AN3837, Setting up the MMA7660FC for Orientation, Shake, Auto-Wake/Sleep and Tap Detection

Freescale Semiconductor
Application Note
AN3837
Rev 2, 9/2009
Setting up the MMA7660FC for Orientation,
Shake, Auto-Wake/Sleep and Tap Detection
by: Fengchao Zhang
ACRONYMS
PMP: Portable Media Player
PDA: Personal Digital Assistant
INT: Interrupt
TILT: MMA7660FC Internal register 0x03: Tilt Status
SR: MMA7660FC Internal register 0x08: Sample rate register, Auto-Wake and Active Mode Portrait/Landscape Samples per
Seconds Register
INTSU: MMA7660FC Internal register 0x06: Interrupt Setup Register
ODR: Output Data Rate
Auto-Wake: Sleep state
Auto-Sleep: Wake state
ABSTRACT
The MMA7660FC is a ±1.5 g 3-Axis Accelerometer with Digital Output (I2C). It is a very low power, low profile capacitive MEMS
sensor featuring a low pass filter, compensation for 0g offset and gain errors, and conversion to 6-bit digital values at a user
configurable sample rate. The device can be used for sensor data changes, product orientation, shake detection, tap detection,
and gesture detection through an interrupt pin (INT). This application note will describe how to set up the MMA7660FC registers
for orientation, shake, auto-wake/sleep and tap detection.
Table 1. Pin Description
Top View
Pin # Pin Name
1
RESERVED
RESERVED
1
10
N/C
2
N/C
N/C
2
9
DVDD
3
4
AVDD
8
3
DVSS
AVSS
4
7
SDA
INT
5
6
SCL
Figure 1. Pinout
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2009. All rights reserved.
Description
Connect to AVSS
Pin
Status
Input
AVDD
No Internal Connection, leave
unconnected or connect to Ground
Device Power
Input
Input
AVSS
Device Ground
Input
5
INT
Interrupt/Data Ready
6
SCL
I2C Serial Clock
7
SDA
8
DVSS
Digital I/O Ground
Open
Drain
Input
9
DVDD
Digital I/O Power
Input
10
N/C
No Internal Connection,
recommended to connect to Ground
Input
2
I C Serial Data
Output
Input
VDD
VDD
U13
1
2
3
4
5
GND
RESERVE
NC3
NC2
DVDD
AVDD
DVSS
AVSS
SDA
INT
SCL
10
9
8
7
6
GND
VDD
MMA7660FC
R1
4.70 K
R2
4.70 K
SDA
MCU
SCL
INT1
NOTE: A 10 μF ceramic capacitor can be placed connecting pin 3 (AVDD) to pin 4 (AVSS). In addition, another 10 μF
ceramic capacitor can be place connecting pin 9 (DVDD) to pin 8 (DVSS). The capacitors should be placed close
to the pins of the MMA7660FC and is recommended for testing and to adequately decouple the accelerometer
from noise on the power supply.
Figure 2. I2C Connection to MCU
AVDD
DVDD
INTERNAL
OSC
VSS
CLOCK
GEN
X-axis
Transducer
Y-axis
Transducer
MUX
C-to-V
CONVERTER
AMP
ADC
I2 C
SDA
SCL
Z-axis
Transducer
OFFSET
TRIM
GAIN
TRIM
CONTROL LOGIC
INT
Figure 3. Simplified Accelerometer Functional Block Diagram
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REGISTER OVERVIEW
The following are the registers that will be used and/or configured for orientation, shake, auto-wake/sleep and tap detection.
Address
Name
Function
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0x00
XOUT
6 bits output value X
-
Alert
XOUT[5]
XOUT[4]
XOUT[3]
XOUT[2]
XOUT[1]
XOUT[0]
0x01
YOUT
6 bits output value Y
-
Alert
YOUT[5]
YOUT[4]
YOUT[3]
YOUT[2]
YOUT[1]
YOUT[0]
0x02
ZOUT
6 bits output value Z
-
Alert
ZOUT[5]
ZOUT[4]
ZOUT[3]
ZOUT[2]
ZOUT[1]
ZOUT[0]
0x03
TILT
Tilt Status
Shake
Alert
Tap
PoLa[2]
PoLa[1]
PoLa[0]
BaFro[1]
BaFro[0]
0x04
SRST
Sampling Rate Status
0
0
0
0
0
0
AWSRS
AMSRS
0x05
SPCNT
Sleep Count
SC[7]
SC[6]
SC[5]
SC[4]
SC[3]
SC[2]
SC[1]
SC[0]
0x06
INTSU
Interrupt Setup
SHINTX
SHINTY
SHINTZ
GINT
ASINT
PDINT
PLINT
FBINT
0x07
MODE
Mode
IAH
IPP
SCPS
ASE
AWE
TON
-
MODE
0x08
SR
Auto-Sleep and Active
Mode Portrait/Landscape
Sample Rates and
Debounce Filter
FILT[2]
FILT[1]
FILT[0]
AWSR [1] AWSR [0] AMSR [2] AMSR [1] AMSR [0]
0x09
PDET
Tap Detection
ZDA
YDA
XDA
PDTH[4]
PDTH[3]
PDTH[2]
PDTH[1]
PDTH[0]
0x0A
PD
Tap Debounce Count
PD[7]
PD[6]
PD[5]
PD[4]
PD[3]
PD[2]
PD[1]
PD[0]
0x0B to
0x1F
Factory
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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REGISTER DEFINITIONS
0x00: XOUT: 6 bits Output Value X
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
—
Alert
XOUT[5]
XOUT[4]
XOUT[3]
XOUT[2]
XOUT[1]
XOUT[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Signed byte 6 bit 2’s complement data with allowable range of
+31 to -32
XOUT[5] is 0 if the g direction is positive, 1 if the g direction is
negative.
