cd00259245

AN3126
Application note
Audio and waveform generation using the DAC in
STM32 microcontrollers
Introduction
This application note provides some examples for generating audio waveforms using the
Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) peripheral embedded in the microcontrollers of the
STM32Fx and STM32Lx series.
This document applies to products listed in Table 1, and should be read in connection with
application note AN4566 “Extending the DAC performance of STM32 microcontrollers”.
A digital to analog converter, DAC, is a device that has the opposite function to that of an
analog to digital converter, i.e. it converts a digital word to a corresponding analog voltage.
The STM32 DAC module is a 12-bit word converter, with up to three output channels to
support audio functions.
The DAC can be used in many audio applications such as security alarms, Bluetooth
headsets, talking toys, answering machines, man-machine interfaces, and low-cost music
players
STM32 DAC can also be used for many other analog purposes, such as analog waveform
generation and control engineering.
The application note is organized in two main sections:
• Section 1 describes the main features of the STM32 DAC module.
• Section 2 presents two examples.
– In the first example, the DAC is used to generate a sine wavefom.
– In the second example, the DAC is used to generate audio from .WAV files.
Table 1. Applicable products
Type
Product series
STM32F0
STM32F1
STM32F2
STM32F3
Microcontrollers
STM32F4
STM32F7
STM32L0
STM32L1
STM32L4
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1
Contents
AN3126
Contents
1
DAC main features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2
Data format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3
Dual channel mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4
Dedicated timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5
DMA capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.6
DMA underrun error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.7
White noise generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.8
1.9
2
1.7.1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.7.2
Typical applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Triangular wave generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
1.8.1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.8.2
Typical applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Buffered output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Application examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1
2.2
2.3
Using the DAC to generate a sine waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1.1
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1.2
Digital Sine waveform pattern preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1.3
Fixing the sine wave frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Using the DAC to implement an audio wave player . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.1
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.2
Audio wave file specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2.3
.WAV file format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Audio wave player implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
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List of tables
List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Applicable products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
DAC configurations for STM32 microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Preprogrammable triangular waveform amplitude values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Digital and analog sample values of the sine wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Document revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
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List of figures
AN3126
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
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DAC data format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
STM32F100x DAC trigger channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
DAC interaction without DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
DAC interaction with DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Pseudo random code generator embedded in the DAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Noise waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Noise waveform with changeable offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Triangular waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Triangular waveform with changeable offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Non buffered channel voltage (with and without load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Buffered channel voltage (with and without load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Sine wave model samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Sine wave generated with ns = 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Sine wave generated with ns = 255 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Flow of data from MicroSD Flash memory to external speakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Wave Player flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
CPU and DMA activities during wave playing process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
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DAC main features
1
DAC main features
1.1
Overview
STM32 microcontrollers integrate DAC with different configurations and features:
•
1 to 3 DAC output channels
•
Noise waveform generation
•
Triangular waveform generation
•
DMA under run flag
•
Dedicated analog clock
Table 2 summarizes the different STM32 DAC configuration.
Table 2. DAC configurations for STM32 microcontrollers
Series
F0
F1
F2
Product RPN
DAC
outputs
White noise
generator
Triangular
wave
generator
DMA
capability
DMA
underrun
error
STM32F030xx
STM32F031xx
STM32F038xx
STM32F042xx
STM32F048xx
STM32F070xx
0
-
-
-
-
STM32F051xx
STM32F058xx
1
No
No
Yes
No
STM32F071xx
STM32F072xx
STM32F078xx
STM32F091xx
STM32F098xx
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
STM32F101x4/6/8B
STM32F102xx
STM32F103x4/6/8B
0
-
-
-
-
STM32F100xx
STM32F101xC/D/E/F/G
STM32F103xC/D/E/F/G
STM32F105xx
STM32F107xx
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
STM32F2xxxx
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
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Table 2. DAC configurations for STM32 microcontrollers (continued)
Product RPN
DAC
outputs
White noise
generator
Triangular
wave
generator
DMA
capability
DMA
underrun
error
STM32F301xx
STM32F302xx
STM32F318xx
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
STM32F303xB/C/D/E
STM32F358xx
STM32F398xx
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
STM32F3328
STM32F3334
STM32F3373
STM32F3378
3
Yes
(only for 2
channels)
Yes
(only for 2
channels)
Yes
Yes
STM32F401xx
STM32F411xx
0
-
-
-
-
STM32F405xx
STM32F407xx
STM32F415xx
STM32F417xx
STM32F427xx
STM32F429xx
STM32F437xx
STM32F439xx
STM32F446xx
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
F7
STM32F7xxxx
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
0
-
-
-
-
L0
STM32L031xx
STM32L041xx
STM32L051xx
STM32L071xx
STM32L081xx
STM32L052xx
STM32L053xx
STM32L062xx
STM32L063xx
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
L1
STM32L1xxxx
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
L4
STM32L4xxxx
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Series
F3
F4
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1.2
DAC main features
Data format
The DAC accepts data in 3 integer formats: 8-bit, 12-bit right aligned and 12-bit left aligned.
