terms will prevail).
The Software is provided "as is". There are no warranties (or similar) in relation to the quality of
the Software. You use it at your own risk. The Software should not be used in, or for, any medical
device, system or appliance. There are exclusions of FTDI liability for certain types of loss such as:
special loss or damage; incidental loss or damage; indirect or consequential loss or damage; loss
of income; loss of business; loss of profits; loss of revenue; loss of contracts; business
interruption; loss of the use of money or anticipated savings; loss of information; loss of
opportunity; loss of goodwill or reputation; and/or loss of, damage to or corruption of data.
There is a monetary cap on FTDI's liability.
The Software may have subsequently been amended by another user and then distributed by that
other user ("Adapted Software"). If so that user may have additional license terms that apply to
those amendments. However, FTDI has no liability in relation to those amendments.
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Version 1.0
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2 Protocol
A set of commands are available to control GPIO pins via the UART console.
Each command consists of two sections:
1. A single character denoting the command.
2. A number for the GPIO pin to use (if needed).
The commands available are shown in Table 1: Command Set
Command
Mnemonic
Description
Arguments
Raw Format1,2
Returns
H
Set a GPIO Pin high
A GPIO Pin
H<x><CR>
Nothing
L
Set a GPIO Pin low
A GPIO Pin
L<x><CR>
Nothing
R
Read a GPIO Pin
A GPIO Pin
R<x><CR>
0 or 1
I
Set a GPIO Pin as an Input
A GPIO Pin
I<x><CR>
Nothing
O
Set a GPIO Pin as an Output
A GPIO Pin
O<x><CR>
Nothing
P
Enable Pullups on a GPIO Pin
A GPIO Pin
P<x><CR>
Nothing
P
Disable Pullups on a GPIO Pin
A GPIO Pin
p<x><CR>
Nothing
E
Enable Command Echoing
None
E<CR>
Nothing
e
Disable Command Echoing
None
e<CR>
Nothing
?
Display the help text
None
?<CR>
Nothing
Note 1: <x> is the number of a GPIO pin.
Note 2 :<CR> is a Carriage Return (0Dh).
Table 1: Command Set
Each command can be typed in to the console and executed by sending a Carriage Return (usually
by pressing the Enter key). Any white space will be ignored when entering a command.
The command echo control commands (E and e) are used to facilitate using this protocol with a
separate client application by limiting the data sent over the UART. Disabling command echoing
will disable: the command prompt (“>”), the echoing back of sent characters, and error messages.
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3 Implementation
All the source files for the FT90x firmware are located in the src directory.
3.1 Command Interpreter
The Command Interpreter, contained within shell.c, sets up the UART and manages the reception
and transmission of bytes over the UART.
White space may be inserted between arguments; however, the command interpreter will only
buffer a limited number of bytes.
The command interpreter will echo back characters typed to it and will also interpret the DELETE
(7Fh) and BACKSPACE (08h) character properly, allowing for the user to use the Backspace key to
fix mistakes. The command interpreter will also attempt to ignore any VT100 commands – usually
sent by terminal emulators.
3.1.1
Setup
The function shell_init in shell.c (shown in Table 2: Code Listing of shell_init in shell.c
) is used to set up the UART shell in order to accept commands.
void shell_init(interpreter_cbptr_t callback)
{
/* Enable the UART Device... */
sys_enable(sys_device_uart0);
/* Make GPIO48 function as UART0_TXD and GPIO49 function as UART0_RXD... */
gpio_function(48, pad_uart0_txd); /* UART0 TXD */
gpio_function(49, pad_uart0_rxd); /* UART0 RXD */
uart_open(UART0,
/* Device */
1,
/* Prescaler = 1 */
UART_DIVIDER_19200_BAUD, /* Divider = 1302 */
uart_data_bits_8,
/* No. Data Bits */
uart_parity_none,
/* Parity */
uart_stop_bits_1);
/* No. Stop Bits */
cmd_callback = callback;
shell_echo(1);
if (echo) shell_puts(STR_PROMPT);
}
Table 2: Code Listing of shell_init in shell.c
The function sets up the UART for 19200 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit as well as the
command call back and prompt display.