If the Alert bit is set, the register was read at the same time as
the device was attempting to update the contents. The register
must be read again.
0x01: YOUT: 6 bits Output Value Y
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
—
Alert
YOUT[5]
YOUT[4]
YOUT[3]
YOUT[2]
YOUT[1]
YOUT[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Signed byte 6 bit 2’s complement data with allowable range of
+31 to -32.
YOUT[5] is 0 if the g direction is positive, 1 if the g direction is
negative.
If the Alert bit is set, the register was read at the same time as
the device was attempting to update the contents. The register
must be read again.
0x02: ZOUT: 6 bits Output Value Z
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
—
Alert
ZOUT[5]
ZOUT[4]
ZOUT[3]
ZOUT[2]
ZOUT[1]
ZOUT[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Signed byte 6 bit 2’s complement data with allowable range of
+31 to -32.
ZOUT[5] is 0 if the g direction is positive, 1 if the g direction is
negative.
If the Alert bit is set, the register was read at the same time as
the device was attempting to update the contents. The register
must be read again.
0x03: TILT: Tilt Status (Read only)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Shake
Alert
Tap
PoLa[2]
PoLa[1]
PoLa[0]
BaFro[1]
BaFro[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BaFro[1:0]
00:Unknown condition of front or back
01:Front:Equipment is lying on its front
10:Back:Equipment is lying on its back
PoLa[2:0]
000:Unknown condition of up or down or left or right
001:Left:Equipment standing vertically in normal orientation
(any markings are the right way up)
010:Right:Equipment standing vertically in inverted
orientation (any markings are the wrong way up)
101:Down:Equipment is in landscape mode to the right
110:Up:Equipment is in landscape mode to the left
Tap
0:Equipment has detected a tap
1:Equipment has not detected a tap
Alert
0:Register data is valid
1:The register was read at the same time as MMA7660FC was
attempting to update the contents. Re-read the register
Shake
0:Equipment is not experiencing shaking in one or more of the
axes enabled by SHINTX, SHINTY, and SHINTZ
1:Equipment is experiencing shake in one or more of the axes
enabled by SHINTX, SHINTY, and SHINTZ
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0x04: SRST: Sampling Rate Status (Read Only)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
0
0
0
0
0
0
AWSRS
AWSRS
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
AMSRS
0:Sample rate specified in AMSR[2:0] is not active
1:Sample rate specified in AMSR[2:0] is active
AWSRS
0:Sample rate specified in AWSR[1:0] is not active
1:Sample rate specified in AWSR[1:0] is active
0x05: SPCNT: Sleep Count Register (Read/Write)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
SC[7]
SC[6]
SC[5]
SC[4]
SC[3]
SC[2]
SC[1]
SC[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Writing Sleep Count register resets the internal sleep counter
SC[7:0]
8 bit maximum count value for the 8 bit internal sleep counter
in Auto-Sleep. When the 8 bit internal sleep counter reaches
value set by SC[7:0], MMA7660FC will exit Auto-Sleep and
switch to the sample rate specified in AWSR[1:0] of the SR
register.
0x06: INTSU: Interrupt Setup
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
SHINT X
SHINT Y
SHINT Z
GINT
ASINT
PDINT
PLINT
FBINT
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
FBINT
0:Front/Back position change does not cause an interrupt
1:Front/Back position change (Front bit toggling or Back bit
toggling) causes an interrupt
PLINT
0:Up/Down/Right/Left position change does not cause an
interrupt
1:Up/Down/Right/Left position change (Up bit toggling or
Down bit toggling) causes an interrupt
ASINT
0:Exiting Auto-Sleep does not cause an interrupt
1:Exiting Auto-Sleep causes an interrupt
PDINT
0:Successful tap detection does not cause an interrupt
1:Successful tap detection causes an interrupt
GINT
0:There is not an automatic interrupt after every measurement
1:There is an automatic interrupt after every measurement,
when G-cell readings are updated in XOUT, YOUT, ZOUT
registers, regardless of whether the readings have changed or
not. This interrupt does not affect the Auto-Sleep or AutoWake functions.
SHINTX
0:Shake on the X axis does not cause an interrupt or set the
Shake bit in the TILT register
1:Shake detected on the X axis causes an interrupt, and sets
the Shake bit in the TILT register
SHINTY
0:Shake on the Y axis does not cause an interrupt or set the
Shake bit in the TILT register
1:Shake detected on the Y axis causes an interrupt, and sets
the Shake bit in the TILT register
SHINTZ
0:Shake on the Z axis does not cause an interrupt or set the
Shake bit in the TILT register
1:Shake detected on the Z axis causes an interrupt, and sets
the Shake bit in the TILT register
The active interrupt condition (IRQ = 0 if IAH = 0, IRQ = 1 if
IAH = 1) is released during the acknowledge bit of the slave
address transmission of the first subsequent I2C to
MMA7660FC after the interrupt was asserted.
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0x07: MODE: Mode Register (Read/Write)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
IAH
IPP
SCPS
ASE
AWE
TON
—
MODE
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
When [TON,MODE] = [0,1], MMA7660FC will only allow write access to the Mode register 0x07.