A 12-bit value can range from 0x000 to 0xFFF, with 0x000 being the lowest and 0xFFF
being the highest value.
Figure 1. DAC data format
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1.3
Dual channel mode
Note:
This feature is supported only for products that embed at least 2 DACs.
The DAC has two output channels, each with its own converter. In dual DAC channel mode,
conversions could be done independently or simultaneously.
When the DAC channels are triggered by the same source, both channels are grouped
together for synchronous update operations and conversions are done simultaneously.
1.4
Dedicated timers
In addition to the software and External triggers, the DAC conversion can be triggered by
different timers.
TIM6 and TIM7 are basic timers and are basically designed for DAC triggering.
Each time a DAC interface detects a rising edge on the selected Timer Trigger Output
(TIMx_TRGO), the last data stored in the DAC_DHRx register is transferred to the
DAC_DORx register (an example for STM32F100x is given in Figure 2).
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Figure 2. STM32F100x DAC trigger channels
76(/[>@ELWV
7,0B75*2
7,0B75*2
7,0B75*2
7,0B75*2
7,0B75*2
7,0B75*2
'$&&KDQQHOB[7ULJJHU
6:75,*[
(;7,B
069
1.5
DMA capabilities
The STM32 microcontrollers have a DMA module with multiple channels. Each DAC
channel is connected to an independent DMA channel. In the case of STM32F100x
Microcontrollers, the DAC channel 1 is connected to the DMA channel 3 and DAC channel2
is connected to DMA channel 4.
When DMA is not utilized, the CPU is used to provide DAC with the pattern waveform.
Generally the waveform is saved in a memory (RAM), and the CPU is in charge of
transferring the data from RAM to the DAC.
Figure 3. DAC interaction without DMA
CPU
RAM
(Pattern Table 1)
(Pattern Table 2)
DAC
DAC Triggers
Channel 1
Output
Channel 2
Output
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DAC main features
When using the DMA, the overall performance of the system is increased by freeing up the
core. This is because data is moved from memory to DAC by DMA, without needing any
actions by the CPU. This keeps CPU resources free for other operations.
Figure 4. DAC interaction with DMA
CPU
RAM
(Pattern Table 1)
(Pattern Table 2)
DMA
DAC
DAC Triggers
Channel 1
Output
Channel 2
Output
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1.6
DMA underrun error
When the DMA is used to provide DAC with the pattern waveform, there are some cases
where the DMA transfer is faster than the DAC conversion, In this case, DAC detects that a
part of the pattern waveform has been ignored and was not converted. It then sets the "DMA
underrun Error" flag.
The underrun error can be handled using a shared IRQ channel with the triggering Timer or
by a dedicated interrupt when DAC is not triggered by TIM6.
1.7
White noise generator
1.7.1
Definition
The STM32 microcontrollers DAC provides user with a pseudo random code generator,
sketched in Figure 5. Depending on what taps are used on the shift register, a sequence of
up to 2n-1 numbers can be generated before the sequence repeats.
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Figure 5. Pseudo random code generator embedded in the DAC
[
[
[
[
[
069
The noise produced by this generator has a flat spectral distribution and can be considered
white noise. However, instead of having a Gaussian output characteristics, it is uniformly
distributed, see Figure 6.
Figure 6. Noise waveform
The offset of the noise waveform is programmable. By varying this offset using a
preconfigured table of offsets (signal pattern), user can obtain a waveform which correspond
to the sum of the signal pattern and the noise waveform.
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DAC main features
Figure 7. Noise waveform with changeable offset
Noise waveform
Result waveform
Pattern waveform (offset)
ai18306
1.7.2
Typical applications
The STM32 microcontrollers come with 12-bit enhanced ADC with a sampling rate of up to
1 M samples/s. In most applications, this resolution is sufficient, but in some cases where
higher accuracy is required, the concept of oversampling and decimating the input signal
can be implemented to save the use of an external ADC solution and to reduce the
application power consumption.
