AN-891: ADuC703x Series LIN Baud Rate Calculations (Rev. 0) PDF

AN-891
APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com
ADuC703x Series LIN Baud Rate Calculations
by Aude Richard
INTRODUCTION
LIN FRAME HEADER
The purpose of this application note is to familiarize the user
with calculating the divisor values, COMDIV0, COMDIV1 and
COMDIV2, for use with UART on the ADuC703x series devices
from Analog Devices, Inc. This application note assumes that the
user is familiar with Local Interconnect Network (LIN) 2.0
specifications.
A standard LIN communication frame is shown in Figure 1.
It is broken down into a break symbol, a Sync byte, the
protected identifier, data and a checksum.
This document is divided into three sections:
•
The Sync byte is shown in more detail in Figure 2. The Sync
byte is 0xAA transmitted at the master’s desired baud rate. The
standard method for determining the master’s bit rate is to
measure the time from the first falling edge to the fifth falling
edge. This value is divided by eight, which gives the desired bit
rate. This value is then used to calculate the UART divisor
values. The calculations are described in more detail in
subsequent sections. This application note assumes that the user
has set up the LHS MMR to time the full eight bits of the Sync
byte (LHSCON1 = 0x62).
FRAME SLOT
FRAME
INTERFRAME
SPACE
RESPONSE SPACE
HEADER
BREAK
SYNC
RESPONSE
PROTECTED
IDENTIFIER
DATA 1
DATA 2
DATA N
06488-001
•
LIN Frame Header. This section explains the LIN Frame
header and the Sync byte.
LIN Baud Rate Calculations. This section explains one
approach to calculating the UART divisor values using
the LIN Hardware Synchronization (LHS) functionality.
LIN Baud Rate Calculations Example C Code. This
section provides an example of C code implementation
of the calculations explained in the LIN Baud Rate
Calculations section.
The break symbol signifies the start of the LIN packet.
The Sync byte calibrates the slave’s baud rate.
The protected identifier identifies the slave.
The checksum is either a classic checksum, calculated over
the data transmitted, or the extended checksum, which is
calculated over the protected identifier and data.
CHECKSUM
Figure 1. LIN Frame
START
BIT
STOP
BIT
Figure 2. LIN Sync Byte
Rev. 0 | Page 1 of 4
06488-002
•
•
•
•
•
AN-891
LIN BAUD RATE CALCULATIONS
Using the LHS system, the user gets a value in LHSVAL0 after
the Sync byte is received. The LHSVAL0 contains the equivalent
of 8 TBIT. This value is used to generate the values for the UART
dividers COMDIV0, COMDIV1, and the fractional divider
COMDIV2. For more information on the UART refer to the
relevant ADuC703x data sheet.
To calculate the COMDIV0/COMDIV1 values using the
standard baud rate generator, the following basic UART
equation is used:
DL =
where M and N are COMDIV2 values.
M+
Replacing Baud Rate,
M+
DL is the value of COMDIV0 and COMDIV1.
CD is the clock divider.
N
LHSVAL0
=
2048 DL × 2CD × 2 × 16 × 2
M+
N
LHSVAL0
=
2048 DL × 2CD + 6
To reduce the need for complex math used in the calculation of the
fractional divider, limit the values of DL (COMDIV0/COMDIV1)
to the power of two. For example, if DL = 17, use DL = 16 = 24
in the calculation of N. This automatically adjusts the value of N
to compensate for the error introduced by modifying DL.
In terms of LHSVAL0, the desired baud rate is as follows:
5.12 MHz × 8
LHSVAL0
DL = 2 DL _ Power
(LHSVAL0 is clocked from an internal 5.12 MHz clock and it is
assumed that LHSCON1 is configured to measure 8 TBIT.)
If the standard baud rate equation and the desired baud rate
equation are combined,
20.48 MHz × LHSVAL0
N
LHSVAL0
=
2048 2DL _ Power × 2CD + 6
M+
N
LHSVAL0
= DL _ Power + CD + 6
2048 2
N=
211 × LHSVAL0
− 2048
2DL _ Power + CD + 6
N = 25 − DL _ Power − CD × LHSVAL0 − 2048
LHSVAL0
2CD + 6
Using only the standard baud rate generator equation gives the
required values of COMDIV0/COMDIV1.
For increased accuracy, use the ADuC703x fractional divider
with the DL value (COMDIV0/COMDIV1) calculated
previously for the standard baud rate generator. The equation
using the fractional divider is as follows:
Baud Rate =
M+
If M is set equal to 1,
5.12 MHz × 2CD × 16 × 2 × 8
LHSVAL0
DL = CD
2 × 16 × 2 × 2
DL =
M+
Baud Rate × 2 CD × 16 × 2
where:
DL =
20.48 MHz × LHSVAL0
N
=
2048 5.12 MHz × 8 × DL × 2CD × 16 × 2
This simplifies to
20.48 MHz
Desired Baud Rate =
20.48 MHz
N
=
2048 Baud Rate × DL × 2CD × 16 × 2
For example, for a baud rate of 19,200 bps, with CD = 0,
DL = 33 and LHSVAL0 = 2133, then N = 21 and the baud rate is
19,197 bps. If DL = 32 and N = 85 is used, the baud rate is then
19,203 bps.
20.48 MHz
N ⎞
DL × 2CD × 16 × 2 × ⎛⎜ M +
⎟
2048 ⎠
⎝
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 4
AN-891
LIN BAUD RATE CALCULATIONS EXAMPLE C CODE
When programming in C, the preceding equations can be simply written by using the << and >> shift commands.
// DL = LHSVAL0 >> CD_Bits + 6
iDL = LHSVAL0 >> (( POWCON & 0x7)+6);
// writing DL as 2^iDL_Power
iDL_Power = 0;
iDL_temp = iDL;
while(iDL >> (iDL_Power +1 ))
{
iDL_Power++;
}
// Configuration of the fractional divider:
// M = 1
// N = LHSVAL0 × 2 ^ (5 – (iDL_Power + CD)) - 2048
iDL_temp = iDL_Power + (POWCON & 0x7);
if (iDL_temp > 5)
{
iDL_temp = (LHSVAL0 >> (iDL_temp -5)) - 2048;
}
else
{
iDL_temp= (LHSVAL0 << (5 - iDL_temp)) - 2048;
}
COMDIV2 = 0x8800 + iDL_temp;
COMCON0 = 0x080;
// Setting DLAB
// Setting DIV0 and DIV1 to DL calculated
COMDIV0 = (1<< iDL_Power) & 0xff;
COMDIV1 = (1<< iDL_Power) & 0xff00;
COMCON0 = 0x03;
COMIEN0 = 0x1;
// Setting DLAB
// Enable RX interrupt
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 4
AN-891
NOTES
©2006 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
AN06488-0-11/06(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 4
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