Data Sheet

Freescale Semiconductor
Advance Information
Document Number: MC34674
Rev. 2.0, 11/2008
High Input Voltage Travel
Charger for Single-cell Li-Ion
Batteries
34674
The MC34674 is a fully integrated single-cell Li-Ion and Li-Polymer
battery charger optimized for travel charger applications. The few
external components required include a dual-color LED for chargestatus indication, a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor
circuit for setting the charge temperature window, and two decoupling
capacitors. The high input voltage, up to 28 V, allows low-cost AC/DC
converters to be used for further system cost reduction. A typical
charge cycle of the MC34674 includes trickle, constant-current (CC)
and constant-voltage (CV) charge modes. The CC-mode current is
selectable from 50 mA to 1.05 A with 8% accuracy and the constantoutput voltage in the CV-mode is fixed at 4.2 V with 0.4% accuracy over
-20°C to 70°C temperature range.
The MC34674 has all the features such as trickle charging for a
deeply discharged battery, an internal timer for termination to prevent
charging a failed battery, charger current thermal foldback for thermal
protection, and smart battery connection verification to prevent
charging in case there is no battery connected. It also protects the
system with its input over-voltage protection (OVP) feature. In addition,
it has a 2.6 V falling power-on-reset (POR) threshold, making it perfect
to work with current limited power supplies. When the charger is
disabled, the BAT pin leaks less than 1.0 μA current from the battery.
All the above functions are fit into a small 8-lead 2X3 UDFN package.
Features
• No external MOSFET, reverse-blocking diode or currentsense resistor are required
• 28 V maximum input voltage rating with 11 V over-voltage
protection threshold
• Factory programmable charge current
• Trickle charge for fully discharged batteries
• ±0.4% voltage accuracy over -20°C to 70°C
POWER MANAGEMENT IC
EP SUFFIX (PB-FREE)
98ASA10774D
8-PIN UDFN
ORDERING INFORMATION
Device
Refer to Table 1,
Device Variations
Temperature
Range (TA)
Package
-40°C to 85°C
8 UDFN-EP
• Driving a dual-color LED and smart battery connection
verification optimized for travel charger applications
• Interface to NTC thermistor
• Internal timer and thermal current limit
• Small 2X3 mm2 thermally enhanced UDFN package
• Pb-free packaging designated by suffix code EP
34674
VIN
VIN
BAT
CIN
COUT
RPU
TO BATTERY
VREF
RED
TEMP
RS
GRN
OFF
ON
EN
GND
Figure 1. 34674 Simplified Application Diagram
This document contains certain information on a new product.
Specifications and information herein are subject to change without notice.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2007-8. All rights reserved.
TO BATTERY NTC
(THERMISTOR)
DEVICE VARIATIONS
DEVICE VARIATIONS
Table 1. Device Variations
Freescale Part No.(1)
CC-Mode Current (ICHG)
Reference Location
MC34674AEP/R2
1.05A
Table 6
MC34674BEP/R2
850mA
Table 6
MC34674CEP/R2
650mA
Table 6
MC34674DEP/R2
450mA
Table 6
Notes
1. Freescale offers a series of MC34674 variations. Each variation has an increment of 50 mA or 100 mA for the CC-mode current.
34674
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
VIN
BAT
–
VIN
Monitor
Internal
Supply
+
Charge
Control
6 mA
REF
–
+
VREF
Die
Temp
110°C
RED
VOS
VIN + –
+
–
+
BAT
–
+
6 mA
–
GRN
Logic
Control
EN
IREF
IEOC
NTC
Interface
VREF
TEMP
GND
Figure 2. 34674 Simplified Internal Block Diagram
34674
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
3
PIN CONNECTIONS
PIN CONNECTIONS
VIN
1
8
BAT
GRN
2
7
VREF
RED
3
6
TEMP
EN
4
5
GND
EPAD
Figure 3. 34674 Pin Connections
Table 2. 34674 Pin Definitions
A functional description of each pin can be found in the Functional Pin Description section beginning on page 12.
Pin Number
Pin Name
Pin Function
Formal Name
Definition
1
VIN
Input
Input supply
2
GRN
Output
Green indicator
Indication of the charge status. Open drain output with 6 mA current limit.
3
RED
Output
Red indicator
Indication of the charge status. Open drain output with 6 mA current limit.
4
EN
Input
Enable
Active-low enable logic input.
5
GND
Ground
Ground
Ground.
6
TEMP
Input
NTC interface input
The NTC thermistor interface pin.
7
VREF
Output
NTC interface bias
voltage
The bias voltage for the NTC interface circuit.
8
BAT
Output
Charger output
EPAD
EPAD
N/A
Exposed pad
The supply input.
The charger output pin to the battery.
Exposed pad for thermal dissipation enhancement. Must be soldered on
the large ground plane on the PCB to increase the thermal dissipation.
The pad must be connected to GND electrically.
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
MAXIMUM RATINGS
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
MAXIMUM RATINGS
Table 3. Maximum Ratings
All voltages are with respect to ground unless otherwise noted. Exceeding these ratings may cause a malfunction or
permanent damage to the device.
Ratings
Symbol
Value
Unit
ELECTRICAL RATINGS
Input voltage range
V
VIN Pin
VIN
-0.3 to 28
GRN and RED Pins
VGRN, VRED
-0.3 to 12
EN, BAT, REF and TEMP Pins
VEN, VBAT,
VREF, VTEMP
-0.3 to 5.5
ESD Voltage(2)
V
VESD
Human Body Model (HBM)
±2000
Machine Model (MM)
±200
THERMAL RATINGS
Operating Temperature
°C
Ambient
TA
-40 to 85
Junction
TJ
-40 to 150
TSTG
-65 to 150
RθJC
10
RθJA
70
TPPRT
Note 5
Storage Temperature
Thermal
Resistance(3)
°C/W
Junction-to-Case
Junction-to-Ambient
Peak Package Reflow Temperature During
°C
Reflow(4),(5)
°C
Notes
2. ESD testing is performed in accordance with the Human Body Model (HBM) (CZAP = 100 pF, RZAP = 1500 Ω), and the Machine Model
(MM) (CZAP = 200 pF, RZAP = 0 Ω).
