AN-1316: Generating Multiple Isolated Bias Rails for IGBT Motor Drives with Flyback, SEPIC, and Ćuk Combination (Rev. 0) PDF

AN-1316
APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com
Generating Multiple Isolated Bias Rails for IGBT Motor Drives with
Flyback, SEPIC, and Ćuk Combination
by Bob Zwicker
are connected AD7403 isolated Σ-Δ modulators to measure the
motor phase current. (The current is measured in only two
phases because the third can be inferred.) These two Σ-Δ
modulators are typically powered by 5 V.
INTRODUCTION
State-of-the-art motor drives use a 3-phase, insulated gate bipolar
transistor (IGBT)-based inverter that is powered by a dc link
voltage typically in the region of 400 V dc to 800 V dc. That
high voltage rail can be derived directly from a 3-phase rectifier
bridge filter combination or from a power factor corrected boost
rectifier, which produces the high voltage rail from a 3-phase
ac input (see Figure 1).
The driver bias voltages for the three high-side (HS) IGBTs are
each referenced to their respective motor phase, which means
that the three high-side drivers (connected to the three motor
phases) each have their own isolated bias power domains (HS-U,
HS-V, and HS-W). In addition, the three low-side (LS) drivers
are all referenced to the negative dc link, and therefore share one
more bias power domain (LS). Table 1 lists the total requirement
for bias power domains and included bias rails in a typical
motor drive.
The IGBTs are the main power switches, which provide a (typically
10 kHz) pulse width modulated (PWM) output to each of the three
motor phases. Induction and permanent magnet motors generally
have high winding inductance, which integrates this PWM
voltage into a low frequency winding current waveform that is
approximately sinusoidal in shape. Whereas some IGBTs in smaller
drives work well with unipolar (0 V to 15 V, for example) gate drive
provided by a driver such as the ADuM4223, the usual requirement
in larger systems is for bipolar gate drive levels (such as −7.5 V and
+15 V) as driven by a suitable driver such as the ADuM4135.
The negative turn-off level helps to avoid spurious turn-on of
an IGBT, which can be induced by a rapid rise (high positive
dV/dt) in the collector to emitter voltage (VCE). This high dV/dt
is commonly caused by the normal turn-on of the other device.
(Turn-on of the upper device can induce undesired turn-on of the
lower device or vice versa.) The six gate drivers need a power
source to provide these +15 V and −7.5 V bias voltages.
Table 1. Motor Inverter Power Supply Requirements
Inverter Circuit
Three Low-Side
IGBTs
Three High-Side
IGBTs
Two High-Side
Σ-Δ Modulators
Total
ADuM4135
HS-U
Voltages (V)
+15, −7.5
Voltage Rails
2
HS-U, HS-V,
HS-W
HS-V, HS-W
+15, −7.5
6
+5
2
4
10
Whereas the calculation in Table 1 gives a total of 10 rails, the
exact total can vary with the design of the motor drive and is not
critical in the context of this application note. The exact number
need not influence the techniques for providing these rails. It is
the techniques that are the subject of this application note.
In the example shown in Figure 1, two of the three motor phases
have shunt resistors in series with the motor winding, across which
POSITIVE DC
Domains
LS
AD7403
HS-V
HS-W
Σ-∆ +
–
3-PHASE
AC LINE
Σ-∆ +
–
AC
MOTOR
LS
LS
LS
CURRENT
FEEDBACK
NEGATIVE DC
PWM SIGNALS
HS-U
BIAS
HS-V
BIAS
HS-W
BIAS
LS
BIAS
PWM
ADSP-CM408F
SELV
Figure 1. Block Diagram of a Typical Industrial Motor Drive
Rev. 0 | Page 1 of 15
MOTOR
CONTROL
SINC
12561-001
PFC
AN-1316
Application Note
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................... 1
Applying Flyback Converters to Generate Motor Drive Bias ......5
Revision History ............................................................................... 2
Sensing Flyback Converter Output from the Primary Side.........6
Basic Constraints on the Bias Voltages .......................................... 3
Combining Flyback, SEPIC, and Ćuk Topologies ........................7
Isolation ......................................................................................... 3
Explanation of Circuit Theory and Topology Comparison...... 10
Dwell .............................................................................................. 3
Voltage Regulation ....................................................................... 3
Design Considerations for the Combined Flyback, SEPIC, and
Ćuk Converter ................................................................................ 11
Methods for Generating the Bias Voltages .................................... 4
Conclusion....................................................................................... 15
REVISION HISTORY
11/15—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 15
Application Note
AN-1316
BASIC CONSTRAINTS ON THE BIAS VOLTAGES
Any method for providing these bias rails must consider a few
basic requirements.
ISOLATION
In addition to the absolute magnitude of the voltage, the
common-mode slew rate (rate of change of voltage or dV/dt) of
the motor phases must be considered. Figure 2 is an observation of
the switching of an IGBT driven motor phase of a demonstration
board. This measurement shows a slew rate of 11 V/ns. The bias
voltage must ride on this common-mode voltage slew and must
not be disturbed by it.
In Figure 2, Channel 1 is the emitter and Channel 2 is the gate
on a high-side IGBT, which is turning on with positive load
current flowing out of the emitter. Based on the Channel 1
cursor measurement, dV/dt is 11 V/ns.
