CN-0251: A Flexible 4-Channel Analog Front End for Wide Dynamic Range Signal...

Circuit Note
CN-0251
Devices Connected/Referenced
Circuits from the Lab® reference designs are engineered and
tested for quick and easy system integration to help solve today’s
analog, mixed-signal, and RF design challenges. For more
information and/or support, visit www.analog.com/CN0251.
ADG1409
4 Ω RON, 4-/8-Channel ±15 V/+12 V/±5 V
iCMOS Multiplexer
AD8226
Low Cost, Wide Supply Range, Rail-to-Rail
Output, Instrumentation Amplifier
AD8475
Precision, Selectable Gain, Fully
Differential Funnel Amplifier
AD7192
4.8 kHz Ultralow Noise 24-Bit Sigma-Delta
ADC with PGA
ADP1720-5
50 mA, High Voltage, Micropower Linear
5 V Regulator
ADR444
Ultralow Noise, LDO XFET Voltage
24-Bit, 4.7 Hz, 4-Channel Analog Data Acquisition System
A ±10 V full-scale signal is very typical in process control and
industrial automation applications; however, in some situations,
the signal can be as small as several mV. Attenuation and level
shifting is necessary to process a ±10 V signal with modern low
voltage ADCs. However, amplification is needed for small signals
to make use of the dynamic range of the ADC. Therefore, a
circuit with a programmable gain function is desirable when the
input signal varies over a wide range.
EVALUATION AND DESIGN SUPPORT
Circuit Evaluation Boards
CN-0251 Circuit Evaluation Board (EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ)
System Demonstration Platform (EVAL-SDP-CB1Z)
Design and Integration Files
Schematics, Layout Files, Bill of Materials
CIRCUIT FUNCTION AND BENEFITS
The circuit shown in Figure 1 is a flexible signal conditioning
circuit for processing signals of wide dynamic range, varying
from several mV p-p to 20 V p-p. The circuit provides the
necessary conditioning and level shifting and achieves the
dynamic range using the internal programmable gain amplifier
(PGA) of the high resolution analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
+15VA
ADP1720
ADR444
VIN
+5VA
330µH @ 100MHz
VOUT
GND
+5VA
0.1µF
+15VA
VS4A
S4A
1nF
DA
4.02kΩ
+VS
1
RG*
2
–IN
RG
S1B
VS4B
IA
3
DB
S4B
4
4.02kΩ
RG
+IN
EN
DGND
0.1µF
0.1µF
0.1µF
1.25kΩ
9
+IN 0.4x
–OUT
5
AD8475
1kΩ
–VS
+OUT
6
10nF
VN
100Ω
VP 1µF
100Ω
10nF
21
19
AGND AVDD DVDD DGND
AIN2
12
AIN1
11
AIN3
13
AIN4
14
AINCOM
10
AVDD
15
PGA
AD8475
–VS
AGND
0.1µF
17
BPDSW
AGND NC
9
100kΩ
SERIAL
INTERFACE
AND
CONTROL
LOGIC
AD7192
TEMP
SENSOR
CLOCK
CIRCUITRY
VSS
16
Σ-∆
ADC
8
5
D3V3
DGND
20
18
NC 7
1kΩ
10
7
REF
+VS
–15VA
1-OF-4
DECODER
A1
VOUT
–IN 0.4x
1.25kΩ
1.25kΩ
–IN 0.8x
1
VOCM
VOCM
4
1.25kΩ
+IN 0.8x
6
1nF
GND A0
0.1µF
AD8226
10nF
VS1B
8
D3V3
1µF
D3V3
1
2
MCLK1 MCLK2
–15VA
23
24
3
4
25
P0/REFIN2(–)
ADG1409
S1A
AGND
3
2
VS1A
DGND
7
5
P1/REFIN2(+)
*OMIT RG FOR G = 1
VDD
A4V096
10µF
REFIN1(–)
+15VA
+5VA
A4V096
REFIN1(+)
OUT
GND
MUX
IN
6
8
DOUT/RDY
DOUT
DIN
DIN
SCLK
SCLK
CS
CS
SYNC
SYNC
P3
P3
P2
P2
10351-001
+15VA
In addition, small signals may have large common-mode voltage
swings; therefore, high common-mode rejection (CMR) is required.