3.
4.
5.
Device mounted on the Freescale EVB test board per JEDEC DESD51-2.
Pin soldering temperature limit is for 10 seconds maximum duration. Not designed for immersion soldering. Exceeding these limits may
cause malfunction or permanent damage to the device.
Freescale’s Package Reflow capability meets Pb-free requirements for JEDEC standard J-STD-020C. For Peak Package Reflow
Temperature and Moisture Sensitivity Levels (MSL), Go to www.freescale.com, search by part number [e.g. remove prefixes/suffixes
and enter the core ID to view all orderable parts. (i.e. MC33xxxD enter 33xxx), and review parametrics.
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
5
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Table 4. Static Electrical Characteristics
Characteristics noted under conditions VIN = 5.0 V, -40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C, CIN = COUT = 1.0 μF (see Figure 1), unless otherwise
noted. Typical values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at VIN = 5.0 V and TA = 25°C under nominal conditions,
unless otherwise noted.
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
Input Voltage Range(6)
VIN
4.3
VIN Pin Supply Current
IIN
Typ
Max
Unit
10
V
POWER INPUT
μA
Charger enabled(7)
-
1400
-
Charger disabled
-
300
350
Power On Reset
VPOR
V
Rising VIN threshold
3.0
-
3.9
Falling VIN threshold
-
2.4
2.6
VOVP
10
11
12
V
VOVPHYS
-
400
-
mV
Over-voltage Protection Rising Threshold
Over-voltage-Protection Threshold Hysteresis
VIN-BAT Offset Voltage
VOS
mV
Rising threshold
-
-
60
Falling threshold
1.0
-
22
VIN = 5.0 V; IBAT = 10 mA; TA = 25°C
4.190
4.20
4.210
VIN = 5.0 V; IBAT = 10 mA; TA = -20 to 70°C
4.183
4.20
4.217
VIN = 5.0 V; IBAT = 10 mA; TA = -40 to 85°C
4.179
4.20
4.221
-
265
450
-
-
1.0
-2.0
-
4.0
MC34674A
966
1050
1134
MC34674B
782
850
918
MC34674C
598
650
702
MC34674D
414
450
486
MC34674A
74
105
136
MC34674B
60
85
110
MC34674C
46
65
84
MC34674D
32
45
58
OUTPUT
Regulated Output Voltage(8)
VBAT
Power MOSFET On Resistance
V
RDS(ON)
mΩ
VBAT = 4.0 V; IBAT = 0.5 A; ICHG = 1.05 A
BAT Pin Standby Current
μA
ISTDBY
VIN not powered or charger disabled
VIN powered and in charge completion state (average over 2
seconds)(7)
CHARGE CURRENT
Constant-Current-Mode Charge Current
ICHG
Trickle-Mode Charge Current(9)
mA
ITRKL
ICHG
Notes
6. Refer to the Power-on-Reset parameter for VIN turn on and turn off values.
7.
8.
9.
Supply current does not include the current delivered to the battery through the BAT pin.
In the test mode, the charger still operates in CV mode after EOC.
Characterized over the temperature range -40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Table 4. Static Electrical Characteristics (continued)
Characteristics noted under conditions VIN = 5.0 V, -40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C, CIN = COUT = 1.0 μF (see Figure 1), unless otherwise
noted. Typical values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at VIN = 5.0 V and TA = 25°C under nominal conditions,
unless otherwise noted.
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
MC34674A
84
105
126
MC34674B
68
85
102
MC34674C
52
65
78
MC34674D
34
45
57
VTRKL
2.8
2.9
3.0
V
VTRKLHYS
-
100
-
mV
VRECH
4.07
4.10
4.135
V
VTHRCHG
-
25
50
mV
IDCHG
4.5
6.0
7.5
mA
ICHGCM
-
24
-
μA
IDCC
-
585
-
μA
Low Temperature Rising Threshold(11)
VLTRT
0.6592
2/3
0.6741
VREF
Threshold(11)
VLTFT
-
0.6468
-
VREF
(11)
VHTFT
0.3297
1/3
0.3389
VREF
Threshold(11)
VHTRT
-
0.3441
-
VREF
TLIM
95
110
125
°C
EN Input High Threshold Voltage
VIH
1.5
-
-
V
EN Input Low Threshold Voltage
VIL
-
-
0.5
V
EN Pin Internal Pull-down Current
IEN
-
2.0
7.5
μA
5.0
6.0
7.0
-
-
1.0
End-of-Charge (EOC) Threshold
IEOC
Unit
mA
CHARGE THRESHOLDS
Trickle-mode Rising Threshold Voltage
Trickle-mode Threshold Voltage Hysteresis
Recharge Falling Threshold Voltage
Recharge Threshold Voltage Hysteresis
BATTERY CONNECTION VERIFICATION
Battery Connection Verification Discharge Current (Over 0.8 to 5.0 V)(10)
Output Current in Charge Completion State
(10)
Discharge Current in Charge Completion State During the 82
ms(10)
NTC INTERFACE
Low Temperature Falling
High Temperature Falling Threshold
High Temperature Rising
Die Thermal Limit
LOGIC INPUT AND OUTPUT
GRN and RED Sink Current
IGRSINK
Pin voltage is between 0.8 V and 5.0 V
Open-Drain Off Leakage
Biased at 5.0 V
mA
μA
IODLEAK
Notes
10. Not tested. Guaranteed by design.
11. These threshold parameters are specified as a ratio of VTEMP/VREF. Due to the negative temperature coefficient thermistor, VTEMP rises
when the temperature is falling from high to low, and VTEMP falls when the temperature is rising from low to high.
