dm00046982

PM0214
Programming manual
STM32F3, STM32F4 and STM32L4 Series
Cortex®-M4 programming manual
Introduction
This programming manual provides information for application and system-level software
developers. It gives a full description of the STM32 Cortex®-M4 processor programming
model, instruction set and core peripherals.
The STM32F3, STM32F4 and STM32L4 Series Cortex®-M4 processor is a high
performance 32-bit processor designed for the microcontroller market. It offers significant
benefits to developers, including:
• Outstanding processing performance combined with fast interrupt handling
• Enhanced system debug with extensive breakpoint and trace capabilities
• Efficient processor core, system and memories
• Ultra-low power consumption with integrated sleep modes
• Platform security
Reference documents
Available from STMicroelectronics web site www.st.com:
April 2016
•
STM32F3, STM32F4 and STM32L4 Series datasheets
•
STM32F3, STM32F4 and STM32L4 Series reference manuals
DocID022708 Rev 5
1/260
www.st.com
Contents
PM0214
Contents
1
2
About this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.1
Typographical conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2
List of abbreviations for registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3
About the STM32 Cortex-M4 processor and core peripherals . . . . . . . . . 13
System level interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.2
Integrated configurable debug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.3
Cortex-M4 processor features and benefits summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.4
Cortex-M4 core peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The Cortex-M4 processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1
2.2
2.3
2/260
1.3.1
Programmers model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.1
Processor mode and privilege levels for software execution . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.2
Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.3
Core registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1.4
Exceptions and interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1.5
Data types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1.6
The Cortex microcontroller software interface standard (CMSIS) . . . . . 25
Memory model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.2.1
Memory regions, types and attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.2.2
Memory system ordering of memory accesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.2.3
Behavior of memory accesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2.4
Software ordering of memory accesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2.5
Bit-banding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.2.6
Memory endianness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.2.7
Synchronization primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.2.8
Programming hints for the synchronization primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Exception model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3.1
Exception states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3.2
Exception types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3.3
Exception handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.3.4
Vector table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.3.5
Exception priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.3.6
Interrupt priority grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.3.7
Exception entry and return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
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2.5
3
Fault handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.4.1
Fault types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.4.2
Fault escalation and hard faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.4.3
Fault status registers and fault address registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.4.4
Lockup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Power management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.5.1
Entering sleep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.5.2
Wakeup from sleep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.5.3
External event input / extended interrupt and event input . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.5.4
Power management programming hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.1
Instruction set summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.2
CMSIS intrinsic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.3
About the instruction descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.4
3.5
3.3.1
Operands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3.2
Restrictions when using PC or SP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3.3
Flexible second operand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3.4
Shift operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.3.5
Address alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.3.6
PC-relative expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.3.7
Conditional execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.3.8
Instruction width selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Memory access instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.4.1
ADR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.4.2
LDR and STR, immediate offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.4.3
LDR and STR, register offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.4.4
LDR and STR, unprivileged . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.4.5
LDR, PC-relative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
3.4.6
LDM and STM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
3.4.7
PUSH and POP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.4.8
LDREX and STREX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
3.4.9
CLREX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
General data processing instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.5.1
ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, and RSB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.5.2
AND, ORR, EOR, BIC, and ORN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
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3.6
3.7
3.5.3
ASR, LSL, LSR, ROR, and RRX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.5.4
CLZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3.5.5
CMP and CMN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.5.6
MOV and MVN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.5.7
MOVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.5.8
REV, REV16, REVSH, and RBIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.5.9
SADD16 and SADD8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.5.10
SHADD16 and SHADD8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3.5.11
SHASX and SHSAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.5.12
SHSUB16 and SHSUB8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.5.13
SSUB16 and SSUB8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.5.14
SASX and SSAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3.5.15
TST and TEQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.5.16
UADD16 and UADD8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.5.17
UASX and USAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
3.5.18
UHADD16 and UHADD8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.5.19
UHASX and UHSAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.5.20
UHSUB16 and UHSUB8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.5.21
SEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.5.22
USAD8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.5.23
USADA8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
3.5.24
USUB16 and USUB8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Multiply and divide instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3.6.1
MUL, MLA, and MLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.6.2
UMULL, UMAAL and UMLAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
3.6.3
SMLA and SMLAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3.6.4
SMLAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.6.5
SMLAL and SMLALD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
3.6.6
SMLSD and SMLSLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
3.6.7
SMMLA and SMMLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.6.8
SMMUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
3.6.9
SMUAD and SMUSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
3.6.10
SMUL and SMULW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.6.11
UMULL, UMLAL, SMULL, and SMLAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
3.6.12
SDIV and UDIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Saturating instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
3.7.1
4/260
SSAT and USAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
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3.9
3.10
3.7.2
SSAT16 and USAT16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
3.7.3
QADD and QSUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
3.7.4
QASX and QSAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
3.7.5
QDADD and QDSUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
3.7.6
UQASX and UQSAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
3.7.7
UQADD and UQSUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Packing and unpacking instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
3.8.1
PKHBT and PKHTB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
3.8.2
SXT and UXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
3.8.3
SXTA and UXTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Bitfield instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
3.9.1
BFC and BFI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
3.9.2
SBFX and UBFX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
3.9.3
SXT and UXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
3.9.4
Branch and control instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
3.9.5
B, BL, BX, and BLX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
3.9.6
CBZ and CBNZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
3.9.7
IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
3.9.8
TBB and TBH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Floating-point instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
3.10.1
VABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
3.10.2
VADD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
3.10.3
VCMP, VCMPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
3.10.4
VCVT, VCVTR between floating-point and integer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
3.10.5
VCVT between floating-point and fixed-point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
3.10.6
VCVTB, VCVTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
3.10.7
VDIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
3.10.8
VFMA, VFMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
3.10.9
VFNMA, VFNMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
3.10.10 VLDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
3.10.11 VLDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
3.10.12 VLMA, VLMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
3.10.13 VMOV immediate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
3.10.14 VMOV register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
3.10.15 VMOV scalar to ARM core register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
3.10.16 VMOV ARM core register to single precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
3.10.17 VMOV two ARM core registers to two single precision . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
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3.10.18 VMOV ARM Core register to scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
3.10.19 VMRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
3.10.20 VMSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
3.10.21 VMUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
3.10.22 VNEG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
3.10.23 VNMLA, VNMLS, VNMUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
3.10.24 VPOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
3.10.25 VPUSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
3.10.26 VSQRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
3.10.27 VSTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
3.10.28 VSTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
3.10.29 VSUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
3.11
Miscellaneous instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
3.11.1
BKPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
3.11.2
CPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
3.11.3
DMB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
3.11.4
DSB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
3.11.5
ISB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
3.11.6
MRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
3.11.7
MSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
3.11.8
NOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
3.11.9
SEV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
3.11.10 SVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
3.11.11
WFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
3.11.12 WFI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
4
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Core peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
4.1
About the STM32 Cortex-M4 core peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
4.2
Memory protection unit (MPU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
4.2.1
MPU access permission attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
4.2.2
MPU mismatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
4.2.3
Updating an MPU region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
4.2.4
MPU design hints and tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
4.2.5
MPU type register (MPU_TYPER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
4.2.6
MPU control register (MPU_CTRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
4.2.7
MPU region number register (MPU_RNR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
4.2.8
MPU region base address register (MPU_RBAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
DocID022708 Rev 5
PM0214
Contents
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.2.9
MPU region attribute and size register (MPU_RASR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
4.2.10
MPU register map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Nested vectored interrupt controller (NVIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
4.3.1
Accessing the Cortex-M4 NVIC registers using CMSIS . . . . . . . . . . . 208
4.3.2
Interrupt set-enable registers (NVIC_ISERx) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
4.3.3
Interrupt clear-enable registers (NVIC_ICERx) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
4.3.4
Interrupt set-pending registers (NVIC_ISPRx) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
4.3.5
Interrupt clear-pending registers (NVIC_ICPRx) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
4.3.6
Interrupt active bit registers (NVIC_IABRx) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
4.3.7
Interrupt priority registers (NVIC_IPRx) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
4.3.8
Software trigger interrupt register (NVIC_STIR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
4.3.9
Level-sensitive and pulse interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
4.3.10
NVIC design hints and tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
4.3.11
NVIC register map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
System control block (SCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
4.4.1
Auxiliary control register (ACTLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
4.4.2
CPUID base register (CPUID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
4.4.3
Interrupt control and state register (ICSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
4.4.4
Vector table offset register (VTOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
4.4.5
Application interrupt and reset control register (AIRCR) . . . . . . . . . . . 227
4.4.6
System control register (SCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
4.4.7
Configuration and control register (CCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
4.4.8
System handler priority registers (SHPRx) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
4.4.9
System handler control and state register (SHCSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
4.4.10
Configurable fault status register (CFSR; UFSR+BFSR+MMFSR) . . . 236
4.4.11
Usage fault status register (UFSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
4.4.12
Bus fault status register (BFSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
4.4.13
Memory management fault address register (MMFSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
4.4.14
Hard fault status register (HFSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
4.4.15
Memory management fault address register (MMFAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
4.4.16
Bus fault address register (BFAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
4.4.17
Auxiliary fault status register (AFSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
4.4.18
System control block design hints and tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
4.4.19
SCB register map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
SysTick timer (STK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
4.5.1
SysTick control and status register (STK_CTRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
4.5.2
SysTick reload value register (STK_LOAD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
DocID022708 Rev 5
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4.6
5
8/260
4.5.3
SysTick current value register (STK_VAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
4.5.4
SysTick calibration value register (STK_CALIB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.5.5
SysTick design hints and tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.5.6
SysTick register map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Floating point unit (FPU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
4.6.1
Coprocessor access control register (CPACR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
4.6.2
Floating-point context control register (FPCCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
4.6.3
Floating-point context address register (FPCAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
4.6.4
Floating-point status control register (FPSCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
4.6.5
Floating-point default status control register (FPDSCR) . . . . . . . . . . . 256
4.6.6
Enabling the FPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
4.6.7
Enabling and clearing FPU exception interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
DocID022708 Rev 5
PM0214
List of tables
List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Table 10.
Table 11.
Table 12.
Table 13.
Table 14.
Table 15.
Table 16.
Table 17.
Table 18.
Table 19.
Table 20.
Table 21.
Table 22.
Table 23.
Table 24.
Table 25.
Table 26.
Table 27.
Table 28.
Table 29.
Table 30.
Table 31.
Table 32.
Table 33.
Table 34.
Table 35.
Table 36.
Table 37.
Table 38.
Table 39.
Table 40.
Table 41.
Table 42.
Table 43.
Table 44.
Table 45.
Table 46.
Table 47.
Table 48.
Summary of processor mode, execution privilege level, and stack usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Core register set summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
PSR register combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
APSR bit definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
IPSR bit definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
EPSR bit definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
PRIMASK register bit definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
FAULTMASK register bit definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
BASEPRI register bit assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
CONTROL register bit definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Ordering of memory accesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Memory access behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
SRAM memory bit-banding regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Peripheral memory bit-banding regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
CMSIS functions for exclusive access instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Properties of the different exception types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Exception return behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Fault status and fault address registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Cortex-M4 instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
CMSIS intrinsic functions to generate some Cortex-M4 instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
CMSIS intrinsic functions to access the special registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Condition code suffixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Memory access instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Immediate, pre-indexed and post-indexed offset ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
label-PC offset ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Data processing instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Multiply and divide instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Saturating instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Packing and unpacking instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Instructions that operate on adjacent sets of bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Branch and control instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Branch ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Floating-point instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Miscellaneous instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
STM32 core peripheral register regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Memory attributes summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
TEX, C, B, and S encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Cache policy for memory attribute encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
AP encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Memory region attributes for STM32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Example SIZE field values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
MPU register map and reset values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
NVIC register summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
CMSIS access NVIC functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
IPR bit assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
CMSIS functions for NVIC control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
NVIC register map and reset values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
DocID022708 Rev 5
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10
List of tables
Table 49.
Table 50.
Table 51.
Table 52.
Table 53.
Table 54.
Table 55.
Table 56.
Table 57.
10/260
PM0214
Summary of the system control block registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Priority grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
System fault handler priority fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
SCB register map and reset values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
System timer registers summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
SysTick register map and reset values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Cortex-M4F floating-point system registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Effect of a Floating-point comparison on the condition flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Document revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
DocID022708 Rev 5
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List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
STM32 Cortex-M4 implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Processor core registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
APSR, IPSR and EPSR bit assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
PSR bit assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
PRIMASK bit assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
FAULTMASK bit assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
BASEPRI bit assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Memory map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Bit-band mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Little-endian example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Vector table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Cortex-M4 stack frame layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
ASR #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
LSR #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
LSL #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
ROR #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
RRX #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Subregion example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
NVIC_IPRx register mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
CFSR subregisters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
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About this document
This document provides the information required for application and system-level software
development. It does not provide information on debug components, features, or operation.
This material is for microcontroller software and hardware engineers, including those who
have no experience of ARM products.
1.1
Typographical conventions
The typographical conventions used in this document are:
italic
Highlights important notes, introduces special terminology, denotes
internal cross-references, and citations.