Writing Mode register resets sleep timing, and clears the XOUT, YOUT, ZOUT, TILT registers.
Reading Mode register resets sleep timing.
MODE
0: Standby mode or Test Mode depending on state of TON
1: Active mode
Existing state of TON bit must be 0 (MMA7660FC must not be
in Test Mode) to write MODE = 1
MMA7660FC always enters Active Mode using the sample
rate specified in AMSR[2:0] of the SR register.
When MMA7660FC enters Active Mode with
[ASE:AWE] = 11, MMA7660FC operates Auto-Sleep
functionality first.
TON
0:Standby Mode or Active Mode depending on state of MODE
1:Test Mode
Existing state of MODE bit must be 0 (MMA7660FC must be
in Standby Mode) to write TON = 1
AWE
0:Auto-Wake is disabled
1:Auto-Wake is enabled.
When Auto-Wake functionality is operating, the AWSRS bit is
the SRST register is set and MMA7660FC uses the sample
rate specified in AWSR[1:0] of the SR register.
When MMA7660FC automatically exits Auto-Wake by a
selected interrupt, MMA7660FC will then switch to the sample
rate specified in AMSR[2:0] of the SR register. If ASE = 1, then
Auto-Sleep functionality is now enabled.
ASE
0:Auto-Sleep is disabled
1:Auto-Sleep is enabled
When Auto-Sleep functionality is operating, the AMSRS bit is
the SRST register is set and MMA7660FC uses the sample
rate specified in AMSR[2:0] of the SR register.
When MMA7660FC automatically exits Auto-Sleep because
the Sleep Counter times out, MMA7660FC will then switch to
the sample rate specified in AWSR[1:0] of the SR register. If
AWE = 1, the Auto-Wake functionality is now enabled.
SCPS
0:Prescaler is divide-by-1. The 8 bit internal Sleep Counter
input clock is the sample rate set by AMSR[2:0], so the clock
range is 64Hz to 1Hz depending on AMSR[2:0] setting. Sleep
Counter time-out range is 256 times the prescaled clock
(Table 2.)
1:Prescaler is divide-by-16. The 8 bit Sleep Counter input
clock is the sample rate set by AMSR[2:0] divided by 16, so
the clock range is 4Hz to 1/16Hz depending on AMSR[2:0]
setting. Sleep Counter time-out range is 256 times the
prescaled clock (Table 2.).
IPP
0:Interrupt output INT is open-drain. Note: do not connect
pull-up resistor from INT to higher voltage than DVDD
1:Interrupt output INT is push-pull
IAH
0:Interrupt output INT is active low
1:Interrupt output INT is active high
The active interrupt condition (IRQ = 0 if IAH = 0, IRQ = 1 if
IAH = 1) is released during the acknowledge bit of the slave
address transmission of the first subsequent I2C MMA7660FC
after the interrupt was asserted.
Table 2. Sleep Counter Timeout Ranges
AMSR
SCPS = 0
SCPS = 1
Minimum Range (20)
Maximum Range (28)
Minimum Range (20)
Maximum Range (28)
1s
256 s
16 s
4096 s
2 SPS
0.5 s
128 s
8s
2048 s
4 SPS
0.25 s
34 s
4s
1024 s
1 SPS
8 SPS
0.125 s
32 s
2s
512 s
16 SPS
0.625 s
16 s
1s
256 s
32 SPS
0.03125 s
8s
0.5 s
128 s
64 SPS
0.0156 s
4s
0.25 s
64 s
120 SPS
0.00836 s
2.14 s
0.133 s
34.24 s
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0x08: SR: Auto-Wake and Active Mode Portrait/Landscape Sample Rates Register (Read/Write)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
FILT[2]
FILT[1]
FILT[0]
AWSR[1]
AWSR[0]
AMSR[2]
AMSR[1]
AMSR[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
AMSR[2:0]
NAME
DESCRIPTION
000
AMPD
Tap Detection Mode and 120 Samples/Second Active and Auto-Sleep Mode
Tap Detection Sampling Rate: The device takes readings continually at a rate of nominally 3846 g-cell
measurements a second. It then filters these high speed measurements by maintaining continuous rolling averages
of the current and last g-cell measurements. The averages are updated every 260 µs to track fast moving
accelerations.
Tap detection: Compares the two filtered axis responses (fast and slow) described above for each axis. The absolute
(unsigned) difference between the fast and slow axis responses is compared against the tap detection delta
threshold value PDTH[4:0] in the PDET (0x09) register.