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Freescale Semiconductor
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ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
DYNAMIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
DYNAMIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Table 5. Dynamic Electrical Characteristics
Characteristics noted under conditions VIN = 5.0 V, -40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C, CIN = COUT = 1.0 μF (see Figure 1), unless otherwise
noted. Typical values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at VIN = 5.0 V and TA = 25°C under nominal conditions,
unless otherwise noted.
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
tEOC
500
-
1000
ms
fOSC
40.0
50.0
60.0
kHz
Safety Timer for Fast Charge Mode
tFCM
3.68
4.6
5.52
Hour
Safety Timer for Trickle Charge Mode
tTCM
0.46
0.575
0.69
Hour
tEV
-
100
-
ms
tDCCC
-
82
-
ms
tDR
-
1968
-
ms
END OF CHARGE
EOC Filtering Time(12)
OSCILLATOR
Oscillator Frequency
INTERNAL TIMER
ENABLE VERIFICATION
Enable Verification Time
BATTERY CONNECTION VERIFICATION
Discharge Time in Charge Completion State(12)
Discharge Repeating Time(12)
Notes
12. Not tested. Guaranteed by design.
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
5.0
700
4.5
600
Battery Voltage
4.0
3.5
400
Charge Current
3.0
300
2.5
200
2.0
100
1.5
0
20
40
60
80
IBAT (mA)
VBAT (V)
500
0
120
100
Constant Charge Current (mA)
ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
4
5
6
Trickle Charge Current (mA)
VBAT (V)
4.25
4.20
4.15
4.10
4.05
6
7
8
9
10
11
75
70
65
60
55
50
2
4
6
2500
600
Charge Current (mA)
VIN Pin Supply Current (µA)
700
2000
Charger Enabled
1000
Charger Disabled
4
10
12
VIN (V)
3000
0
2
8
Figure 8. Trickle Charge Current vs VIN
ICHG = 650 mA, VBAT = 2.0 V, TA = 25°C
Figure 5. VBAT vs VIN
ICHG = 650 mA, IBAT = 0 mA, TA = 25°C
500
10
80
VIN (V)
1500
9
Figure 7. Constant Charge Current vs VIN
ICHG = 650 mA, VBAT = 3.0 V, TA = 25°C
4.30
5
8
VIN (V)
Time (min)
Figure 4. Complete Charge Cycle
VIN = 5.0 V, ICHG = 650 mA, TA = 25°C
4.00
4
7
6
8
10
VIN (V)
Figure 6. VIN Pin Supply Current vs VIN
ICHG = 650 mA, IBAT = 100 mA, TA = 25°C
12
500
400
300
200
100
0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VBAT (V)
Figure 9. Charge Current vs VBAT
ICHG = 650 mA, VIN = 5.0 V, TA = 25°C
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Freescale Semiconductor
9
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
4.210
450
RDS(ON) (mΩ)
VBAT (V)
4.205
4.200
4.195
4.190
350
300
250
4.185
4.180
-40
400
-20
0
20
40
60
200
-40
80
-20
640
620
600
20
40
60
80
Recharge Voltage Threshold (V)
Constant Charge Current (mA)
660
0
75
70
65
60
55
0
20
40
80
4.14
4.12
4.10
4.08
4.06
4.04
-40
-20
60
80
Temperature (°C)
Figure 12. Trickle Charge Current vs Temperature
ICHG = 650 mA, VIN = 5.0 V, VBAT = 2 V
0
20
40
60
Temperature (°C)
80
Figure 14. Recharge Voltage Threshold vs Temperature
VIN = 5.0 V, ICHG = 650 mA
BAT Pin Supply Current (µA)
Trickle Charge Current (mA)
80
-20
60
4.16
Temperature (°C)
Figure 11. Constant Charge Current vs Temperature
ICHG = 650 mA, VIN = 5.0 V, VBAT = 3.9 V
50
-40
40
Figure 13. RDS(ON) vs Temperature
ICHG =650 mA, VBAT = 4.0 V, IBAT = 600 mA
680
-20
20
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°C)
Figure 10. VBAT vs Temperature
VIN = 5.0 V, ICHG = 650 mA, IBAT = 100 mA
580
-40
0
4
3
VIN = 5V, Charger Disabled
2
1
VIN Pin Not Powered
0
-1
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (°C)
Figure 15. BAT Pin Supply Current vs Temperature
ICHG = 650 mA, VBAT = 5.0 V
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
VIN Pin Supply Current (µA)
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
3000
2500
2000
Charger Enabled
1500
1000
500
0
-40
Charger Disabled
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (°C)
Figure 16. VIN Pin Supply Current vs Temperature
ICHG = 650 mA, VBAT = 5.0 V, IBAT = 0 mA
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Freescale Semiconductor
11
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
INTRODUCTION
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
INTRODUCTION
The MC34674 is a fully-integrated Li-Ion and Li-Polymer
battery charger optimized for travel charger or cradle charger
applications. It offers 28 V input-voltage rating for protection
against failed AC/DC converters, 0.2% output voltage
accuracy at room temperature, and the ability to operate with
a current-limited AC/DC output for minimum heat generation.
The MC34674 follows the standard charging profile with
trickle, constant-current (CC) and constant-voltage (CV)
charge modes, as shown in Figure 17. The trickle-mode
current ITRKL is pre-set to 10% of the CC-mode current ICHG
when the battery voltage is lower than the trickle-mode
threshold VTRKL. In the CC-mode, the output voltage
increases until it reaches 4.2 V. Then the charger enters the
CV-mode with the output voltage regulated at 4.2 V. The endof-charge (EOC) current threshold IEOC, which is utilized to
indicate the termination of a charge cycle, is preset to 10% of
the CC-mode current.
Other features include automatic recharging, internal
thermal regulation to prevent overheating the device, an
external NTC interface to prevent charging when the ambient
temperature is out of a set window, an internal timer for
safety, and smart battery connection verification.