< and >
Enclose replaceable terms for assembler syntax where they appear in
code or code fragments. For example:
LDRSB<cond> <Rt>, [<Rn>, #<offset>]
bold
Highlights interface elements, such as menu names. Denotes signal
names. Also used for terms in descriptive lists, where appropriate.
monospace
Denotes text that you can enter at the keyboard, such as commands,
file and program names, and source code.
monospace
Denotes a permitted abbreviation for a command or option. You can
enter the underlined text instead of the full command or option name.
monospace italic Denotes arguments to monospace text where the argument is to be
replaced by a specific value.
monospace bold Denotes language keywords when used outside example code.
1.2
List of abbreviations for registers
The following abbreviations are used in register descriptions:
read/write (rw)
Software can read and write to these bits.
read-only (r)
Software can only read these bits.
write-only (w)
Software can only write to this bit.
Reading the bit returns the reset value.
read/clear (rc_w1) Software can read as well as clear this bit by writing 1.
Writing ‘0’ has no effect on the bit value.
read/clear (rc_w0) Software can read as well as clear this bit by writing 0.
Writing ‘1’ has no effect on the bit value.
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toggle (t)
Software can only toggle this bit by writing ‘1’. Writing ‘0’ has no effect.
Reserved (Res.)
Reserved bit, must be kept at reset value.
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1.3
About this document
About the STM32 Cortex-M4 processor and core peripherals
The Cortex-M4 processor is a high performance 32-bit processor designed for the
microcontroller market. It offers significant benefits to developers, including:
•
outstanding processing performance combined with fast interrupt handling
•
enhanced system debug with extensive breakpoint and trace capabilities
•
efficient processor core, system and memories
•
ultra-low power consumption with integrated sleep modes
•
platform security robustness, with integrated memory protection unit (MPU).
The Cortex-M4 processor is built on a high-performance processor core, with a 3-stage
pipeline Harvard architecture, making it ideal for demanding embedded applications. The
processor delivers exceptional power efficiency through an efficient instruction set and
extensively optimized design, providing high-end processing hardware including IEEE754compliant single-precision floating-point computation, a range of single-cycle and SIMD
multiplication and multiply-with-accumulate capabilities, saturating arithmetic and dedicated
hardware division.
Figure 1. STM32 Cortex-M4 implementation
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To facilitate the design of cost-sensitive devices, the Cortex-M4 processor implements
tightly-coupled system components that reduce processor area while significantly improving
interrupt handling and system debug capabilities. The Cortex-M4 processor implements a
version of the Thumb® instruction set based on Thumb-2 technology, ensuring high code
density and reduced program memory requirements. The Cortex-M4 instruction set
provides the exceptional performance expected of a modern 32-bit architecture, with the
high code density of 8-bit and 16-bit microcontrollers.
The Cortex-M4 processor closely integrates a configurable nested interrupt controller
(NVIC), to deliver industry-leading interrupt performance. The NVIC includes a nonmaskable interrupt (NMI), and provides up to 256 interrupt priority levels. The tight
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integration of the processor core and NVIC provides fast execution of interrupt service
routines (ISRs), dramatically reducing the interrupt latency. This is achieved through the
hardware stacking of registers, and the ability to suspend load-multiple and store-multiple
operations. Interrupt handlers do not require any assembler stubs, removing any code
overhead from the ISRs. Tail-chaining optimization also significantly reduces the overhead
when switching from one ISR to another.
To optimize low-power designs, the deep sleep function, included in the sleep mode
integrated in the NVIC, enables the STM32 to enter STOP or STDBY mode.
1.3.1
System level interface
The Cortex-M4 processor provides multiple interfaces using AMBA® technology to provide
high speed, low latency memory accesses. It supports unaligned data accesses and
implements atomic bit manipulation that enables faster peripheral controls, system
spinlocks and thread-safe Boolean data handling.
The Cortex-M4 processor has a memory protection unit (MPU) that provides fine grain
memory control, enabling applications to utilize multiple privilege levels, separating and
protecting code, data and stack on a task-by-task basis. Such requirements are critical in
many embedded applications such as automotive.
1.3.2
Integrated configurable debug
The Cortex-M4 processor implements a complete hardware debug solution. This provides
high system visibility of the processor and memory through either a traditional JTAG port or
a 2-pin Serial Wire Debug (SWD) port that is ideal for small package devices.
For system trace the processor integrates an Instrumentation Trace Macrocell (ITM)
alongside data watchpoints and a profiling unit. To enable simple and cost-effective profiling
of the system events these generate, a Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) can export a stream of
software-generated messages, data trace, and profiling information through a single pin.
The optional Embedded Trace Macrocell™ (ETM) delivers unrivalled instruction trace
capture in an area far smaller than traditional trace units.
1.3.3
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Cortex-M4 processor features and benefits summary
•
Tight integration of system peripherals reduces area and development costs
•
Thumb instruction set combines high code density with 32-bit performance
•
IEEE754-compliant single-precision FPU implemented in all STM32 Cortex-M4
microcontrollers
•
Power control optimization of system components
•
Integrated sleep modes for low power consumption
•
Fast code execution permits slower processor clock or increases sleep mode time
•
Hardware division and fast multiplier
•
Deterministic, high-performance interrupt handling for time-critical applications
•
Memory protection unit (MPU) for safety-critical applications
•
Extensive debug and trace capabilities: Serial Wire Debug and Serial Wire Trace
reduce the number of pins required for debugging and tracing.
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1.3.4
About this document
Cortex-M4 core peripherals
The peripherals are:
Nested vectored interrupt controller
The nested vectored interrupt controller (NVIC) is an embedded interrupt controller that
supports low latency interrupt processing.
System control block
The system control block (SCB) is the programmer’s model interface to the processor.
It provides system implementation information and system control, including
configuration, control, and reporting of system exceptions.
System timer
The system timer, SysTick, is a 24-bit count-down timer. Use this as a Real Time
Operating System (RTOS) tick timer or as a simple counter.
Memory protection unit
The Memory protection unit (MPU) improves system reliability by defining the memory
attributes for different memory regions. It provides up to eight different regions, and an
optional predefined background region.
Floating-point unit
The Floating-point unit (FPU) provides IEEE754-compliant operations on singleprecision, 32-bit, floating-point values.
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2
The Cortex-M4 processor
2.1
Programmers model
This section describes the Cortex-M4 programmer’s model. In addition to the individual core
register descriptions, it contains information about the processor modes and privilege levels
for software execution and stacks.
2.1.1
Processor mode and privilege levels for software execution
The processor modes are:
Thread mode: Used to execute application software.
The processor enters Thread mode when it comes out of reset.
The CONTROL register controls whether software execution is
privileged or unprivileged, see CONTROL register on page 24.
Handler mode: Used to handle exceptions.
The processor returns to Thread mode when it has finished exception
processing.
Software execution is always privileged.
The privilege levels for software execution are:
Unprivileged: Unprivileged software executes at the unprivileged level and:
Privileged:
2.1.2
•
Has limited access to the MSR and MRS instructions, and cannot
use the CPS instruction.
•
Cannot access the system timer, NVIC, or system control block.
•
Might have restricted access to memory or peripherals.
•
Must use the SVC instruction to make a supervisor call to transfer
control to privileged software.
Privileged software executes at the privileged level and can use all the
instructions and has access to all resources.
Can write to the CONTROL register to change the privilege level for
software execution.
Stacks
The processor uses a full descending stack. This means the stack pointer indicates the last
stacked item on the stack memory. When the processor pushes a new item onto the stack, it
decrements the stack pointer and then writes the item to the new memory location. The
processor implements two stacks, the main stack and the process stack, with independent
copies of the stack pointer, see Stack pointer on page 18.
In Thread mode, the CONTROL register controls whether the processor uses the main
stack or the process stack, see CONTROL register on page 24. In Handler mode, the
processor always uses the main stack. The options for processor operations are:
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Table 1. Summary of processor mode, execution privilege level, and stack usage
Processor
mode
Used to
execute
Privilege level for
software execution
Stack used
Thread
Applications
Privileged or unprivileged (1)
Main stack or process stack (1)
Handler
Exception handlers
Always privileged
Main stack
1. See CONTROL register on page 24.
2.1.3
Core registers
Figure 2. Processor core registers
R0
R1
R2
Low registers
R3
R4
R5
R6
General-purpose registers
R7
R8
R9
High registers
R10
R11
R12
Stack Pointer
SP (R13)
Link Register
LR (R14)
Program Counter
PC (R15)
PSR
PSP‡
MSP‡
‡
Banked version of SP
Program status register
PRIMASK
FAULTMASK
Exception mask registers
Special registers
BASEPRI
CONTROL
CONTROL register
ai15996
Table 2. Core register set summary
Name
Type (1)
Required
privilege (2)
Reset
value
Description
R0-R12
read-write Either
Unknown
MSP
read-write Privileged
See description Stack pointer on page 18
PSP
read-write Either
Unknown
Stack pointer on page 18
LR
read-write Either
0xFFFFFFFF
Link register on page 18
PC
read-write Either
See description Program counter on page 18
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Table 2. Core register set summary (continued)
Type (1)
Name
Required
privilege (2)
Reset
value
Description
PSR
read-write Privileged
0x01000000
Program status register on page 18
ASPR
read-write Either
Unknown
Application program status register on
page 20
IPSR
read-only
Privileged
0x00000000
Interrupt program status register on
page 21
EPSR
read-only
Privileged
0x01000000
Execution program status register on
page 21
PRIMASK
read-write Privileged
0x00000000
Priority mask register on page 23
FAULTMASK
read-write Privileged
0x00000000
Fault mask register on page 23
BASEPRI
read-write Privileged
0x00000000
Base priority mask register on page 24
CONTROL
read-write Privileged
0x00000000
CONTROL register on page 24
1. Describes access type during program execution in thread mode and Handler mode. Debug access can
differ.
2. An entry of either means privileged and unprivileged software can access the register.
General-purpose registers
R0-R12 are 32-bit general-purpose registers for data operations.
Stack pointer
The Stack Pointer (SP) is register R13. In Thread mode, bit[1] of the CONTROL register
indicates the stack pointer to use:
•
0: Main Stack Pointer (MSP). This is the reset value.
•
1: Process Stack Pointer (PSP).
On reset, the processor loads the MSP with the value from address 0x00000000.
Link register
The Link Register (LR) is register R14. It stores the return information for subroutines,
function calls, and exceptions. On reset, the processor loads the LR value 0xFFFFFFFF.
Program counter
The Program Counter (PC) is register R15. It contains the current program address. On
reset, the processor loads the PC with the value of the reset vector, which is at address
0x00000004. Bit[0] of the value is loaded into the EPSR T-bit at reset and must be 1.
Program status register
The Program Status Register (PSR) combines:
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•
Application Program Status Register (APSR)
•
Interrupt Program Status Register (IPSR)
•
Execution Program Status Register (EPSR)
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These registers are mutually exclusive bitfields in the 32-bit PSR. The bit assignments are
as shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4.
Figure 3. APSR, IPSR and EPSR bit assignments
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Access these registers individually or as a combination of any two or all three registers,
using the register name as an argument to the MSR or MRS instructions. For example:
•
Read all of the registers using PSR with the MRS instruction.
•
Write to the APSR N, Z, C, V, and Q bits using APSR_nzcvq with the MSR instruction.
The PSR combinations and attributes are:
Table 3. PSR register combinations
Register
Type
Combination
PSR
read-write(1), (2)
APSR, EPSR, and IPSR
IEPSR
read-only
EPSR and IPSR
(1)
IAPSR
read-write
EAPSR
read-write(2)
APSR and IPSR
APSR and EPSR
1. The processor ignores writes to the IPSR bits.
2. Reads of the EPSR bits return zero, and the processor ignores writes to the these bits
See the instruction descriptions MRS on page 185 and MSR on page 186 for more
information about how to access the program status registers.
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Application program status register
The APSR contains the current state of the condition flags from previous instruction
executions. See the register summary in Table 2 on page 17 for its attributes. The bit
assignments are:
Table 4. APSR bit definitions
Bits
Bit 31
N: Negative or less than flag:
0: Operation result was positive, zero, greater than, or equal
1: Operation result was negative or less than.
Bit 30
Z: Zero flag:
0: Operation result was not zero
1: Operation result was zero.
Bit 29
C: Carry or borrow flag:
0: Add operation did not result in a carry bit or subtract operation resulted in a
borrow bit
1: Add operation resulted in a carry bit or subtract operation did not result in a
borrow bit.
Bit 28
V: Overflow flag:
0: Operation did not result in an overflow
1: Operation resulted in an overflow.
Bit 27
Q: DSP overflow and saturation flag: Sticky saturation flag.
0: Indicates that saturation has not occurred since reset or since the bit was last
cleared to zero
1: Indicates when an SSAT or USAT instruction results in saturation, or indicates a
DSP overflow.
This bit is cleared to zero by software using an MRS instruction.
Bits 26:20
Reserved.
Bits 19:16
GE[3:0]: Greater than or Equal flags. See SEL on page 104 for more information.
Bits 15:0
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Description
Reserved.
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Interrupt program status register
The IPSR contains the exception type number of the current Interrupt Service Routine
(ISR). See the register summary in Table 2 on page 17 for its attributes.
The bit assignments are:
Table 5. IPSR bit definitions
Bits
Bits 31:9
Bits 8:0
Description
Reserved
ISR_NUMBER:
This is the number of the current exception:
0: Thread mode
1: Reserved
2: NMI
3: Hard fault
4: Memory management fault
5: Bus fault
6: Usage fault
7: Reserved
....
