CN-0196: H-Bridge Driver Circuit Using Isolated Half-Bridge Drivers PDF

Circuit Note
CN-0196
Devices Connected/Referenced
Circuits from the Lab™ reference circuits are engineered and
tested for quick and easy system integration to help solve today’s
analog, mixed-signal, and RF design challenges. For more
information and/or support, visit www.analog.com/CN0196.
ADuM7234
Isolated Precision Half-Bridge 4 A Driver
ADG787
2.5 Ω CMOS Low Power Dual 2:1 Switch
ADuC7061
ARM7 Based Microcontroller with Dual
24-Bit Σ-Δ ADCs
ADuM3100
Digital Isolator
ADP1720
50 mA Linear Regulator
ADCMP350
Comparator with 0.6 V Reference
H-Bridge Driver Circuit Using Isolated Half-Bridge Drivers
EVALUATION AND DESIGN SUPPORT
Circuit Evaluation Boards
CN-0196 Circuit Evaluation Board (EVAL-CN0196-EB1Z)
ADuC7061 MiniKit (EVAL-ADuC7061MKZ)
Design and Integration Files
Schematics, Layout Files, Bill of Materials
CIRCUIT FUNCTION AND BENEFITS
The circuit, shown in Figure 1, is an H-bridge composed of high
power switching MOSFETs that are controlled by low voltage
logic signals. The circuit provides a convenient interface
between logic signals and the high power bridge. The bridge
uses low cost N-channel power MOSFETs for both the high and
low sides of the H-bridge. The circuit also provides galvanic
isolation between the control side and power side. This circuit
can be used in motor control, power conversion with embedded
control interface, lighting, audio amplifiers, and uninterruptable
power supplies (UPS).
Modern microprocessors and microconverters are generally low
power and operate on low supply voltages. Source and sink
current for 2.5 V CMOS logic outputs ranges from µA to mA .
Driving an H-bridge switching 12 V with a 4 A peak current
requires the use of carefully selected interface and level
translation components, especially if low jitter is needed.
The ADG787 is a low voltage CMOS device that contains two
independently selectable single-pole double-throw (SPDT)
switches. With a 5 V dc power supply, a voltage as low as 2 V
is a valid high input logic voltage. Therefore, the ADG787
provides appropriate level translation from the 2.5 V controlling
signal to the 5 V logic level needed to drive the ADuM7234
half-bridge driver.
The ADuM7234 is an isolated, half-bridge gate driver that
employs Analog Devices’ iCoupler® technology to provide
independent and isolated high-side and low-side outputs
making it possible to use N-channel MOSFETs exclusively in
the H-bridge. There are several benefits in using N-channel
MOSFETs: N-channel MOSFETs typically have one third of the
on resistance of P-channel MOSFETs and higher maximum
current; they switch faster, thereby reducing power dissipation;
and the rise time and fall time is symmetrical.
The 4 A peak drive current of the ADuM7234 ensures that the
power MOSFETs can switch on and off very fast, thereby
minimizing the power dissipation in the H-bridge stage. The
maximum drive current of the H-bridge in this circuit can be
up to 85 A, which is limited by the maximum allowable
MOSFET current.