Two indication outputs make it easy to report the input
power status and the charge status to users via LEDs.
Trickle
CC
CV
4.2V
ICHG
Charge
Voltage
Charge
Current
VTRKL
IEOC
ITRKL
Figure 17. Charge Profile
FUNCTIONAL PIN DESCRIPTION
INPUT SUPPLY VOLTAGE (VIN)
The supply input. This pin should be bypassed to ground
with a 1.0 μF capacitor.
GROUND (GND)
Ground.
NTC INTERFACE INPUT (TEMP)
GREEN INDICATOR (GRN)
Open-drain logic output to indicate the charging status.
This pin drives the green-color LED in a dual-color LED pack
with an internal 6.0 mA current source.
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor
interface pin. This pin is connected to an NTC thermistor in
the battery pack to monitor the battery temperature. A pull-up
resistor is required between the TEMP pin and VREF pin.
RED INDICATOR (RED)
NTC INTERFACE BIAS VOLTAGE (VREF)
Open-drain logic output to indicate the charging status.
This pin drives the red-color LED in a dual-color LED pack
with an internal 6.0 mA current source.
ENABLE (EN)
Active-low enable logic input. This pin is internally pulled to
ground by a weak current source. When the pin is left floating,
the charger is enabled. Pulling this pin to high voltage
externally disables the charger.
To supply bias voltage for the NTC interface circuit.
CHARGER OUTPUT (BAT)
Charger output pin. Connect this pin to the battery. This
pin should be bypassed to ground with a 1.0 μF or higher
capacitor.
EXPOSED PAD (EPAD)
Exposed pad. The pad must be soldered on the large
ground plane on the PCB to enhance the thermal
conductivity. The pad must be connected to GND electrically.
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONAL INTERNAL BLOCK DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONAL INTERNAL BLOCK DESCRIPTION
MC34674 - Functional Block Diagram
Integrated Supply
Internal Supply & Reference
Sensing & Control
VIN Monitor
Charge Control
End of Charge
VIN - BAT Compare
Die Temperature Feedback
Power MOSFET
NTC Thermistor Interface
Logic
Logic Control
Status Indication
Integrated Supply
Sensing & Control
Logic
MOSFET
Figure 18. 34674 Functional Internal Block Diagram
INTEGRATED SUPPLY
conditions are reached, this block outputs a logic signal to
indicate the end of the charge.
INTERNAL SUPPLY AND REFERENCE
The internal supply and reference block steps down the
high input voltage to a lower voltage to power all the internal
control blocks. In addition, this block generates the reference
voltages for other functional blocks.
SENSING AND CONTROL
VIN MONITOR
The VIN monitor block monitors the input voltage for two
thresholds, power-on-reset (POR) and over-voltage
protection (OVP). If the input is lower than the POR or higher
than the OVP threshold, this block outputs a logic signal to
disable the charger.
CHARGE CONTROL
The charge-control block controls the gate voltage of the
power MOSFET to regulate the charge current, the battery
voltage, or the die temperature. It can also completely turn off
the power MOSFET to stop the current flow between the
input and the battery.
EOC (END OF CHARGE)
The EOC block monitors the charge current and the
battery voltage for the EOC conditions. Once the EOC
VIN-BAT COMPARATOR
The VIN-BAT comparator monitors the voltage difference
between the input voltage VIN and the battery voltage VBAT,
as shown in Figure 2. The input voltage has to be higher than
the battery voltage for the charger to be enabled. If the input
voltage falls below the battery voltage, this block outputs a
signal to disable the charger to prevent the leakage current
from the battery to the input. Due to the intrinsic input offset
voltage of the VIN-BAT comparator, a small voltage, VOS, is
added. The added VOS guarantees that the power MOSFET
is turned off when the input voltage is lower than the battery
voltage.
DIE TEMPERATURE FEEDBACK
The die temperature feedback block monitors the die
temperature. Once the die temperature reaches a threshold
of 110°C, the charge-control block can reduce the charge
current to prevent further temperature rise.
NTC INTERFACE
The NTC interface block offers an interface to an external
NTC thermistor circuit to monitor the battery temperature and
to set the charge temperature window.
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Freescale Semiconductor
13
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONAL INTERNAL BLOCK DESCRIPTION
LOGIC
LOGIC CONTROL AND STATUS INDICATION
The logic control block determines the on and off states of
the charger. It takes the signals from the VIN Monitor, VINBAT comparator, EOC, NTC interface blocks, and the
external enable signal EN, and determines the on and off
states as well as the charge status indication outputs of the
charger. This block also contains the logic circuit for the
battery connection verification and the internal timer.
POWER MOSFET
The power MOSFET passes the charging current from the
input to the output.
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
OPERATIONAL MODES
The MC34674 moves through various charge states after
being powered, as shown in Figure 23. The following
describes each state in detail.
When the input voltage rises above the rising power-onreset (POR) threshold, the charger resets the internal timer,
preparing for the start of a charging cycle. The falling edge of
the POR threshold is less than 2.6 V, making the MC34674
ideal for working with a current-limited AC/DC converter.
mode, an internal timer is reset to start counting the total
trickle-charge time. In the meantime, the charger begins to
measure the battery voltage. If the battery voltage rises
above the trickle-charge threshold before the timer finishes,
the charge cycle will enter the fast-charge mode that is
described next. If the timer expires before the voltage
reaching the trickle-charge threshold, the battery is
determined to be a faulty battery and a TIMEOUT fault
indication is issued. Then the charger turns off and the LED
indicates a yellow color.
POWER-PRESENCE VERIFICATION
FAST CHARGE MODE
After the POR, the MC34674 indicates the power
presence to the users via a dual-color LED driven by the GRN
and RED pins. The indication is a sequence of four colors
using the dual-color LED in the sequence of red, green,
yellow (by turning on both colors) and OFF (by turning off
both colors). Each color is on for 0.5 seconds.