1
CH1 50V
CH3 5V
CH2 50V
M10ns
A CH2
72V
12561-002
In mid to high end motor drives, the processor generally
operates in the safety extra low voltage (SELV) power domain to
optimize performance. Similar to the power that is supplied to
the ports of common audio equipment or a PC, these voltage
and current levels are low enough that they are not considered
to be dangerous. Precautions against accidental human contact
are not required. In this way, the processor human interface is
easily accessible without the need for safety isolation. However,
the IGBTs and motor phases typically operate with voltages of a
few hundred or more volts, both relative to each other and
relative to the SELV power domain. Therefore, the IGBT gates,
the driver outputs, and the bias voltages that power them are all
hazardous. Safety isolation is required between the IGBT gate
voltage domains and the SELV power domain from which they
are powered, and functional isolation is needed between the
domains themselves. The bias power supply transformer needs
an isolated output winding and at least two connection pins for
each isolated power domain.
Figure 2. Motor Phase Voltage Waveform
DWELL
Depending on the motor drive algorithm, the motor phases
may need to dwell in some state (such as high voltage output
or low voltage output) for a relatively long period of time. In
particular, some space vector modulation schemes can cause
a motor phase to be switched high for milliseconds or longer.
Some methods (such as bootstraps) of biasing the drivers are
not compatible with these modulation schemes.
VOLTAGE REGULATION
Voltage regulation is one of the less demanding performance
criteria for the isolated voltage converter. The output voltages to
the gate drivers must stay within ±3% to ±5% over a load current
range of approximately 10:1, which is relatively low precision. The
5 V output to the Σ-Δ modulator needs ±1% voltage regulation,
which can be delivered by a low dropout (LDO) regulator such
as the ADP7118, ADP7102, or ADP7104.
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 15
AN-1316
Application Note
METHODS FOR GENERATING THE BIAS VOLTAGES
A resistor sourced charge pump is one of the cheaper methods
of developing a bias voltage referenced to a motor phase. In the
example in Figure 3, the charge pump generates a single positive
rail. This may be adequate in a basic motor drive; however,
its dissipative operation makes it very inefficient. The losses
become unacceptable where more rails or higher current is
required.
POSITIVE DRIVE BIAS
BOOTSTRAP
DIODE CAPACITOR
POSITIVE
DC LINK
POSITIVE
DC LINK
CFILTER
GATE
DRIVER
C
V+
G
GATE
DRIVER
CPUMP
When only 15 V is needed, providing it for the low-side IGBTs
is not a problem and those low-side IGBTs are never off for long
periods, a bootstrap (as shown in Figure 4) may be the best way
to power the high-side drivers, using the bias supply for the
low-side drivers.
TO
MOTOR
E
GND
+
OUT
CURRENT
SOURCING
RESISTOR
GND
C
G
–
100kΩ
2W
Resistor sourced charge pumps are commonly used despite
being inefficient.
The advantages of a resistor sourced charge pump are
Multiple outputs from two transformer pins
Low components cost
Good load regulation
Flexible voltage setpoints
Avoids duty cycle limitations of the bootstrap
Figure 4. Bootstrap
Bootstraps are widely used, especially in buck dc-to-dc voltage
conversion. They are highly recommended for applications
where bootstraps can work satisfactorily.
The advantages of bootstraps are
•
•
•
Very low efficiency
Low output current capability
No power transfer when bottom IGBT is turned on
Avoid multiple transformer output windings
Low cost
Efficient
The disadvantages of bootstraps are
•
The disadvantages of a resistor sourced charge pump are
•
•
•
GATE
DRIVER
E
Figure 3. Resistor Sourced Charge Pump
•
•
•
•
•
EXTERNAL
15V BIAS
SUPPLY
12561-003
NEGATIVE
DC LINK
OSCILLATOR
(555 TIMER)
15V
12561-004
V+
•
•
Low-side IGBT must turn on frequently to recharge the
bootstrap capacitor, which may be incompatible with space
vector modulation
Producing negative bias rails more difficult
Charge pump aspect limits output current
Transformer-based techniques are the leading candidates for
avoiding the limitations of the charge pump and bootstrap
methods.
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 15
Application Note
AN-1316
APPLYING FLYBACK CONVERTERS TO GENERATE MOTOR DRIVE BIAS
For low power isolated converters where the transformer can
have low leakage inductance, the flyback topology is the most
common and economical choice.
However, many commercial off-the-shelf flyback power
supplies use optocouplers for providing feedback from the
secondary side error amplifier to the primary side PWM
controller. There are two issues with this approach.
The first issue is that secondary side voltage sensing is typically
used with one main output of a converter. Secondary side
voltage sensing can provide excellent voltage regulation (such as
1%) of this main sensed output. However, the typical motor
drive example has 10 outputs in 4 isolated domains. When load
current variations are applied to a main sensed output, the
voltage regulation from the other, slaved outputs are usually
adversely affected. This effect is commonly called cross
regulation.
Secondary side voltage sensing can alternatively regulate a
weighted combination of several outputs; however, these
outputs normally must all be within one isolated domain.
Variations in the combined loading of these sensed outputs
likewise adversely affect the slaved outputs such as those in
other isolation domains. Sensing several outputs in one domain
does not appear to improve the cross regulation in the slaved or
unsensed domains.
The second issue is that, due to capacitance and high gain at the
base of the phototransistor, optocouplers tend to be adversely
affected by high common-mode dV/dt. Figure 2 shows actual
dV/dt at the IGBT emitter driving a motor phase; 11 V/ns is
likely to interfere with proper operation of many optocouplers.