10: Reserved
11: SVCall
12: Reserved for Debug
13: Reserved
14: PendSV
15: SysTick
16: IRQ0(1)
....
....
83: IRQ81(1)
see Exception types on page 36 for more information.
1. See STM32 product reference manual/datasheet for more information on interrupt mapping
Execution program status register
The EPSR contains the Thumb state bit, and the execution state bits for either the:
•
If-Then (IT) instruction
•
Interruptible-Continuable Instruction (ICI) field for an interrupted load multiple or store
multiple instruction.
See the register summary in Table 2 on page 17 for the EPSR attributes. The bit
assignments are:
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Table 6. EPSR bit definitions
Bits
Description
Bits 31:27
Reserved.
Bits 26:25, 15:10
ICI: Interruptible-continuable instruction bits, see Interruptible-continuable
instructions on page 22.
Bits 26:25, 15:10
IT: Indicates the execution state bits of the IT instruction, see IT on page 144.
Bit 24
T: Thumb state bit.
Bits 23:16
Reserved.
Bits 9:0
Reserved.
Attempts to read the EPSR directly through application software using the MSR instruction
always return zero. Attempts to write the EPSR using the MSR instruction in application
software are ignored. Fault handlers can examine EPSR value in the stacked PSR to
indicate the operation that is at fault. See Section 2.3.7: Exception entry and return on
page 41.
Interruptible-continuable instructions
When an interrupt occurs during the execution of an LDM STM, PUSH, POP, VLDM, VSTM,
VPUSH, or VPOP instruction, the processor:
•
Stops the load multiple or store multiple instruction operation temporarily
•
Stores the next register operand in the multiple operation to EPSR bits[15:12].
After servicing the interrupt, the processor:
•
Returns to the register pointed to by bits[15:12]
•
Resumes execution of the multiple load or store instruction.
When the EPSR holds ICI execution state, bits[26:25,11:10] are zero.
If-Then block
The If-Then block contains up to four instructions following a 16-bit IT instruction. Each
instruction in the block is conditional. The conditions for the instructions are either all the
same, or some can be the inverse of others. See IT on page 144 for more information.
Thumb state
The Cortex-M4 processor only supports execution of instructions in Thumb state. The
following can clear the T bit to 0:
•
Instructions BLX, BX and POP{PC}
•
Restoration from the stacked xPSR value on an exception return
•
Bit[0] of the vector value on an exception entry or reset
Attempting to execute instructions when the T bit is 0 results in a fault or lockup. See Lockup
on page 46 for more information.
Exception mask registers
The exception mask registers disable the handling of exceptions by the processor. Disable
exceptions where they might impact on timing critical tasks.
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To access the exception mask registers use the MSR and MRS instructions, or the CPS
instruction to change the value of PRIMASK or FAULTMASK. See MRS on page 185, MSR
on page 186, and CPS on page 181 for more information.
Priority mask register
The PRIMASK register prevents the activation of all exceptions with configurable priority.
See the register summary in Table 2 on page 17 for its attributes. Figure 5 shows the bit
assignments.
Figure 5. PRIMASK bit assignments
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Table 7. PRIMASK register bit definitions
Bits
Description
Bits 31:1
Reserved
Bit 0
PRIMASK:
0: No effect
1: Prevents the activation of all exceptions with configurable priority.
Fault mask register
The FAULTMASK register prevents activation of all exceptions except for Non-Maskable
Interrupt (NMI). See the register summary in Table 2 on page 17 for its attributes. Figure 6
shows the bit assignments.
Figure 6. FAULTMASK bit assignments
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Table 8. FAULTMASK register bit definitions
Bits
Bits 31:1
Bit 0
Function
Reserved
FAULTMASK:
0: No effect
1: Prevents the activation of all exceptions except for NMI.
The processor clears the FAULTMASK bit to 0 on exit from any exception handler except
the NMI handler.
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Base priority mask register
The BASEPRI register defines the minimum priority for exception processing. When
BASEPRI is set to a nonzero value, it prevents the activation of all exceptions with same or
lower priority level as the BASEPRI value. See the register summary in Table 2 on page 17
for its attributes. Figure 7 shows the bit assignments.
Figure 7. BASEPRI bit assignments
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Table 9. BASEPRI register bit assignments
Bits
Function
Bits 31:8
Reserved
Bits 7:4
BASEPRI[7:4] Priority mask bits(1)
0x00: no effect
Nonzero: defines the base priority for exception processing.
The processor does not process any exception with a priority value greater than or
equal to BASEPRI.
Bits 3:0
Reserved
1. This field is similar to the priority fields in the interrupt priority registers. See Interrupt priority registers
(NVIC_IPRx) on page 214 for more information. Remember that higher priority field values correspond to
lower exception priorities.
CONTROL register
The CONTROL register controls the stack used and the privilege level for software
execution when the processor is in Thread mode and indicates whether the FPU state is
active. See the register summary in Table 2 on page 17 for its attributes.
Table 10. CONTROL register bit definitions
Bits
Function
Bits 31:3
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Reserved
Bit 2
FPCA: Indicates whether floating-point context currently active:
0: No floating-point context active
1: Floating-point context active.
The Cortex-M4 uses this bit to determine whether to preserve floating-point state
when processing an exception.
Bit 1
SPSEL: Active stack pointer selection. Selects the current stack:
0: MSP is the current stack pointer
1: PSP is the current stack pointer.
In Handler mode this bit reads as zero and ignores writes. The Cortex-M4 updates
this bit automatically on exception return.
Bit 0
nPRIV: Thread mode privilege level. Defines the Thread mode privilege level.
0: Privileged
1: Unprivileged.
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Handler mode always uses the MSP, so the processor ignores explicit writes to the active
stack pointer bit of the CONTROL register when in Handler mode. The exception entry and
return mechanisms update the CONTROL register.
In an OS environment, it is recommended that threads running in Thread mode use the
process stack, and the kernel and exception handlers use the main stack.
By default, Thread mode uses the MSP. To switch the stack pointer used in Thread mode to
the PSP, either:
•
use the MSR instruction to set the Active stack pointer bit to 1, see MSR on page 186.
•
perform an exception return to Thread mode with the appropriate EXC_RETURN
value, see Exception return behavior on page 43.
When changing the stack pointer, software must use an ISB instruction immediately after
the MSR instruction. This ensures that instructions after the ISB execute using the new
stack pointer. See ISB on page 184
2.1.4
Exceptions and interrupts
The Cortex-M4 processor supports interrupts and system exceptions. The processor and
the Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC) prioritize and handle all exceptions. An
exception changes the normal flow of software control. The processor uses handler mode to
handle all exceptions except for reset. See Exception entry on page 41 and Exception
return on page 43 for more information.
The NVIC registers control interrupt handling. See Nested vectored interrupt controller
(NVIC) on page 207 for more information.
2.1.5
Data types
The processor:
•
•
2.1.6
Supports the following data types:
–
32-bit words
–
16-bit halfwords
–
8-bit bytes
manages all memory accesses as little-endian. See Memory regions, types and
attributes on page 28 for more information.
The Cortex microcontroller software interface standard (CMSIS)
For a Cortex-M4 microcontroller system, the Cortex Microcontroller Software Interface
Standard (CMSIS) defines:
•
•
•
A common way to:
–
Access peripheral registers
–
Define exception vectors
The names of:
–
The registers of the core peripherals
–
The core exception vectors
A device-independent interface for RTOS kernels, including a debug channel
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The CMSIS includes address definitions and data structures for the core peripherals in the
Cortex-M4 processor.
CMSIS simplifies software development by enabling the reuse of template code and the
combination of CMSIS-compliant software components from various middleware vendors.
Software vendors can expand the CMSIS to include their peripheral definitions and access
functions for those peripherals.
This document includes the register names defined by the CMSIS, and gives short
descriptions of the CMSIS functions that address the processor core and the core
peripherals.
This document uses the register short names defined by the CMSIS. In a few cases these
differ from the architectural short names that might be used in other documents.
The following sections give more information about the CMSIS:
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•
Section 2.5.4: Power management programming hints on page 48
•
CMSIS intrinsic functions on page 57
•
Interrupt set-enable registers (NVIC_ISERx) on page 209
•
NVIC programming hints on page 217
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2.2
The Cortex-M4 processor
Memory model
This section describes the processor memory map, the behavior of memory accesses, and
the bit-banding features. The processor has a fixed memory map that provides up to 4 GB of
addressable memory.
Figure 8. Memory map
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The regions for SRAM and peripherals include bit-band regions. Bit-banding provides
atomic operations to bit data, see Section 2.2.5: Bit-banding on page 31.
The processor reserves regions of the Private peripheral bus (PPB) address range for core
peripheral registers, see Section 4.1: About the STM32 Cortex-M4 core peripherals on
page 192.
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Memory regions, types and attributes
The memory map and the programming of the MPU splits the memory map into regions.
Each region has a defined memory type, and some regions have additional memory
attributes. The memory type and attributes determine the behavior of accesses to the
region.
The memory types are:
Normal
The processor can re-order transactions for efficiency, or
perform speculative reads.
Device
The processor preserves transaction order relative to other
transactions to Device or Strongly-ordered memory.
Strongly-ordered
The processor preserves transaction order relative to all other
transactions.
The different ordering requirements for Device and Strongly-ordered memory mean that the
memory system can buffer a write to Device memory, but must not buffer a write to Stronglyordered memory.
The additional memory attributes include:
Execute Never (XN)
2.2.2
Means that the processor prevents instruction accesses. Any
attempt to fetch an instruction from an XN region causes a
memory management fault exception.
Memory system ordering of memory accesses
For most memory accesses caused by explicit memory access instructions, the memory
system does not guarantee that the order, in which the accesses complete, matches the
program order of the instructions, providing this does not affect the behavior of the
instruction sequence. Normally, if correct program execution depends on two memory
accesses completing in program order, software must insert a memory barrier instruction
between the memory access instructions, see Section 2.2.4: Software ordering of memory
accesses on page 30.
However, the memory system does guarantee some ordering of accesses to Device and
Strongly-ordered memory. For two memory access instructions A1 and A2, if A1 occurs
before A2 in program order, the ordering of the memory accesses caused by two
instructions is:
Table 11. Ordering of memory accesses(1)
A2
Device access
Non-shareable
Shareable
Strongly
ordered
access
A1
Normal access
Normal access
-
-
-
-
Device access, non-shareable
-
<
-
<
Device access, shareable
-
-
<
<
Strongly ordered access
-
<
<
<
1. - means that the memory system does not guarantee the ordering of the accesses.
< means that accesses are observed in program order, that is, A1 is always observed before A2.
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Behavior of memory accesses
The behavior of accesses to each region in the memory map is:
Table 12. Memory access behavior
Address
range
0x000000000x1FFFFFFF
Memory
region
Code
Memory
type
Normal (1)
XN
Description
-
Executable region for program code. Can also put
data here.
0x200000000x3FFFFFFF
SRAM
Normal (1)
-
Executable region for data. Can also put code
here.
This region includes bit band and bit band alias
areas, see Table 13 on page 31.
0x400000000x5FFFFFFF
Peripheral
Device (1)
XN (1)
This region includes bit band and bit band alias
areas, see Table 14 on page 31.
0x600000000x9FFFFFFF
External
RAM
Normal (1)
-
Executable region for data.
0xA0000000- External
0xDFFFFFFF device
Device (1)
XN (1) External Device memory
Private
0xED000000Peripheral
0xED0FFFFF
Bus
This region includes the NVIC, system timer, and
StronglyXN (1)
system control block.
ordered (1)
Memory
0xED100000mapped
0xFFFFFFFF
peripherals
Device (1)
XN (1)
This region includes all the STM32 standard
peripherals.
1. See Memory regions, types and attributes on page 28 for more information.
The Code, SRAM, and external RAM regions can hold programs. However, it is
recommended that programs always use the Code region. The reason of this is that the
processor has separate buses that enable instruction fetches and data accesses to occur
simultaneously.
The MPU can override the default memory access behavior described in this section. For
more information, see Memory protection unit (MPU) on page 192.
Instruction prefetch and branch prediction
The Cortex-M4 processor:
•
Prefetches instructions ahead of execution
•
Speculatively prefetches from branch target addresses.
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Software ordering of memory accesses
The order of instructions in the program flow does not always guarantee the order of the
corresponding memory transactions. The reason for this is that:
•
The processor can reorder some memory accesses to improve efficiency, providing this
does not affect the behavior of the instruction sequence.
•
The processor has multiple bus interfaces.
•
Memory or devices in the memory map have different wait states.
•
Some memory accesses are buffered or speculative.
Section 2.2.2: Memory system ordering of memory accesses on page 28 describes the
cases where the memory system guarantees the order of memory accesses. Otherwise, if
the order of memory accesses is critical, software must include memory barrier instructions
to force that ordering. The processor provides the following memory barrier instructions:
DMB
The Data Memory Barrier (DMB) instruction ensures that outstanding memory
transactions complete before subsequent memory transactions. See DMB on
page 182.
DSB
The Data Synchronization Barrier (DSB) instruction ensures that outstanding
memory transactions complete before subsequent instructions execute. See DSB
on page 183.
ISB
The Instruction Synchronization Barrier (ISB) ensures that the effect of all
completed memory transactions is recognizable by subsequent instructions. See
ISB on page 184.
Use memory barrier instructions in, for example:
•
Vector table. If the program changes an entry in the vector table, and then enables the
corresponding exception, use a DMB instruction between the operations. This ensures
that if the exception is taken immediately after being enabled the processor uses the
new exception vector.
