Emerging Energy Applications Solutions Bulletin, Volume 10, Issue 4

Your Semiconductor Solutions Resource
Volume 10, Issue 4
EMERGING ENERGY
APPLICATIONS
Contents
Renewable Energy Generation
Renewable Energy Generation
Energy Storage System for Solar Photovoltaic
and Wind Turbine Generators
Safe and Efficient Solutions for
Energy Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Blackfin Processors for Solar
and Wind Applications . . . . . . . . . 2
Advanced Components Maximize
Energy Extraction and Optimize
System Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
New Energy Website . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Selection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Enterprise Energy Measurement
and Monitoring
In order to provide output power from solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and wind turbine systems
over a longer time period than conditions allow (due to darkness or insufficient wind speed), it is
necessary to store the generated energy for later use as demand requires. For storing the generated
energy in banks of Li-Ion cells, advanced technology solutions from Analog Devices enable safe and
efficient systems operation over time and temperature.
The diagram below demonstrates an outline system diagram for a solar PV system where storage
components are identical to those in a wind turbine system. Li-Ion cells are generally grouped in
modules or packs containing between six to 12 cells, then bolted together in a series (two battery
strings shown below) to produce the desired overall stack voltage.
Easy Single-Phase
Energy Measurement . . . . . . . . . . 6
I1
I2
PACK
#1-1
Digital Isolation Enables Cost Effective, Reliable Solutions . . . . . . 7
RL2
+HV
PACK
#2-1
AD7280
AD8280
AD7280
AD8280
V1
I3
R LIMIT
RL1
Utility Metering
Energy Measurement Solutions . . . 8
PV
PANEL
DC-TO-DC
BOOST
CONVERTER
AND
V1
CHARGER
V2
V3
AD7280
AD8280
Rx1
ADuC703x
VOLTAGE- AC
FED
OUT
DC-TO-AC
INVERTER
AD7280
AD8280
Rx2
ADuC703x
–HV
ADuM140x
ADSP-BF50x
ADuM140x
PWM
DRIVERS
Assigning dedicated monitoring components to each string eases individual string removal and allows
tighter control over the Li-Ion cells. Highly specialized cell monitor products such as the AD7280 and
the AD8280 provide full monitoring and backup capabilities for each Li-Ion cell in the string while
the individual string current can be monitored by the special purpose ADuC703x. The ADuC703x also
communicates with its associated series-connected string of Li-Ion cell monitors, running cell balancing
algorithms and communicating with the master Blackfin® DSP controller (ADSP-BF50x). The processor
communicates with the various system blocks via iCoupler® devices (ADuM140x) to allow the entire
front-end system to float and to electrically isolate the back end from high voltages for safety reasons.
Visit our new website for
data sheets, samples,
and additional
resources.
www.analog.com/V10Energy
In the above diagram, common current and voltage measurements are taken in at least three
locations to help with the system management; I1 and V1 help with the MPPT algorithm; I2 and V2
help with the V/I charging a circuit; I3 and V3 help with the inverter operation. These three voltages
are high voltages and can be measured via resistive dividers into the voltage channels of the
ADuC703x. The I1, I2, and I3 current measurements can be made with current monitoring products
such as the AD8212 or AD7400.
Blackfin Processors with Integrated ADCs Break Price/Performance
Barriers for Solar and Wind Applications
The global movement to drive greater energy efficiency across electrical and industrial infrastructure requires sophisticated
technology for intelligent power management. Leveraging advanced power control techniques for applications spanning industrial
control and automation, renewable energy generation, and smart grid energy distribution, system designers can achieve significant
efficiency gains that yield greater energy conservation, lower pollution emissions, and tremendous economic savings.
Blackfin ADSP-BF50x processors deliver up to 400 MHz of processing performance at a price point where 150 MHz to 200 MHz clock
speeds have been the norm. In addition, optional integrated analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and flash memory are available.