The optocoupler can be replaced with a better device, such as
the ADuM3190. The ADuM3190 replaces both the optocoupler
and secondary side reference, which are typically used in an
isolated power supply. It uses an integrated microelectronic
transformer for coupling across the isolation barrier. It is not
disturbed by the 11 V/ns common-mode slew rate.
With the many isolated outputs in a motor drive gate bias power
converter, secondary side voltage sensing is not advantageous.
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 15
AN-1316
Application Note
SENSING FLYBACK CONVERTER OUTPUT FROM THE PRIMARY SIDE
Another option is sensing the transformer output voltage from a
winding on the primary side. A primary sensed flyback converter
can provide simplicity and good output voltage regulation. In
secondary side sensed converters, the main output is regulated
tightly but the slaved (not sensed) outputs vary with the loading
on the sensed output. In primary side sensed converters, the
sensed output load is fixed and can be very low; therefore, there
is no variation in the slaved outputs due to loading on the sensed
output. Therefore, the worst-case voltage regulation from all of
the outputs may be better with primary side voltage sensing. A
±3% (approximate) load regulation over a reasonably wide range
of load currents is adequate for many purposes, including the
typical motor control gate drive bias power requirements.
Individual output voltages are varied by changing the turns on
that transformer winding. It is also possible to proportionally
change all output voltages by changing the feedback network or
by changing turns on the control winding.
Primary side voltage sensing also eliminates the secondary side
reference and isolated feedback. It is usually a simpler and
cheaper design with fewer components and a smaller printed
circuit board (PCB) footprint. The technique has demonstrated
good immunity to common-mode dV/dt across the isolation
barrier.
Figure 5 shows the topology of an isolated, primary sensed,
flyback voltage converter.
+12.0V
PRIMARY
WINDING
ADP1621
PWM
CONTROLLER
QMAIN
DU
+
MOTOR
PHASE U
–
DV
+
MOTOR
PHASE V
–
BIAS
OUTPUT
CF2
CF1
RFF
DW
DBIAS
CBIAS CONTROL
WINDING
DNDCL
NEGATIVE
DC LINK
+
MOTOR
PHASE W
–
+
CONNECTED TO
NEGATIVE DC LINK
–
The cyclic charge in CF1 is a loss term; therefore, the value of CF1
must be minimized. With minimum CF1, obtaining the necessary
low-pass filter time constant requires maximizing the value of
RFF. (The optimal value of this time constant depends on the
transformer but is typically in the 10 ns to 100 ns range.)
However, the purpose of RFF is to work with CFF to form an ac
low-pass filter only; the dc voltage drop in RFF is an error term,
which must be minimized. Minimizing this dc voltage drop
requires choosing RFU and RFL to have the highest practical
impedance that is consistent with the FB pin input bias current
of the ADP1621 PWM controller IC. RFU and RFL form the
feedback divider, which works with the control winding to set
the output voltage.
One other consideration is the value of CF2, which is used for dc
filtering. Making CF2 too large moves an additional pole into the
feedback loop passband and can cause instability. To avoid
negatively impacting the feedback loop phase margin, CF2 must
be as small as possible, consistent with its dc filtering task;
10 nF is a typical value.
12561-005
RFL
RFF (100 Ω to 500 Ω) and CF1 (50 pF to 300 pF) form a low-pass
filter that suppresses a leading edge voltage spike from the ac
input waveform at the anode of DF1. This spike coincides with
QMAIN turnoff and is a function of the complex transformer
leakage inductance. With the output of DF1 loaded as lightly as
possible, this spike is rectified by DF1 and causes a significant
degradation of the converter voltage regulation if it is not
suppressed. The rectified output of DF1 is dc filtered by CF2.
DF1 must be a small signal (10 mA to 200 mA current rating)
Schottky diode with adequate voltage rating.
FOUR
OUTPUTS
MUTUALLY
ISOLATED
FEEDBACK
DIVIDER
DF1
RFU
When QMAIN turns off, the control winding delivers the same
volts per turn as do the isolated outputs (on the right side of the
transformer in Figure 5).
Figure 5. Simplified Schematic of Multiple Output, Isolated, Flyback Converter
with Primary Side Voltage Sensing
The Figure 5 design also includes DBIAS and CBIAS (these are
optional) to provide operating bias current to the controller IC
for best efficiency when powering with a 12 V to 48 V input,
and an efficient 5 V primary side bias rail is not available. Note
that although feedback can be derived from DBIAS so that it
performs dual functions, separating DBIAS and DF1 (with
minimum loading on DF1) provides the best voltage regulation.
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 15
Application Note
AN-1316
COMBINING FLYBACK, SEPIC, AND ĆUK TOPOLOGIES
The following sections focus on output topologies for the flyback
converter, developing a progression towards the SEPIC and Ćuk
output circuits, which are the subject of this application note.
Figure 6 shows the most common method to produce two
outputs from a flyback transformer. It is simple and efficient
and offers independent output voltage setpoints based on the
number of turns in each winding.
This method requires a transformer pin for each output, plus
one for the common connection. This requirement is a
disadvantage for producing a large number of outputs.
+15.0V
OUTPUT
–7.5V
OUTPUT
Adding a coupling capacitor between output windings (as shown
in Figure 8) can improve the voltage tracking between two dc
outputs that have the same turns and produce the same voltage
magnitude. The coupling capacitor effectively neutralizes the
impact of the transformer leakage inductance on the output and
therefore improves cross regulation. To illustrate how the added
coupling can benefit flyback output regulation, Figure 9 shows
experimental test results with a 36 W offline flyback converter
using a PQ3230 core transformer.