The ADuC7061 is a low power, ARM7 based precision analog
microcontroller with integrated pulse width modulated (PWM)
controllers that have outputs that can be configured to drive an
H-bridge after suitable level translation and conditioning.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
Level Translation of 2.5 V PWM Control Signal to 5 V
The EVAL-ADuC7061MKZ delivers 2.5 V logic level PWM
signals, while the minimum logic high input threshold for the
ADuM7234 is 3.5V with a 5 V power supply. Because of this
incompatibility, the ADG787 switch is used as an intermediate
level translator. The minimum input logic high control voltage
to the ADG787 is 2 V, which is compatible with the 2.5 V logic
from the ADuC7061. The output of the ADG787 switches
between 0 V and 5 V, which is more than sufficient to drive the
Rev.0
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room temperature. However, you are solely responsible for testing the circuit and determining its
suitability and applicability for your use and application. Accordingly, in no event shall Analog Devices
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CN-0196
Circuit Note
12V
5V
5V
NC
VIA
ADG787
5V
GND
2.5V
PWM0
PWM
2
ADuM7234
ENCODE
16
DECODE
15
3
14
4
13
5
12
D1 R1
VDDA
Z1
13V
VOA
C1
R5
330µF +
100kΩ
25V
R2 D2
10Ω
10Ω
C1 +
330µF
R6
25V 100kΩ
Z2
13V
GNDA
5V
VDD1
D1
S1B
GND1
IN1
IN2
PWM1
ADuC7061MKZ
VIB
S1A
1
DISABLE
S2A
VDD1
D2
S2B
11
6
7
ENCODE
DECODE
10
NC
9
8
NC
NC
12V
VDDB
VOB
R7
GNDB
15Ω
GND
NC
VIA
VIB
1
2
ADuM7234
ENCODE
16
DECODE
15
3
14
4
13
5
12
6
11
Q1
R9
Q2
15Ω
D5
D6
VDDA
VOA
M
GNDA
5V
GND1
DISABLE
VDD1
NC
7
ENCODE
DECODE
10
9
8
NC
Q3
Q4
R10
R8
NC
15Ω
12V
D7
15Ω
D8
VDDB
R4
470Ω
VOB
GNDB
R3
470Ω
Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4: FDP5800
D1, D2: SSC54
D5, D6, D7, D8: 15ETH06FPPBF
Z1, Z2: SMAZ5928B
09644-001
VDD1
Figure 1. H-Bridge Using ADuM7234 Isolated Half-bridge Driver (Simplified Schematic: All Connections and Decoupling Not Shown)
ground. On the other hand, the source voltages of the high side
MOSFETs (Q1, Q2) switch as the pairs of MOSFETs are turned
on and off. Therefore the optimum gate drive signals should be
referenced or "bootstrapped" to this floating voltage.
input of the of the ADuM7234, which has a 3.5 V threshold.
Two jumpers are provided, which makes it easy to configure
the polarity of the controlling PWM signal.
H-Bridge Introduction
The gate drive signals from the ADuM7234 offer the benefit of
true galvanic isolation between each input and each output.
Each output may be operated up to ±350 V peak relative to the
input, thereby supporting low-side switching to negative
voltages. As a result, the ADuM7234 provides reliable control of
the switching characteristics of various MOSFET configurations
over a wide range of positive or negative switching voltages. For
safety and ease of testing, a 12 V dc supply was chosen as the
power supply for this design.
There are four switching elements in the H-bridge shown in
Figure 1 (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4). The switches are turned on in pairs,
either high left side (Q1) and low right side (Q4) or low left side
(Q3) and high right side (Q2). Keep in mind that the switches
on the same side of the bridge are never on at the same time.
The switches can be implemented using MOSFETs or IGBTs
(insulated gate bipolar transistors) and use pulse width
modulation (PWM) or other control signals from the controller
to turn the switches on and off, thereby changing the polarity of
the load voltage.
Bootstrapped Gate Drive Circuit
The sources of the low side MOSFETs (Q3, Q4) are connected
to ground, therefore, their gate drive signal is also referenced to
The power supplies to the gate drivers for the high-side
and low-side are different. The low-side gate drive voltage is
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 6
Circuit Note
CN-0196
bootstrap capacitor after the circuit is powered off and serves
no function when the circuit is switching.
ground-referenced, so it is developed directly from the groundreferenced dc supply. However, the high-side is floating, so a
bootstrap drive circuit is useful and operates as follows.
Bootstrap Current Limit Resistors (R1, R2)
Let us look at the left side of the H-bridge circuit shown in
Figure 1. The bootstrap drive circuit is implemented with the
capacitor C1, the resistors R1 and R3, and the diode D1.
Immediately after power on, the PWM does not come instantly,
and all the MOSFETs are in the high impedance state until all
dc voltages are settled. During this time capacitor C1 is charged
by the dc supply through the path R1, D1, C1, and R3. The
charged capacitor C1 provides the voltage for high-side gate
drive. The time constant for C1 charging is τ = (R1 + R3) C1.