This performance profile equips designers to achieve greater system functionality and precision through the use of more sophisticated
algorithms and enables a number of system-level design objectives, including real-time processing of more data, reduced latency,
consolidation of processing tasks to a single processor, and greater flexibility to optimize system interface and control capabilities.
Blackfin ADSP-BF50x processors are ideally suited to execute the complex algorithms that enable inverters to convert variable
dc output into “clean” current and regulate power flow into the commercial electrical grid and/or local electrical networks fed by
residential and municipal PV cell arrays and wind turbines. With the signal processing performance to ensure ultraefficient energy
extraction and transmission, advanced power switching control functionality, and support for anti-islanding and maximum power point
tracker (MPPT) capabilities, Blackfin ADSP-BF50x processors are optimized for renewable energy and smart grid infrastructure.
The ADSP-BF50x family includes the ADSP-BF504 starting at $4.50, the ADSP-BF504F with integrated flash memory starting at
$6.50, and the ADSP-BF506F with integrated flash memory and
ADC starting at $10.60—all prices are based on 10,000 unit
SYSTEM CONTROL BLOCKS
quantities. Processors are sampling to customers today. EZ-KIT
®
TWI
EMULATOR
Lite evaluation kits for Blackfin ADSP-BF50x processors are
EVENT
WATCHDOG
PLL
(I 2CTEST AND CONTROLLER
TIMER
CONTROL
available from ADI’s authorized distributors and are priced
COMPATIBLE)
at $199.00.
OPTIONAL
IN-PACKAGE DIE
BLACKFIN PROCESSOR CORE
Features
•400 MHz LP process
•4 MB flash (instructions and data)
•ADC dual SAR, 12 channels, 12 bits, up to 2 MSPS
•2 UARTs, with flow control
•2 SPORTs
L1
L1
L1
INSTRUCTION
SRAM 16kB
CACHE 16kB
DATA
SRAM 16kB
CACHE 16kB
SCRATCHPAD
SRAM 4kB
SYSTEM INTERFACE UNIT
FLASH
4MB
ADC
•2 SPIs
•1 TWI (I2C ®-compatible)
•Eight 32-bit GP timers
•1 CAN
PERIPHERAL BLOCKS
CAN, PPI, 2 × UART WITH FLOW CONTROL, 2 × SPORT, 2 × SPI,
8 × GP TIMERS, 2 × 3-PHASE PWM, 2 × ROTARY COUNTER,
ADC CONTROL MODULE, REMOVABLE STORAGE INTERFACE
35 GPIOs
•6-pair PWM unit (in addition to 8 timers with PWM)
•35 GPIOs (muxed with interfaces)
•Two 32-bit up/down counters with rotary support
•Removable storage interface
•1 PPI, up to 16 bits
Package Options
•12 mm × 12 mm, 88-lead, 0.5 mm pitch LFCSP
with single exposed paddle, no ADC
•14 mm × 14 mm, 120-lead, 0.4 mm pitch LQFP with
dual exposed paddles, with flash and ADC
Web-Based Tools
It’s never been easier to add signal processing to your
embedded design with low cost development tools,
reference designs, 24/7 support at EngineerZone,
on-demand training, free software, and more. For
more information, visit www.analog.com/blackfin50x.
•Operating temperature: –40°C to +85°C
2
For data sheets, samples, and additional resources, visit www.analog.com/V10Energy
Next Generation Wind Turbines Utilize Precision ADI Components
to Maximize Energy Extraction and Optimize System Controls
Northern Power Systems’ Northwind™ 100 delivers 100 kilowatts of rated power for community wind applications such as schools/
universities, businesses, farms, and municipalities. ADI’s expertise in next generation energy infrastructure assures that companies like
Northern Power Systems are equipped with advanced components across the entire signal chain to enhance the value, performance,
and innovation of their system designs.
The power flow of the Northwind 100 generator is regulated by the power converter to compensate for variable wind speeds, which
helps to maximize energy extraction. This capability ultimately enables a Northwind 100 wind turbine to provide a steady flow of clean
power to a local grid, simplifying grid interconnect infrastructure and maintaining grid stability. Eliminating the need for a gearbox
transmission dramatically reduces lifecycle maintenance and increases system reliability.