COUPLING
CAPACITOR
PRIMARY
WINDING
The advantages of this method are
Good efficiency
Low components cost/count
Good load regulation
Flexible voltage setpoints
Easily produces negative or positive voltages
Figure 7 shows an approach with different tradeoffs. It uses only
two transformer pins for an isolated output domain. It uses
linear or dissipative means to accomplish rail splitting. It can
regulate well; however, its application space is limited to low
output current. It is the least efficient of the flyback output
circuit architectures discussed in this application note but
produces multiple motor drive bias voltages from one flyback
output winding.
D1
Z1
R1
+15.0V
OUTPUT
Z2
–7.5V
OUTPUT
12561-007
TRANSFORMER
PRIMARY
WINDING
C1
Figure 7. Dissipative Rail Splitting
The maximum required output current and the minimum Zener
bias current must flow through D1 and R1 at all times.
The advantages of the dissipative rail splitting method are




Multiple outputs from two transformer pins
Low components cost
Good load regulation
Flexible voltage setpoints
–15.0V
OUTPUT
Figure 8. SEPIC and Ćuk Flyback Modification
The disadvantage of this method is that it requires one
transformer pin per output voltage, and one additional pin for
the common point.
CONTROL
WINDING
+15.0V
OUTPUT
CONTROL
WINDING
Figure 6. Straightforward Method to Produce Multiple Output Voltages from
a Flyback Transformer





Low efficiency
Low output current capability
12561-008
PRIMARY
WINDING


12561-006
CONTROL
WINDING
The disadvantages of the dissipative rail splitting method are
The Figure 8 modification is based on Figure 6. Both windings
have both ends connected to transformer pins, the negative
rectifier was moved to the opposite end of the winding, and a
coupling capacitor was added between the output windings.
Both output windings must have the same turns.
The advantages of the Figure 8 modification are



Good efficiency
Low components cost
Best cross regulation within a domain
The disadvantages of the Figure 8 modification are


Two transformer pins required per output per domain
Output voltage magnitudes must match each other
Table 2. Bias Supply Load Test Conditions
Load Combination
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 15
+12 V Output (A)
0.01
0.01
0.10
0.10
0.20
0.50
0.50
1.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
−12 V Output (A)
0.50
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
AN-1316
The advantages of the Figure 10 modification are
COUPLING CAPACITOR = 0µF
COUPLING CAPACITOR = 22µF




14
Good efficiency
Low components cost
Improved load regulation
Multiple outputs from one transformer winding with only
two pins
13
The disadvantages of the Figure 10 modification are


12
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
LOAD COMBINATION NUMBER
This modification provides similar performance to the circuit in
Figure 6 yet reduces (to a total of two) the number of transformer
pins required to make two outputs in one isolated domain.
Figure 9. Test Data for the Dual Output Flyback Supply With and Without
Coupling Capacitor Between Output Windings
Figure 9 shows test data made with a 36 W ± 12 V output flyback
offline power supply. The output rectifier circuit architecture is
similar to Figure 6; therefore, it operates similarly and has
qualitative value in demonstrating the effect of the coupling
capacitor. The output rectifiers are SS2PH10 for the 500 mA,
−12 V output and SS5P10 for the 3 A, +12 V output. Outputs
were measured using the same load current combinations, both
with and without the coupling capacitor connected. In Table 2
and Figure 9, results were sequenced according to increasing
negative output without the coupling capacitor. The feedback
loop tightly regulated the +12 V output; therefore, its variation
during the test was negligible.
With the capacitor connected, the −12 V regulation band was
−12.2 V ± 3.6%.
The next step in the design progression is to use one or more
external (discrete or coupled) inductors to replace one or more
transformer output windings, as shown in Figure 10.
+15.0V
OUTPUT
D2
PRIMARY
WINDING
VOUT
LDO
+5.0V
ADP7118
+7.5V
C2
C4
C1
D1
C
GATE
DRIVER
G
E
DISCRETE INDUCTOR
Figure 11. Dual Output Supply Supporting 15 V for the Isolated Gated Drive
and 5 V for the Isolated Modulator
D2
DISCRETE INDUCTOR
–15.0V
OUTPUT
Σ-∆
+15.0V
CONTROL
WINDING
12561-010
TRANSFORMER
VIN
The Figure 11 design is similar to Figure 9, but produces 7.5 V
and 15 V in a demonstration board. The 7.5 V powers a 5 V
output LDO regulator to run the analog-to-digital converter
(ADC).
COUPLING
CAPACITOR
PRIMARY
WINDING
Two outputs are not a limit. The circuit shown in Figure 12 uses
a two-winding coupled inductor (Coilcraft LPD6235-473), which
series connects three equal rectified outputs to produce −7.5 V,
+7.5 V, and +15 V. This is the architecture used in the complete
multiple output flyback converter design shown in Figure 18.
CONTROL
WINDING
With the capacitor omitted, the measured −12 V regulation
band was −12.8 V ± 13.7%.
CONTROL
WINDING
Figure 11 shows a motor drive application with 7.5 V out of the
transformer winding. The common point is connected as the
most negative; therefore, the rectified transformer outputs are
7.5 V and 15 V. The 7.5 V feeds an LDO regulator to produce a
5 V rail, while the 15 V powers the unipolar gate driver.
12561-011
3
Figure 10. Dual Output Flyback Supply Using a Single Transformer Winding
The modification shown in Figure 10 is based on Figure 8,
replacing one transformer winding with a discrete inductor.