3.1.2
Reading in a byte
The function shell_tick in shell.c (shown in Table 3: Code listing of shell_tick in shell.c
) is called to process a byte received on the UART.
void shell_tick(void)
{
uint8_t c;
static uint8_t vt100 = 0, vt100e = 0;
static char vt100_str[16] = {0};
/* Read in a character */
uart_read(UART0, &c);
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/* Catch VT100 terminal codes (Arrow keys, ESC codes, etc) */
if (!vt100 && c==0x1B)
{
vt100 = 1;
vt100e = 0;
}
else if (vt100)
{
vt100++;
if (vt100 == 2 && c=='[')
{
vt100e = 1;
}
vt100_str[vt100-2] = c;
if ((!vt100e) || (vt100e && isalpha((int)c)))
{
vt100_str[vt100-1] = 0;
vt100 = 0;
}
}
else
{
/* A normal character arrived, interpret */
switch(c)
{
case '\r': /* Enter Key */
{
/* Terminate the string */
buffer[bufferptr++] = 0;
shell_puts("\r\n");
shell_process(buffer, bufferptr);
shell_puts(STR_PROMPT);
bufferptr = 0;
}
break;
case ASCII_BS: /* Backspace */
case ASCII_DELETE: /* Backspace */
{
if (bufferptr > 0)
{
bufferptr--;
shell_write(c);
}
}
break;
default:
{
if ((isprint(c)) && (bufferptr < BUFFER_SIZE-1))
{
buffer[bufferptr++] = c;
shell_write(c);
}
}
break;
}
}
}
Table 3: Code listing of shell_tick in shell.c
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In the function, if the character received is the ESCAPE character (1Bh) and the function isn’t
currently ignoring a VT100 command, then the ESCAPE character is ignored and the following
VT100 command is ignored. If the function is not currently ignoring a command:

If a Carriage Return is received, the input string is terminated and the function
shell_process is called (See Section 3.1.3).
If a DELETE or BACKSPACE character is received and we have characters in the buffer,
remove one character from the buffer and echo back the character sent.
For all other characters received, if it is printable and space is available to store it, save
the character received and echo it back.


3.1.3
Parsing Commands
Upon sending a Carriage Return, the function shell_process in shell.c (shown in Table 4: Code
Listing of shell_process in shell.c
) is called to interpret the string sent to the FT900.
void shell_process(char* str, int size)
{
/* Return key pressed, interpret the command */
uint8_t cmd_ptr, pin_ptr, pin_ptr2;
char cmd = 0;
int pin = -1;
/* Ignore preceeding whitespace */
GO_UNTIL(cmd_ptr, 0, isblank((int)str[cmd_ptr]), size);
cmd = buffer[cmd_ptr];
if (isprint((int)cmd))
{
/* We found a command letter */
/* ignore any whitespace in between */
GO_UNTIL(pin_ptr, cmd_ptr+1, isblank((int)str[pin_ptr]), size);
/* Find the end of the number */
GO_UNTIL(pin_ptr2, pin_ptr, isdigit((int)str[pin_ptr2]), size);
if ((pin_ptr != pin_ptr2) && (pin_ptr != size) && (pin_ptr2 != size))
{
/* Decode the number */
shell_atoi(&pin, buffer+pin_ptr, pin_ptr2-pin_ptr, 10);
}
if (cmd_callback)
cmd_callback(cmd,pin);
}
}
Table 4: Code Listing of shell_process in shell.c
The following steps are carried out when interpreting a command:


Any white space at the start of the command is ignored.
If the command character is a printable character, then an attempt to decode the pin
number is carried out, followed by calling the command callback.
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3.2 Main Application
The Main Application’s purpose is to manage initializing and calling the command interpreter, as
well as executing commands interpreted by the command interpreter.