•
Self-modifying code. If a program contains self-modifying code, use an ISB
instruction immediately after the code modification in the program. This ensures that
the subsequent instruction execution uses the updated program.
•
Memory map switching. If the system contains a memory map switching mechanism,
use a DSB instruction after switching the memory map in the program. This ensures
that the subsequent instruction execution uses the updated memory map.
•
Dynamic exception priority change. When an exception priority has to change when
the exception is pending or active, use DSB instructions after the change. This ensures
that the change takes effect on completion of the DSB instruction.
•
Using a semaphore in multi-master system. If the system contains more than one
bus master, for example, if another processor is present in the system, each processor
must use a DMB instruction after any semaphore instructions, to ensure other bus
masters see the memory transactions in the order in which they were executed.
Memory accesses to Strongly-ordered memory, such as the system control block, do not
require the use of DMB instructions.
For MPU programming, use a DSB followed by an ISB instruction or exception return to
ensure that the new MPU configuration is used by subsequent instructions.
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Bit-banding
A bit-band region maps each word in a bit-band alias region to a single bit in the bit-band
region. The bit-band regions occupy the lowest 1 Mbyte of the SRAM and peripheral
memory regions.
The memory map has two 32 Mbyte alias regions that map to two 1 Mbyte bit-band regions:
•
Accesses to the 32 Mbyte SRAM alias region map to the 1 Mbyte SRAM bit-band
region, as shown in Table 13
•
Accesses to the 32 MB peripheral alias region map to the 1 MB peripheral bit-band
region, as shown in Table 14.
Table 13. SRAM memory bit-banding regions
Address
range
Memory
region
Instruction and data accesses
0x200000000x200FFFFF
SRAM bit-band region
Direct accesses to this memory range behave as SRAM memory
accesses, but this region is also bit addressable through bit-band alias.
0x220000000x23FFFFFF
SRAM bit-band alias
Data accesses to this region are remapped to bit band region. A write
operation is performed as read-modify-write. Instruction accesses are not
remapped.
Table 14. Peripheral memory bit-banding regions
Address
range
Memory
region
Instruction and data accesses
0x400000000x400FFFFF
Peripheral
bit-band region
Direct accesses to this memory range behave as peripheral memory
accesses, but this region is also bit addressable through bit-band
alias.
0x420000000x43FFFFFF
Peripheral
bit-band alias
Data accesses to this region are remapped to bit-band region. A write
operation is performed as read-modify-write. Instruction accesses are
not permitted.
Note:
A word access to the SRAM or peripheral bit-band alias regions map to a single bit in the
SRAM or peripheral bit-band region.
Bit band accesses can use byte, halfword, or word transfers. The bit band transfer size
matches the transfer size of the instruction making the bit band access.
The following formula shows how the alias region maps onto the bit-band region:
bit_word_offset = (byte_offset x 32) + (bit_number x 4)
bit_word_addr = bit_band_base + bit_word_offset
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Where:
•
Bit_word_offset is the position of the target bit in the bit-band memory region.
•
Bit_word_addr is the address of the word in the alias memory region that maps to the
targeted bit.
•
Bit_band_base is the starting address of the alias region.
•
Byte_offset is the number of the byte in the bit-band region that contains the targeted
bit.
•
Bit_number is the bit position, 0-7, of the targeted bit.
Figure 9 on page 32 shows examples of bit-band mapping between the SRAM bit-band
alias region and the SRAM bit-band region:
•
The alias word at 0x23FFFFED maps to bit[0] of the bit-band byte at
0x200FFFFF: 0x23FFFFED = 0x22000000 + (0xFFFFF*32) + (0*4).
•
The alias word at 0x23FFFFFC maps to bit[7] of the bit-band byte at
0x200FFFFF: 0x23FFFFFC = 0x22000000 + (0xFFFFF*32) + (7*4).
•
The alias word at 0x22000000 maps to bit[0] of the bit-band byte at
0x20000000: 0x22000000 = 0x22000000 + (0*32) + (0 *4).
•
The alias word at 0x2200001C maps to bit[7] of the bit-band byte at
0x20000000: 0x2200001C = 0x22000000+ (0*32) + (7*4).
Figure 9. Bit-band mapping
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Directly accessing an alias region
Writing to a word in the alias region updates a single bit in the bit-band region.
Bit[0] of the value written to a word in the alias region determines the value written to the
targeted bit in the bit-band region. Writing a value with bit[0] set to 1 writes a 1 to the bitband bit, and writing a value with bit[0] set to 0 writes a 0 to the bit-band bit.
Bits[31:1] of the alias word have no effect on the bit-band bit. Writing 0x01 has the same
effect as writing 0xFF. Writing 0x00 has the same effect as writing 0x0E.
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Reading a word in the alias region:
•
0x00000000 indicates that the targeted bit in the bit-band region is set to zero
•
0x00000001 indicates that the targeted bit in the bit-band region is set to 1
Directly accessing a bit-band region
Behavior of memory accesses on page 29 describes the behavior of direct byte, halfword,
or word accesses to the bit-band regions.
2.2.6
Memory endianness
The processor views memory as a linear collection of bytes numbered in ascending order
from zero. For example, bytes 0-3 hold the first stored word, and bytes 4-7 hold the second
stored word.
Little-endian format
In little-endian format, the processor stores the least significant byte of a word at the lowestnumbered byte, and the most significant byte at the highest-numbered byte. See Figure 10
for an example.
Figure 10. Little-endian example
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Synchronization primitives
The Cortex-M4 instruction set includes pairs of synchronization primitives. These provide a
non-blocking mechanism that a thread or process can use to obtain exclusive access to a
memory location. Software can use them to perform a guaranteed read-modify-write
memory update sequence, or for a semaphore mechanism.
A pair of synchronization primitives comprises:
•
Load-Exclusive instruction: used to read the value of a memory location, requesting
exclusive access to that location.
•
Store-Exclusive instruction: used to attempt to write to the same memory location,
returning a status bit to a register. If this bit is:
0: the thread or process gained exclusive access to memory, and the write succeeds.
1: the thread or process did not gain exclusive access to memory, and no write is
performed.
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The pairs of Load-Exclusive and Store-Exclusive instructions are:
•
The word instructions LDREX and STREX
•
The halfword instructions LDREXH and STREXH
•
The byte instructions LDREXB and STREXB.
Software must use a Load-Exclusive instruction with the corresponding Store-Exclusive
instruction.
To perform a guaranteed read-modify-write of a memory location, software must:
1.
Use a Load-Exclusive instruction to read the value of the location.
2.
Update the value, as required.
3.
Use a Store-Exclusive instruction to attempt to write the new value back to the memory
location.
4.
Test the returned status bit. If this bit is:
0: The read-modify-write completed successfully.
1: No write was performed. This indicates that the value returned at step 1 might be out
of date. The software must retry the read-modify-write sequence.
Software can use the synchronization primitives to implement a semaphores as follows:
1.
Use a Load-Exclusive instruction to read from the semaphore address to check
whether the semaphore is free.
2.
If the semaphore is free, use a Store-Exclusive to write the claim value to the
semaphore address.
3.
If the returned status bit from step 2 indicates that the Store-Exclusive succeeded then
the software has claimed the semaphore. However, if the Store-Exclusive failed,
another process might have claimed the semaphore after software performed step 1.
The Cortex-M4 includes an exclusive access monitor, that tags the fact that the processor
has executed a Load-Exclusive instruction. If the processor is part of a multiprocessor
system, the system also globally tags the memory locations addressed by exclusive
accesses by each processor.
The processor removes its exclusive access tag if:
•
It executes a CLREX instruction.
•
It executes a Store-Exclusive instruction, regardless of whether the write succeeds.
•
An exception occurs. This means the processor can resolve semaphore conflicts
between different threads.
In a multiprocessor implementation, executing a:
•
CLREX instruction removes only the local exclusive access tag for the processor.
•
Store-Exclusive instruction, or an exception, removes the local exclusive access tags,
and global exclusive access tags for the processor.
For more information about the synchronization primitive instructions, see LDREX and
STREX on page 78 and CLREX on page 79.
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Programming hints for the synchronization primitives
ISO/IEC C cannot directly generate the exclusive access instructions. CMSIS provides
intrinsic functions for generation of these instructions:
Table 15. CMSIS functions for exclusive access instructions
Instruction
CMSIS function
LDREX
uint32_t __LDREXW (uint32_t *addr)
LDREXH
uint16_t __LDREXH (uint16_t *addr)
LDREXB
uint8_t __LDREXB (uint8_t *addr)
STREX
uint32_t __STREXW (uint32_t value, uint32_t *addr)
STREXH
uint32_t __STREXH (uint16_t value, uint16_t *addr)
STREXB
uint32_t __STREXB (uint8_t value, uint8_t *addr)
CLREX
void __CLREX (void)
For example:
uint16_t value;
uint16_t *address = 0x20001002;
value = __LDREXH (address); // load 16-bit value from memory address
//0x20001002
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Exception model
This section describes the exception model.
2.3.1
Exception states
Each exception is in one of the following states:
Inactive
The exception is not active and not pending.
Pending
The exception is waiting to be serviced by the processor. An interrupt
request from a peripheral or from software can change the state of the
corresponding interrupt to pending.
Active
An exception that is being serviced by the processor but has not
completed.
Note: An exception handler can interrupt the execution of another exception
handler. In this case both exceptions are in the active state.
Active and pendingThe exception is being serviced by the processor and there is a
pending exception from the same source.
2.3.2
Exception types
The exception types are:
Reset
Reset is invoked on power up or a warm reset. The exception model
treats reset as a special form of exception. When reset is asserted, the
operation of the processor stops, potentially at any point in an
instruction. When reset is deasserted, execution restarts from the
address provided by the reset entry in the vector table. Execution
restarts as privileged execution in Thread mode.
NMI
A NonMaskable Interrupt (NMI) can be signalled by a peripheral or
triggered by software. This is the highest priority exception other than
reset. It is permanently enabled and has a fixed priority of -2. NMIs
cannot be:
Hard fault
•
Masked or prevented from activation by any other exception
•
Preempted by any exception other than Reset.
A hard fault is an exception that occurs because of an error during
exception processing, or because an exception cannot be managed by
any other exception mechanism. Hard faults have a fixed priority of -1,
meaning they have higher priority than any exception with configurable
priority.
Memory
A memory management fault is an exception that occurs because of a
management fault memory protection related fault. The MPU or the fixed memory
protection constraints determines this fault, for both instruction and
data memory transactions. This fault is used to abort instruction
accesses to Execute Never (XN) memory regions.
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Bus fault
A bus fault is an exception that occurs because of a memory related
fault for an instruction or data memory transaction. This might be from
an error detected on a bus in the memory system.
Usage fault
A usage fault is an exception that occurs in case of an instruction
execution fault. This includes:
•
An undefined instruction
•
An illegal unaligned access
•
Invalid state on instruction execution
•
An error on exception return.
The following can cause a usage fault when the core is configured to
report it:
•
An unaligned address on word and halfword memory access
•
Division by zero
SVCall
A supervisor call (SVC) is an exception that is triggered by the SVC
instruction. In an OS environment, applications can use SVC
instructions to access OS kernel functions and device drivers.
PendSV
PendSV is an interrupt-driven request for system-level service. In an
OS environment, use PendSV for context switching when no other
exception is active.
SysTick
A SysTick exception is an exception the system timer generates when
it reaches zero. Software can also generate a SysTick exception. In an
OS environment, the processor can use this exception as system tick.
Interrupt (IRQ)
An interrupt, or IRQ, is an exception signalled by a peripheral, or
generated by a software request. All interrupts are asynchronous to
instruction execution. In the system, peripherals use interrupts to
communicate with the processor.
Table 16. Properties of the different exception types
Exception
number (1)
IRQ
number (1)
Exception
type
Priority
Vector address
or offset (2)
Activation
1
-
Reset
-3, the highest
0x00000004
Asynchronous
2
-14
NMI
-2
0x00000008
Asynchronous
3
-13
Hard fault
-1
0x0000000C
-
4
-12
Memory
Configurable (3) 0x00000010
management fault
5
-11
Bus fault
Configurable (3) 0x00000014
Synchronous when precise
Asynchronous when imprecise
6
-10
Usage fault
Configurable (3) 0x00000018
Synchronous
7-10
-
-
-
Reserved
-
0x0000002C
Synchronous
Synchronous
11
-5
SVCall
Configurable (3)
12-13
-
-
-
Reserved
-
PendSV
Configurable (3)
0x00000038
Asynchronous
14
-2
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Table 16. Properties of the different exception types (continued)
Exception
number (1)
IRQ
number (1)
Exception
type
Priority
Vector address
or offset (2)
15
-1
SysTick
Configurable (3) 0x0000003C
16 and
above
0 and
above
Interrupt (IRQ)
Configurable (4)
0x00000040 and
above (5)
Activation
Asynchronous
Asynchronous
1. To simplify the software layer, the CMSIS only uses IRQ numbers and therefore uses negative values for exceptions other
than interrupts. The IPSR returns the Exception number. For further information see Interrupt program status register on
page 21.
2. See Vector table on page 39 for more information.
3. See System handler priority registers (SHPRx) on page 232.
4. See Interrupt priority registers (NVIC_IPRx) on page 214.
5. Increasing in steps of 4.
For an asynchronous exception other than reset, the processor can execute another
instruction between when the exception is triggered and when the processor enters the
exception handler.