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every 8.36 ms in Active
Mode and Auto-Sleep. The update rate is 120 samples per second. These measurements update the XOUT (0x00),
YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
001
AM64
64 Samples/Second Active and Auto-Sleep Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every
15.625 ms in Active Mode and Auto-Sleep. The update rate is 64 samples per second. These measurements update
the XOUT (0x00), YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
010
AM32
32 Samples/Second Active and Auto-Sleep Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every 31.25 ms in
Active Mode and Auto-Sleep. The update rate is 32 samples per second. These measurements update XOUT
(0x00), YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
011
AM16
16 Samples/Second Active and Auto-Sleep Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every 62.5 ms in Active
Mode and Auto-Sleep. The update rate is 16 samples per second. These measurements update the XOUT (0x00),
YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
100
AM8
8 Samples/Second Active and Auto-Sleep Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every 125 ms in Active
Mode and Auto-Sleep. The update rate is 8 samples per second. These measurements update the XOUT (0x00),
YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
101
AM4
4 Samples/Second Active and Auto-Sleep Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every 250 ms in Active
Mode and Auto-Sleep. The update rate is 4 samples per second. These measurements update the XOUT (0x00),
YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
110
AM2
2 Samples/Second Active and Auto-Sleep Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every 500 ms in Active
Mode and Auto-Sleep. The update rate is 2 samples per second. These measurements update the XOUT (0x00),
YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
111
AM1
1 Sample/Second Active and Auto-Sleep Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every 1000 ms in Active
Mode and Auto-Sleep. The update rate is 1 sample per second. These measurements update the XOUT (0x00),
YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
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AWSR[1:0]
00
NAME
AW32
01
AW16
10
AW8
11
AW1
FILT[2:0]
000
DESCRIPTION
32 Samples/Second Auto-Wake Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every
31.25 ms in Auto-Wake. The update rate is 32 samples per second. These measurements update the
XOUT (0x00), YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
16 Samples/Second Auto-Wake Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every
62.5 ms in Auto-Wake. The update rate is 16 samples per second. These measurements update the
XOUT (0x00), YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
8 Samples/Second Auto-Wake Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every 125
ms in Auto-Wake. The update rate is 8 samples per second. These measurements update the XOUT
(0x00), YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
1 Sample/Second Auto-Wake Mode
For portrait/landscape detection: The device takes and averages 32 g-cell measurements every
1000 ms in Auto-Wake. The update rate is 1 sample per second. These measurements update the
XOUT (0x00), YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02) registers also.
DESCRIPTION
Tilt debounce filtering is disabled. The device updates portrait/landscape every reading at the rate set by AMSR[2:0]
or AWSR[1:0]
001
2 measurement samples at the rate set by AMSR[2:0] or AWSR[1:0] have to match before the device updates
portrait/landscape data in TILT (0x03) register.
010
3 measurement samples at the rate set by AMSR[2:0] or AWSR[1:0] have to match before the device updates
portrait/landscape data in TILT (0x03) register.
011
4 measurement samples at the rate set by AMSR[2:0] or AWSR[1:0] have to match before the device updates
portrait/landscape data in TILT (0x03) register.
100
5 measurement samples at the rate set by AMSR[2:0] or AWSR[1:0] have to match before the device updates
portrait/landscape data in TILT (0x03) register.
101
6 measurement samples at the rate set by AMSR[2:0] or AWSR[1:0] have to match before the device updates
portrait/landscape data in TILT (0x03) register.
110
7 measurement samples at the rate set by AMSR[2:0] or AWSR[1:0] have to match before the device updates
portrait/landscape data in TILT (0x03) register.
111
8 measurement samples at the rate set by AMSR[2:0] or AWSR[1:0] have to match before the device updates
portrait/landscape data in TILT (0x03) register.
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$09: PDET: Tap/Pulse Detection Register (Read/Write)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
ZDA
YDA
XDA
PDTH[4]
PDTH[3]
PDTH[2]
PDTH[1]
PDTH[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PDTH[4:0]
00000
00001
00010
00011
...
11101
11110
11111
DESCRIPTION
Tap detection threshold is ±1 count
Tap detection threshold is ±2 counts
Tap detection threshold is ±3 counts
... and so on up to...
Tap detection threshold is ±29 counts
Tap detection threshold is ±30 counts
Tap detection threshold is ±31 counts
XDA
1:X-axis is disabled for tap detection
0:X-axis is enabled for tap detection
YDA
1: Y-axis is disabled for tap detection
0: Y-axis is enabled for tap detection
ZDA
1: Z-axis is disabled for tap detection
0: Z-axis is enabled for tap detection
$0A: Tap/Pulse Debounce Count Register (Read/Write)
PD
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
PD[7]
PD[6]
PD[5]
PD[4]
PD[3]
PD[2]
PD[1]
PD[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PD[4:0]
00000000
00000001
00000010
00000011
...
11111101
11111110
11111111
DESCRIPTION
The tap detection debounce filtering requires 2 adjacent tap detection tests to be the same to trigger a tap event and set the
Tap bit in the TILT (0x03) register, and optionally set an interrupt if PDINT is set in the INTSU (0x06) register. Tap detection
response time is nominally 0.52 ms
Tap detection debounce filtering requires 3 adjacent tap detection tests to be the same to trigger a tap event and set the Tap
bit in the TILT (0x03) register, and optionally set an interrupt if PDINT is set in the INTSU (0x06) register. Tap detection
response time is nominally 0.78 ms
Tap detection debounce filtering requires 4 adjacent tap detection tests to be the same to trigger a tap event and set the Tap
bit in the TILT (0x03) register, and optionally set an interrupt if PDINT is set in the INTSU (0x06) register. Tap detection
response time is nominally 1.04 ms
... and so on up to...