int main(void)
{
setup();
for(;;) loop();
return 0;
}
void setup()
{
shell_init(cmdCB);
}
void loop()
{
shell_tick();
}
void cmdCB(char cmd, int pin)
{
switch(cmd)
{
case 'H':
if (pin != -1) gpio_write(pin,1);
break;
case 'L':
if (pin != -1) gpio_write(pin,0);
break;
case 'R':
if (pin != -1)
{
int8_t val = gpio_read(pin);
if (val == 0) shell_putsf("0\r\n");
else if (val == 1) shell_putsf("1\r\n");
}
break;
case 'I':
if (pin != -1) gpio_dir(pin, pad_dir_input);
break;
case 'O':
if (pin != -1) gpio_dir(pin, pad_dir_output);
break;
case 'P':
if (pin != -1) gpio_pull(pin, pad_pull_pullup);
break;
case 'p':
if (pin != -1) gpio_pull(pin, pad_pull_none);
break;
case 'E':
shell_echo(1);
break;
case 'e':
shell_echo(0);
break;
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case '?':
shell_putsf(HELP_TXT);
break;
default:
shell_puts("Unknown command '");
shell_write(cmd);
shell_puts("'\r\n");
break;
}
}
Table 5: Code Listing for main, setup, loop and cmdCB in main.c
The command callback (function cmdCB in main.c, shown in Table 5: Code Listing for main, setup,
loop and cmdCB in main.c
) is called by the Command Interpreter when a possible valid command has been found.
command callback will execute commands based upon the protocol specified in Section 2.
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4 Examples
4.1 Output
In order to configure and toggle a GPIO Pin:
Command
Description
>O 14
Set GPIO14 as an output.
>H 14
Set GPIO14 High.
>L 14
Set GPIO14 Low.
4.2 Input
In order to configure and read the value of a GPIO Pin:
Command
Description
>I 14
Set GPIO14 as an input.
>P 14
Enable pullups on GPIO14.
>R 14
1
>p 14
>R 14
0
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Read the current value of GPIO14.
Disable pullups on GPIO14.
Read the current value of GPIO14.
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5 Using the GUI
A Java-based GUI application is provided with this Application Note as an example of how the
UART to GPIO Bridge could be used in a more intuitive way. This GUI allows for user to set and
control GPIO pins with a mouse.
This application is located within ui/exe with the accompanying source code located at ui/src.
In order to launch the application, double-click on the FT90x_UART_to_GPIO_Bridge.exe
Application located within ui/exe.
5.1 Selecting a Serial Port
When opening the GUI application, the first window that appears will ask you to choose which
serial port to use.
1
2
3
4
Figure 1: Serial Port Selection Window Example
Figure 1: Serial Port Selection Window Example
shows an example of a Serial Port Selection Window. Within it are these main controls:
1. The Serial Port combo box. Use this to select which serial port to use.
2. The Refresh button. If the serial port you wish to use is not shown, then it is currently in
use by another application. After freeing up the serial port you wish to use, click this
button to cause the GUI application to rescan for available serial ports.
3. The OK button. Click this to confirm your selection and progress to the next screen.
4. Links. Some links to the FT90x product page and a link to the application note
corresponding to this application.
5.2 Controlling GPIO Pins
After selecting a serial port, the GUI will show the GPIO Control Window (shown in Figure 2: GPIO
Control Window Example
).
Within this window are these main controls:
1. GPIO Controls. These allow you to set logic levels on outputs, see the value of an input,
and control the setup of the GPIO pin. Whilst the GPIO pin is set as an output, clicking this
control will toggle the current logic level.
2. Serial Port Monitor. This will show the commands being transferred from the GUI
application and the FT90x device. It also shows, at the top, the current serial port in use.
3. Serial Port Clear Text Button. This will clear the text in the Serial Port Monitor.
4. Script Button. This will open the Scripting Window (See Section 5.3).
5. Input Polling Rate Selection. This will control the time gap between polling any GPIO
pins set as input.
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When entering the GPIO Control Window, the application will initialize the FT90x to not echo back
data sent to it in order to allow it to work with the GUI as well as setting all pins as outputs and
logic low.
1
2
3
4
5
Figure 2: GPIO Control Window Example
In order to set up a GPIO pin, Right-Click on a GPIO Control and the GPIO Setup Menu (shown in
Figure 3: GIPO Setup Menu Example
) will appear.
1
2
3
Figure 3: GIPO Setup Menu Example
Within this menu are these main controls:
1. Pin Description. This is the description of the pin corresponding to the GPIO selected.
2. Direction. Select between setting the GPIO Pin as an Input or Output. This will display the
current setting for this pin.
3. Pull-ups. Control whether pull-up resistors are enabled for this GPIO pin. This will display
the current setting for this pin.
5.3 Sending Scripts
Clicking the “Script…” button on the GPIO Control Window will bring up the Script Window (shown
in Figure 4: Script Window Example
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). This window allows the user to input a list of raw commands to send to the FT90x instead of
having to control GPIO pins manually.