The fast charge contains two modes, the constant-current
(CC)-mode and the constant-voltage (CV)-mode. As shown
in Figure 17, the charge current is regulated at a constant
value in the CC-mode and the charger output voltage is
regulated at a constant 4.2 V in the CV-mode. The charge
current can be reduced by the die temperature regulation
loop when the die temperature reached 110°C. The CCmode current is set internally by Freescale. Available values
are given in Table 6. Consult Freescale for values that are not
listed in Table 1.
POWER-ON RESET (POR)
ENABLE/DISABLE VERIFICATION
The charger then tries to validate the logic level of the EN
input. The EN input is an active-low input with a weak internal
pull-down circuit. Leaving the EN pin floating is equivalent to
a low input. If the EN stays at the low state for more than
100ms, the charger is enabled. This 100ms filter applies to
both the rising and the falling edges of the EN input to prevent
mis-triggering of the EN signal by any transient event such as
an ESD event. The EN input has to stay in a new state
continuously for more than 100ms for the new state to be
recognized.
The VIN-BAT comparator output is also a condition for
enabling the charger. When the input voltage VIN is lower
than the BAT pin voltage VBAT by the VOS, the charger is
disabled and stays in the Enable Verification state.
BATTERY CONNECTION VERIFICATION
Once enabled, the charger starts to verify if a battery is
connected. The battery connection verification takes 0.5
seconds, during which the dual-color LED and the charger
are off. If a battery is found, the charger starts to enter the
trickle-charge mode; otherwise, it turns on the yellow color
LED for 1 second, then turns off the LED for 0.5 seconds, and
then tries to verify the connection again. The verification flow
creates an equivalent 0.5 Hz yellow blinking LED indication if
there is no battery connected. Once a battery is inserted, the
charger will detect it and enter the trickle-charge mode.
TRICKLE-CHARGE MODE
The charger always starts charging with the trickle-charge
mode. The trickle-charge mode current is set to 10% of the
constant-current (CC) charge mode current that is described
next. In trickle-charge mode the charger is on and the LED
indicates the red color. When entering the trickle-charge
Table 6. Customer Selectable CC-Mode Current Values.
No.
ICHG (mA)
No.
ICHG (mA)
1
50
9
450
2
100
10
500
3
150
11
550
4
200
12
650
5
250
13
750
6
300
14
850
7
350
15
950
8
400
16
1050
When entering the fast charge mode, the internal timer is
reset again to limit the total fast charge time. The time limit for
the fast charge mode is 8 times of that of the trickle-charge
mode. When the charge completion conditions are detected
or when the total charge time limit is reached, the charger
enters the charge completion state.
The LED indicates the red color in the fast charge mode.
CHARGE COMPLETION
The criterion for the charge completion is for the charge
current to drop below the end-of-charge (EOC) threshold in
the CV-mode. The EOC threshold is set to 10% of the CCmode current. To ensure that no transient current will mistrigger the EOC indication, two additional criteria are required
to be met. The first one is, the battery voltage needs to be
above the recharge threshold. The second is, the charge
34674
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
15
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
current needs to stay below the EOC threshold for more than
0.5 seconds. The charger is turned off and the LED indication
is green when charge completes.
If the total fast charge time limit is exceeded, the charger
also enters the charge completion state.
RECHARGE MODE
If the battery voltage drops below the recharge threshold
after charge completion, the charger will try to recharge the
battery to 4.2 V. Because the battery voltage drop can also
be caused by the removal of the battery, before starting
recharge, the charger tries to verify if the battery is still
present. If the battery is not found, then the connection fault
is issued again. If the battery is still connected, the charger
restarts charging to bring the battery to a full state. The LED
indication remains green in this mode.
The recharge mode has the same total charge time limit as
the fast charge mode. For any reason the battery voltage falls
below the trickle-charge threshold in the recharge mode, the
charger will enter the battery connection verification state
again, as shown in Figure 23.
TEMPERATURE AND OVER-VOLTAGE FAULT
The NTC interface block offers an interface to an external
NTC thermistor circuit to monitor the battery temperature.
When the battery temperature is out of a user-programmable
window, the charger is disabled and a fault condition is issued
with a yellow LED indication. When the fault conditions are
removed, the charger enters the battery connection
verification state. More detailed description on the NTC
interface is offered later in this datasheet.
The charger has an 11 V (typ.) input OVP threshold. When
the input voltage is higher than this threshold, the charging is
stopped and a fault condition is issued with a yellow LED
indication. When the input voltage falls below the OVP
threshold, the charger restarts charging and resets the
internal digital logic control block.
TIMEOUT FAULT
The TIMEOUT fault can only occur when the charger stays
in the trickle-charge mode for a period longer than the time
limit. The charger is turned off and a yellow LED indication is
issued when this fault occurs. The only path to exit this fault
is by toggling the EN input or by recycling the power input.
DETAILED FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
NTC INTERFACE
The MC34674 offers an interface to an external NTC
thermistor to monitor the battery temperature.
The low and high temperature thresholds in the Table 4
allow users to set a temperature window (such as 0°C to
50°C), within which the charging is allowed. If the battery
temperature is out of such a window, a temperature fault is
issued and the LED indicates a yellow color.