The series resistor R1 provides the current limit when charging
the bootstrap capacitor. If R1 is too high, the dc quiescent
current from the high-side driver supply of the ADuM7234 will
cause too much voltage drop across R1, and the ADuM7234
may go into undervoltage lockout. The maximum dc supply
current for the ADuM7234 is IMAX = 30 mA. If the voltage
dropped across R1 due to this current is limited to VDROP = 1 V,
then R1 should be less than VDROP/IMAX, or 33 Ω. Therefore, a
resistor of 10 Ω was selected as the bootstrap resistor.
When the MOSFETs switch due to the PWM signal, the lowside switch Q3 is turned on, and the high-side switch Q1 is
turned off. The GNDA of the high-side is pulled down to
ground, and the capacitor C1 is charged. When Q1 is turned on,
and Q3 is turned off, the GNDA is pulled up to the dc supply
voltage. The diode D1 is reversed biased, and the C1 voltage
forces the VDDA voltage of the ADuM7234 to approximately
24 V. The capacitor C1, therefore, maintains a voltage of
approximately 12 V between the VDDA and GNDA terminals
of the ADuM7234. In this manner, the gate drive voltage to the
high-side MOSFET Q1 is always referenced to the floating
source voltage of Q1.
Bootstrap Start-Up Resistors (R3, R4)
Voltage Spikes on the Source of the High-Side MOSFET
When Q1 and Q4 are on, the load current flows from Q1
through the load to Q4 and to ground. When Q1 and Q4 are
turned off, the current still flows in the same direction through
the free-wheeling diodes D6 and D7, producing a negative spike
on the source of Q1. This can damage some gate drivers
employing other topologies but has no effect on the ADuM7234,
which supports low-side switching to negative voltages.
Bootstrap Capacitors (C1, C2)
The bootstrap capacitor is charged every time the low-side
driver is on, and it is discharged only when the high-side switch
is turned on. Therefore, the first parameter to consider in
selecting the value of the bootstrap capacitor is the maximum
allowable voltage drop when the high-side switch is turned on
and the capacitor is used as the dc supply for the high-side of
the gate driver ADuM7234. When the high-side switch is
turned on, the dc supply current of ADuM7234 is typically
22 mA. Assume that the on-time of high-side switch is 10 ms
(50 Hz, 50% duty cycle). Using the equation C = I × ΔT/ΔV, the
capacitor should be larger than 220 µF if the allowable voltage
drop ΔV = 1 V, I = 22 mA, and ΔT = 10 ms. In this design, a
value of 330 µF was chosen. The resistor R5 discharges the
The resistor R3 starts up the bootstrap circuit. Immediately
after power-on, dc voltages are not established, and the
MOSFETs are off. Under these conditions C1 is charged
through the path R1, R3, D1, VS, described by the following
equation:
v C ( t ) = (VS − VD )(1 − e − t / τ ) ,
(1)
where vC(t) is the capacitor voltage, VS is the supply voltage,
VD is the diode voltage drop, and τ is the time constant,
τ = (R1 + R3) C1. The circuit values are R1 = 10 Ω, C1 = 330 µF,
VD = 0.5 V, and VS = 12 V. From the equation, it takes one time
constant (158 ms) to charge the capacitor to 67% of its final
value for R3 = 470 Ω. A larger value resistor will increase the
charging time of the capacitor. However, when the high-side
MOSFET Q1 is turned on, there will be 12 V across resistor R1,
so if the value of the resistor is too low, it will dissipate
considerable power. For R3 = 470 Ω, the power dissipation in
the resistor at 12 V is 306 mW.
Overvoltage Protection for the Bootstrap Capacitors (Z1, Z2)
As mentioned above, with inductive load, when the high side
MOSFET turns off, the current will flow through the freewheeling diodes. Due to the resonance between the inductance
and parasitic capacitance, the charging energy to the bootstrap
capacitor may be higher than the dissipated energy of the
ADuM7234, and the voltage on the capacitor may rise to an
overvoltage condition. The 13 V Zener diode clamps the voltage
on the capacitor, thereby avoiding the overvoltage situation.
Gate Drive Resistors (R7, R8, R9, R10)
The gate resistors (R7, R8, R9, R10) are selected based on the
desired switching time, tSW. The switching time is the time
required to charge Cgd and Cgs and to charge the switching
MOSFETs to the required charge, Qgd and Qgs.