At the heart of this system is ADI’s 32-bit floating-point SHARC® ADSP-21363 digital signal processor, which hosts real-time,
closed-loop control algorithms to efficiently control the Northwind 100 generator and power converter subsystems, based in part on
incoming data provided by the AD7656 16-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) embedded in the data acquisition hardware. Vibration
monitoring uses ADI’s dual-axis iMEMS® ADXL203 accelerometer subassembly part affixed to the turbine’s nacelle.
SHARC ADSP-21363 Digital Signal Processor
•Integrated 3 Mb SRAM/4 Mb ROM on-chip memory
•Rich peripheral set to accommodate a wide range of configuration options
•6 high speed serial ports (SPORTs)
AD7656 Analog-to-Digital Converter
•Provides the high speed signal sampling and data conversion that
feeds into the system’s real-time, closed-loop control algorithms
®
•250 kSPS, 6-channel simultaneous sampling bipolar
16-bit analog-to-digital converter
•Manufactured using industrial CMOS (iCMOS®) process
technology, combining high voltage silicon with submicron
CMOS and complementary bipolar technologies
ADXL203 iMEMS Accelerometer
•Precision dual-axis iMEMS accelerometer
•Measures acceleration with a full-scale range of ±1.7 g
•Typical noise floor: 110 μg/√Hz
New Energy Website Features Our Leading Measurement, Processing,
and Communications Solutions
From energy generation to transmission, distribution, and
metering, our high performance product and technology offerings
have enabled next generation energy solutions for over a decade.
Our electronic metering ICs accelerated the transition from
electromechanical to solid-state meters while providing high
accuracy and reliability. In a similar fashion our portfolio of data
converters, DSPs, and signal conditioning products have played
a key role in advancing the state of power quality monitoring in
substation equipment. More recently, our products have enabled
advanced solutions in renewable energy systems.
Analog Devices is one of the few companies providing the
full range of required technologies and a global support
infrastructure.
Now we make it even easier to design and deploy these systems
with a dedicated online resource highlighting our systems-level
expertise, product recommendations, news, articles, and more. Explore the new website at www.analog.com/energy.
For data sheets, samples, and additional resources, visit www.analog.com/V10Energy
3
Emerging Energy Applications Selection Guide
ADCs
Part
Number
Number of Input Channels
Input Voltage
Range (V)
Resolution
(Bits)
Accuracy
AD7280
6 per device (180 per system)
7.5 to 30
12
±1 LSB typ
AD7656
6
±5, ±10
16
±1 LSB typ
AD8280
6 per device (180 per system)
6 to 30
N/A
±50 mV
AD7400
1
±200 mV for specified
performance
16
±2 LSB
Amplifiers
Part
Number
Common-Mode
Voltage Range (V)
Output Format
Operating
Temperature Range
Package
AD8206
–2 to +65
Voltage
–40°C to +125°C
8-lead SOIC
AD8212
7 to 65
(500 possible)
Current
–40°C to +125°C
8-lead MSOP
Analog Microcontrollers
Part
Number
Core
Analog Input
Structure
Input Voltage
Range (V)
Interface
ADuC703x
ARM7
3 × 16-bit ADCs
–0.5 to +18
LIN, SPI, UART
Isolation Rating
(kV rms)
Channel Count
Max Data
Rate (Mbps)
Interface Type
ADuM120x
2.5
2
1/10/25
Digital isolator
ADuM141x
2.5
4
1/10
Digital isolator
Multichannel Digital Isolators
Part
Number
ADuM220x
5
2
1/10
Digital isolator
ADuM240x
5
4
1/10/90