More details about these methods are explained in the application note AN2668, in the
section titled “Oversampling using white noise”.
White noise generator can be also used in the production of electronic music, usually either
directly or as an input for a filter to create other types of noise signal. It is used extensively in
audio synthesis, typically to recreate percussive instruments such as cymbals which have
high noise content in their frequency domain.
White noise generator can be used for control engineering purposes, it can be used for
frequency response testing of amplifiers and electronic filters.
White noise is a common synthetic noise source used for sound masking by a Tinnitus
masker.
1.8
Triangular wave generator
1.8.1
Definition
The STM32 DAC provides the user with a triangular waveform generator with a flexible
offset, amplitude and frequency.
Theoretically, a triangular waveform is a wave form comprised of an infinite set of odd
harmonic sine waves (see Figure 9).
The amplitude of the triangular waveform can be fixed using the MAMPx bits in the
DAC_CR register.
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Table 3. Preprogrammable triangular waveform amplitude values
Analog Amplitude (Volt)
MAMPx[3:0] bits
Digital Amplitude
0
1
0.0016
1
3
0.0032
2
7
0.0064
3
15
0.0128
4
31
0.0257
5
63
0.0515
6
127
0.1031
7
255
0.2062
8
511
0.4125
9
1023
0.8250
10
2045
1.6483
≥ 11
4095
3.3000
(with Vref+ = 3.3V)
For more details about the triangular waveform, please read the dedicated sections in the
reference manuals of the STM32 products.
The triangular waveform frequency is related to the frequency of the trigger source.
Figure 8. Triangular waveform
DAC output x Voltage
3.3V
Frequency
Amplitude
Offset
0V
Time
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The offset of the triangular waveform is programmable (see Figure 9). By varying the offset
of the triangular waveform with a preconfigured table of offsets (signal pattern), user can
obtain a waveform which corresponds to the sum of the signal pattern and the triangular
waveform.
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DAC main features
Figure 9. Triangular waveform with changeable offset
Triangular waveform
Result waveform
Pattern waveform (offset)
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1.8.2
Typical applications
Triangular wave generators are often used in sound synthesis as its timbre is less harsh
than the square wave because the amplitude of its upper harmonics falls off more rapidly.
Triangular wave generator circuits are also used in many modem circuit applications.
1.9
Buffered output
To drive external loads without using an external operational amplifier, DAC channels have
embedded output buffers which can be enabled and disabled depending on the user
application.
When the DAC output is not buffered, and there is a load in the user application circuit, the
voltage output will be lower than the desired voltage. Enabling the buffer, the voltage output
and the voltage desired are similar.
Figure 10. Non buffered channel voltage (with and without load)
DAC
DAC_Channel_1
DOR = 0xFFF
 3.3 V
DAC
DAC_Channel_1
DOR = 0xFFF
 3.3V
1.2 V
R = 5.1K
GND
3.3 V
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Figure 11. Buffered channel voltage (with and without load)
DAC
DAC_Channel_1
DOR = 0xFFF
 3.3 V
DAC
DAC_Channel_1
DOR = 0xFFF
 3.3V
3.3 V
R = 5.1K
GND
3.3 V
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Application examples
2
Application examples
2.1
Using the DAC to generate a sine waveform
2.1.1
Description
This example describes step by step how to generate a sine waveform.
A sine waveform is also called a sine tone with a single frequency, it is known as a pure tone
or sinus tone. The sine tones are traditionally used are stimuli in determining the various
responses of the auditory system.
2.1.2
Digital Sine waveform pattern preparation
To prepare the digital pattern of the waveform, we have to do some mathematics.
Our objective is to have 10 digital pattern data (samples) of a sine wave form which varies
from 0 to 2*PI.
Figure 12. Sine wave model samples
ySineAnalog(Volt)
ySineDigital
5000
4.029
4000
3.223
3000
2.147
2000
1.611
1000
0.805
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
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The sampling step is (2*PI)/ ns (number of samples).
The result value of sin(x) is between -1 and 1, we have to recalibrate it to have a positive
sinewave with samples varying between 0 and 0xFFF (which correspond, the range from
0 V to 3.3 V).
( 0xFFF + 1 )
2π
y SineDigital ( x ) = ⎛ sin ⎛ x ⋅ ------⎞ + 1⎞ ⎛ ---------------------------------⎞
⎝
⎝
⎠⎝
⎠
2
ns ⎠
Digital inputs are converted to output voltages on a linear conversion between 0 and VREF+.