The −15 V output is a Ćuk output.
PRIMARY
WINDING
C5
+7.5V
OUTPUT
C4
C2
D3
D1
C1
LPD6235-473
COUPLED INDUCTOR
+15V
OUTPUT
C3
–7.5V
OUTPUT
12561-012
2
TRANSFORMER
1
Additional discrete inductor needed
Outputs must produce the same voltage magnitude
TRANSFORMER
11
12561-009
–12V OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
15
Application Note
Figure 12. Triple Output Supply Supporting 15 V and 7.5 V for the Isolated
Gated Drive and 7.5 V for the Isolated Modulator Circuit
Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 15
Application Note
AN-1316
5mA NEGATIVE
10mA NEGATIVE
20mA NEGATIVE
50mA NEGATIVE
100mA NEGATIVE
200mA NEGATIVE
15.0
14.9
14.8
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.4
14.3
7.6
14.2
0
0.05
0.10
0.15
7.5
0.20
Figure 14. Measured Output Voltage Regulation of +15 V Output vs. Varying
Load Current on −7.5 V and +15 V (Circuit Shown in Figure 12)
7.4
Table 3. Measured Load Regulation of Bias Converter shown
in Figure 14
7.3
Output
(V)
+15
−7.5
7.2
5mA NEGATIVE
10mA NEGATIVE
20mA NEGATIVE
50mA NEGATIVE
100mA NEGATIVE
200mA NEGATIVE
7.1
7.0
0
0.05
0.10
0.15
POSITIVE OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
0.20
12561-013
NEGATIVE OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
POSITIVE OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
12561-014
The load and cross regulation of the bias converter in Figure 12
was measured for the +15 V and −7.5 V outputs over load ranges
of 5 mA to 200 mA. Figure 13 and Figure 14 show the calculated
and graphical results that demonstrate that this topology is
capable of maintaining good output voltage tolerance over at
least a 40:1 load current range.
15.1
POSITIVE OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
The Figure 12 design is similar to Figure 10 but uses a coupled
inductor to produce three output rails from one transformer
winding. The +15 V power rail is for the gate turn-on drive; the
+7.5 V rail powers the +5 V LDO regulator; and the −7.5 V rail
is for the gate turn-off drive.
Figure 13. Measured Output Voltage Regulation of −7.5 V Output vs. Varying
Load Current on −7.5 V and +15 V (Circuit Shown in Figure 12)
Rev. 0 | Page 9 of 15
Tested Current
Range (mA)
5 to 200
5 to 200
Center Point
(V)
14.64
7.326
Tolerance
(%)
±3.0
±3.6
AN-1316
Application Note
EXPLANATION OF CIRCUIT THEORY AND TOPOLOGY COMPARISON
Flyback, SEPIC, and Ćuk converters are all buck or boost
converters. They convert power by switching a winding across the
input voltage to store energy in the magnetic core, then switching
the same or other windings across the output(s) to deliver energy.
(Buck, boost, and other topologies differ in important ways and
are generally not as suitable for multiple outputs.) Because they
all have the same basic operating mode, the voltages and duty
cycles are all based on volt-second balance across the inductors
and charge balance through the capacitors. Once any turns ratios
are accounted for, the operating equations are the same. The
basic blocks of varied buck or boost topologies can be combined
in a variety of ways that are capable of producing proportional
output voltages that track well over a wide current range.
In a flyback transformer, the core flux links all windings and
produces the same volts per turn in all windings at any
moment. This aspect allows the regulation of several outputs by
monitoring the voltage produced by one of them. Leakage
inductance is inductance that acts in series with one winding
and is not shared with other windings. It decouples the
windings and is usually minimized in the design of a flyback
transformer. By comparison, coupled inductors can be designed
for minimum leakage inductance, or they can be designed to
have a specific leakage inductance. Some coupled inductors that
are designed for minimum leakage inductance can work well as
flyback transformers; however, others that are not designed for
minimum leakage inductance do not work well.
The following are some relevant equations governing
continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous
conduction mode (DCM) operation of buck-boost converters.
The total inductance, L, of a winding is the sum of the mutual
inductance, LM, and the leakage inductance, Lσ:
The equation for CCM voltage conversion is
The mutual inductance of a winding, LM, is the product of the
total inductance, L, and the coupling coefficient, k:
VOUT =
D × VIN
1− D
LM = L × k
Transformers typically have safety isolation between primary
and secondary windings, whereas coupled inductors typically
do not; however, there are exceptions to both.
where D is the duty cycle.
The equation for DCM total output power in watts is
POUT =
(D × V IN ) 2
2×L× f
where:
f is the frequency.
L is the total parallel inductance, in Henries.
The equation for DCM voltage conversion into a resistive load is
VOUT =
D × V IN × R 0.5
(2 × L × f ) 0.5
where R is the load resistance, in ohms.
Regarding inductance, in these SEPIC and Ćuk related designs,
the coupling capacitors act as short circuits for switching
frequency ac current. For the previous equations, consider that
the transformer and output inductor(s) are in parallel. With
coupled inductors (two or more windings with the same number
of turns on one core), the inductance of either winding or both
(or all) in parallel (connected in phase) is the same. This is
usually the published inductance value of the coupled inductor.