Tap detection debounce filtering requires 254 adjacent tap detection tests to be the same to trigger a tap event and set the
Tap bit in the TILT (0x03) register, and optionally set an interrupt if PDINT is set in the INTSU (0x06) register. Tap detection
response time is nominally 66.04 ms
Tap detection debounce filtering requires 255 adjacent tap detection tests to be the same to trigger a tap event and set the
Tap bit in the TILT (0x03) register, and optionally set an interrupt if PDINT is set in the INTSU (0x06) register. Tap detection
response time is nominally 66.3 ms
Tap detection debounce filtering requires 256 adjacent tap detection tests to be the same to trigger a tap event and set the
Tap bit in the TILT (0x03) register, and optionally set an interrupt if PDINT is set in the INTSU (0x06) register. Tap detection
response time is nominally 66.56 ms
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Table 3. Orientation Detection Logic of when Interrupt will Occur
Orientation
Xg
Shake
|X| > +1.3g
Up
|Z| < 0.8g and |X| > |Y| and X < 0
Down
|Z| < 0.8g and |X| > |Y| and X > 0
Yg
or
|Y| > +1.3g
Right
|Z| < 0.8g and |Y| > |X| and Y < 0
Left
|Z| < 0.8g and |Y| > |X| and Y > 0
Zg
or
|Z| > +1.3g
Back
Z < -0.25g
Front
Z > 0.25g
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Figure 4. Flow Chart of Orientation Detection
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SAMPLE RATE
The sampling rate can be selected based on the targeted power consumption per the application specification or the desired
response rate of the orientation detection. The following are the sample rates available in the MMA7660FC sensor with the
corresponding approximate power consumption rates.
NOTE: These power consumption rates were tested in the factory and could vary depending on the PCB board design.
Table 4. Sample Rate vs. Current Consumption
Sampling Rate
Current Consumption
Stand By
2.33 μA
1 SPS
46.9 μA
2 SPS
49.3 μA
4 SPS
54 μA
8 SPS
65.8 μA
16 SPS
89.2 μA
64 SPS
221 μA
32 SPS
133 μA
120 SPS
294 μA
ORIENTATION DETECTION
The MMA7660FC has the built in capability to do orientation detection. This feature gives the customer the capability to do
applications such as portrait/landscape in mobile phones/PMP/PDAs. The tilt orientation of the device is in 3 dimensions and is
identified in its last known static position. This allows a product to set its display orientation appropriately to either portrait or
landscape mode or to turn off the display when the device is placed upside down. The sensor provides 6 different positions: left,
right, up, down, back, and front. This application note will explain how to configure the MMA7660FC to do orientation detection
given the desired sample rate or targeted power consumption.
Setting up the INSU[0x06] Register for Orientation Detection Only
Based on the application specification of the MMA7660FC sensor can be configured to report back/front interrupts and/or
up/down/left/right interrupts. If the application targets to use back and front the FBINT bit must be set to 1. If the back and front
interrupt is not desired than set the FBINT bit to 0. If the application targets Up/Down/Left/Right interrupts then the PLINT bit must
be set to 1. If the Up/Down/Left/Right interrupt is not desired then set the PLINT bit should be set to 0.
$06: Interrupt Setup Register
INTSU
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
X
X
X
X
X
PLINT
FBLINT
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Setting up the SR (0x08) Register for Orientation Detection Only
The sample rate must be selected based on target power consumption level and/or desired response rate for the orientation
detection application. To set up the sample rate the AMSR[3:0] must be configured. Given the selected sample rate a debounce
filter setting (FILT[3:0]) must be set also. Application testing has been done to correlate the sample rate and the recommended
debounce filter setting. Refer to “Sample Rate vs. Debounce Filter Table”.
$08: Auto-Wake and Active Mode Portrait/Landscape Output Data Rates Register (Read/Write)
SR - Sample Rate Register
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
FILT[2]
FILT[1]
FILT[0]
X
X
AMSR[2]
AMSR[1]
AMSR[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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Table 5. Sample Rate vs. Debounce Filter Table
Sample Rate
Debounce Filter Setting
1 SPS
4
2 SPS
6
4 SPS
8
8 SPS
8
16 SPS
8
32 SPS
8
64 SPS
External Debounce Filter
120 SPS
External Debounce Filter
NOTE: The recommended values were tested on the RD3803MMA7660FC. The values may change given the mounting and
position of the sensor on the PCB design.
HANDLING THE ORIENATION DETECTION INTERRUPT
When an interrupt occurs the application must read the TILT (0x03) register. When reading the TILT register the bits of interest
are the following POLA[4:2] and BAFRO[1:0]. The interrupt will be cleared when the TILT register is read.
$03: Tilt Status (Read Only)
TILT
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
ALERT
X
PoLa[2]
PoLa[1]
PoLa[0]
BaFro[1]
BaFro[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NOTE: For further description of the INTSU (0x06), SR (0x08) and TILT (0x03) register, please refer to the MMA7660FC Data
Sheet.
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External Debounce Filter
When using the MMA7660FC and sample rates higher than 32 SPS an external debounce filter must be added to avoid
flickering between positions due to involuntary human movement. The external debounce filter must be added to the application
microcontroller. Below is a flow chart AND Pseudocode for the debounce filter.
Start
old_Tilt = 0
Debounce Count = 0
Filter Setting = n
No
Orientation
Interrupt?
PSEUDOCODE:
Yes
No
//Configure Orientation Detection
Interrupts
Current_TILT = TILT
Register (0x03) BaFro
and/or PoLa bits
FILTER_SETTING = n
If(TILT_Interrupt occurs)
read TILT Register
if(old_TILT ==
current_TILT)
Current_TILT
== old_TILT?
Debounce
Count++
If(Debounce Count == FILTER_SETTING)
//orientation =
Yes
current_TILT
Debounce Count++
No
Debounce
Count ==
Filter Setting?