Privileged software can disable the exceptions that Table 16 on page 37 shows as having
configurable priority. For further information, see:
•
System handler control and state register (SHCSR) on page 234
•
Interrupt clear-enable registers (NVIC_ICERx) on page 210
For more information about hard faults, memory management faults, bus faults, and usage
faults, see Section 2.4: Fault handling on page 43.
2.3.3
Exception handlers
The processor handles exceptions using:
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Interrupt Service
Routines (ISRs)
Interrupts IRQ0 to IRQ81 are the exceptions handled by ISRs.
Fault handlers
Hard fault, memory management fault, usage fault, bus fault are fault
exceptions handled by the fault handlers.
System handlers
NMI, PendSV, SVCall SysTick, and the fault exceptions are all
system exceptions that are handled by system handlers.
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Vector table
The vector table contains the reset value of the stack pointer, and the start addresses, also
called exception vectors, for all exception handlers. Figure 11 on page 39 shows the order
of the exception vectors in the vector table. The least-significant bit of each vector must be
1, indicating that the exception handler is Thumb code.
Figure 11. Vector table
Exception number IRQ number
255
239
.
.
.
18
2
17
1
16
0
15
-1
14
-2
13
Offset
IRQ239
0x03FC
.
.
.
0x004C
.
.
.
IRQ2
0x0048
IRQ1
0x0044
IRQ0
0x0040
Systick
0x003C
PendSV
0x0038
Reserved
Reserved for Debug
12
11
Vector
-5
10
SVCall
0x002C
9
Reserved
8
7
6
-10
5
-11
4
-12
3
-13
2
-14
1
Usage fault
0x0018
0x0014
0x0010
Bus fault
Memory management fault
0x000C
0x0008
0x0004
0x0000
Hard fault
NMI
Reset
Initial SP value
MS30018V1
On system reset, the vector table is fixed at address 0x00000000. Privileged software can
write to the VTOR to relocate the vector table start address to a different memory location, in
the range 0x00000080 to 0x3FFFFF80. For further information see Vector table offset
register (VTOR) on page 226.
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Exception priorities
Table 16 on page 37 shows that all exceptions have an associated priority, in details:
•
A lower priority value indicating a higher priority
•
Configurable priorities for all exceptions except Reset, Hard fault, and NMI.
If software does not configure any priorities, then all exceptions with a configurable priority
have a priority of 0. For information about configuring exception priorities see
•
System handler priority registers (SHPRx) on page 232
•
Interrupt priority registers (NVIC_IPRx) on page 214
Configurable priority values are in the range 0-15. This means that the Reset, Hard fault,
and NMI exceptions, with fixed negative priority values, always have higher priority than any
other exception.
For example, assigning a higher priority value to IRQ[0] and a lower priority value to IRQ[1]
means that IRQ[1] has higher priority than IRQ[0]. If both IRQ[1] and IRQ[0] are asserted,
IRQ[1] is processed before IRQ[0].
If multiple pending exceptions have the same priority, the pending exception with the lowest
exception number takes precedence. For example, if both IRQ[0] and IRQ[1] are pending
and have the same priority, then IRQ[0] is processed before IRQ[1].
When the processor is executing an exception handler, the exception handler is preempted
if a higher priority exception occurs. If an exception occurs with the same priority as the
exception being handled, the handler is not preempted, irrespective of the exception
number. However, the status of the new interrupt changes to pending.
2.3.6
Interrupt priority grouping
To increase priority control in systems with interrupts, the NVIC supports priority grouping.
This divides each interrupt priority register entry into two fields:
•
An upper field that defines the group priority
•
A lower field that defines a subpriority within the group.
Only the group priority determines preemption of interrupt exceptions. When the processor
is executing an interrupt exception handler, another interrupt with the same group priority as
the interrupt being handled does not preempt the handler,
If multiple pending interrupts have the same group priority, the subpriority field determines
the order in which they are processed. If multiple pending interrupts have the same group
priority and subpriority, the interrupt with the lowest IRQ number is processed first.
For information about splitting the interrupt priority fields into group priority and subpriority,
see Application interrupt and reset control register (AIRCR) on page 227.
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Exception entry and return
Descriptions of exception handling use the following terms:
Preemption When the processor is executing an exception handler, an exception can
preempt the exception handler if its priority is higher than the priority of the
exception being handled. See Section 2.3.6: Interrupt priority grouping for
more information about preemption by an interrupt.
When one exception preempts another, the exceptions are called nested
exceptions. See Exception entry on page 41 more information.
Return
This occurs when the exception handler is completed, and:
•
There is no pending exception with sufficient priority to be serviced
•
The completed exception handler was not handling a late-arriving
exception.
The processor pops the stack and restores the processor state to the state it
had before the interrupt occurred. See Exception return on page 43 for more
information.
Tail-chaining This mechanism speeds up exception servicing. On completion of an
exception handler, if there is a pending exception that meets the
requirements for exception entry, the stack pop is skipped and control
transfers to the new exception handler.
Late-arriving This mechanism speeds up preemption. If a higher priority exception occurs
during state saving for a previous exception, the processor switches to
handle the higher priority exception and initiates the vector fetch for that
exception. State saving is not affected by late arrival because the state saved
is the same for both exceptions. Therefore the state saving continues
uninterrupted. The processor can accept a late arriving exception until the
first instruction of the exception handler of the original exception enters the
execute stage of the processor. On return from the exception handler of the
late-arriving exception, the normal tail-chaining rules apply.
Exception entry
Exception entry occurs when there is a pending exception with sufficient priority and either:
•
The processor is in Thread mode
•
The new exception is of higher priority than the exception being handled, in which case
the new exception preempts the original exception.
When one exception preempts another, the exceptions are nested.
Sufficient priority means the exception has more priority than any limits set by the mask
registers. For more information see Exception mask registers on page 22. An exception with
less priority than this is pending but is not handled by the processor.
When the processor takes an exception, unless the exception is a tail-chained or a latearriving exception, the processor pushes information onto the current stack. This operation
is referred as stacking and the structure of eight data words is referred as stack frame.
When using floating-point routines, the Cortex-M4 processor automatically stacks the
architected floating-point state on exception entry. Figure 12 on page 42 shows the CortexM4 stack frame layout when floating-point state is preserved on the stack as the result of an
interrupt or an exception. Where stack space for floating-point state is not allocated, the
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stack frame is the same as that of ARMv7-M implementations without an FPU. Figure 12 on
page 42 also shows this stack frame.
Figure 12. Cortex-M4 stack frame layout
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Immediately after stacking, the stack pointer indicates the lowest address in the stack frame.
The alignment of the stack frame is controlled via the STKALIGN bit of the Configuration
Control Register (CCR).
The stack frame includes the return address. This is the address of the next instruction in
the interrupted program. This value is restored to the PC at exception return so that the
interrupted program resumes.
In parallel to the stacking operation, the processor performs a vector fetch that reads the
exception handler start address from the vector table. When stacking is complete, the
processor starts executing the exception handler. At the same time, the processor writes an
EXC_RETURN value to the LR. This indicates which stack pointer corresponds to the stack
frame and what operation mode the was processor was in before the entry occurred.
If no higher priority exception occurs during exception entry, the processor starts executing
the exception handler and automatically changes the status of the corresponding pending
interrupt to active.
If another higher priority exception occurs during exception entry, the processor starts
executing the exception handler for this exception and does not change the pending status
of the earlier exception. This is the late arrival case.
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The Cortex-M4 processor
Exception return
Exception return occurs when the processor is in Handler mode and executes one of the
following instructions to load the EXC_RETURN value into the PC:
•
an LDM or POP instruction that loads the PC
•
an LDR instruction with PC as the destination
•
a BX instruction using any register.
EXC_RETURN is the value loaded into the LR on exception entry. The exception
mechanism relies on this value to detect when the processor has completed an exception
handler. The lowest five bits of this value provide information on the return stack and
processor mode. Table 17 shows the EXC_RETURN values with a description of the
exception return behavior.
All EXC_RETURN values have bits[31:5] set to one. When this value is loaded into the PC it
indicates to the processor that the exception is complete, and the processor initiates the
appropriate exception return sequence.
Table 17. Exception return behavior
EXC_RETURN[31:0]
2.4
Description
0xFFFFFFF1
Return to Handler mode, exception return uses non-floating-point state from
the MSP and execution uses MSP after return.
0xFFFFFFF9
Return to Thread mode, exception return uses non-floating-point state from
MSP and execution uses MSP after return.
0xFFFFFFFD
Return to Thread mode, exception return uses non-floating-point state from
the PSP and execution uses PSP after return.
0xFFFFFFE1
Return to Handler mode, exception return uses floating-point-state from MSP
and execution uses MSP after return.
0xFFFFFFE9
Return to Thread mode, exception return uses floating-point state from MSP
and execution uses MSP after return.
0xFFFFFFED
Return to Thread mode, exception return uses floating-point state from PSP
and execution uses PSP after return.
Fault handling
Faults are a subset of the exceptions. For more information, see Exception model on
page 36. The following elements generate a fault:
•
A bus error on:
–
An instruction fetch or vector table load
–
A data access
•
An internally-detected error such as an undefined instruction
•
Attempting to execute an instruction from a memory region marked as Non-Executable
(XN).
•
A privilege violation or an attempt to access an unmanaged region causing an MPU
fault.
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Fault types
Table 18 shows the types of fault, the handler used for the fault, the corresponding fault
status register, and the register bit that indicates that the fault has occurred. See
Configurable fault status register (CFSR; UFSR+BFSR+MMFSR) on page 236 for more
information about the fault status registers.
Table 18. Faults
Fault
Handler
Bus error on a vector read
Hard fault
Fault escalated to a hard fault
Bit name
VECTTBL
FORCED
MPU or default memory map
mismatch:
-
– on instruction access
IACCVIOL(1)
– on data access
MemManage
– during exception stacking
DACCVIOL
MSTKERR
– during exception unstacking
MUNSKERR
– during lazy floating-point state
preservation
MLSPERR
Bus error:
-
– During exception stacking
STKERR
– During exception unstacking
UNSTKERR
– During instruction prefetch
Bus fault
IBUSERR
– During lazy floating-point state
preservation
LSPERR
Precise data bus error
PRECISERR
Imprecise data bus error
IMPRECISERR
Attempt to access a coprocessor
NOCP
Undefined instruction
UNDEFINSTR
Attempt to enter an invalid instruction
set state (2)
Usage fault
INVSTATE
Invalid EXC_RETURN value
INVPC
Illegal unaligned load or store
UNALIGNED
Divide By 0
DIVBYZERO
Fault status register
Hard fault status register
(HFSR) on page 240
Memory management fault
address register (MMFAR)
on page 241
-
Bus fault address register
(BFAR) on page 241
Configurable fault status
register (CFSR;
UFSR+BFSR+MMFSR) on
page 236
1. Occurs on an access to an XN region even if the MPU is disabled.
2. Attempting to use an instruction set other than the Thumb instruction set, or returns to a non load/storemultiple instruction with ICI continuation.
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2.4.2
The Cortex-M4 processor
Fault escalation and hard faults
All faults exceptions except for hard fault have configurable exception priority, as described
in System handler priority registers (SHPRx) on page 232. Software can disable execution
of the handlers for these faults, as described in System handler control and state register
(SHCSR) on page 234.
Usually, the exception priority, together with the values of the exception mask registers,
determines whether the processor enters the fault handler, and whether a fault handler can
preempt another fault handler, as described in Section 2.3: Exception model on page 36.
In some situations, a fault with configurable priority is treated as a hard fault. This is called
priority escalation, and the fault is described as escalated to hard fault. Escalation to hard
fault occurs when:
•
A fault handler causes the same kind of fault as the one it is servicing. This escalation
to hard fault occurs when a fault handler cannot preempt itself because it must have
the same priority as the current priority level.
•
A fault handler causes a fault with the same or lower priority as the fault it is servicing.
This is because the handler for the new fault cannot preempt the currently executing
fault handler.
•
An exception handler causes a fault for which the priority is the same as or lower than
the currently executing exception.
•
A fault occurs and the handler for that fault is not enabled.
If a bus fault occurs during a stack push when entering a bus fault handler, the bus fault
does not escalate to a hard fault. This means that if a corrupted stack causes a fault, the
fault handler executes even though the stack push for the handler failed. The fault handler
operates but the stack contents are corrupted.
Only Reset and NMI can preempt the fixed priority hard fault. A hard fault can preempt any
exception other than Reset, NMI, or another hard fault.
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Fault status registers and fault address registers
The fault status registers indicate the cause of a fault. For bus faults and memory
management faults, the fault address register indicates the address accessed by the
operation that caused the fault, as shown in Table 19.
Table 19. Fault status and fault address registers
Handler
Status register
name
Address register
name
Register description
Hard fault
HFSR
-
Hard fault status register (HFSR) on page 240
Memory
management fault
MMFSR
MMFAR
Memory management fault address register
(MMFAR) on page 241
Bus fault
BFSR
BFAR
Bus fault address register (BFAR) on page 241
Usage fault
UFSR
-
Configurable fault status register (CFSR;
UFSR+BFSR+MMFSR) on page 236
2.4.4
Lockup
The processor enters a lockup state if a hard fault occurs when executing the NMI or hard
fault handlers. When the processor is in lockup state it does not execute any instructions.
The processor remains in lockup state until either:
•
It is reset
•
An NMI occurs
•
It is halted by a debugger
If lockup state occurs from the NMI handler a subsequent NMI does not cause the
processor to leave lockup state.