Digital isolator
isoPower Digital Isolator
Part
Number
ADuM540x
Isolation Rating
(kV rms)
Channel Count
Max Data
Rate (Mbps)
Interface Type
2.5
4
1/25
Digital isolator with isoPower ®
Digital Interface
4
Part
Number
Isolation Rating
(kV rms)
Channel Count
Max Data
Rate (Mbps)
Interface Type
Supply
Voltage (V)
ADM485
None
1 half duplex
5
RS-485
5
ADM487E
None
1 half duplex
250
RS-485, enhanced ESD
5
ADM3072E
None
1 half duplex
115
RS-485, enhanced ESD
3.3
ADM2483
2.5
1 half duplex
500
RS-485, isolated
5
ADM2484E
5
1 half/full duplex
500
RS-485, isolated
3.3
ADM2587E
2.5
1 full duplex
500
RS-485, isoPower
5.3
For data sheets, samples, and additional resources, visit www.analog.com/V10Energy
Energy Measurement ICs
Part
Number
Number
of Phases
Energy Measurements
Current Sensor
Interface
Output Interface
ADE7878
3
Watt, VA, V rms, I rms, VAR
Shunt, transformer,
Rogowski coil
Pulsed, SPI, I2C, HSDC
ADE7858
3
Watt, VA, V/I rms, VAR
Shunt, transformer,
Rogowski coil
Pulsed, SPI, I2C, HSDC
ADE7763
1
Watt, VA, V rms, I rms
Shunt, transformer,
Rogowski coil
Pulsed, SPI
ADE7753
1
Watt, VA, V/I rms, VAR
Shunt, transformer,
Rogowski coil
Pulsed, SPI
Processors
Part
Number
Core Architecture
Core Performance
(MHz)
On-Chip Flash
(Mbits)
ADC ENOB
Performance
ADSP-21363
Floating-point
333
No
External
ADSP-BF504
Fixed-point
400
No
External
ADSP-BF504F
Fixed-point
400
32
External
ADSP-BF506F
Fixed-point
400
32
11-bit
RF ICs
Part
Number
Bands (MHz)
Bandwidth
Details
Relevant Standards
ADF7020
431 to 478, 862 to 956
Medium
Data rate = 200 kbps
EN 300-220, FCC Pt. 15.247
ADF7021
80 to 650, 862 to 940
Narrow
External inductors option,
data rate = 32 kbps
FCC Pt. 90/95/15, ARIB T67,
EN 300-220 (NB)
ADF7021-N
80 to 650, 862 to 940
Narrow
External inductors option,
data rate = 18 kbps
FCC Pt. 90/95/15, ARIB T67
ADF7022
686.25, 868.95, 869.85
Medium
io-homecontrol®
communications processor
EN 300-220, io-homecontrol
ADF7023
431 to 464, 862 to 928
Medium
Communication processor,
encryption, data rate = 300 Kbps
EN 300-220, FCC Pt. 15.247
ADF7242
2400
Wide
Communications processor, dual
mode 802.15.4 and 2 Mbps GFSK
802.15.4, ZigBee
MEMS
Part
Number
Full-Scale
Range (g)
Resolution
Power Consumption
Package
ADXL203
±1.7
1 mg @ 60 Hz
3.5 mW @ 5 V
5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm
LCC package
I2C and USB Digital Isolators
Part
Number
Isolation Rating
(kV rms)
Channel Count
Max Data
Rate (Mbps)
Interface Type
ADuM125x
2.5
2
1
I 2C
ADuM225x
5
2
1
I 2C
ADuM4160
5
1
1.5/12
USB
For data sheets, samples, and additional resources, visit www.analog.com/V10Energy
5
Enterprise Energy Measurement and Monitoring
Easy Single-Phase Energy Measurement
Energy awareness is increasingly driving product features and customer purchase decisions. From data centers to consumer appliances, customers are demanding the ability to monitor and manage their energy consumption. To meet this need, manufacturers need
cost-effective, easy to use, accurate energy measurement solutions.
Analog Devices is the only energy measurement supplier to offer a broad family of both energy measurement analog front ends (AFEs)
and complete energy measurement solutions with an integrated MCU. All of the AFEs from Analog Devices offer high performance
energy measurement easily paired with a customer’s preferred MCU, while its energy measurement ICs with an integrated 8052 MCU
offer an easy to use single-chip solution.