In some applications, where the source impedance is large, high
impedance is also necessary for the analog front-end input circuit.
Figure 1. Flexible Analog Front-End Circuit for Wide Industrial Range Signal Conditioning
Rev. B
Circuits from the Lab® reference designs from Analog Devices have been designed and built by Analog
Devices engineers. Standard engineering practices have been employed in the design and
construction of each circuit, and their function and performance have been tested and verified in a lab
environment at room temperature. However, you are solely responsible for testing the circuit and
determining its suitability and applicability for your use and application. Accordingly, in no event shall
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One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
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Fax: 781.461.3113 ©2012–2013 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
CN-0251
Circuit Note
The circuit shown in Figure 1 solves all of these challenges
and provides programmable gain, high CMR, and high input
impedance. The input signal passes through the 4-channel
ADG1409 multiplexer into the AD8226 low cost, wide input
range instrumentation amplifier. The AD8226 offers high CMR
up to 80 dB and very high input impedance (800 MΩ differential
mode and 400 MΩ common mode). A wide input range and
rail-to-rail output allow the AD8226 to make full use of the
supply rails.
The AD8475 is a fully differential, attenuating amplifier with
integrated precision gain resistors. It provides precision attenuation
(G = 0.4 or G = 0.8), common-mode level shifting, and singleended-to-differential conversion. The AD8475 is an easy to use,
fully integrated precision gain block, designed to process signal
levels up to ±10 V on a single supply. Therefore, the AD8475 is
suitable for attenuating signals from the AD8226 up to 20 V p-p,
while maintaining high CMR and offering a differential output to
drive the differential input ADC.
The AD7192 is a 24-bit sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) ADC with an internal
PGA. The on-chip, low noise gain stage (G = 1, 8, 16, 32, 64, or
128) means that signals of large and small amplitude can be
interfaced directly to the ADC.
With the combination of the previous parts, the circuit offers
very good performance and easy configuration for signals
with varying amplitudes. The circuit can be used in industrial
automation, process control, instrumentation, and medical
equipment applications.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The circuit comprises of an ADG1409 multiplexer, an AD8226
instrumentation amplifier, an AD8475 difference amplifier, and an
AD7192 Σ-Δ ADC with an ADR444 reference, and the ADP1720
regulator. Only a few external components are used for protection,
filtering, and decoupling, making this circuit highly integrated, and
it requires a small circuit board (printed circuit board [PCB]) area.
Regulator and Reference Selection
The ADP1720-5 was chosen as the 5 V regulator for this circuit.
It is a high voltage micropower, low dropout linear regulator
suitable for industrial applications.
The 4.096 V ADR444 reference was chosen as the reference for
this circuit. It is an ultralow noise, high accuracy, low dropout
device that is particularly suitable for high resolution, Σ-Δ ADCs
and precision data acquisition systems.
Input Switch and Protection
The ADG1409 multiplexer has 2-bit binary address lines that
are used to select one of four possible input channels. The design
also includes external protection such as standard diodes and
transient voltage suppressors to enhance the robustness of the
circuit. These are not shown in Figure 1; however, they are shown
in the detailed schematics and other documentation in the
CN0251 Design Support Package.
The ADG1409 multiplexer is configured to accept four
differential input signals: (VS1A − VS1B), (VS2A − VS2B),
(VS3A − VS3B), and (VS4A − VS4B). The outputs of the
multiplexer, DA and DB, are applied to the inputs of the
AD8226 in-amp.
AD8226 Input Instrumentation Amplifier
The external RG resistor sets the gain of the AD8226. For this
circuit, RG is omitted, and the gain of the in-amp stage is 1. The
output of the AD8226 is therefore VSxA − VSxB, where x is the
input channel number.