2.5
Power management
The STM32 and Cortex-M4 processor sleep modes reduce power consumption:
•
Sleep mode stops the processor clock. All other system and peripheral clocks may still
be running.
•
Deep sleep mode stops most of the STM32 system and peripheral clocks. At product
level, this corresponds to either the Stop or the Standby mode. For more details, please
refer to the “Power modes” Section in the STM32 reference manual.
The SLEEPDEEP bit of the SCR selects which sleep mode is used, as described in System
control register (SCR) on page 229. For more information about the behavior of the sleep
modes see the STM32 product reference manual.
This section describes the mechanisms for entering sleep mode, and the conditions for
waking up from sleep mode.
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2.5.1
The Cortex-M4 processor
Entering sleep mode
This section describes the mechanisms software can use to put the processor into sleep
mode.
The system can generate spurious wakeup events, for example a debug operation that
wakes up the processor. Therefore software must be able to put the processor back into
sleep mode after such an event. A program might have an idle loop to put the processor
back to sleep mode.
Wait for interrupt
The wait for interrupt instruction, WFI, causes immediate entry to sleep mode (unless the
wake-up condition is true, as shown in Wakeup from WFI or sleep-on-exit on page 47).
When the processor executes a WFI instruction, it stops executing instructions and enters
sleep mode. See WFI on page 191 for more information.
Wait for event
The wait for event instruction, WFE, causes entry to sleep mode depending on the value of
a one-bit event register. When the processor executes a WFE instruction, it checks the
value of the event register:
•
0: the processor stops executing instructions and enters sleep mode
•
1: the processor clears the register to 0 and continues executing instructions without
entering sleep mode.
See WFE on page 190 for more information.
If the event register is 1, this indicates that the processor must not enter sleep mode on
execution of a WFE instruction. Typically, this is because an external event signal is
asserted, or a processor in the system has executed an SEV instruction, as shown in SEV
on page 188. Software cannot access this register directly.
Sleep-on-exit
If the SLEEPONEXIT bit of the SCR is set to 1, when the processor completes the execution
of an exception handler, it returns to Thread mode and immediately enters sleep mode. Use
this mechanism in applications that only require the processor to run when an exception
occurs.
2.5.2
Wakeup from sleep mode
The conditions for the processor to wakeup depend on the mechanism that caused it to
enter sleep mode.
Wakeup from WFI or sleep-on-exit
Normally, the processor wakes up only when it detects an exception with sufficient priority to
cause exception entry.
Some embedded systems might have to execute system restore tasks after the processor
wakes up, and before it executes an interrupt handler. To achieve this set the PRIMASK bit
to 1 and the FAULTMASK bit to 0. If an interrupt arrives that is enabled and has a higher
priority than current exception priority, the processor wakes up but does not execute the
interrupt handler until the processor sets PRIMASK to zero. For more information about
PRIMASK and FAULTMASK see Exception mask registers on page 22.
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Wakeup from WFE
The processor wakes up if:
•
it detects an exception with sufficient priority to cause exception entry
•
it detects an external event signal, see Section 2.5.3: External event input / extended
interrupt and event input
•
in a multiprocessor system, another processor in the system executes an SEV
instruction.
In addition, if the SEVONPEND bit in the SCR is set to 1, any new pending interrupt triggers
an event and wakes up the processor, even if the interrupt is disabled or has insufficient
priority to cause exception entry. For more information about the SCR see System control
register (SCR) on page 229.
2.5.3
External event input / extended interrupt and event input
The processor provides an external event input signal.
This signal is generated by the External or Extended Interrupt/event Controller (EXTI) on
asynchronous event detection (from external input pins or asynchronous peripheral event).
This signal can wakeup the processor from WFE, or set the internal WFE event register to
one to indicate that the processor must not enter sleep mode on a later WFE instruction, as
described in Wait for event on page 47. Fore more details please refer to the STM32
reference manual, Low power modes section.
2.5.4
Power management programming hints
ISO/IEC C cannot directly generate the WFI and WFE instructions. The CMSIS provides the
following functions for these instructions:
void __WFE(void) // Wait for Event
void __WFI(void) // Wait for Interrupt
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3
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
This chapter is the reference material for the Cortex-M4 instruction set description in a User
Guide. The following sections give general information:
Section 3.1: Instruction set summary on page 49
Section 3.2: CMSIS intrinsic functions on page 57
Section 3.3: About the instruction descriptions on page 59
Each of the following sections describes a functional group of Cortex-M4 instructions.
Together they describe all the instructions supported by the Cortex-M4 processor:
Section 3.4: Memory access instructions on page 68
Section 3.5: General data processing instructions on page 80
Section 3.6: Multiply and divide instructions on page 108
Section 3.7: Saturating instructions on page 124
Section 3.8: Packing and unpacking instructions on page 133
Section 3.9: Bitfield instructions on page 137
Section 3.10: Floating-point instructions on page 148
Section 3.11: Miscellaneous instructions on page 179
3.1
Instruction set summary
The processor implements a version of the thumb instruction set. Table 20 lists the
supported instructions.
In Table 20:
•
Angle brackets, <>, enclose alternative forms of the operand.
•
Braces, {}, enclose optional operands.
•
The operands column is not exhaustive.
•
Op2 is a flexible second operand that can be either a register or a constant.
•
Most instructions can use an optional condition code suffix.
For more information on the instructions and operands, see the instruction descriptions.
Table 20. Cortex-M4 instructions
Mnemonic
Operands
Brief description
Flags
Page
ADC, ADCS
{Rd,} Rn, Op2
Add with carry
N,Z,C,V 3.5.1 on page 82
ADD, ADDS
{Rd,} Rn, Op2
Add
N,Z,C,V 3.5.1 on page 82
ADD, ADDW {Rd,} Rn, #imm12
Add
N,Z,C,V 3.5.1 on page 82
ADR
Load PC-relative address
—
Rd, label
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Table 20. Cortex-M4 instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
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Operands
Brief description
Flags
Page
AND, ANDS
{Rd,} Rn, Op2
Logical AND
N,Z,C
3.5.2 on page 84
ASR, ASRS
Rd, Rm, <Rs|#n>
Arithmetic shift right
N,Z,C
3.5.3 on page 85
B
label
Branch
—
3.9.5 on page 141
BFC
Rd, #lsb, #width
Bit field clear
—
3.9.1 on page 138
BFI
Rd, Rn, #lsb, #width
Bit field insert
—
3.9.1 on page 138
BIC, BICS
{Rd,} Rn, Op2
Bit clear
N,Z,C
3.5.2 on page 84
BKPT
#imm
Breakpoint
—
3.11.1 on page 180
BL
label
Branch with link
—
3.9.5 on page 141
BLX
Rm
Branch indirect with link
—
3.9.5 on page 141
BX
Rm
Branch indirect
—
3.9.5 on page 141
CBNZ
Rn, label
Compare and branch if non
zero
—
3.9.6 on page 143
CBZ
Rn, label
Compare and branch if zero
—
3.9.6 on page 143
CLREX
—
Clear exclusive
—
3.4.9 on page 79
CLZ
Rd, Rm
Count leading zeros
—
3.5.4 on page 86
CMN
Rn, Op2
Compare negative
N,Z,C,V 3.5.5 on page 87
CMP
Rn, Op2
Compare
N,Z,C,V 3.5.5 on page 87
CPSID
iflags
Change processor state,
disable interrupts
—
3.11.2 on page 181
CPSIE
iflags
Change processor state,
enable interrupts
—
3.11.2 on page 181
DMB
—
Data memory barrier
—
3.11.4 on page 183
DSB
—
Data synchronization barrier
—
3.11.4 on page 183
EOR, EORS {Rd,} Rn, Op2
Exclusive OR
N,Z,C
3.5.2 on page 84
ISB
—
Instruction synchronization
barrier
—
3.11.5 on page 184
IT
—
If-then condition block
—
3.9.7 on page 144
LDM
Rn{!}, reglist
Load multiple registers,
increment after
—
3.4.6 on page 75
LDMDB,
LDMEA
Rn{!}, reglist
Load multiple registers,
decrement before
—
3.4.6 on page 75
LDMFD,
LDMIA
Rn{!}, reglist
Load multiple registers,
increment after
—
3.4.6 on page 75
LDR
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Load register with word
—
3.4 on page 68
LDRB,
LDRBT
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Load register with byte
—
3.4 on page 68
LDRD
Rt, Rt2, [Rn, #offset]
Load register with two bytes
—
3.4.2 on page 70
LDREX
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Load register exclusive
—
3.4.8 on page 78
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
Table 20. Cortex-M4 instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
Operands
Brief description
Flags
Page
LDREXB
Rt, [Rn]
Load register exclusive with
byte
—
3.4.8 on page 78
LDREXH
Rt, [Rn]
Load register exclusive with
halfword
—
3.4.8 on page 78
LDRH,
LDRHT
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Load register with halfword
—
3.4 on page 68
LDRSB,
LDRSBT
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Load register with signed byte —
3.4 on page 68
LDRSH,
LDRSHT
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Load register with signed
halfword
—
3.4 on page 68
LDRT
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Load register with word
—
3.4 on page 68
LSL, LSLS
Rd, Rm, <Rs|#n>
Logical shift left
N,Z,C
3.5.3 on page 85
LSR, LSRS
Rd, Rm, <Rs|#n>
Logical shift right
N,Z,C
3.5.3 on page 85
MLA
Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Multiply with accumulate, 32bit result
—
3.6.1 on page 109
MLS
Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Multiply and subtract, 32-bit
result
—
3.6.1 on page 109
MOV, MOVS Rd, Op2
Move
N,Z,C
3.5.6 on page 88
MOVT
Rd, #imm16
Move top
—
3.5.7 on page 90
MOVW,
MOV
Rd, #imm16
Move 16-bit constant
N,Z,C
3.5.6 on page 88
MRS
Rd, spec_reg
Move from special register to
general register
—
3.11.6 on page 185
MSR
spec_reg, Rm
Move from general register to
special register
N,Z,C,V 3.11.7 on page 186
MUL, MULS
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Multiply, 32-bit result
N,Z
3.6.1 on page 109
MVN, MVNS Rd, Op2
Move NOT
N,Z,C
3.5.6 on page 88
NOP
No operation
—
3.11.8 on page 187
ORN, ORNS {Rd,} Rn, Op2
Logical OR NOT
N,Z,C
3.5.2 on page 84
ORR, ORRS {Rd,} Rn, Op2
Logical OR
N,Z,C
3.5.2 on page 84
PKHTB,
PKHBT
{Rd,} Rn, Rm, Op2
Pack Halfword
POP
reglist
Pop registers from stack
—
3.4.7 on page 77
PUSH
reglist
Push registers onto stack
—
3.4.7 on page 77
QADD
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating double and add
3.7.3 on page 127
QADD16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating add 16
3.7.3 on page 127
QADD8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating add 8
3.7.3 on page 127
QASX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating add and subtract
with exchange
3.7.4 on page 128
—
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Table 20. Cortex-M4 instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
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Operands
Brief description
Flags
Page
QDADD
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating add
3.7.5 on page 129
QDSUB
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating double and
subtract
3.7.5 on page 129
QSAX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating subtract and add
with exchange
3.7.4 on page 128
QSUB
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating subtract
3.7.3 on page 127
QSUB16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating subtract 16
3.7.4 on page 128
QSUB8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Saturating subtract 8
3.7.4 on page 128
RBIT
Rd, Rn
Reverse bits
—
3.7.4 on page 128
REV
Rd, Rn
Reverse byte order in a word
—
3.5.8 on page 91
REV16
Rd, Rn
Reverse byte order in each
halfword
—
3.5.8 on page 91
REVSH
Rd, Rn
Reverse byte order in bottom
halfword and sign extend
—
3.5.8 on page 91
ROR, RORS Rd, Rm, <Rs|#n>
Rotate right
N,Z,C
3.5.3 on page 85
RRX, RRXS
Rd, Rm
Rotate right with extend
N,Z,C
3.5.3 on page 85
RSB, RSBS
{Rd,} Rn, Op2
Reverse subtract
N,Z,C,V 3.5.1 on page 82
SADD16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed add 16
3.5.9 on page 92
SADD8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed add 8
3.5.9 on page 92
SASX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed add and subtract with
exchange
3.5.14 on page 97
SBC, SBCS
{Rd,} Rn, Op2
Subtract with carry
N,Z,C,V 3.5.1 on page 82
SBFX
Rd, Rn, #lsb, #width
Signed bit field extract
—
3.9.2 on page 139
SDIV
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed divide
—
3.6.3 on page 111
SEV
—
Send event
—
3.11.9 on page 188
SHADD16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed halving add 16
—
3.5.10 on page 93
SHADD8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed halving add 8
—
3.5.10 on page 93
SHASX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed halving add and
subtract with exchange
—
3.5.11 on page 94
SHSAX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed halving subtract and
add with exchange
—
3.5.11 on page 94
SHSUB16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed halving subtract 16
—
3.5.12 on page 95
SHSUB8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed halving subtract 8
—
3.5.12 on page 95
SMLABB,
SMLABT,
SMLATB,
SMLATT
Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Signed multiply accumulate
long
(halfwords)
Q
3.6.3 on page 111
SMLAD,
SMLADX
Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Signed multiply accumulate
dual
Q
3.6.4 on page 113
