Electromagnetic Flow Meter Solutions PDF

ADI Electromagnetic Flow Meter Solutions
System Theory and Typical Architecture of Industrial
Electromagnetic Flow Meters
COIL
TRANSDUCER
The operating principle of the electromagnetic flow meter is based on Faraday’s
law of electromagnetic induction. When the magnetic field direction perpendicular
to the conductor cutting magnetic line is speed V, both ends of the conductor will
be induced by a certain force E, and the liquid flow rate change can be calculated
by detecting the value of the force.
D
ELECTRODE
The features of electromagnetic flow meters are no pressure loss and no impact
from viscosity, fluid density, temperature, pressure, or conductivity, making it
suitable for measuring pulp, slurry, and sewage with high accuracy.
VELOCITY (V)
EMF (E)
MAGNETIC FLEX DENSITY (B)
An electromagnetic flow meter system consists of power supplies, magnetic
excitation, signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, processor, display,
keyboards, logic I/Os, and multiple communications like 4 mA to 20 mA, HART,
Profibus, RS-485/RS-422/RS-232, Modbus, and Foundation.
E=K×B×V×D
K is instrument constant
B is magnetic flex density
V is average fluid velocity across the pipe
D is diameter of measurement pipe
System Design Considerations and Major Challenges of Industrial
Electromagnetic Flow Meters
To appropriately design an electromagnetic flow meter system, designers must consider many different system requirements, including accuracy, bandwidth,
and magnetic excitation frequency.
• Electromagnetic flow meter sensor output ranges can be as small as
several tens of μV with a certain common voltage. The output impedance
is often higher than the MΩ range. The front-end precision operational
amplifier or instrumentation amplifier requires ultrahigh input impedance,
very low leakage current, and excellent CMRR.
• Electromagnetic flow meter product maximum measurement range can be as
wide as 1500:1, and the range for corresponding flow rate is 0.01 m/s to 15 m/s.
• Measurement accuracy can be as high as 0.2% of reading, which often
requires a 16-bit to 24-bit analog-to-digital converter.
• Connectivity to different fieldbus protocols, such as HART, Profibus,
Modbus, Foundation, RS-485/RS-422/RS-232, and wireless HART.
• Isolation needed between system power supply, central logic unit,
communication, and I/Os. Isolation grade varies from 1 kV to 2.5 kV.
• Portable electromagnetic flow meters require ultralow power MCU, amp,
and ADC components.
• Higher frequency square wave excitation improves the flow of mud and
noise immunity, but needs to be balanced with zero stability.
Industrial site temperature environments are quite complex and sometimes even extremely adverse. Low temperature drift coefficient and low power consumption
are very important for electromagnetic flow meters to withstand a wide working temperature range. ADI offers a complete portfolio such as precision amplifiers,
precision references, precision analog-to-digital converters, and ARM core microprocessors.
Also, EMC interference immunity, such as for ESD, EFT and surge, is a big challenge for electromagnetic flow meters. The high level ESD immunity components
offered by ADI greatly help to improve its reliability and robustness.
In addition, the limited space inside electromagnetic flow meters requires dense systems. Therefore, the form factor has to be reduced to accommodate this.
Recently, advances in integration have allowed system designers to migrate to smaller, lower power, lower cost solutions, with performance approaching that
of larger systems. The challenge moving forward is to continue to drive the integration of these solutions while increasing their performance and diagnostic
capabilities.
ADI offers market tailored solutions to aid in the design process. These solutions feature our industry-leading technologies and offer a range of design options:
from implementation of discrete components to fully integrated solutions and everything in between.
Total Solutions from ADI
Leverage ADI amplifier, data conversion, signal processing, communications, and power technology and expertise to design high resolution, low noise industrial
electromagnetic flow meter systems.
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Main Signal Chain
AC-TO-DC 110V/220V
AC-TO-DC
ANALOG PROCESS
POWER
EXCITATION
POWER
COMM
POWER
DC-TO-DC
INTERFACES
WIRELESS
RS-485/
RS-422
LDO
ISOLATED
DC-TO-DC
GATE DRIVER
PROFIBUS
REF
I/O
iCOUPLER
ISOLATION
EMF SIGNAL
AMP
MUX
MAIN
ADC
AMP
OPTIONAL
AUX
AMP
ADC
PROCESSOR
MCU
isoPOWER
ISOLATION
HMI
DAC
4mA TO 20mA
KEYBOARDS
DISPLAY
TEMPERATURE
MEASURE
Note: The signal chain above is representative of a typical EM flow meter system. The technical requirements of the blocks vary, but the products listed in the table are
representative ADI's solutions that meet some of those requirement.