When connecting multiple separate inductors or transformers
in parallel (dc- or ac-coupled), as shown in Figure 10, Figure 11,
or Figure 12, the effective inductance value is determined by the
following equation for multiple inductors in parallel:
LP =
L = LM + Lσ
SEPIC and Ćuk converters can use coupled inductors with good
or little magnetic coupling, or discrete inductors with no
magnetic coupling. Energy transfer mainly or completely relies
on the coupling capacitors. Voltage scaling between capacitorcoupled windings is not significantly affected by winding
leakage inductance; however, for proper operation, coupled
inductors must have some leakage inductance so as to maintain
continuous or quasi-continuous current and allow the coupling
capacitor to drive the ac voltage waveform. Low leakage
inductance can increase capacitor size needed to obtain an LC
resonant frequency well below the feedback loop unity gain
crossover. The main advantage of using coupled rather than
discrete inductors is economy in component cost and PCB area.
In the example in this application note, a flyback transformer
provides isolation. The turns ratio is 1:1 (other ratios can also
be used). Low leakage inductance between the primary and
secondary windings is required as it is for any flyback. However,
with SEPIC or Ćuk coupling linking multiple outputs in one
isolated domain, the current waveforms and voltage cross
regulation criteria within a domain become similar to SEPIC
and Ćuk converters.
1
(1 / L1 ) + (1 / L 2 ) + ... + (1 / Ln )
Rev. 0 | Page 10 of 15
Application Note
AN-1316
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE COMBINED FLYBACK, SEPIC, AND ĆUK CONVERTER
•
In a size and power optimized flyback transformer with
Schottky output rectifiers, continuous conduction mode
(CCM) usually provides the best efficiency. Peak transformer
flux density must be under 0.2 T to 0.22 T with peak load
and minimum input voltage, to avoid core saturation when
the transformer is hot. AC peak-to-peak flux density must
be as high as possible but is limited by acceptable core loss;
therefore, the design in this application note started with
an ac peak-to-peak flux density limit of 0.05 T to 0.07 T at
200 kHz in Ferroxcube 3F3 ferrite.
For example, if the current and power requirements are as
shown in Table 4, the transformer and control can be designed
as if for a single output: 1.5 W/7.5 V = 200 mA.
Table 4. Domain Power Requirements
Output Rail
V1
V2
V3
Total
Volts
+7.5
+15
−7.5
Not applicable
Amps
+0.05
+0.06
−0.03
Not applicable
Watts
0.375
0.9
0.225
1.5
Operating frequency is related to transformer, inductor, and
ceramic capacitor size. Whereas higher operating frequency
normally is associated with size reductions, frequencies over
200 kHz to 400 kHz are likely to increase loss and degrade
voltage regulation due to transformer leakage inductance.
The minimum practical leakage inductance does not continue
to scale inversely with transformer design frequency. The energy
stored in the leakage inductance, L × I2/2, is usually wasted;
because power is energy × frequency, the power loss through
the leakage inductance scales with frequency.
Aside from power level and frequency, transformer pinout and
safety spacings are additional factors that often determine a
minimum transformer size. The PQ2625 was chosen for easy
hand winding with the Rubadue multilayer Teflon safety
insulated wire. The design operates at 200 kHz.
The following are notes concerning the design of the
transformer and the power converter:
•
In the example in this application note, using a PQ2625 core,
minimum size is not a critical requirement. The transformer
was designed for easy hand construction, low leakage
inductance with reasonable core loss, and adequate creepage
and clearance distances. The main tradeoff is that the core is
significantly larger than needed for the power level. The
primary, secondary, and output windings all have only four
turns. With those few turns, the inductance that is needed for
CCM cannot be obtained; therefore, the core assembly was
gapped with a thick spacer (0.001 inches, or 0.025 mm), which
was cut from polyester film. The resulting inductance was
approximately 28 µH in all windings. The converter operates in
discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) when it is loaded to
normal limits. Note that the desired inductance can be achieved
by increasing the turns; however, increasing the turns
significantly increases the leakage inductance and is therefore a
poor tradeoff.
CONTROL –
WINDING
+
–
PRIMARY
WINDING +
For the waveform examples in Figure 13, Figure 14, and
Table 3, the duty cycle in both of these figures is approximately
56%. Stable CCM operation with such larger duty cycles
(approaching and exceeding 50%) requires more slope
compensation. Slope compensation is the addition of a
voltage ramp to the current ramp used by the current mode
PWM controller IC. Duty cycles under 45% usually need
less or no slope compensation, and lend themselves to easier
control. Duty cycles in the range of 20% to 45% tend to be
the easiest. With 12 V input, 7.5 V output, Schottky diodes,
and a 1:1 turns ratios, the demonstration circuit runs at
approximately a 40% duty cycle.
SEC1
+
–
SEC2
+
–
D1
+15.0V
OUTPUT
0
0
D2
–15.0V
OUTPUT
0
IDEALIZED VOLTAGE
ON ALL WINDINGS
IDEALIZED CURRENT IN
PRIMARY WINDINGS
IDEALIZED CURRENT IN
SECONDARY WINDINGS
CURRENT SCALING VARIES
WITH OUTPUT LOADING
12561-015
Design the flyback converter first. Determine the winding
output voltage (7.5 V or 15 V, for example), and then refer the
total output power to one output for total power calculations.