Figure 19 shows the internal equivalent circuit for the NTC
interface and the external NTC thermistor circuit. An internal
resistor divider that is powered by the VREF pin voltage,
VVREF, creates two reference voltages, 1/3 VVREF and 2/3
VVREF. An external resistor divider also powered by VVREF
generates the voltage VTEMP to represent the battery
temperature. Because the resistance of the NTC thermistor,
RNTC, decreases as temperature rises, as shown in
Figure 20, VTEMP decreases as the battery temperature
increases. Assume TCOLD and THOT are the two temperature
thresholds, such as 0°C and 50°C. When the battery
temperature falls below TCOLD, VTEMP rises above 2/3 VVREF
and an under-temperature fault is issued. Similarly, when the
battery temperature rises above THOT, VTEMP falls below 1/3
VVREF, so an over-temperature fault is issued. The
relationship between the internal and the external divider
voltages at the triggering points can be expressed as the
following:
R NTC + R S
---------------------------------------- = Kx
R NTC + R S + R U
equ. 1
where RNTC is the thermistor resistance at the given
temperature, and KX is the ratio of the internal divider at the
given triggering points (see Table 4). RU and RS represent a
pull-up resistor and a series resistor in the external resistor
divider respectively.
The resistance selection of RU and RS can be figured out
by the following two equations:
R HOT + R S
---------------------------------------- = K HOT
R HOT + R S + R U
equ. 2
R COLD + R S
-------------------------------------------- = K COLD
R COLD + R S + R U
equ. 3
where KHOT and KCOLD are the resistor divider ratios for the
temperature thresholds THOT and TCOLD respectively; RHOT
and RCOLD are the NTC thermistor resistance at THOT and
TCOLD respectively. The typical values for KHOT and KCOLD
are 1/3 and 2/3 respectively, as given in Table 4.
Refer to the Application Information section for more
details regarding the RU and RS selection.
34674
16
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
Resistance
VREF
RU
R
Under
Tem p
CP1
-
RCOLD
2/3V VREF
TEM P
+
O ver
Tem p
CP2
+
R
RS
1/3V VREF
RHOT
R NTC
R
TCOLD
G ND
Figure 19. Equivalent Circuit for the NTC Interface
THOT Temperature
Figure 20. NTC Thermistor Resistance Characteristics
START
Set VTRKL to 1.5V
Discharge the output with
6mA current for 250ms
VBAT < VTRKL ?
No
Set VTRKL back to
normal voltage
Good
connection
Yes
Trickle charge for
250ms
VTRKL < VBAT < VRECH ?
No
Set VTRKL back to
normal voltage
Yes
Battery Connection
Verification
Good
connection
Bad
connection
Bad
connection
Figure 21. Battery Connection Verification Flow Chart
34674
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
17
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
BATTERY CONNECTION VERIFICATION
Battery connection verification is to ensure that the battery
is properly connected before the charging starts. The charger
does not start if the battery is short-circuited or opencircuited. A fault indication is issued if the battery is not
connected properly. During the connection fault state, the
connection verification operates every 2 seconds in order for
the charger to recognize a newly inserted battery within 2
seconds.
The verification utilizes the fact that a battery voltage
cannot change very fast when being charged or discharged.
The charger first discharges the battery with 6mA current for
250 ms. If the battery voltage does not fall below the 1.5 V
threshold, then the battery is connected. Otherwise, the
charger charges the battery. If the voltage moves above the
recharge threshold or stays below 1.5 V within 250 ms, then
the battery is not connected properly (either open-circuited or
short-circuited). Figure 21 shows the flow chart for the battery
connection verification.
The MC34674 has a built-in mechanism to detect if the
battery is removed within 1.968 seconds during the charge
completion state. Figure 22 shows the simplified analog
circuit for this function. In each 1.968 second period, the
MC34674 tries to discharge the output with a 585 μA current
for 82ms. If during the 82 ms, the output voltage drops below
the recharge threshold, the charger will enter the battery
connection verification state. Otherwise, the charger remains
in the charge completion state. To compensate for the
discharge caused by the 585 μA current, the charger outputs
a 24 μA current to the output during the whole 1.968 seconds.
Both the current and time values for this purpose are well
matched, the net output current is guaranteed within -4.0 μA
to +2.0 μA to the output.
24uA
BAT
585uA
COUT
ON
OFF
Figure 22. Simplified Battery Removal Detection Circuit.
THERMAL REGULATION
The charger has an internal thermal regulation loop. When
the internal temperature reaches 110°C, the charger starts to
reduce the charge current to prevent further temperature rise.
The current is reduced just enough to maintain the internal
temperature at 110°C. The thermal regulation loop removes
the concern of thermal failure.
INTERNAL TIMER
An internal timer is offered to set the time reference for the
charge time limit. The fast charge time is limited to 4.6 hours
(typ.) and the trickle-charge time is limited to 1/8 of the above
time.
FLEXIBLE LED INDICATION
The MC34674 has multiple LED indication schemes built
in. Consult Freescale for additional indication schemes.
CURRENT-LIMITED AC/DC REGULATOR
The MC34674 has a special low thermal charging
operation when powered with a current-limited AC/DC
regulator. In the operation, the charge current is limited by the
AC/DC regulator and the MC34674 operates as a switch
during the CC-mode to minimize the heat generation. Refer
to the Typical Applications section for more details.
34674
18
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
STATE DIAGRAMS
STATE DIAGRAMS
PWR OFF
Charger: OFF
LED: OFF
VIN > VPOR
Not
Enabled
ENABLE
VERIFICATION
DISABLE
VERIFICATION
POWER PRESENCE
INDICATION
Charger: OFF
LED: RGYO
Charger: OFF
LED: OFF
Disable
verified
Charger: unchange
LED: no change
Anytime EN pin
Disable not verified,
changes to
resume to previous
disable
operation
POR
Charger: OFF
LED: OFF
Enabled
0.5-sec
DELAY
Charger: OFF
LED: OFF
BATTERY CONNECTION
FAULT
BATTERY CONNECTION
VERIFICAION
Charger: OFF
LED: OFF
TEMP and OV
fault removed
TEMP/OV FAULT
Bad
connection
Charger: OFF
LED: YELLOW
Good
connection
Charger: OFF
LED: YELLOW
VBAT < VTRKL when 1/8
TIMEOUT completes
TRICKLE
CHARGE
Anytime a TEMP
or OV Fault
occurs (except in
TIMEOUT fault)
Charger: ON
LED: RED
VBAT drops
below VTRKL
VBAT > VTRKL before 1/8
TIMEOUT completes
Charger: OFF
LED: YELLOW
EN pin
changes to
Disable
To Disable
Verification
FAST CHARGE
Charger: ON
LED: RED
VBAT > VRECH
and ICHG < IEOC
TIMEOUT FAULT
TIMEOUT
CHARGE
COMPLETION
VBAT > VRECH and ICHG < IEOC
or
TIMEOUT completes
Charger: OFF
LED: GREEN
VBAT < VRECH
BATTERY CONNECTION
VERIFICATION
VBAT drops
below VTRKL
Bad
connection
Charger: OFF
LED: GREEN
Good
connection
RECHARGE
Charger: ON
LED: GREEN
Figure 23. 34674 Flow Chart
34674
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
19
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
INTRODUCTION
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
INTRODUCTION
The MC34674 can be used as a regular linear charger with
the charge current set internally. However, the best way of
using this device in the travel charger application is to use this
IC together with a current-limited AC/DC regulator. Select a
version with the internally set current higher than the target
charge current and then power the charger with an AC/DC
regulator whose output current is limited to a value lower.