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 6
CN-0196
Circuit Note
FROM DC SOURCE
OR BATTERY
VDD
+12V
+5V_1
U4
4
2
VDD2 VDD1 1
4 GND2 VDD1 3
VI 2
1 GND2
5
VO
1
2
ADCMP350
3
GND 4
OUT
R12
33kΩ
1%
2 0805
VIN 1
R13
2kΩ
1%
2 0805
1
GND
UNDERVOLTAGE
2
ADuM3100
+12V
+5V_1
U5
1
VCC
U6
R15
470Ω
TO +12V
FIGURE 1
1
2
L1
22µh
+ C25
+ C26
+ C27
+ C28
+ C22
4700µF
4700µF
4700µF
4700µF
0.1µF
25V
25V
25V
25V
16V
2
IN
4
EN
5
GND GND 6
OUT 3
GND 8
1 GND GND 7
ADP1720
09644-002
+5V_2
Figure 2. Power Rail Filtering and Undervoltage Lockout Protection for ADuM7234
The following equation describes the gate drive current, Ig:
Ig =
Q gd + Q gs
t SW
=
VDD − Vgs ( th )
R g + R DRV
(2)
where VDD is the supply voltage and RDRV is the equivalent
resistance of the gate driver ADuM7234, Vgs(th)is the threshold
The ADuM7234 undervoltage lockout is prevented by disabling
the input to the ADuM7234 when the power supply voltage is
less than 10 V using the circuit shown in Figure 2. The circuit is
disabled by applying a logic high to the DISABLE pin of the
ADuM7234.
From the FDP5800 MOSFET data sheet, Qgd = 18 nC; Qgs =
The open-drain, active low ADCMP350 comparator is used to
monitor the dc supply voltage. The ratio of the resistor divider
(R12, R13) is chosen such that when the supply voltage is 10.5 V,
the divider output is 0.6 V, which is equal to the 0.6 V on-chip
reference of the comparator. When the supply voltage drops
below 10.5 V, the output of the comparator goes high. Because
the input and output side of the ADuM7234 are galvanically
isolated, the DISABLE signal from the output side must be
transferred to the input side through an isolator. The
ADuM3100 is a digital isolator based on the iCoupler
technology. The ADuM3100 is compatible with 3.3 V and 5 V
operation. The 12 V filtered supply drives the ADP1720 linear
regulator, which supplies the 5 V (+5V_1) for the right-hand
isolated side of ADuM3100, as shown in Figure 2.
23 nC; Vgs(th) = 1 V.
The Load and the PWM Signal
If the desired switching time, tSW , is 100 ns, Equation 2 is
solved for Rg, yielding Rg ~ 22 Ω. In the actual design, 15 Ω
If we use an inductor as the load, the current flowing through
the inductor will change linearly if a constant voltage is applied.
The voltage, U, is 12 V, and if we ignore the voltage drop across
the MOSFETs due to the on–resistance, the following equation
is true:
voltage, Rg is the external gate drive resistor, Qgd and Qgs are
the required MOSFET charge, and tSW is the required switching
time.
The equivalent resistance of the ADuM7234 gate driver is
calculated from:
R DRV =
VDDA
I OA (SC)
(3)
According to the ADuM7234 data sheet, for VDDA = 15 V and
the output short circuit pulsed current IOA(SC) = 4 A. Therefore,
RDRV is about 4 Ω from Equation 3.
resistors were chosen to allow for some margin.
Power Rail Filtering and Undervoltage Protection
Because of the high peak load current, the dc source voltage
(VDD) must be properly filtered to prevent the ADuM7234
from going into undervoltage lockout and also to prevent
possible damage to the supply. The filter chosen consists of four
parallel 4700 µF, 25 V capacitors in series with a 22 µH power
inductor, as shown in Figure 2. The specified maximum rms
ripple current of the capacitors at 100 kHz is 3.68 A. Since four
of these capacitors are in parallel, the largest allowable rms
ripple is 14.72 A. Therefore, IPEAK = 2√2 × IRMS = 41.63 A.