The analog output voltages on each DAC channel pin are determined by the following
equation:
DOR
DAC Output = V REF ----------------------------------------------------------DAC_MaxDigitalValue
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Note:
AN3126
For right-aligned 12-bit resolution: DAC_MaxDigitalValue = 0xFFF
For right-aligned 8-bit resolution: DAC_MaxDigitalValue = 0xFF
So the analog sine waveform ySineAnalog can be determined by the following equation
y SineDigital ( x )
y SineAnalog ( x ) = 3.3Volt ------------------------------------0xFFF + 1
Table 4. Digital and analog sample values of the sine wave
Sample
Digital Sample Value
Analog Sample Value (Volt)
(x)
ySineDigital (x)
ySineAnalog(x)
0
2048
1.650
1
3251
2.620
2
3995
3.219
3
3996
3.220
4
3253
2.622
5
2051
1.653
6
847
0.682
7
101
0.081
8
98
0.079
9
839
0.676
The table is saved in the memory and transferred by the DMA, the transfer is triggered by
the same timer that triggers the DAC
2.1.3
Fixing the sine wave frequency
To fix the frequency of the sinewave signal, you have to set the frequency of the Timer
Trigger output.
The frequency of the produced sine wave is
f TimerTRGO
f Sinewave = -----------------------------ns
So, if TIMx_TRGO is 1 MHz, the frequency of the DAC sine wave is 10 kHz.
Note:
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To have a high quality sine wave curve, it is recommended to use a high number of samples
ns (the difference can be appreciated by comparing Figure 13 with Figure 14).
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Application examples
Figure 13. Sine wave generated with ns = 10
ySineAnalog(Volt)
4
3
2
1
time
0
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Figure 14. Sine wave generated with ns = 255
ySineAnalog(Volt)
ySineDigital
5000
4.029
4000
3.223
3000
2.147
2000
1.611
1000
0.805
0
time
0
51
102
153
204
0
255
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2.2
Using the DAC to implement an audio wave player
2.2.1
Description
The purpose of this application demo is to provide an audio player solution for the STM32
microcontroller for playing .WAV files. The approach is optimized to use a minimum number
of external components, and offers the flexibility for end-users to use their own .WAV files.
The audio files are provided to the STM32 from a MicroSD memory card.
Figure 15. Flow of data from MicroSD Flash memory to external speakers
.WAV
CPU
DAC
SPI
RAM
DMA
TIM6
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The audio wave player demonstration described in this section is a part of the
STM32100B-EVAL demonstration firmware. You can download this firmware and the
associated user manual (UM0891) from the STMicroelectronics website www.st.com.
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2.2.2
Application examples
Audio wave file specifications
This application assumes that the .WAV file to be played has the following format:
2.2.3
•
Audio Format: PCM (an uncompressed wave data format in which each value
represents the amplitude of the signal at the time of sampling)
•
Sample rate: may be 8000, 11025, 22050 or 44100 Hz
•
Bits Per Sample: 8-bit (Audio sample data values are in the range [0-255])
•
Number of Channels: 1 (Mono)
.WAV file format
The .WAV file format is a subset of the Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF)
specification used for the storage of multimedia files. A RIFF file starts with a file header
followed by a sequence of data chunks. A .WAV file is often just a RIFF file with a single
"WAVE" chunk consisting of two sub-chunks:
1.
a fmt chunk specifying the data format
2.
a data chunk containing the actual sample data.
The WAVE file format starts with the RIFF header: it indicates the file length.
Next, the fmt chunk describes the sample format, it contains information about: Format of
the wave audio : (PCM/...), Number of channels (mono/stereo), sample rate (number of
samples per seconds : e.g., 22050), and the sample Data size (e.g. 8bit/16bit). Finally, the
data chunk contains the sample data.
2.3
Audio wave player implementation
The Audio wave player application is based on the SPI, DMA, TIM6, and DAC peripherals.
At start up, the application first uses the SPI to interface with the MicroSD card and parses
its content, using the DOSFS file system, looking for available .wav files in the USER folder.
Once a valid .wav file is found, it is read back though the SPI, and the data are transferred
using the CPU to a buffer array located in the RAM. The DMA is used to transfer data from
RAM to DAC peripheral. TIM6 is used to trigger the DAC which will convert the Audio digital
data to an analog waveform.
Before the audio data can be played, the header of the WAV file is parsed so that the
sampling rate of the data and its length can be determined.