Main Product Introduction
Part Number
Description
Key Features
Benefits
ADC
AD7663
16-bit, 250 kSPS CMOS ADC
35 mW @ 5 V, 16-bit no missing code, INL = 3 LSB, S/(N + D):
90 dB type @ 100 kHz
Fast throughput, serial or parallel interface
AD7685
16-bit, 250 kSPS PulSAR ® ADC
16-bit 250 kSPS no missing code, INL = ±2 LSB max,
4 mW @ 5 V/100 kSPS
Low power, internal conversion clock,
high throughput rate
AD7682
16-bit, 4-channels, 250 kSPS,
PulSAR ADC
16-bit 250 kSPS no missing code, INL = ±1.5 LSB max,
12.5 mW @ 5 V/250 kSPS
Unipolar single-ended and differential, low
power, single power with bipolar input,
competitive price
AD7192
24-bit 2 differential/4 pseudo
channels, Σ-Δ ADC with PGA
4.8 kHz, ultralow noise, rms noise: 11 nV @ 4.7 Hz (gain = 128),
15.5 noise-free bits @ 2.4 kHz (gain = 128), differential inputs
Ultralow noise, internal PGA, high
precision Σ-Δ ADC
4.7 Hz to 470 Hz, embedded 2 switchable current sources, reference,
PGA, low noise
Low power consumption and designed for
RTD/thermocouple temperature measure
Main ADC/Aux ADC
16-bit to 24-bit, 3 differential
AD7792/AD7793/
to 6 differential channels,
AD7794/AD7795
Σ-Δ ADC with PGA
Processor/MCU
ADUC7060
Analog microcontroller
(ARM7TDMI core)
24-bit, 8 kSPS Σ-Δ ADC up to 10 ADC channels; 1-channel 14-bit voltage
High resolution, low power, and abundant
DAC outputs; 16-bit, 6-channel PWM; on-chip voltage reference,
resources
±10 ppm/°C and temperature sensor; programmable sensor excitation
current sources, 200 µA to 2 mA; up to 14 GPIO pins
2 | ADI Electromagnetic Flow Meter Solutions
Main Product Introduction (continued)
Part Number
Description
Key Features
Benefits
AMP
AD8622
Low power and
precision op amp
Bandwidth = 540 kHz; VNOISE density= 11 nV/√Hz; I B = 45 pA; I SY = 350 μA
Very low noise and low leakage current
AD8667
Low noise op amp
Bandwidth = 520 kHz; VNOISE density = 21 nV/√Hz; I B = 0.3 pA; I SY = 355 μA
Extremely low leakage current, battery
powered
ADA4051-1
Micropower and
auto-zero op amp
Bandwidth = 125 kHz; VNOISE density = 95 nV/√Hz; I B = 20 pA; I SY = 20 μA
Perfect buffer for battery supply,
competitive price
AD8220
Instrumentation
amplifier
Bandwidth = 1.5 MHz; VOS = 1 mV; VNOISE density = 90 nV/√Hz; I B = 25 pA; gain control
interface = resistor
New generation for replacing classic AD620
AD8226
Instrumentation
amplifier
Bandwidth = 1.5 MHz; VOS = 1.2 mV; VNOISE density = 2 μV/√Hz; I B = 27 nA; gain control
interface = resistor
Good performance and competitive price
AD8228
Instrumentation
amplifier
Bandwidth = 650 kHz; VOS = 50 μV; VNOISE density = 15 nV/√Hz; I B = 600 pA; gain control
interface = pin strap
Excellent temperature drift and low noise
AD8231
Instrumentation
amplifier
Bandwidth = 2.7 MHz; VOS = 15 μV; VNOISE density = 66 nV/√Hz; I B = 500 pA; gain control
interface = digital
Digital gain control with low offset voltage
AD8276
Difference
amplifier
Wide input range beyond supplies; bandwidth: 550 kHz; low offset voltage drift: ±2 μV/°C
maximum; low gain drift: 1 ppm/°C maximum
Low cost solution for current source and
RTD measurement
Current source
DAC
12-bit/16-bit resolution; 0 mA to 24 mA ±0.01% FSR TUE; ±3 ppm/°C typical output drift;
on-chip reference (10 ppm/°C maximum)
Universal output DAC, supports HART
communication
AD5421
Current source
DAC
16-bit resolution; 3.2 mA to 24 mA; NAMUR-compliant alarm; TUE error: 0.05% maximum;
on-chip reference TC: 4 ppm/°C maximum, loop voltage range: 5.5 V to 52 V
Loop powered universal output DAC,
supports HART
AD5660
nanoDAC ®
Single 16-bit, 5 ppm/°C on-chip reference; tiny 8-lead SOT-23/MSOP packages
Tiny package and high performance
DAC
AD5410/
AD5420
REF
Sink low quiescent current: 100 μA
(maximum), low dropout voltage
ADR34xx
Voltage references Initial accuracy: ±0.1% (maximum) maximum temperature coefficient: 8 ppm/°C
ADR44x
Voltage references
Initial accuracy: ±0.04% (maximum), temperature coefficient: 3 ppm/°C; voltage noise:
2.25 μV p-p type in 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
Ultralow noise, high initial accuracy, and
perfect temp drift
ADuM322x
Isolated gate
driver
Dual-channel isolated, 2.5 kV rms; 4 A peak output current, 4.5 V to 18 V output drive,