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
Table 20. Cortex-M4 instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
Operands
Brief description
Flags
Page
SMLAL
RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Signed multiply with
accumulate (32 x 32 + 64), 64- —
bit result
3.6.2 on page 110
SMLALBB,
SMLALBT,
SMLALTB,
SMLALTT
RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Signed multiply accumulate
long,
halfwords
—
3.6.5 on page 114
SMLALD,
SMLALDX
RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Signed multiply accumulate
long dual
—
3.6.5 on page 114
SMLAWB,
SMLAWT
Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Signed multiply accumulate,
word by halfword
Q
3.6.3 on page 111
SMLSD
Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Signed multiply subtract dual
Q
3.6.6 on page 116
SMLSLD
RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Signed multiply subtract long
dual
—
3.6.6 on page 116
SMMLA
Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Signed most significant word
multiply accumulate
—
3.6.7 on page 118
SMMLS,
SMMLR
Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Signed most significant word
multiply subtract
—
3.6.7 on page 118
SMMUL,
SMMULR
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed most significant word
multiply
—
3.6.8 on page 119
SMUAD
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed dual multiply add
Q
3.6.9 on page 120
SMULBB,
SMULBT
SMULTB,
SMULTT
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed multiply (halfwords)
—
3.6.10 on page 121
SMULL
RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Signed multiply (32 x 32), 64bit result
—
3.6.2 on page 110
SSAT
Rd, #n, Rm {,shift #s} Signed saturate
Q
3.7.1 on page 125
SSAT16
Rd, #n, Rm
Signed saturate 16
Q
3.7.2 on page 126
SSAX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed subtract and add with
exchange
GE
3.5.14 on page 97
SSUB16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed subtract 16
—
3.5.13 on page 96
SSUB8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Signed subtract 8
—
3.5.13 on page 96
STM
Rn{!}, reglist
Store multiple registers,
increment after
—
3.4.6 on page 75
STMDB,
STMEA
Rn{!}, reglist
Store multiple registers,
decrement before
—
3.4.6 on page 75
STMFD,
STMIA
Rn{!}, reglist
Store multiple registers,
increment after
—
3.4.6 on page 75
STR
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Store register word
—
3.4 on page 68
STRB,
STRBT
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Store register byte
—
3.4 on page 68
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Table 20. Cortex-M4 instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
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Operands
Brief description
Flags
Page
STRD
Rt, Rt2, [Rn, #offset]
Store register two words
—
3.4.2 on page 70
STREX
Rd, Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Store register exclusive
—
3.4.8 on page 78
STREXB
Rd, Rt, [Rn]
Store register exclusive byte
—
3.4.8 on page 78
STREXH
Rd, Rt, [Rn]
Store register exclusive
halfword
—
3.4.8 on page 78
STRH,
STRHT
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Store register halfword
—
3.4 on page 68
STRT
Rt, [Rn, #offset]
Store register word
—
3.4 on page 68
SUB, SUBS
{Rd,} Rn, Op2
Subtract
N,Z,C,V 3.5.1 on page 82
SUB, SUBW {Rd,} Rn, #imm12
Subtract
N,Z,C,V 3.5.1 on page 82
SVC
#imm
Supervisor call
—
3.11.10 on page
189
SXTAB
{Rd,} Rn, Rm,{,ROR
#}
Extend 8 bits to 32 and add
—
3.8.3 on page 136
SXTAB16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm,{,ROR
#}
Dual extend 8 bits to 16 and
add
—
3.8.3 on page 136
SXTAH
{Rd,} Rn, Rm,{,ROR
#}
Extend 16 bits to 32 and add
—
3.8.3 on page 136
SXTB16
{Rd,} Rm {,ROR #n}
Signed extend byte 16
—
3.8.2 on page 135
SXTB
{Rd,} Rm {,ROR #n}
Sign extend a byte
—
3.9.3 on page 140
SXTH
{Rd,} Rm {,ROR #n}
Sign extend a halfword
—
3.9.3 on page 140
TBB
[Rn, Rm]
Table branch byte
—
3.9.8 on page 146
TBH
[Rn, Rm, LSL #1]
Table branch halfword
—
3.9.8 on page 146
TEQ
Rn, Op2
Test equivalence
N,Z,C
3.5.9 on page 92
TST
Rn, Op2
Test
N,Z,C
3.5.9 on page 92
UADD16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned add 16
GE
3.5.16 on page 99
UADD8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned add 8
GE
3.5.16 on page 99
USAX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned subtract and add
with exchange
GE
3.5.17 on page 100
UHADD16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned halving add 16
—
3.5.18 on page 101
UHADD8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned halving add 8
—
3.5.18 on page 101
UHASX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned halving add and
subtract with exchange
—
3.5.19 on page 102
UHSAX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned halving subtract and
—
add with exchange
3.5.19 on page 102
UHSUB16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned halving subtract 16
—
3.5.20 on page 103
UHSUB8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned halving subtract 8
—
3.5.20 on page 103
UBFX
Rd, Rn, #lsb, #width
Unsigned bit field extract
—
3.9.2 on page 139
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
Table 20. Cortex-M4 instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
Operands
Brief description
Flags
Page
UDIV
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned divide
—
3.6.3 on page 111
UMAAL
RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Unsigned multiply accumulate
accumulate long (32 x 32 + 32 —
+32), 64-bit result
3.6.2 on page 110
UMLAL
RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Unsigned multiply with
accumulate (32 x 32 + 64), 64- —
bit result
3.6.2 on page 110
UMULL
RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Unsigned multiply (32 x 32),
64-bit result
—
3.6.2 on page 110
UQADD16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned saturating add 16
—
3.7.7 on page 131
UQADD8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned saturating add 8
—
3.7.7 on page 131
UQASX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned saturating add and
subtract with exchange
—
3.7.6 on page 130
UQSAX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned saturating subtract
and add with exchange
—
3.7.6 on page 130
UQSUB16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned saturating subtract
16
—
3.7.7 on page 131
UQSUB8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned saturating subtract 8 —
3.7.7 on page 131
USAD8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned sum of absolute
differences
—
3.5.22 on page 105
USADA8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm, Ra
Unsigned sum of absolute
differences and accumulate
—
3.5.23 on page 106
USAT
Rd, #n, Rm {,shift #s} Unsigned saturate
Q
3.7.1 on page 125
USAT16
Rd, #n, Rm
Unsigned saturate 16
Q
3.7.2 on page 126
UASX
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned add and subtract
with exchange
GE
3.5.17 on page 100
USUB16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned subtract 16
GE
3.5.24 on page 107
USUB8
{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Unsigned subtract 8
GE
3.5.24 on page 107
UXTAB
{Rd,} Rn, Rm,{,ROR
#}
Rotate, extend 8 bits to 32 and
—
add
3.8.3 on page 136
UXTAB16
{Rd,} Rn, Rm,{,ROR
#}
Rotate, dual extend 8 bits to
16 and add
—
3.8.3 on page 136
UXTAH
{Rd,} Rn, Rm,{,ROR
#}
Rotate, unsigned extend and
add halfword
—
3.8.3 on page 136
UXTB
{Rd,} Rm {,ROR #n}
Zero extend a byte
—
3.8.2 on page 135
UXTB16
{Rd,} Rm {,ROR #n}
Unsigned extend byte 16
—
3.8.2 on page 135
UXTH
{Rd,} Rm {,ROR #n}
Zero extend a halfword
—
3.8.2 on page 135
VABS.F32
Sd, Sm
Floating-point absolute
—
3.10.1 on page 150
VADD.F32
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point add
—
3.10.2 on page 151
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Table 20. Cortex-M4 instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
Brief description
Flags
Page
Sd, <Sm | #0.0>
Compare two floating-point
registers, or one floating-point FPSCR 3.10.3 on page 152
register and zero
VCMPE.F32 Sd, <Sm | #0.0>
Compare two floating-point
registers, or one floating-point
FPSCR 3.10.3 on page 152
register and zero with Invalid
Operation check
VCVT.S32.F
32
Sd, Sm
Convert between floating-point
—
and integer
3.10.4 on page 153
VCVT.S16.F
32
Sd, Sd, #fbits
Convert between floating-point
—
and fixed point
3.10.4 on page 153
VCVTR.S32.
Sd, Sm
F32
Convert between floating-point
—
and integer with rounding
3.10.4 on page 153
VCVT<B|H>.
Sd, Sm
F32.F16
Converts half-precision value
to single-precision
—
3.10.5 on page 154
VCVTT<B|T
>.F32.F16
Sd, Sm
Converts single-precision
register to half-precision
—
3.10.6 on page 155
VDIV.F32
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point divide
—
3.10.7 on page 156
VFMA.F32
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point fused multiply
accumulate
—
3.10.8 on page 157
VFNMA.F32
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point fused negate
multiply accumulate
—
3.10.9 on page 158
VFMS.F32
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point fused multiply
subtract
—
3.10.8 on page 157
VFNMS.F32
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point fused negate
multiply subtract
—
3.10.9 on page 158
VLDM.F<32|
Rn{!}, list
64>
Load multiple extension
registers
—
3.10.10 on page
159
VLDR.F<32|
64>
<Dd|Sd>, [Rn]
Load an extension register
from memory
—
3.10.11 on page
160
VLMA.F32
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point multiply
accumulate
—
3.10.12 on page
161
VLMS.F32
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point multiply subtract —
3.10.12 on page
161
VMOV.F32
Sd, #imm
Floating-point move
immediate
—
3.10.13 on page
162
VMOV
Sd, Sm
Floating-point move register
—
3.10.14 on page
163
VMOV
Sn, Rt
Copy ARM core register to
single precision
—
3.10.18 on page
167
VMOV
Sm, Sm1, Rt, Rt2
Copy 2 ARM core registers to
2 single precision
—
3.10.17 on page
166
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Operands
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Table 20. Cortex-M4 instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
3.2
Operands
Brief description
Flags
Page
VMOV
Dd[x], Rt
Copy ARM core register to
scalar
—
3.10.15 on page
164
VMOV
Rt, Dn[x]
Copy scalar to ARM core
register
—
3.10.16 on page
165
VMRS
Rt, FPSCR
Move FPSCR to ARM core
register or APSR
N,Z,C,V
3.10.19 on page
168
VMSR
FPSCR, Rt
Move to FPSCR from ARM
Core register
FPSCR
3.10.20 on page
169
VMUL.F32
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point multiply
—
3.10.21 on page
170
VNEG.F32
Sd, Sm
Floating-point negate
—
3.10.22 on page
171
VNMLA.F32
Sd, Sn, Sm
Floating-point multiply and
add
—
3.10.23 on page
172
VNMLS.F32
Sd, Sn, Sm
Floating-point multiply and
subtract
—
3.10.23 on page
172
VNMUL
{Sd,} Sn, Sm
Floating-point multiply
—
3.10.23 on page
172
VPOP
list
Pop extension registers
—
3.10.24 on page
173
VPUSH
list
Push extension registers
—
3.10.25 on page
174
VSQRT.F32
Sd, Sm
Calculates floating-point
square root
—
3.10.26 on page
175
VSTM
Rn{!}, list
Floating-point register store
multiple
—
3.10.27 on page
176
WFE
—
Wait for event
—
3.11.11 on page 190
WFI
—
Wait for interrupt
—
3.11.12 on page
191
CMSIS intrinsic functions
ISO/IEC C code cannot directly access some Cortex-M4 instructions. This section describes
intrinsic functions that can generate these instructions, provided by the CMIS, and that
might be provided by a C compiler. If a C compiler does not support an appropriate intrinsic
function, you might have to use an inline assembler to access some instructions.
The CMSIS provides the intrinsic functions listed in Table 21 to generate instructions that
ANSI cannot directly access.
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Table 21. CMSIS intrinsic functions to generate some Cortex-M4 instructions
Instruction
CMSIS intrinsic function
CPSIE I
void __enable_irq(void)
CPSID I
void __disable_irq(void)
CPSIE F
void __enable_fault_irq(void)
CPSID F
void __disable_fault_irq(void)
ISB
void __ISB(void)
DSB
void __DSB(void)
DMB
void __DMB(void)
REV
uint32_t __REV(uint32_t int value)
REV16
uint32_t __REV16(uint32_t int value)
REVSH
uint32_t __REVSH(uint32_t int value)
RBIT
uint32_t __RBIT(uint32_t int value)
SEV
void __SEV(void)
WFE
void __WFE(void)
WFI
void __WFI(void)
The CMSIS also provides a number of functions for accessing the special registers using
MRS and MSR instructions (see Table 22).
Table 22. CMSIS intrinsic functions to access the special registers
Special register
PRIMASK
FAULTMASK
BASEPRI
CONTROL
MSP
PSP
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Access
CMSIS function
Read
uint32_t __get_PRIMASK (void)
Write
void __set_PRIMASK (uint32_t value)
Read
uint32_t __get_FAULTMASK (void)
Write
void __set_FAULTMASK (uint32_t value)
Read
uint32_t __get_BASEPRI (void)
Write
void __set_BASEPRI (uint32_t value)
Read
uint32_t __get_CONTROL (void)
Write
void __set_CONTROL (uint32_t value)
Read
uint32_t __get_MSP (void)
Write
void __set_MSP (uint32_t TopOfMainStack)
Read
uint32_t __get_PSP (void)
Write
void __set_PSP (uint32_t TopOfProcStack)
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3.3
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
About the instruction descriptions
The following sections give more information about using the instructions:
3.3.1
•
Operands on page 59
•
Restrictions when using PC or SP on page 59
•
Flexible second operand on page 59
•
Shift operations on page 61
•
Address alignment on page 64
•
PC-relative expressions on page 64
•
Conditional execution on page 64
•
Instruction width selection on page 67
Operands
An instruction operand can be an ARM register, a constant, or another instruction-specific
parameter. Instructions act on the operands and often store the result in a destination
register. When there is a destination register in the instruction, it is usually specified before
the operands.