The ADE7763 single-phase active and apparent energy metering IC features proprietary ADCs and fixed-function DSP for high accuracy
over large variations in environmental conditions and time. The ADE7763 incorporates two second-order, 16-bit ∑-∆ ADCs, a digital
integrator (on Ch. 1), reference circuitry, a temperature sensor, and all the signal processing required to perform active and apparent
energy measurements, line-voltage period measurements, and rms calculation on the voltage and current channels. The diagram
demonstrates a typical energy measurement solution based on the ADE7763 energy measurement AFE.
Why Choose Analog Devices?
•Analog Devices has been the leading supplier of energy measurement products for over a decade, with more than 250 million
energy measurement ICs sold.
•The ADE series of energy measurement ICs
offers the highest performance and most
flexible solutions available for electrical
energy measurement.
•The energy measurement solutions from
Analog Devices exceed Energy Star server
and GreenGrid.org data center electricity
measurement accuracy specifications.
AC
ADE7763 ENERGY MEASUREMENT IC
SENSOR
SENSOR
16-BIT -
ADC
16-BIT -
ADC
ENERGY
MEASUREMENT
DSP
(WATT, VA, I rms,
V rms, PEAK
AND SAG DETECTION,
VOLTAGE PERIOD
DETECTION)
Energy Measurement Solutions Features
POWER SUPPLIES, MOTORS, LIGHTING, SENSORS, COMMUNICATIONS
Applications
•Detection: voltage sag, peak, and period
• Data center equipment (servers,
storage, communications)
•Interfaces: I2C and SPI serial
• Industrial equipment
• Lighting
• HVAC
• Uninterruptible power supply
• Consumer electronics
• Refrigeration
• Household appliances
•Supports direct interface to low cost
shunt, as well as transformer based
current sensors
AN-639 Application Note, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs),
Analog Devices Energy (ADE) Products. For more information on ADE
products, and to access this note, please visit www.analog.com/AN-639.
6
REGISTERS
AND SERIAL
INTERFACE
(SPI)
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
•1000:1 dynamic range at 0.1% energy
measurement accuracy
•Active, reactive, and apparent energy
measurements, in addition to I rms and V rms
EMBEDDED MCU
• FLASH, RAM
• LCD CONTROLLER
• RTC
• COMMUNICATIONS
• SPI, I2C, CAN,
ETHERNET, ZIGBEE
BLUETOOTH, WIFI
• GPIO
For data sheets, samples, and additional resources, visit www.analog.com/V10Energy
Digital Isolation Technology Enables Cost-Effective, Reliable Solutions
Isolation is an important component of energy metering systems and is used at different parts of the system depending on the specific
system topology. For example, if shunt resistors are used for current measurement, isolation is often used at the output of the ADC
or metrology IC to protect the microcontroller and communications system from the mains voltage. Other areas where isolation is
commonly used include external interfaces (such as RS-485), communications interfaces, and human interfaces.
Most modern utility meters include complex communications boards for interfacing to automatic meter reading (AMR) or advanced
meter infrastructure (AMI) systems. The two most common communications methods are wireless and power-line communication
(PLC). Similar methods are used for enterprise or nonutility metering applications, in addition to USB (ADuM4160) and network
connections. Isolation is used to protect both the communications and metrology modules in the event that a large voltage differential
develops between the modules.
Analog Devices offers a comprehensive portfolio of isolation ICs, both iCoupler digital isolators and isoPower isolators that include
power isolation. Integrated power isolation allows the designer to reduce the number of components required for a design or to
implement isolated power domains in challenging areas.
Many meters utilize RS-485 connections for calibration, debugging, and/or local control/reading. ADI also supports a comprehensive
portfolio of isolated (ADM248x/ADM249x) and nonisolated (ADM487E) RS-485 transceivers and has introduced RS-485 products that
include built-in power isolation (ADM2582E).