The differential input of the AD8226 is filtered by two 4.02 kΩ
resistors and a 10 nF capacitor, which form a single-pole RC filter
with a cutoff frequency of 2.0 kHz. The two 1 nF capacitors add
common-mode filtering with a cutoff frequency of 40 kHz.
AD7192 ADC PGA Gain Configuration
The AD7192 is configured to accept differential analog inputs
to match the differential output signals from the AD8475. The
full-scale input range of the AD7192 is ±VREF/gain, where
±VREF = REFINx(+) − REFINx(−).
When the buffer in the AD7192 is enabled, the input channel
drives the high impedance input stage of the buffer amplifier, and
the absolute input voltage range in this mode is restricted to a
range of AGND + 250 mV and AVDD − 250 mV. When the gain
stage is enabled, the output from the buffer is applied to the input
of the PGA, and the analog input range must be limited to
±(AVDD − 1.25 V)/gain because the PGA requires additional
headroom. Therefore, with a 4.096 V reference and a 5 V power
supply, and to make the maximum use of the dynamic range of the
ADC, the signal can be attenuated or amplified as shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Gain Configurations for the AD8475 and the AD7192 Internal PGA for Various Input Ranges
Input Range (VSxA − VSxB)
±10 V
±5 V
±1 V
±500 mV
±250 mV
± 125 mV
±62.5 mV
±31.25 mV
Gain of AD8475
0.4
0.8
0.4
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
Gain of AD7192
1
1
8
8
16
32
64
128
Rev. B | Page 2 of 6
PGA Output Range, Bipolar Mode (V)
±4
±4
±3.2
±3.2
±3.2
±3.2
±3.2
±3.2
Circuit Note
CN-0251
Differential Attenuating Amplifier
To drive the low voltage ADCs, the ±10 V or ±5 V signals
require attenuation and level shifting. A difference amplifier
configuration in conjunction with precision resistors inevitably
degrades CMR performance due to the mismatch between the
resistors. The AD8475 level shifter/attenuator integrates matched,
precision, laser trimmed resistors to ensure low gain error, a low
gain drift (3 ppm/°C maximum), and high CMR.
The AD8475 has pin-selectable gain options of 0.4 and 0.8. The
VOCM pin adjusts the output voltage common mode for precision
level shifting to match the input range of the ADC and to maximize
the dynamic range. This pin can be left floating and is internally
biased with a precision voltage divider consisting of two 200 kΩ
resistors between the supplies and ground, thereby providing
the midsupply voltage on the pin.
A single-pole differential RC filter composed of two 100 Ω
resistors and a 1 µF capacitor serves as an antialiasing and noise
reduction filter for the AD7192 with a cutoff frequency of 800 Hz.
The two 10 nF capacitors provide common-mode filtering with
a cutoff frequency of 160 kHz.
Filter, Output Data Rate, and Settling Time
The AD7192 Σ-Δ ADC consists of a modulator followed by a
digital filter. The output data rate (fADC) and settling time (tSETTLE)
are related to the filter configuration and the chop configuration.
Table 2 shows the output data rates and settling time
calculations for different configurations.
Table 2. Output Data Rate and Settling Time for Different Configurations
Chopper Filter Option
Disabled
Enabled
SINC3
fADC = fCLK/(1024 × FS[9:0])
tSETTLE = 3/fADC
fADC = fCLK/(3 × 1024 × FS[9:0])
tSETTLE = 2/fADC
Rev. B | Page 3 of 6
SINC4
fADC = fCLK/(1024 × FS[9:0])
tSETTLE = 4/fADC
fADC = fCLK/(4 × 1024 × FS[9:0])
tSETTLE = 2/fADC
CN-0251
Circuit Note
Layout Considerations
26.0
The performance of this or any other high speed or high
resolution circuit is highly dependent on proper PCB layout.