The task of reproducing audio is achieved by using sampled data (data contained in the
.WAV file) to update the value of the DAC output, this data is coded in 8 bits (with values
from 0 to 255),
The DAC Channel 1 is triggered by TIM6 at regular interval specified by the sample rate of
the .WAV file header.
The .WAV files are read from the MicroSD Memory using a DosFS file system.
In the Demo code, code files handling the waveplayer demo are:
waveplayer.c
waveplayer.h
The wave player demo is called using WavePlayerMenu_Start() function which has the
flowchart shown in Figure 16.
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Figure 16. Wave Player flowchart
WavePlayer_menuStart()
Enable DMA,TIM6,DAC clocks
if WaveDataLength!= 0
Config DAC channel 1 to be triggered
by TIM6 TRGO
Read 512 next bytes from the .wav file
and Save them in wavBuffer2 (*)
Config DMA ch3 to transfer 512 bytes
from wavBuffer1 to DAC ch1 8bit
DHR register
No
If DMA transfer from wavBuffer1 to
DAC ch1 is completed (*)
Enable DMA channel3
Yes
Enable DAC channel 1 and DMA
connection
Enable DAC channel 1 output
Parse the .wav file to Check if it is a
Valid file and Get all needed
information from the .wav header.
No
Clear DMA channel3 flag
Decrement the WaveDataLength by 512
and if WaveDataLength < 512 then
WaveDataLength = 0
Disable DMA , Config DMA to transfer 512
bytes from wavBuffer2 to DAC ch1 8bit
DHR register, and enable DMA
if .wav file status OK
Read 512 next bytes from the .wav file
and Save them in wavBuffer1 (*)
Yes
Connect TIM6 TRGO to its update
event
No
If DMA transfer from wavBuffer2 to
DAC ch1 is completed (*)
Configure the TIM6 frequency to have
the correct .wav sample rate
Yes
Clear DMA channel3 flag
Enable TIM6
(start the Transfer from RAM to DAC)
Initialize WaveDataLength with .wav
file audible data size
Decrement the WaveDataLength by 512
and if WaveDataLength < 512 then
WaveDataLength = 0
Disable DMA, Configure DMA transfer 512
bytes from wavBuffer1 to DAC ch1 8bit
DHR register, and Enable DMA
Display Error
Disable DMA
Exit
ai18315
(*) when DMA is transferring data from one RAM buffer, CPU is transferring data from the
MicroSD Flash memory to the other RAM buffer.
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Application examples
In this application, coprocessing is mandatory to permit a simultaneous Wave read (from the
external memory source) and write (in the DAC register).
Figure 17. CPU and DMA activities during wave playing process
Decrement the WaveDataLength
counter and DMA reconfiguration
Transfer 512 byte data
from MicroSD memory in
wavBuffer_2
Decrement the WaveDataLength
counter and DMA reconfiguration
Transfer 512 byte data
from MicroSD memory in
wavBuffer_1
CPU
Idle
(No activity)
DMA
TIM6_TRGO
Transfer 512 bytes data from wavBuffur_1 to DAC
(Transfer triggered by TIM6_TRGO)
Idle
(No activity)
Transfer 512 bytes data from wavBuffur_2 to DAC
(Transfer triggered by TIM6_TRGO)
..........................
..........................
512 pulses
512 pulses
......
ai18316
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Conclusion
3
AN3126
Conclusion
This application note and in particular the examples given inSection 2 have been provided
to help you get familiar with the DAC’s main features.
The first example (in Section 2.1) shows how to generate an analog waveform, using the
example of a sine waveform. The second example (in Section 2.2) offers a straightforward
and flexible solution for using the STM32, to play .WAV files, stored in an SPI MicroSD Flash
memory.
You can use these examples as starting points for developing your own solution using
STM32 microcontrollers.
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Revision history
Revision history
Table 5. Document revision history
Date
Revision
28-May-2010
1
Initial release.
2
Updated Introduction, Section 1.3: Dual channel mode and Section 3:
Conclusion.
Updated formulas in Section 2.1.2: Digital Sine waveform pattern
preparation.
Updated Figure 2: STM32F100x DAC trigger channels and Figure 5:
Pseudo random code generator embedded in the DAC.
Added Table 1: Applicable products and Table 2: DAC configurations for
STM32 microcontrollers.
Added Section 1.1: Overview, and Note in Section 1.3: Dual channel
mode.
16-Apr-2015
Changes
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