Figure 15. Dual Output Flyback Converter Transformer Winding Currents
and Voltages
In a multiple output flyback converter, as shown in Figure 15,
the total ampere-turns in the transformer can be continuous;
however, the current in the individual windings must vary
instantly to maintain waveform fidelity and voltage regulation.
Low leakage inductance in the transformer windings is critical.
This example has a transformer turns ratio of 1:1:1:1, idealized
diodes, and 12 V dc input.
Rev. 0 | Page 11 of 15
AN-1316
Application Note
In a normal flyback, all of the windings share one magnetic core,
and the core flux is proportional to the total ampere × turn
product, scaled by the inverse of the reluctance of the magnetic
path. When a separate inductor is used, the result is a separate
(not shared) core. The coupling capacitor blocks any dc current
flow between the transformer winding and the inductor, so that
only ac current passes between the two magnetic components.
The capacitor value is large enough that the ac current causes
only a small ripple voltage across the capacitor. The capacitor
acts as an ac short circuit, and its ripple voltage can be neglected
in the simple analysis of circuit operation.
In the normal flyback example shown in Figure 15, the
transformer output windings conduct no current when the
transistor is on. This is not true of the transformer in the
combined flyback and Ćuk converter (or any of the combined
topologies) because the output winding needs to drive L1 and
any other inductors through the coupling capacitors. The result
is that the transformer output winding waveform includes
components of both output diode current and inductor
magnetization current. The primary winding current waveform
looks like that of an ordinary flyback with the inductance being
that of the parallel combination of all the magnetic structures.
In the Figure 12 example, the transformer inductance measures
approximately 28 µH. The Coilcraft LPD6235 coupled inductor
similarly has 47 µH; therefore, the converter behaves similarly
to a flyback with transformer inductance equal to the parallel
equivalent value of 17.5 µH.
C1
+15.0V
OUTPUT
0
C3
+
–
C2
D2
–15.0V
OUTPUT
–
+
L1
0
0
0
IDEALIZED VOLTAGE
ON L1 AND ALL WINDINGS
IDEALIZED CURRENT IN
PRIMARY WINDINGS
IDEALIZED CURRENT IN
SECONDARY WINDINGS
L1 CURRENT
In Figure 10, the dc current in L1 is the −15 V output current.
In Figure 11, the dc inductor current is the +15 V output current.
In Figure 12, one side of the coupled inductor conducts the
+15 V output current while the other side conducts the −7.5 V
output current. To determine dc core excitation, these two
magnitudes are added. It is not a common-mode choke.
Coilcraft and Cooper offer some small sized coupled inductors
(such as the Coilcraft LPD6235) that tend to be single sourced.
12 mm square coupled inductors are made in interchangeable
footprints by manufacturers including Pulse, Wurth, Cooper,
and Coilcraft.
Coupling capacitor values must first be chosen so that the
average charge is large relative to the cyclic charge (equal to
IOUT/switching frequency). Then, calculate the charge/capacitance
to find the ripple voltage, which must not exceed a small
percentage of dc volts; 5% is a good maximum. Note that
ceramic capacitors lose a significant amount of capacitance with
applied voltage and with time after soldering; therefore, be very
conservative with ceramic capacitance ratings. (Murata offers
online tools for graphing these coefficients.) This loss of
capacitance with applied voltage is especially true for devices
that have high C × V ratings in small packages. It is often
convenient to use the same capacitor rating for output
capacitors and for coupling capacitors.
C3 CURRENT
C3 VOLTAGE
0
CURRENT SCALING VARIES
WITH OUTPUT LOADING
12561-016
–
PRIMARY
WINDING +
0
D1
–
TRANSFORMER
CONTROL –
WINDING
+
SEC1
+
rating at frequencies in the range from 50 kHz to 100 kHz, core
losses are excessive. If possible, use core loss calculators offered by
inductor manufacturers such as Coilcraft. More turns of smaller
wire providing higher inductance in a given size decreases the
ripple current and the core loss, but decreases the dc saturation
current and increases the dc resistance.
Figure 16. Dual Output Flyback Converter Transformer Winding Current and
Voltages for the Single Secondary Topology
Figure 17. Prototype Flyback Transformer with Bobbin Extender
Choose the external inductor(s) based on inductance, core loss,
dc resistance, and saturation current. Typically, if the peak-to-peak
ripple current in an inductor approaches the saturation current
Figure 17 shows the transformer using a PQ2625 3F3 with
a bobbin extender, providing 10 mm creepage. This is the
transformer used in the converter shown in Figure 18.
12561-017
In this combined flyback-Ćuk converter, shown in Figure 16,
low transformer leakage inductance is still critical to efficient
energy transfer, but it has minimal impact on the cross regulation
between outputs in one voltage domain. The critical ac component
of Diode D2 current passes through Capacitor C3 and not
Inductor L1. The critical stray inductance is that measured
through the path of D1 and C1 and through the path of C3 and
D2. Careful PCB layout must make this stray inductance much
lower than the minimum leakage inductance, which can be
obtained in a good transformer used in the normal flyback.