1
2
3
4
Figure 4: Script Window Example
Within this window are these main controls:
1. Script Editor. Here is where script text can be inputted and edited.
2. Send Button. Send the commands currently in the Script Editor to the FT90x (these
commands are parsed through the GUI application in order to check the validity of
commands and to update the GUI accordingly).
3. Cancel Button. Close the window.
4. Load Button. Load a text file into the Script Editor.
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6 Contact Information
Head Office – Glasgow, UK
Branch Office – Tigard, Oregon, USA
Future Technology Devices International Limited
Unit 1, 2 Seaward Place, Centurion Business Park
Glasgow G41 1HH
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 141 429 2777
Fax: +44 (0) 141 429 2758
Future Technology Devices International Limited
(USA)
7130 SW Fir Loop
Tigard, OR 97223-8160
USA
Tel: +1 (503) 547 0988
Fax: +1 (503) 547 0987
E-mail (Sales)
E-mail (Support)
E-mail (General Enquiries)
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
E-Mail (Sales)
E-Mail (Support)
E-Mail (General Enquiries)
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Branch Office – Taipei, Taiwan
Branch Office – Shanghai, China
Future Technology Devices International Limited
(Taiwan)
2F, No. 516, Sec. 1, NeiHu Road
Taipei 114
Taiwan , R.O.C.
Tel: +886 (0) 2 8791 3570
Fax: +886 (0) 2 8791 3576
Future Technology Devices International Limited
(China)
Room 1103, No. 666 West Huaihai Road,
Shanghai, 200052
China
Tel: +86 21 62351596
Fax: +86 21 62351595
E-mail (Sales)
E-mail (Support)
E-mail (General Enquiries)
E-mail (Sales)
E-mail (Support)
E-mail (General Enquiries)
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Web Site
http://ftdichip.com
Distributor and Sales Representatives
Please visit the Sales Network page of the FTDI Web site for the contact details of our distributor(s) and sales
representative(s) in your country.
System and equipment manufacturers and designers are responsible to ensure that their systems, and any Future Technology
Devices International Ltd (FTDI) devices incorporated in their systems, meet all applicable safety, regulatory and system-level
performance requirements. All application-related information in this document (including application descriptions, suggested
FTDI devices and other materials) is provided for reference only. While FTDI has taken care to assure it is accurate, this
information is subject to customer confirmation, and FTDI disclaims all liability for system designs and for any applications
assistance provided by FTDI. Use of FTDI devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the user’s risk, and the
user agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless FTDI from any and all damages, claims, suits or expense resulting from
such use. This document is subject to change without notice. No freedom to use patents or other intellectual property rights is
implied by the publication of this document. Neither the whole nor any part of the information contained in, or the product
described in this document, may be adapted or reproduced in any material or electronic form without the prior written consent
of the copyright holder. Future Technology Devices International Ltd, Unit 1, 2 Seaward Place, Centurion Business Park,
Glasgow G41 1HH, United Kingdom. Scotland Registered Company Number: SC136640
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Appendix A – References
Document References
FT900/901/902/903 Datasheet
FT905/906/907/908 Datasheet
FT900 User Manual
FT900 code source
Windows utility to control GPIO over UART
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Terms
Description
GPIO
General Purpose I/O
MCU
Micro Controller Unit
UART
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
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Appendix B – List of Tables & Figures
List of Tables
Table 1: Command Set ........................................................................................................ 3
Table 2: Code Listing of shell_init in shell.c ............................................................................ 4
Table 3: Code listing of shell_tick in shell.c ............................................................................ 5
Table 4: Code Listing of shell_process in shell.c ...................................................................... 6
Table 5: Code Listing for main, setup, loop and cmdCB in main.c .............................................. 8
List of Figures
Figure 1: Serial Port Selection Window Example .................................................................... 10
Figure 2: GPIO Control Window Example.............................................................................. 11
Figure 3: GIPO Setup Menu Example ................................................................................... 11
Figure 4: Script Window Example ........................................................................................ 11
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Appendix C – Revision History
Document Title:
AN_372 FT90x UART to GPIO Bridge
Document Reference No.:
FT_001167
Clearance No.:
FTDI# 447
Product Page:
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Revision
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Initial Release
Date
2015-10-06
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