Yes
Yes
Update Orientation
Position
Figure 5. External Debounce Filter
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REFERENCE CODE:
//Configure MMA7660FC as Portrait/Landscape Detection
Write to the MODE register = 0x00
//Standby Mode
Write to the SPCNT register = 0x00
//No sleep count
Write to the INTSU register = 0x03
//Configure GINT Interrupt
Write to the PDET register = 0xE0
//No tap detection enabled
Write to the SR register = 0x34
//8 samples/s, TILT debounce filter = 2
Write to the PD register = 0x00
//No tap detection debounce count enabled
Write to the MODE register = 0x41
//Active Mode, INT = push-pull and active low
//Interrupt service routine
If (Orientation INT occurs)
REGTILT=Read TILT Register;
//Read TILT Register value
Switch (Pola [2:0])
Case 1: Orientation=Left;
Case 2: Orientation=Right;
Case 5: Orientation=Down;
Case 6: Orientation=UP;
//Judge the sensor position
Switch (BaFro [1:0])
Case 1: Orientation=Front;
Case 2: Orientation=Back;
//Judge the sensor position
SHAKE DETECTION
The shake feature can be used as a button replacement to perform functions such as scrolling through images or web pages
on a Mobile Phone/PMP/PDA. The customer can enable the shake interrupt on any of the 3 axes, by enabling the SHINTX,
SHINTY, and/or SHINTZ in the INTSU (0x06) register.
MMA7660FC detects shake by examining the current 6-bit measurement for each axis in XOUT, YOUT, and ZOUT. The axes
that are tested for shake detection are the ones enabled by SHINTX, SHINTY, and/or SHINTZ. If a selected axis measures
greater than 1.3g or less than -1.3g, then a shake is detected for that axis and an interrupt occurs. All three axes are checked
independently, but a common Shake bit in the TILT register is set when shake is detected in any one of the selected axes.
Therefore when all 3 axes (SHINTX, SHINTY, and/or SHINTZ) are selected the sensor will not know what axis the shake
occurred. When the TILT register is read the Shake bit is cleared during the acknowledge bit of the read access to that register
and shake detection monitoring starts again.
Setting up the INSU[0x06] Register for Shake Detection
Based on the application specification of the MMA7660FC sensor can be configured to report shake interrupts. It can be
configured as individual axis or combined axes shake detection. If SHINTX/SHINTY/SHINTZ is set to 1, X/Y/Z axis is enabled for
shake detection; and if SHINTX/SHINTY/SHINTZ is set to 0, X/Y/Z axis is not desired for shake detection.
$06: Interrupt Setup Register Tilt Status
INTSU
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
SHINTX
SHINTY
SHINTZ
X
X
X
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Setting up the SR(0x08) Register for Shake Detection
The sample rate must be selected based on target power consumption level and/or desired response rate for the shake
detection application. To set up the sample rate the AMSR[3:0] bits in the SR register must be configured.
$08: Auto-Wake and Active Mode Portrait/Landscape Output Data Rates Register (Read/Write)
SR - Sample Rate Register
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
X
X
X
X
AMSR[2]
AMSR[1]
AMSR[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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HANDLING THE SHAKE DETECTION INTERRUPT
When an interrupt occurs, the application must read the TILT (0x03) register. When reading the TILT register, the bit of interest
is the shake. If the alert bit is high, the data is invalid.
$03: Tilt Status (Read Only)
TILT
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Shake
Alert
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NOTE: For further description of the INTSU (0x06), SR (0x08) and TILT (0x03) register, please refer to the MMA7660FC Data
Sheet.
PLEASE NOTE: All three axes are checked independently, but a common Shake bit in the TILT register is set when shake is
detected in any one of the selected axes. Therefore when all 3 (SHINTX, SHINTY, and/or SHINTZ) are selected the sensor will
not know what axis the shake occurred.
Figure 6 shows the flowchart of shake detection.
Start
Set the ODR in AMSR[2:0]
(AWSR[1:0] in Auto-wake mode)
Configure the Shake interrupt on
any of the 3 axes, by enabling the
SHINTX, SHINTY, and/or
SHINTZ in INTSU
MMA7660FC examines the enabled
axis (axes) values in XOUT, YOUT
and/or ZOUT
No
Yes
If one of the values
>1.3g or < -1.3g
No
Yes
Update TILT (0x03) register,
Interrupt occur. When the TILT (0x03)
register is read, Shake Detection
start again
Figure 6. Flow Chart of Shake Detection Algorithm
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REFERENCE CODE
//Configure MMA7660FC as Shake Detection
Write to the MODE register = 0x00
Write to the SPCNT register = 0x00
Write to the INTSU register = 0xE0
Write to the PDET register = 0xE0
Write to the SR register = 0x02
Write to the PD register = 0x00
Write to the MODE register = 0x41
//Standby Mode
//No sleep count
//Configure Shake Interrupt on 3 axes
//No tap detection enabled
//32 samples/s
//No tap detection debounce count enabled
//Active Mode, INT = push-pull and active low
//Interrupt service routine
If (Shake INT occurs)
REGTILT=Read TILT Register;
If (Shake =1)
Shake occurs
//Read TILT Register value
//Verify “Shake” bit in TILT register
TAP DETECTION
The MMA7660FC also includes a Tap Detection feature that can be used for a number of different customer applications such
as button replacement. For example, a single tap can stop a song from playing and a double tap can play a song. This function
detects a fast transition that exceeds a user-defined threshold (PDET (0x09) register) for a certain duration of time (PD (0x0A)
register).