The filtered +12 V also drives the circuit shown in Figure 1.
U=L
di
dt
(4)
With a 50 kHz, 8% duty cycle PWM signal and a 4 µH Coilcraft
power inductor (SER2014-402) as the load, the load current
waveform is as shown in Figure 3. A current probe is used to
measure the inductor current.
For a 12 V supply voltage and a 4 µH inductor, Equation 4
predicts a slope of 3 A/µs. The actual slope was measured to be
2.8 A/µs, and the reduction is due to the voltage dropped across
the on resistance of the MOSFETs.
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 6
Circuit Note
CN-0196
20µs
1.6µs
PWM0
PWM1
+4.4A
SLOPE = 2.8A/µs
LOAD
CURRENT
0A
09644-003
–4.4A
Figure 3. Load Current as a Function of the PWM Pulses with a 4 µH Load
Note that there is a small amount of ringing on the waveform
immediately after the current turns off. This is due to the
resonance between the inductive load and the parasitic
capacitance of the free-wheeling diodes and the MOSFETs.
• EVAL-CN0196-EB1Z circuit evaluation board
• EVAL-ADuC7061MKZ evaluation board
• DC supply or battery: +12 V, 10 A
It is important that the maximum rated current of the inductor
is not exceeded in the circuit. If this occurs, the inductor goes
into saturation, and the current will increase rapidly, which can
damage the circuit and the power supply. The Coilcraft
SER2014-402 inductor used as a load in the circuit has a rated
saturation current of 25 A.
COMMON VARIATIONS
The circuit can easily be expanded to a 3-phase control
application with some additional components. The circuit can
also be used in applications requiring higher supply voltages,
but care must be taken to ensure the ratings of the MOSFETS
and filter capacitors are not exceeded.
Equipment Needed
• PC with a USB port and Windows XP, Windows Vista
(32-bit), or Windows 7 (32-bit)
• Load, such as Coilcraft SER2014-402 power inductor
• Oscilloscope with current probe
Getting Started
Load the evaluation software by placing the CN0196 evaluation
software disc in the CD drive of the PC. Locate the drive that
contains the evaluation software disc and open the Readme file.
Follow the instructions contained in the Readme file for
installing and using the evaluation software.
Setup and Test
Download the firmware code to EVAL-ADuC7061-MKZ,
install CN-0196 evaluation software, and connect the
controlling signal from EVAL-ADuC7061-MKZ and
EVAL-CN0196-EB1Z according to jumper configuration in
the Readme file.
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 6
CN-0196
Circuit Note
12V DC SUPPLY
OR BATTERY
+12V
GND
EVAL-ADUC7061-MKZ
PC
MOTOR
OR
INDUCTOR
EVAL-CN0196-EB1Z
2.5V LOGIC
SIGNALS
USB
CURRENT
PROBE
09644-004
OSCILLOSCOPE
Figure 4. Functional Block Diagram of Test Setup
Data Sheets and Evaluation Boards
Connect the jumper LK1, apply +12 V power to CN2, launch
the software, and connect the USB cable from the PC to the
USB mini-connector on the EVAL-ADuC7061-MKZ board.
Using an inductor as the load, run the software and use a
current probe to measure the current of the inductor.
CN-0196 Circuit Evaluation Board (EVAL-CN0196-EB1Z)
ADuM7234 Data Sheet
ADuM7234 Evaluation Board
Information and details regarding to how to use the evaluation
software for proper PWM signals can be found in the CN0196
Evaluation Software Readme file.
ADuC7061 Evaluation Board
ADG787 Data Sheet
ADuM3100 Data Sheet
LEARN MORE
ADP1720 Data Sheet
CN-0196 Design Support Package:
www.analog.com/CN0196-DesignSupport
ADCMP350 Data Sheet
Ardizzoni, John. “A Practical Guide to High-Speed PrintedCircuit-Board Layout.” Analog Dialogue. 39-09, September
2005.
MT-101 Tutorial, Decoupling Techniques, Analog Devices.
ADuC7061 Data Sheet
REVISION HISTORY
9/11—Revision 0: Initial Version
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CN09644-0-9/11(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 6
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