Rev. 0 | Page 12 of 15
Application Note
AN-1316
C23
LS –7.5V
D17
C18
LS +15.0V
L2
C26
C25
D7
C27
LS +7.5V
C28
D8
–DC LINK
R13
U –7.5V
D9
+5.0V
SELV
ENABLE
C3
ADP1621
R7
1 SDSN
C1
2 GND
3
R17
C10
COMP
IN 10
CS 9
GATE 7
5 FREQ
PGND 6
R14
U MOTOR
C6
C7
C30
D16
L4
R9
R12
V +15.0V
C29
C17
R2
U2
4
SENSE/
ADJ
ADP7118
VIN
1
D15
R5
R1
5
VOUT
C31
R11
Q1
V +5.0V
V –7.5V
D6
C32
C8
R4
U +7.5V
C33
D20
C9
T1
PIN 8
4 FB
U +15.0V
D5
C2
+
L3
C24
C20
R6
U1
R10
R8
C4
D4
GND
2
EN
3
C37
R18
C13
D13
C22
+12.0V SELV
R16
V MOTOR
L5
V +15.0V
C19
W +5.0V
5
VOUT
C16
C14
U3
4
SENSE/
ADJ
ADP7118
VIN
1
D2
C12
R19
W –7.5V
D12
C15
V +7.5V
GND
2
EN
3
C34
R20
D3
C11
R15
W MOTOR
Figure 18. Schematic of the Complete Converter
Table 5. Bill of Materials for the Complete Converter
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Reference Designator
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C25
C26
C27
Value
100 µF
1.00E-05
10 nF
100 pF
2.2 µF
1.0 µF
1.0 µF
10 nF
100 pF
Do not place
100 pF
2.2 µF
100 nF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
100 pF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
100 pF
Description
Nichicon UCL1C101MCL6GS
16 V, X5R, 1206
50 V, X7R, 0603
50 V, NP0, 0603
0805, X5R, 25 V
16 V, X5R, 0603
16 V, X5R, 0603
50 V, X7R, 0603
50 V, NP0, 0603
Do not place
50 V, NP0, 0603
0805, X5R, 25 V
50 V, X7R, 0603
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
50 V, NP0, 0603
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
50 V, NP0, 0603
Rev. 0 | Page 13 of 15
V +7.5V
R21
12561-018
R3
C21
C5
AN-1316
Item
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
Reference Designator
C28
C29
C30
C31
C32
C33
C34
C37
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D12
D13
D15
D16
D17
D20
L2
L3
L4
L5
Q1
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
R12
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
T1
U1
U2
U3
Application Note
Value
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
2.2 µF
MBR0560
MBR0560
MBR0560
MBR0560
MBR0560
MBR0560
MBR0560
LL101A
MBR0560
MBR0560
MBR0560
LL103A
MBR0560
MBR0560
LPD6235-473
LPD6235-473
LPD6235-473
LPD6235-473
IRLML0060
Do not place
0.033 Ω, 5%
499 kΩ, 1%
100 kΩ, 1%
100 kΩ, 1%
10 Ω, 1%
10 Ω, 1%
357 Ω, 1%
619 Ω, 1%
2.00E+04
8.2 Ω, 5%
200 Ω, 1%
Do not place
Do not place
Do not place
Do not place
4.99 kΩ, 1%
35.7 kΩ, 1%
10 kΩ, 1%
35.7 kΩ, 1%
10 kΩ, 1%
Transformer
ADP1621ARMZ
ADP7118AUJZ-5.0
ADP7118AUJZ-5.0
Description
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
0805, X5R, 25 V
Micro Commercial
Micro Commercial
Micro Commercial
Micro Commercial
Micro Commercial
Micro Commercial
Micro Commercial
Vishay
Micro Commercial
Micro Commercial
Micro Commercial
Vishay
Micro Commercial
Micro Commercial
Coilcraft
Coilcraft
Coilcraft
Coilcraft
International rectifier
Do not place
0805, Susumu
0603
0603
0603
0603
0603
1206
1206
1206
1206
0603
1206
1206
1206
1206
0603
0603
0603
0603
0603
Described in text
10-pin MSOP
5-pin TSOT
5-pin TSOT
Rev. 0 | Page 14 of 15
Application Note
AN-1316
CONCLUSION
This application note outlines different methods for generating
isolated bias supplies for high-side and low-side gate drives and
isolated current sense ICs in industrial motor drives. The
advantages and limitations of methods such as charge pumps
and bootstrap supplies are addressed, with the conclusion that
transformer isolated topologies offer a distinct advantage in
terms of efficiency, flexibility, and safety barriers. Flyback
topologies are highly suited to the multiple output nature of
these bias supplies; however, the standard flyback converter
solution for gate driver bias supplies with multiple outputs or
dissipative rail splitting suffers from the limitations of high
transformer pin usage and poor efficiency, respectively.
Moreover, the typical secondary sensing regulation approach
suffers from poor cross regulation issues. Solutions are
proposed to help mitigate these limitations: primary side
sensing, which greatly improves overall cross regulation; the
addition of secondary side coupling capacitance between the
windings to further improve regulation; and the replacement of
a transformer winding with either discrete or coupled inductors
to reduce transformer pinout requirements. Results for cross
regulation are demonstrated, and a full schematic and bill of
materials for the coupled-inductor output version are provided.
The discrete inductor version was also implemented on a full,
3-phase inverter platform running at a dc bus up to 800 V.
Figure 19 shows a photograph of the bias circuits on the
EV-MCS-ISOINV-Z isolated inverter platform. This platform is
available for order from the Analog Devices, Inc., website at
www.analog.com/EVAL-ISO-INVERTER-MC.
GATE DRIVES
SECONDARY
12561-019
PRIMARY
ISOLATED CURRENT
SENSE
Figure 19. 3-Phase Motor Control Inverter with Bias Supplies
©2015 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
AN12561-0-11/15(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 15 of 15
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