Tap Detection Setup
In order to enable Tap detection in the device the user must enable the Tap Interrupt in the INTSU (0x06) register and set the
AMSR[2:0] = 000 in the SR (0x08) register. In this mode, TILT (0x03) register, XOUT (0x00), YOUT (0x01), and ZOUT (0x02)
registers will update at the 120 samples/second.
NOTE: Delta G is available with any AMSR setting, when XDA = YDA = ZDA = 1 (PDET = 1). When the sampling rate is less
than 120 samples/second, the device cannot detect tapping, but can detect small tilt angles (30 degree angle change) which can
not be detected by orientation detection.
Setting up the INSU [0x06] Register for Tap Detection
The MMA7660FC sensor can be configured to report tap interrupt by configuring PDINT bit to 1; if the bit is set to 0, tap
detection is disabled.
$06: Interrupt Setup Register
INTSU
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
X
X
X
PDINT
X
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Setting up the SR (0x08) Register for Tap Detection
The sample rate must be set at 120 samples/second, AMSR [3:0] must be 000.
$08: Auto-Wake and Active Mode Portrait/Landscape Output Data Rates Register (Read/Write)
SR - Sample Rate Register
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
X
X
X
X
AMSR[2]
AMSR[1]
AMSR[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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Setting up PDET (0x09) Register for Tap Detection
The user can configure Tap Detection to be detected on X and/or Y and/or Z axes. The Customer can configure this by
changing the XDA, YDA, and/or ZDA bit in the PDET (0x09) register. The bits PDTH [4:0] is used to set the tap threshold form
±1 count to ±31 counts.
0x09: Tap Detection Register (Read/Write)
PDET
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
ZDA
YDA
XDA
PDTH[4]
PDTH[3]
PDTH[2]
PDTH[1]
PDTH[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Setting up PD (0x0A) Register for Tap Detection:
The user can configure Tap Debounce Count by PD [7:0] in the PD register to avoid some error trigger, Tap detection debounce
filtering requires 2 to 256 adjacent tap detection tests (0.52ms to 66.56ms) to be the same to trigger a tap event and set the Tap
bit in the TILT (0x03) register to high, and optionally set an interrupt if PDINT is set in the INTSU (0x06) register.
0x0A: Tap Debounce Count Register (Read/Write)
PD
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
PD[7]
PD[6]
PD[5]
X
X
X
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
HANDLING THE TAP DETECTION INTERRUPT
Detection for enabled axes is decided on an OR basis: If the PDINT bit is set in the INTSU (0x06) register, the device reports
the first axis for which it detects a tap by the Tap bit in the TILT (0x03) register. When the Tap bit in the TILT (0x03) register is set,
tap detection ceases, but the device will continue to process orientation detection data. Tap detection will resume when the TILT
(0x03) register is read.
$03: Tilt Status (Read only)
TILT
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
Alert
TAP
X
X
X
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NOTE: For further description of the INTSU (0x06), SR (0x08), PDET (0x09), PD (0x0A) and TILT (0x03) register, please refer
to the MMA7660FC Data Sheet.
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Start
Set the PDINT in INTSU register
and AWSR[2:0] = 000
No
Configure the active axis (axes)
and set the Tap Threshold in PDET,
select the Tap Debounce Count
in PD register
Tap Occur
that meets
Tap Threshold?
No
Yes
Tap Occur
that meets
Tap Threshold?
Yes
Update TILT (0x03) register,
Interrupt occur. Tap detection will
resume when the TILT (0x03)
register is read
Figure 7. Flow Chart of Tap Detection Algorithm
REFERENCE CODE
//Configure MMA7660FC as Tap Detection
Write to the MODE register = 0x00
Write to the SPCNT register = 0x00
Write to the INTSU register = 0x04
Write to the PDET register = 0x6C
Write to the SR register = 0x00
Write to the PD register = 0x08
Write to the MODE register = 0x41
//Standby Mode
//No sleep count
// Configure tap detection Interrupt
// Only Z axis tap detection on, threshold ±12
//counts
//120 samples/s
// Tap detection debounce count = 9
//Active Mode, INT = push-pull and active low
//Interrupt service routine
If (Tap INT occurs)
REGTILT=Read TILT Register;
//Read TILT Register value
If (Tap =1)
Tap occurs
//Verify ”Tap” bit in TILT register
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AUTO-WAKE/SLEEP
The MMA7660FC has the Auto-Wake/Sleep feature that can be enabled for power saving. In the Auto-Wake (sleep state)
function, the device is put into a user specified low sample rate (1 sample/second, 8 samples/second, 16 samples/second, or
32 samples/second) in order to minimize power consumption. When the Auto-Wake is enabled and activity is detected such as
a change in orientation, pulse event, Delta G acceleration or a shake event, then the device wakes up (Table 4). Auto-Wake will
automatically enable Auto-Sleep when the device is in wake mode and can therefore be configured to cause an interrupt on
wake-up, by configuring the part to either wake up with a change in orientation, shake, or if using the part at 120 samples/second
tap detection.
When the device is in Auto-Wake mode, the MODE (0x07) register, bit AWE is high. When the device has detected a change
in orientation, a tap, a shake, or Delta G (change in acceleration) the device will enter Auto-Sleep mode. In the Auto-Sleep (wake
state) function, the device is put into any of the following user specified sample rate (1 sample/second, 2 samples/second,
4 samples/second, 8 samples/second, 16 samples/second, 32 samples/second, 64 samples/second, and 120 samples/second).