Critical specifications for an isolation solution include the insulation rating, maximum continuous working voltage, data rate, power
consumption, and channel count. ADI offers the broadest range of isolation ratings with products specified at 1 kV rms, 2.5 kV rms,
and 5 kV rms. Also critical is the lifetime at
which an isolator can operate at high voltage.
Isolation/Interface Options for Metering Architectures
Many types of isolators (including optocouplers)
degrade significantly over time when exposed
INTEGRATION
OPTIONS INCLUDE:
to the maximum continuous working voltage.
ADM485/ADM487E
ADM3072
For applications that are connected directly
RS-485
ADM2483/ADM2484E
to the mains voltage, both the peak voltage
ADM2587E
and degradation of the isolator over time at
the mains voltage need to be considered.
The lifetime of iCoupler devices are fully
ISOLATION
METROLOGY
ADuM120x
specified in the data sheets; for example, the
ENGINE WITH
ADuM4160
USB
ADuM141x
ADCs,
CONTROLLER
ADM2587E is specified to have a minimum
ADuM220x
DSP, SPI
ADuM240x
lifetime of 50 years at a continuous working
voltage of 565 V p-p ac.
ADuM120x
ADuM220x
AMR/AMI
Web-Based Tools
For additional tools and resources such as application notes, videos,
brochures, and presentations, visit www.analog.com/icouplertools.
For data sheets, samples, and additional resources, visit www.analog.com/V10Energy
7
Analog Devices, Inc.
600 North Bedford Street
East Bridgewater, MA 02333-1122
Utility Metering
Energy Measurement Solutions for Utility Meters
In addition to enterprise energy applications, Analog Devices’ ADE energy measurement ICs address the challenges
of next generation smart meter architectures and are ideal for measuring active energy (kWh), apparent energy (kVA),
reactive energy (kVAR), rms, and power quality with the highest accuracy in single-phase and polyphase revenue
meters, industrial instruments, and energy monitoring applications. Superior in quality, reliability, and performance,
Analog Devices’ ADE energy measurement ICs combine analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with fixed-function digital
signal processors (DSPs) to perform critical measurements, while providing unparalleled functionality and ease of use.
With more than 250 million energy meters using ADI’s technology deployed worldwide, Analog Devices has delivered
more energy measurement solutions than any other semiconductor company.
For metering communications, ADF70xx transmitters and ADF702x transceivers are well suited for short range
designs such as automatic meter reading (AMR), industrial automation, alarm and security systems, home
automation systems, remote controls, and other wireless network and telemetry systems where low power
consumption and very long range are required.
With the move toward more smart metering applications, the complexity of power management devices continues to
rise. ADI’s broad range of power solutions offers higher efficiency, smaller size, and lower cost than traditional solutions.
In a variety of architectures for energy metering systems, ADI offers a full portfolio of RS-485 transceivers and
iCoupler digital isolators, along with other support functions: switches and multiplexers, temperature sensors,
voltage references, and accelerometers for antitamper.
ADE7753/ADE7763 Single-Phase Metering ICs
ADE78xx Polyphase Metering ICs
•Surpasses IEC 61036 requirement
•0.2% error over 3000:1
•Less than 0.1% error over a large current
dynamic range
•Dynamic range: V rms 0.1% error over 1000:1
•Digital calibration
•Bandwidth: 2 kHz V rms and I rms
•ADE7763: no VAR and lower price
•Easier calibration
All prices in this bulletin are in USD in quantities
greater than 1000 (unless otherwise noted),
recommended lowest grade resale, FOB U.S.A.
I2C refers to a communications protocol
originally developed by Philips Semiconductors
(now NXP Semiconductors).
•Dynamic range: I rms 0.1% error over 1000:1
©2010 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the
property of their respective owners.
Inventory Code: EMERG-ENE-V10-IS4-10
Printed in the U.S.A.
SB08908-2-3/10
www.analog.com
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Worldwide Headquarters
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Tel: 781.329.4700
(800.262.5643,
U.S.A. only)
Fax: 781.461.3113
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Fax: 49.89.76903.157
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Fax: 813.5402.1064
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Headquarters
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