This section introduces how to use the MC34674 with a
current-limited AC/DC regulator. Also discussed in this
section is the application information.
The trickle-charge mode can be illustrated both on the I/V
characteristics plot in Figure 25 and the time domain charge
curve in Figure 26. In the I/V characteristics trajectory, the
battery voltage moves from point a to point b, representing
that the current remains at the trickle mode charge current,
ITRKL while the battery voltage moves from a value below the
trickle-charge threshold, VTRKL, to the trickle-charge
threshold. The AC/DC regulator output stays at point A during
the trickle mode with no changes for its output current and
voltage.
CURRENT-LIMITED AC/DC REGULATOR
A current-limited AC/DC regulator has an output current
and voltage characteristics shown in Figure 24. The regulator
outputs a no load voltage, VNL, when the supply is not loaded.
As the load current increases, the output voltage remains
relatively constant. When the load current reaches the
current limit of the regulator, ILIM, the regulator output
behaves as a constant current source. Usually a currentlimited regulator output is specified in a range, as the range
limited by the dotted lines.
OPERATION WITH CURRENT-LIMITED AC/DC
REGULATOR
The operation of the MC34674 when powered by a
current-limited regulator is dependent on the battery voltage.
Figure 25 and Figure 26 assist the explanation of the
operation.
When the battery voltage is lower than the trickle-charge
threshold, the MC34674 is in the trickle mode. The trickle
mode current is typically lower than the current limit, ILIM, and
hence the AC/DC regulator output is a constant-voltage. The
MC34674 operates same as a regular linear charger.
V
VNL
E
ac/dc regulator
output
A
D
d C
4.2V
e
VTRKL
B
b
a
c
MC34674
output
IEOC ITRKL
ILIM
I
Figure 25. AC/DC Regulator Output and MC34674
Output I/V Characteristics.
VIN
V
VBAT
VNL
IBAT
Time
ILIM
ITRKL
Time
a
ILIM
I
A
b
c
A
B
d
e
C
D
E
Figure 24. AC/DC Regulator Output I/V Characteristics.
Figure 26. Charging Waveforms When Powered with
Current-Limited Regulators.
34674
20
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
INTRODUCTION
When the battery voltage rises above the trickle charge
threshold, the charger enters the CC-mode. The MC34674
tries to raise the charge current to the internally set reference,
such as 1.05 A, by enhancing the power MOSFET. However,
since the current provided by the AC/DC regulator is limited
and can never reach the set reference, the charger will keep
enhancing the MOSFET until it is fully enhanced and is fully
turned on. In this mode, the internal power MOSFET behaves
as a switch instead of a linearly regulating device. The
voltage difference between the input and the output is
determined by the on resistance, RDS(ON), of the power
MOSFET and the limited output current of the ad/dc
regulator.
V IN – V OUT = I LIM × R DS ( ON )
The power dissipation, PD, in the MOSFET can be calculated
as,
P D = I LIM × I LIM × R DS ( ON )
The charge current in CC-mode is not determined by the
MC34674, instead, it is determined by the AC/DC regulator
current limit, ILIM, which is a value lower than the charger
internally set current reference. The internally set current
reference is used as a secondary protection threshold, in
case if an AC/DC regulator with a wrong current limit is
connected to the input.
The key advantage of using the MC34674 with a currentlimited AC/DC regulator is the significant reduction of the
power dissipation during the CC-mode. Figure 26 illustrates
the small voltage difference between the input and the output
of the charger, which is directly proportional to the power
dissipation.
When entering the CC-mode, the charger output I/V
trajectory jumps from point b to c and then moves from c to d
as the battery voltage rises to 4.2 V. The AC/DC regulator
output trajectory moves from B to C, as shown in Figure 25.
When the battery voltage reaches the target 4.2V, the
charger enters the CV-mode. The charge current starts to
decline and the AC/DC regulator output enters its constantvoltage mode. The charger then operates as a regular linear
charger again until the charging completes. The battery I/V
trajectory moves from d to the EOC moment (point e) while
the AC/DC regulator output trajectory jumps from C to D and
then moves to E at the EOC moment.
BALANCING YELLOW COLOR IN LED
The red and the green colors in the LED are driven by two
matched 6.0 mA current sources. Such design ensured a
consistent brightness of the LED over a large range of the
input voltage. When both colors are turned on, the resulting
color should be yellow. One can adjust the resulting color by
adjusting the brightness of the individual color. A resistor can
be added to reduce the brightness of one color, such as the
R1 shown in Figure 27.
VIN
GRN
R1
RED
Figure 27. LED Color Balancing Scheme.
INPUT CAPACITOR
The input capacitor is used to reduce the input voltage
transient that may cause instability. A 1.0 μF, X5R, 16 V
rated ceramic capacitor is recommended for most
applications.