This includes, but is not limited to, power supply bypassing,
signal routing, and proper power planes and ground planes. See
Tutorial MT-031, Tutorial MT-101, and the article A Practical
Guide to High-Speed Printed-Circuit-Board Layout for more
detailed information regarding PCB layout.
25.5
NOISE OUTPUT (µV)
25.0
System Performance
24.5
24.0
23.5
23.0
22.5
The 24-bit AD7192 Σ-Δ ADC offers very good performance in
this circuit. See the Tutorial MT-022 and the Tutorial MT-023 for
more detailed information regarding the Σ-Δ ADCs.
0
50
100
150
200 250 300 350
SAMPLE NUMBER
400
450
500
10351-002
21.5
Figure 2. Noise Output (VREF = 4.096 V, AVDD = 5 V, Output Data Rate = 4.7 Hz,
Gain = 1, Chop Disabled, SINC4 Filter)
140
120
100
OCCURENCES
With the configuration set to chop disabled, an output data rate
of 4.7 Hz, a gain of 1, and a SINC4 filter, Figure 2 shows the noise
performance, and Figure 3 shows the noise distribution histogram
with 500 samples. The measured peak-to-peak noise of this
circuit is approximately 3.9 µV (see Figure 2), and the rms noise
is 860 nV. This corresponds to a peak-to-peak (noise-free code)
resolution of 20 bits and an rms resolution of 23 bits. Table 3
shows the rms noise for some of the data rates and gain settings
of the AD7192 with chop disabled and a SINC4 filter.
22.0
80
60
40
20
CODE (HEX)
10351-003
7FFFA2
7FFFA1
7FFFA0
7FFF9F
7FFF9E
7FFF9D
7FFF9C
0
Figure 3. Noise Histogram (VREF = 4.096 V, AVDD =5 V, Output Data Rate = 4.7
Hz, Gain = 1, Chop Disabled, SINC4 Filter)
Table 3. RMS Resolution of the System with Different Output Data Rates and Gain Settings of the AD7192 with Chop Disabled and
a SINC4 Filter (Subtract 2.7 Bits to Get Peak-to-Peak or Noise-Free Code Resolution)
Filter Word (Decimal)
1023
640
96
16
5
1
Output Data Rate (Hz)
4.7
7.5
50
300
960
4800
Settling Time (ms)
852.5
533
80
13.3
4.17
0.83
Gain 1
23.0
22.5
22.3
21.8
20.9
19.2
Rev. B | Page 4 of 6
Gain 8
21.8
21.5
20.9
20.2
19.8
19.0
Gain 16
20.4
20.0
19.8
19.3
18.9
18.4
Gain 32
19.7
19.5
19.3
18.6
18.0
17.6
Gain 64
18.8
18.5
18.2
17.6
17.2
16.6
Gain 128
17.4
17.2
17.0
16.8
16.2
15.8
Circuit Note
CN-0251
COMMON VARIATIONS
The circuit test setup uses the EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ circuit
evaluation board and the System Demonstration Platform (SDP)
evaluation board (EVAL-SDP-CB1Z). The two boards have 120-pin
mating connectors, allowing for the quick setup and evaluation
of the performance of the circuit. The EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ
board contains the circuit to be evaluated, as described in this
circuit note, and the SDP is used with the CN-0251 evaluation
software to capture the data from the EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ.
The SDP is also used to control the input multiplexer and
various functions within the AD7192 ADC.
Equipment Needed
The following equipment is needed:
•
•
•
•
GND
+6V
J3-2
J2-2
J2-1
VIN+
J1-2
EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ
VIN–
USB
J1-1
J4
SDP
10351-004
GND
J3-3
SDP CONA OR CONB
–15V
J3-1
120-PIN SDP CONNECTOR
+15V
Figure 4. Test Setup Functional Block Diagram
CIRCUIT EVALUATION AND TEST
•
USB
SIGNAL SOURCE
In applications where there is no need for attenuation and high
input impedance, the AD7192 can be connected directly to the
sensor to avoid noise introduced by the analog front-end
conditioning circuits. For instance, a load cell with a small full-scale
output voltage does not require attenuation and can be connected
directly to the AD7192 differential inputs (see the CN-0102,
CN-0107, CN-0108, CN-0118, CN-0119, and CN-0155)
PC
TRIPLE POWER SUPPLY
Other 24-bit or lower resolution Σ-Δ ADCs with integrated
PGAs can be used, such as the AD7190, AD7193, AD7797, and
AD7799. If no attenuation for the input signal is required, the
AD8476 can be used for lower power than the AD8475.
