AN-1218 APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com Compact, Low Cost, 5 V, Variable Gain, Noninverting Amplifier Using the AD5270/AD5272 Digital Rheostat and AD8615 Op Amp This circuit shown in Figure 1 provides a compact, low cost, low voltage, variable gain noninverting amplifier using the AD5270/ AD5272 digital rheostat in conjunction with the AD8615 operational amplifier. The small package sizes of the AD5270/ AD5272 (10-lead 3 mm × 3 mm × 0.8 mm LFCSP) and the AD8615 (5-lead TSOT-23), as well as their low cost, present an industry leading solution to a common analog signal processing circuit. The circuit offers 1024 different gains, controllable through an SPI (AD5270) or I2C-compatible (AD5272) serial digital interface. The ±1% resistor tolerance performance of the AD5270/AD5272 provides low gain error over the full resistor range, as shown in Figure 2. The input signal, VIN, is amplified by the AD8615. The op amp offers low noise, high slew rate, and rail-to-rail inputs and outputs. The maximum circuit gain is defined in Equation 1. G = 1+ RAW R → R2 = AW R2 G–1 VDD +2.5V/+5V R1 VIN 3.32kΩ ±1% R2 4.99kQ ±1% VOUT –2.5V/GND C1 VSS 10pF +2.5V/+5V VDD In addition, the AD5270/AD5272 has an internal 50-times programmable memory that allows a customized gain setting at power-up. RAW 20kΩ AD5270/AD5272 VSS –2.5V/GND The circuit provides accuracy, low noise, and low THD and is well suited for signal instrumentation conditioning. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION Table 1. Devices Connected/Referenced Description 10-bit, 1% resistor tolerance digital rheostat Precision, 20 MHz, CMOS, rail-to-rail input/output CMOS op amp The circuit employs the AD5270/AD5272 digital rheostat in conjunction with the AD8615 CMOS operational amplifier, providing a low cost, compact, variable gain noninverting amplifier. V+ AD8615 AD8615 V– The circuit supports rail-to-rail inputs and outputs for both singlesupply operation at +5 V and dual-supply operation at ±2.5 V and is capable of delivering up to ±150 mA output current. Product AD5270/AD5272 AD8615 (1) SERIAL INTERFACE 09051-001 CIRCUIT FUNCTION AND BENEFITS Figure 1. Variable Gain Noninverting Amplifier (Simplified Schematic: Decoupling and All Connections Not Shown) The maximum allowable current through the AD5270/AD5272 (RAW = 20 kΩ version) is ±3 mA, which limits the maximum input voltage, VIN, based on the circuit gain as described in Equation 2. |VIN| ≤ 0.003 × R2 (2) When the input signal, VIN, is higher than the theoretical maximum value from Equation 2, R2 should be increased, and the new gain can be recalculated using Equation 1. On the other hand, the minimum gain should be calculated to reduce the error due to the leakage current in the AD5270/ AD5272. To assume a negligible leakage current error, the current through R2 should be at least 100 times the worst-case leakage specification of 50 nA . Therefore, the minimum current through R2 should be 5 µA, which defines the minimum value for R2, as in Equation 3. |VIN| ≥ 5 × 10−6 × R2 Rev. A | Page 1 of 3 (3) AN-1218 Application Note 90 15 10 PHASE, RAW = 100Ω 100k 5 GAIN (dBV) RESISTANCE (Ω) 1k R2 MAX 100 0 PHASE, RAW = 10kΩ –5 GAIN, RAW = 20kΩ –10 GAIN, RAW = 10kΩ –90 –15 10 –180 GAIN, RAW = 100Ω –20 1 R2 MIN –25 600 0.1 PHASE (Degrees) 0 PHASE, RAW = 20kΩ 10k 1k 10k 100k –270 200k FREQUENCY (Hz) 1 10 100 Figure 4. Gain and Phase vs. Frequency for the AC Input Signal (Vertical Scale Compressed to Show All Gain Curves) 09051-002 0.01 0.1 1k INPUT VOLTAGE (mV) The AD5270/AD5272 have a 50-times programmable memory, which allows presetting the output voltage in a specific value at power-up. Figure 2. R2 Value Range vs. Minimum Input Signal The ±1% internal resistor tolerance of the AD5270/AD5272 ensures a low gain error, as shown in Figure 3. The circuit gain equation is G =1+ (1024 – D ) × RAW 1024 (4) R2 where D is the code loaded in the digital potentiometer. GAIN ERROR (%) GAIN 6 COMMON VARIATIONS 0.6 The AD5271/AD5274 (8-bits with 50-times programmable power-up memory) are both ±1% tolerance digital rheostats that are suitable for this application if 10-bit resolution is not required. 5 0.5 4 0.4 3 0.3 The same basic circuit shown in Figure 1 can be adapted to operate on a 30 V supply using higher voltage devices as described in the CN-0112 Circuit Note. 2 0.2 1 0.1 0 200 400 600 800 CODE (Decimal) 0 1023 09051-003 GAIN 0 Excellent layout, grounding, and decoupling techniques must be used to achieve the desired performance from the circuits discussed in this note (see Tutorial MT-031, Grounding Data Converters and Solving the Mystery of “AGND” and “DGND” and Tutorial MT-101, Decoupling Techniques). As a minimum, a 4-layer PCB should be used with one ground plane layer, one power plane layer, and two signal layers. 0.7 ERROR (%) 7 09051-004 Figure 2 shows the possible R2 value range based on the input voltage to the op amp, assuming these conditions. Figure 3. Gain and Gain Error vs. Decimal Code When the circuit input is an ac signal, the parasitic capacitances of the digital potentiometer can cause undesirable oscillation in the output. This can be avoided, however, by connecting a small capacitor, C1, between the inverter input and its output. A value of 10 pF was used for the gain and phase plots shown in Figure 4. Rev. A | Page 2 of 3 Application Note AN-1218 LEARN MORE Data Sheets and Evaluation Boards MT-031 Tutorial, Grounding Data Converters and Solving the Mystery of "AGND" and "DGND," Analog Devices. AD5270 Data Sheet MT-032 Tutorial, Ideal Voltage Feedback (VFB) Op Amp, Analog Devices. AD5270 Evaluation Board MT-087 Tutorial, Voltage References, Analog Devices. MT-091 Tutorial, Digital Potentiometers, Analog Devices. MT-101 Tutorial, Decoupling Techniques, Analog Devices. AD5272 Data Sheet AD5272 Evaluation Board AD5271 Data Sheet AD5274 Data Sheet AD8615 Data Sheet REVISION HISTORY 4/13—Rev. 0 to Rev. A Document Title Changed from CN-0161 to AN-1218....... Universal 7/10—Revision 0: Initial Version ©2010-2013 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. D09051-0-4/13(A) Rev. A | Page 3 of 3

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