In the Auto-Sleep mode, if there is no change in the orientation, shake or tap has been detected and the sleep counter has
elapsed, the device will go into the Auto-Wake mode. When the device is in the Auto-Sleep mode, the MODE (0x07) register, bit
ASE is high. The device can be programmed to continually cycle between Auto-Wake/Sleep.
Table 6. Auto-Wake/Sleep Truth Table
Trigger Wake-up Reset
Sleep Counter Trigger
Sleep Mode
Orientation Detection Change
Yes
Yes
No
Shake
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
(XDA = YDA = ZDA = 0)
Yes
No
Pulse Detect (120 samples/second)
Yes
Yes
No
Sleep Counter Elapse
No
No
Yes
Delta G
(set with PD (0x0A) and PDET (0x09))
Setting up the MODE[0x07] Register for Auto-Sleep and Auto-Wake
Based on the application specification of the MMA7660FC sensor can be configured to auto-sleep and auto-wake. When AutoWake functionality is desired AWE must be set to 1. When the device enters Auto-Wake mode, the AWSRS bit in the SRST
register is set and the device uses the samples per second specified in AWSR[1:0] of the SR (0x08) register. When the device
exits Auto-Wake mode by any of the selected interrupts, the device will then enter Auto-Sleep Mode (the ASE bit must be set
to 1). The device will switch to the samples per second specified in AMSR[2:0] of the SR (0x08) register.
When Auto-Sleep functionality is operating, the AMSRS bit in the SRST register is set and the device uses the sample rate
specified in AMSR[2:0] of the SR (0x08) register. When MMA7660FC automatically exits Auto-Sleep mode because the Sleep
Counter times out, the device will then switch to the samples per second specified in AWSR[1:0] of the SR register. If AWE = 1,
then Auto-Wake functionality is enabled.
If SCPS bit is set to 1 the sleep counter input clock is the sample rate set by AMSR divided by 16. When selected the sleep
counter time-out ranges from 64s to 4096s (68 minutes).
If SCPS bit is set to 0, the prescaler is divide-by-1. The 8-bit internal Sleep Counter input clock is the samples per second set
by AMSR[2:0], so the sleep Counter time-out range is 2.13s to 256s (4.25 minutes).
Setting up the SRST Register
When an interrupt occurs, read the SRST register. If AMSRS bit is high, the Auto-Sleep in enabled. If AWSRS is high the AutoWake is enabled.
$04: Sample Rate Status Register (Read only)
SRST
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
0
0
0
0
0
0
AWSRS
AWSRS
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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Setting up the SPCNT (0x05) Register for Auto-Sleep and Auto-Wake
The user can set the 8-bit maximum count value for the 8-bit internal sleep counter in Auto-Sleep. When the 8-bit internal sleep
counter reaches the value set by SC[7:0], MMA7660FC will exit Auto-Sleep and switch to the samples per second specified in
AWSR[1:0} of the SR (0x08) register.
$05: Sleep Count Register (Read/Write)
SPCNT
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
SC[7]
SC[6]
SC[5]
SC[4]
SC[3]
SC[2]
SC[1]
SC[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Setting up the INTSU [0x06] Register Auto-Sleep and Auto-Wake
The MMA7660FC sensor can be configured to report on exiting auto-sleep interrupts. If the ASINT bit is set, exiting Auto-Sleep
would cause an interrupt.
$06: Interrupt Setup Register
INTSU
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
X
X
X
ASINT
X
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Setting up the MODE Register
The bits of interest are the ASE, AWE, SCPS and IPP bit. If the ASE is set to high, then Auto-Sleep is enabled and AMSR
sample rate is used. If low, then Auto-Sleep is disabled. If the AWE = 1, then Auto-Wake is enabled and AWSR sample is used.
If AWE = 0, then Auto-Wake is disabled. SCPS bit sets the clock prescaler to divide-by-1 (SCPS= 0) or divide-by-16
(SCPS = 1) (Table 2.). The IPP bit sets the interrupt output to open-drain (IPP = 0) or push-pull (IPP = 1).
$07: Mode Register (Read/Write)
MODE
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
IPP
SCPS
ASE
AWE
X
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Setting up the SR (0x08) Register for Auto-Sleep and Auto-Wake
The sample rate must be selected based on target power consumption level and/or desired response rate for the applications.
To setup the sample rate, the AMSR[3:0] bits for Auto-Sleep mode and AWSR[2:0] for Auto-Wake mode in the SR register must
be configured.
$08: Auto-Wake and Active Mode Portrait/Landscape Samples per Seconds Register (Read/Write)
SR - Sample Rate Register
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
FILT[2]
FILT[1]
FILT[0]
AWSR[1]
AWSR[0]
AMSR[2]
AMSR[1]
AMSR[0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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Start
Set the ODR in AMSR[2:0]
(AWSR[1:0]; Set the ASE in Mode
register to enable Auto-Sleep
Writing to the SPCNT (0x05)
register resets the internal sleep
counter; if SCPS bit is set, the
Sleep Counter input clock
is divide by 10
MMA7660FC monitors the
sensor status
No
If no change in the
orientation, shake or pulse
has occurred and the
sleep counter has
elapsed
No
Yes
Go into Auto-Wake mode, the
ODR specified in AWSR[1:0]
If MMA7660FC detects
a change in orientation
shake or pulse, and
AWE is set
Yes
Go into Auto-Sleep mode, the
ODR specified in AMSR[2:0]
Update the TILT register,
Interrupt output
Figure 8. Flow Chart of Auto-Sleep/Wake Algorithm
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AN3837
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9/2009
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