OUTPUT CAPACITOR
For stable operation, an X5R ceramic capacitor with a
minimum 1.0 μF nominal value is recommended at the
output. The output capacitance should not be larger than
240 μF to allow the 585 μA current to discharge the capacitor
voltage to the recharge threshold within 82 ms.
NTC INTERFACE DESIGN
The NTC interface is designed to be able to work with most
types of NTC thermistors. This section describes in details
how to select the two resistors RU and RS shown in
Figure 19. In addition, the hysteresis and the tolerance of the
temperature thresholds are discussed. The
NCP15W104F03RC from Murata is used as an example for
the calculations in this section. The partial temperature
characteristics of the NCP15W104F03RC are given in
Table 7.
Table 7. NTC Thermistor Temperature Characteristics.
Temp (°C)
R-low (kΩ)
R-center (kΩ)
R-high (kΩ)
-2
389.2453
398.6521
408.2455
-1
368.4960
377.1927
386.0560
0
348.9722
357.0117
365.1999
2
313.2543
320.1216
327.1067
3
296.9408
303.2866
309.7370
46
38.4596
39.2132
39.9778
47
36.8626
37.6010
28.3503
50
32.5022
33.1946
33.8983
53
28.7183
29.3660
30.0253
54
27.5694
28.2026
28.8474
...
34674
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
21
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
APPLICATIONS
RU and RS Calculation
Temperature Tolerance
The two equations (equ. 2 and equ. 3) on page 16 can be
further simplified as the following by substituting the KHOT
and KCOLD with their typical values:
R S = ( R COLD – ( 4 × R HOT ) ) ⁄ 3
equ. 4
R U = 2 × ( R COLD – R HOT ) ⁄ 3
equ. 5
The equ. 6 is also the basis for tolerance calculation. The
errors of the internal voltage thresholds, external resistors
and the thermistor resistance all contribute to the
temperature error. For the low temperature threshold, TCOLD,
the maximum thermistor resistance happens when the
internal threshold is at its maximum, RU at its maximum and
the RS at its minimum value. Assuming 1% accuracy for both
RU and RS and taking the maximum value for the low
temperature threshold from Table 4, the maximum thermistor
resistance at the cold temperature is found to be
R COLD, MAX =
equ. 7
The RS equation requires
R COLD ≥ 4 × R HOT
,
otherwise, the RS calculation results in a negative value.
Assuming the target temperature window is from 0°C to
50°C, from Table 7 it can be found that RHOT = 33.1946 kΩ
and RCOLD = 357.0117 kΩ. Using equ. 4 and equ. 5, one can
find that
R S = 74.74kΩ
R U = 215.9kΩ
Temperature Hysteresis
The thermistor resistance can be found with equ. 1 on
page 16, which can be simplified as
KX ⋅ ( RS + RU ) – RS
R NTC = -------------------------------------------------1 – KX
equ. 6
Since the RS and RU have already been determined, the
thermistor resistance can be found by replacing the KX with
the Low Temperature Falling Threshold and the High
Temperature Rising Threshold given in Table 4. The
thermistor resistance at these two thresholds can be found as
′
R HOT
= 38.51kΩ
′
R COLD = 320.6kΩ
From Table 7 it is found that rising threshold for the cold
temperature is about 2°C and the falling threshold for the hot
temperature is between 46 to 47°C. Therefore the hystereses
for the cold and the hot temperature is 2°C and 2 to 3°C
respectively.
0.6741 × ( 74.74 × 0.99 + 215.9 × 1.01 ) – ( 74.74 × 0.99 )
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 – 0.6741
= 377.0kΩ
which corresponds to -1.4°C in the R-low column of Table 7.
Similarly, the minimum thermistor resistance at the hot
temperature, RHOT,MIN, happens when the internal threshold
is at its minimum, RU at this minimum, and the RS at its
maximum. Using the same method, the RHOT,MIN can be
found to be 29.73 kΩ, which corresponds to 53°C
approximately.
Based on the above calculation, the tolerances for the cold
and the hot temperatures are about 1.4°C and 3°C
respectively.
ESD ENHANCEMENT
All pins in the MC34674 are rated 2.0 kV for the ESD
performance with the Human Body Model (HBM). The end
product usually requires higher ESP performance for the
nodes that can be touched by human hands in normal usage
of the end product. Three additional capacitors can be used
to pass the ESD tests. Figure 28 shows how the three
capacitors (C3, C4, and C5) are connected in the circuit.
APPLICATIONS
VIN
Current
Limited
AC/DC
Regulator
BAT
RU
VREF
C2
TEMP
RED
C1
GRN
C3
C4
C5
GND
RS
NTC
EN
Figure 28. 34674 Typical Application Circuit
C1 and C2 are for decoupling purposes. C3, C4 and C5
the cradle charger. C1 = 1.0 μF/16 V/X5R, C2 = 1.0μ F/6.3 V/
are to enhance the ESD performance of the travel charger or
X5R, C3 = C4 = 0.1 μF/16 V/X5R, C5 = 0.1 μF/6.3 V/X5R.
34674
22
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
PACKAGING
PACKAGING DIMENSIONS
PACKAGING
PACKAGING DIMENSIONS
For the most current package revision, visit www.freescale.com and perform a keyword search using the “98A” listed below.
EP SUFFIX
8-PIN
98ASA10774D
REVISION 0
34674
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
23
PACKAGING
PACKAGING DIMENSIONS
EP SUFFIX
8-PIN
98ASA10774D
REVISION 0
34674
24
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
REVISION HISTORY
REVISION HISTORY
REVISION
DATE
DESCRIPTION OF CHANGES
1.0
1/2007
•
Initial Release
2.0
11/2008
•
•
•
Updated Freescale form and style
Added Device Variations
Made corrections to coincide with Device Variation table
34674
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
25
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MC34674
Rev. 2.0
11/2008
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