A PC with a USB port and Windows XP or Windows Vista
(32-bit) or Windows 7 (32-bit)
An EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ circuit evaluation board
An EVAL- SDP-CB1Z SDP evaluation board
A dc supply: +15 V, −15 V, and +6 V.
CN-0251 evaluation software
Getting Started
Load the evaluation software by placing the CN-0251 evaluation
software CD in the CD drive of the PC. Then, locate the drive
that contains the evaluation software CD and open the Readme
file. Follow the instructions contained in the Readme file for
installing and using the evaluation software.
Functional Block Diagram
Figure 4 shows a functional block diagram of the test setup. The
EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ-SCH.pdf file has the detailed schematics
for the EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ. This file is contained in the CN0251 Design Support Package: www.analog.com/CN0251DesignSupport.
Setup
Connect the 120-pin connector on the EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ to
the CONA connector on the EVAL-SDP-CB1Z (SDP). Use nylon
hardware to firmly secure the two boards, using the holes provided
at the ends of the 120-pin connectors. After successfully setting
the dc output supply to the +15 V, −15 V, and +6 V output, turn
the power supply off.
With power to the supply off, connect a +15 V power supply to
the +15VA pin of J3, a −15 V power supply to the −15VA pin of
J3, and GND to the AGND pin of J3. Also, with power to the
supply off, connect 6 V to J2. Turn on the power supply and then
connect the USB cable with the SDP to the USB port on the PC.
Do not connect the USB cable to the mini-USB connector on
the SDP before turning on the dc power supply for the EVALCN0251-SDPZ.
Test
After setting up the power supply and connecting to EVALCN0251-SDPZ, launch the evaluation software and connect the
USB cable from the PC to the mini-USB connector on the SDP.
The software is able to communicate to the SDP if the Analog
Devices System Development Platform driver is listed in the
Device Manager.
Once USB communications are established, the SDP can now
be used to send, receive, and capture serial data from the EVALCN0251-SDPZ. Then, connect the signal source for measurements.
Information regarding the SDP can be found at
www.analog.com/SDP.
Rev. B | Page 5 of 6
CN-0251
Circuit Note
LEARN MORE
Data Sheets and Evaluation Boards
MT-031 Tutorial, Grounding Data Converters and Solving the
Mystery of “AGND” and “DGND”, Analog Devices.
CN-0251 Circuit Evaluation Board (EVAL-CN0251-SDPZ)
System Demonstration Platform (EVAL-SDP-CB1Z)
MT-073 Tutorial, High Speed Variable Gain Amplifiers (VGAs),
Analog Devices.
MT-101 Tutorial, Decoupling Techniques, Analog Devices.
MT-022 Tutorial, ADC Architectures III: Sigma-Delta ADC
Basics, Analog Devices.
MT-023 Tutorial, ADC Architectures IV: Sigma-Delta ADC
Advanced Concepts and Applications, Analog Devices.
AD8226 Data Sheet
AD8475 Data Sheet
AD7192 Data Sheet
ADG1409 Data Sheet
ADR444 Data Sheet
ADP1720 Data Sheet
REVISION HISTORY
12/13—Rev. A to Rev. B
Changes to Title .................................................................................1
4/13—Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Changes to Circuit Evaluation and Test
Section.................................................................................................5
6/12—Rev. 0: Initial Version
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©2012–2013 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
CN10351-0-12/13(B)
Rev. B | Page 6 of 6
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