output shoot-through logic protection; dc to 1 MHz
Output shoot-through logic protection,
enhanced system-level ESD performance
ADuM7234
Isolated gate
driver
Dual-channel isolated, 1 kV rms; 4 A peak output current, high frequency operation: 1 MHz
maximum, narrow-body, 16-lead SOIC, 1 kV rms input-to-output withstand voltage
1 kV rms input-to-output withstand
voltage with competitive price
ADuM320x
Dual channel
Digital isolators
2.5 kV rms; low power operation, 3 V/5 V level translation; high data rate: dc to 25 Mbps
(NRZ) enhanced system-level ESD performance per IEC 61000-4-x
Dual dc-to-25 Mbps (NRZ) signal isolation
channels, low power operation
ADuM140x
Quad channel
digital isolators
2.5 kV rms; low power operation, 3 V/5 V level translation; high data rate: dc to 90 Mbps
(NRZ), output enable function
High data rate: dc to 90 Mbps (NRZ), low
power operation
ADuM744x
Quad channel
digital isolators
1 kV rms isolation rating, low power operation; bidirectional communication, up to 25 Mbps
Low power operation and competitive price
data rate (NRZ),3 V/5 V level translation
ADM2587E
Isolated RS-485/
RS-422
Half or full duplex, 500 kbps, 5 V or 3.3 V operation
Integrated isolated dc-to-dc ±15 kV ESD
ADM2483
Isolated RS-485
transceiver
Half-duplex, 500 kbps data rate, 5 V or 3 V operations (VDD1), low power operation: 2.5 mA
max, 2.5 kV isolation
Low power operation and competitive price
ISM band
FSK/GFSK/OOK/
MSK/GMSK
transceiver IC
Frequency bands: 862 MHz to 928 MHz, 431 MHz to 464 MHz; ultralow power; ISM band,
data rates supported, 1 kbps to 300 Kbps, single-ended and differential PAs
ISM band, data rate: 1 kbps to 300 kbps,
very low power consumption
ADG1408
Multiplexers
4-channel/8-channel, ±15 V supply; 4.7 Ω maximum on resistance, up to
190 mA continuous current, rail-to-rail operation
Fully specified at ±15 V/+12 V/±5 V
ADG5408
Multiplexers
Latch-up proof construction, 4-channel/8-channel; 8 kV ESD rating, low on resistance
(13.5 Ω typical),
Fully specified at ±15 V, ±20 V, +12 V, and
+36 V, high switching speed, break-beforemake switching action
Gate Driver
Isolator
Interface
Wireless
ADF7023
MUX
www.analog.com | 3
Main Product Introduction (continued)
Part
Number
Power
ADP2300/
ADP2301
Description
Key Features
Benefits
DC-to-DC regulator
Single nonsynchronous step-down dc-to-dc converter, 1.2 A output, 0.7 MHz/1.4 MHz
frequency, input voltage range from 3.0 V to 20 V
Small SOT23-6 package, few peripheral
components, and small solution size
ADP1720
Linear regulator
Wide input voltage range: 4 V to 28 V, max output current: 50 mA, accuracy over line, load,
and temperature: ±2%, fixed 3.3 V and 5.0 V output voltage options
Wide input voltage range: 4 V to 28 V
ADP1612/
ADP1613
DC-to-DC regulator
Voltage input: 1.8 V to 5.5 V, output voltage: VIN to 20 V. pin-selectable 650 kHz or 1.3 MHz
PWM frequency
Boost dc-to-dc
ADP125
Linear regulator
5.5 V input, 500 mA maximum output current, 1% initial accuracy, up to 31 fixed-output
voltage options available from 1.75 V to 3.3 V; low quiescent current: 45 µA
Excellent load/line transient response
Circuits from the Lab™ Reference Circuits for Electromagnetic Flow Meter Solutions
• Complete High Speed, High CMRR Precision Analog Front End for Process Control (CN0213)—www.analog.com/CN0213
• 4 mA-to-20 mA Loop-Powered Temperature Monitor Using the ADuC7060/ADuC7061 Precision Analog Microcontroller (CN0145)—www.analog.com/CN0145
• Simplified 16-Bit, 4 mA-to-20 mA Output Solution Using the AD5420 (CN0098)—www.analog.com/CN0098
• 16-Bit Fully Isolated Output Module Using the AD5422 Single Chip Voltage and Current Output DAC and the ADuM1401 Digital Isolator (CN0065)—
www.analog.com/CN0065
• Fully Isolated Input Module Based on the AD7793 24-Bit Σ -Δ ADC and the ADuM5401 Digital Isolator (CN0066)—www.analog.com/CN0066
What ADI Can Provide to Customers
• ADC ADIsimADC; Σ-Δ ADC register configuration assistant
• DAC ADIsimDAC
• AMP ADIsimOpAmp, ADIsimDiffAmp
• Power EVB and ADIsimPower
• Processor EVB emulation tools and some software
Customer Interaction Center [email protected]
EngineerZone ez.analog.com
Free Sample www.analog.com/sample
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