Operands in some instructions are flexible in that they can either be a register or a constant
(see Flexible second operand).
3.3.2
Restrictions when using PC or SP
Many instructions have restrictions on whether you can use the program counter (PC) or
stack pointer (SP) for the operands or destination register. See instruction descriptions for
more information.
Bit[0] of any address written to the PC with a BX, BLX, LDM, LDR, or POP instruction must
be 1 for correct execution, because this bit indicates the required instruction set, and the
Cortex-M4 processor only supports thumb instructions.
3.3.3
Flexible second operand
Many general data processing instructions have a flexible second operand. This is shown
as operand2 in the description of the syntax of each instruction.
Operand2 can be a:
•
Constant
•
Register with optional shift
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Constant
You specify an operand2 constant in the form #constant, where constant can be:
•
Any constant that can be produced by shifting an 8-bit value left by any number of bits
within a 32-bit word.
•
Any constant of the form 0x00XY00XY
•
Any constant of the form 0xXY00XY00
•
Any constant of the form 0xXYXYXYXY
In the constants shown above, X and Y are hexadecimal digits.
In addition, in a small number of instructions, constant can include a wider range of values.
These are described in the individual instruction descriptions.
When an operand2 constant is used with the instructions MOVS, MVNS, ANDS, ORRS,
ORNS, EORS, BICS, TEQ or TST, the carry flag is updated to bit[31] of the constant, if the
constant is greater than 255 and can be produced by shifting an 8-bit value. These
instructions do not affect the carry flag if operand2 is any other constant.
Instruction substitution
The assembler might be able to produce an equivalent instruction if a not permitted constant
is specified. For example, the instruction CMP Rd, #0xFFFFFFFE might be assembled as
the equivalent of instruction CMN Rd, #0x2.
Register with optional shift
An operand2 register is specified in the form Rm {, shift}, where:
•
Rm is the register holding the data for the second operand
•
Shift is an optional shift to be applied to Rm. It can be one of the following:
ASR #n: Arithmetic shift right n bits, 1 ≤n ≤32
LSL #n: Logical shift left n bits, 1 ≤n ≤31
LSR #n: Logical shift right n bits, 1 ≤n ≤32
ROR #n: Rotate right n bits, 1 ≤n ≤31
RRX: Rotate right one bit, with extend
—: If omitted, no shift occurs, equivalent to LSL #0
If you omit the shift, or specify LSL #0, the instruction uses the value in Rm.
If you specify a shift, the shift is applied to the value in Rm, and the resulting 32-bit value is
used by the instruction. However, the contents in the Rm register remain unchanged.
Specifying a register with shift also updates the carry flag when used with certain
instructions. For information on the shift operations and how they affect the carry flag, see
Shift operations.
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3.3.4
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
Shift operations
Register shift operations move the bits in a register left or right by a specified number of bits,
the shift length. Register shift can be performed:
•
Directly by the instructions ASR, LSR, LSL, ROR, and RRX. The result is written to a
destination register.
•
During the calculation of operand2 by the instructions that specify the second operand
as a register with shift (see Flexible second operand on page 59). The result is used by
the instruction.
The permitted shift lengths depend on the shift type and the instruction (see the individual
instruction description or Flexible second operand). If the shift length is 0, no shift occurs.
Register shift operations update the carry flag except when the specified shift length is 0.
The following sub-sections describe the various shift operations and how they affect the
carry flag. In these descriptions, Rm is the register containing the value to be shifted, and n is
the shift length.
ASR
Arithmetic shift right by n bits moves the left-hand 32-n bits of the Rm register to the right by
n places, into the right-hand 32-n bits of the result. And it copies the original bit[31] of the
register into the left-hand n bits of the result (see Figure 13: ASR #3 on page 61).
You can use the ASR #n operation to divide the value in the Rm register by 2n, with the
result being rounded towards negative-infinity.
When the instruction is ASRS or when ASR #n is used in operand2 with the instructions
MOVS, MVNS, ANDS, ORRS, ORNS, EORS, BICS, TEQ or TST, the carry flag is updated
to the last bit shifted out, bit[n-1], of the Rm register.
Note:
1
If n is 32 or more, all the bits in the result are set to the value of bit[31] of Rm.
2
If n is 32 or more and the carry flag is updated, it is updated to the value of bit[31] of Rm.
Figure 13. ASR #3
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LSR
Logical shift right by n bits moves the left-hand 32-n bits of the Rm register to the right by n
places, into the right-hand 32-n bits of the result. And it sets the left-hand n bits of the result
to 0 (see Figure 14).
You can use the LSR #n operation to divide the value in the Rm register by 2n, if the value is
regarded as an unsigned integer.
When the instruction is LSRS or when LSR #n is used in operand2 with the instructions
MOVS, MVNS, ANDS, ORRS, ORNS, EORS, BICS, TEQ or TST, the carry flag is updated
to the last bit shifted out, bit[n-1], of the Rm register.
Note:
1
If n is 32 or more, then all the bits in the result are cleared to 0.
2
If n is 33 or more and the carry flag is updated, it is updated to 0.
Figure 14. LSR #3
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LSL
Logical shift left by n bits moves the right-hand 32-n bits of the Rm register to the left by n
places, into the left-hand 32-n bits of the result. And it sets the right-hand n bits of the result
to 0 (see Figure 15: LSL #3).
The LSL #n operation can be used to multiply the value in the Rm register by 2n, if the value
is regarded as an unsigned integer or a two’s complement signed integer. Overflow can
occur without warning.
When the instruction is LSLS or when LSL #n, with non-zero n, is used in operand2 with the
instructions MOVS, MVNS, ANDS, ORRS, ORNS, EORS, BICS, TEQ or TST, the carry flag
is updated to the last bit shifted out, bit[32-n], of the Rm register. These instructions do not
affect the carry flag when used with LSL #0.
Note:
1
If n is 32 or more, then all the bits in the result are cleared to 0.
2
If n is 33 or more and the carry flag is updated, it is updated to 0.
Figure 15. LSL #3
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
ROR
Rotate right by n bits moves the left-hand 32-n bits of the Rm register to the right by n places,
into the right-hand 32-n bits of the result. It also moves the right-hand n bits of the register
into the left-hand n bits of the result (see Figure 16).
When the instruction is RORS or when ROR #n is used in operand2 with the instructions
MOVS, MVNS, ANDS, ORRS, ORNS, EORS, BICS, TEQ or TST, the carry flag is updated
to the last bit rotation, bit[n-1], of the Rm register.
Note:
1
If n is 32, then the value of the result is same as the value in Rm, and if the carry flag is
updated, it is updated to bit[31] of Rm.
2
ROR with shift length, n, more than 32 is the same as ROR with shift length n-32.
Figure 16. ROR #3
&DUU\
)ODJ
06Y9
RRX
Rotate right with extend moves the bits of the Rm register to the right by one bit. And it
copies the carry flag into bit[31] of the result (see Figure 17).
When the instruction is RRXS or when RRX is used in operand2 with the instructions
MOVS, MVNS, ANDS, ORRS, ORNS, EORS, BICS, TEQ or TST, the carry flag is updated
to bit[0] of the Rm register.
Figure 17. RRX #3
&DUU\
)ODJ
06Y9
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Address alignment
An aligned access is an operation where a word-aligned address is used for a word, dual
word, or multiple word access, or where a halfword-aligned address is used for a halfword
access. Byte accesses are always aligned.
The Cortex-M4 processor supports unaligned access only for the following instructions:
•
LDR, LDRT
•
LDRH, LDRHT
•
LDRSH, LDRSHT
•
STR, STRT
•
STRH, STRHT
All other load and store instructions generate a usage fault exception if they perform an
unaligned access, and therefore their accesses must be address aligned. For more
information about usage faults see Fault handling on page 43.
Unaligned accesses are usually slower than aligned accesses. In addition, some memory
regions might not support unaligned accesses. Therefore, ARM recommends that
programmers to ensure that accesses are aligned. To avoid accidental generation of
unaligned accesses, use the UNALIGN_TRP bit in the configuration and control register to
trap all unaligned accesses, see Configuration and control register (CCR) on page 230.
3.3.6
PC-relative expressions
A PC-relative expression or label is a symbol that represents the address of an instruction or
literal data. It is represented in the instruction as the PC value plus or minus a numeric
offset. The assembler calculates the required offset from the label and the address of the
current instruction. If the offset is too big, the assembler produces an error.
3.3.7
•
For the B, BL, CBNZ, and CBZ instructions, the value of the PC is the address of the
current instruction plus four bytes.
•
For all other instructions that use labels, the value of the PC is the address of the
current instruction plus four bytes, with bit[1] of the result cleared to 0 to make it wordaligned.
•
Your assembler might permit other syntaxes for PC-relative expressions, such as a
label plus or minus a number, or an expression of the form [PC, #number].
Conditional execution
Most data processing instructions can optionally update the condition flags in the application
program status register (APSR) according to the result of the operation (see Application
program status register on page 20). Some instructions update all flags, and some only
update a subset. If a flag is not updated, the original value is preserved. See the instruction
descriptions for the flags they affect.
You can execute an instruction conditionally, based on the condition flags set in another
instruction:
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•
Immediately after the instruction that updated the flags
•
After any number of intervening instructions that have not updated the flags
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Conditional execution is available by using conditional branches or by adding condition code
suffixes to instructions. See Table 23: Condition code suffixes on page 66 for a list of the
suffixes to add to instructions to make them conditional instructions. The condition code
suffix enables the processor to test a condition based on the flags. If the condition test of a
conditional instruction fails, the instruction:
•
Does not execute.
•
Does not write any value to its destination register.
•
Does not affect any of the flags.
•
Does not generate any exception.
Conditional instructions, except for conditional branches, must be inside an If-then
instruction block. See IT on page 144 for more information and restrictions when using the
IT instruction. Depending on the vendor, the assembler might automatically insert an IT
instruction if you have conditional instructions outside the IT block.
Use the CBZ and CBNZ instructions to compare the value of a register against zero and
branch on the result.
This section describes:
•
The condition flags
•
Condition code suffixes on page 66
The condition flags
The APSR contains the following condition flags:
•
N: Set to 1 when the result of the operation is negative, otherwise cleared to 0.
•
Z: Set to 1 when the result of the operation is zero, otherwise cleared to 0.
•
C: Set to 1 when the operation results in a carry, otherwise cleared to 0.
•
V: Set to 1 when the operation causes an overflow, otherwise cleared to 0.
For more information about the APSR see Program status register on page 18.
A carry occurs:
•
If the result of an addition is greater than or equal to 232.
•
If the result of a subtraction is positive or zero.
•
As the result of an inline barrel shifter operation in a move or logical instruction.
Overflow occurs if the sign of a result does not match the sign of the result had the operation
been performed at infinite precision, for example:
•
if adding two negative values results in a positive value.
•
if adding two positive values results in a negative value.
•
if subtracting a positive value from a negative value generates a positive value.
•
if subtracting a negative value from a positive value generates a negative value.
The Compare operations are identical to subtracting, for CMP, or adding, for CMN, except
that the result is discarded. See the instruction descriptions for more information.
Most instructions update the status flags only if the S suffix is specified. See the instruction
descriptions for more information.
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Condition code suffixes
The instructions that can be conditional have an optional condition code, shown in syntax
descriptions as {cond}. Conditional execution requires a preceding IT instruction. An
instruction with a condition code is only executed if the condition code flags in the APSR
meet the specified condition. Table 23 shows the condition codes to use.
You can use conditional execution with the IT instruction to reduce the number of branch
instructions in code.
Table 23 also shows the relationship between condition code suffixes and the N, Z, C, and V
flags.
Table 23. Condition code suffixes
Suffix
Flags
Meaning
EQ
Z=1
Equal
NE
Z=0
Not equal
CS or HS
C=1
Higher or same, unsigned ≥
CC or LO
C=0
Lower, unsigned <
MI
N=1
Negative
PL
N=0
Positive or zero
VS
V=1
Overflow
VC
V=0
No overflow
HI
C = 1 and Z = 0
Higher, unsigned >
LS
C = 0 or Z = 1
Lower or same, unsigned ≤
GE
N=V
Greater than or equal, signed ≥
LT
N! =V
Less than, signed <
GT
Z = 0 and N = V
Greater than, signed >
LE
Z = 1 and N ! = V
Less than or equal, signed ≤
AL
Can have any value
Always. This is the default when no suffix is specified.
Specific example 1: Absolute value shows the use of a conditional instruction to find the
absolute value of a number. R0 = ABS(R1).
Specific example 1: Absolute value
MOVSR0, R1; R0 = R1, setting flags
IT MI ;
IT instruction for the negative condition
RSBMIR0, R1, #0;
If negative, R0 = -R1
Specific example 2: Compare and update value shows the use of conditional instructions to
update the value of R4 if the signed value R0 and R2 are greater than R1 and R3
respectively.
Specific example 2: Compare and update value
CMP R0, R1 ;
ITT GT ;
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CMPGT R2, R3;
MOVGT R4, R5 ;
3.3.8
if 'greater than', compare R2 and R3, setting flags
if still 'greater than', do R4 = R5
Instruction width selection
There are many instructions that can generate either a 16-bit encoding or a 32-bit encoding
depending on the specified operands and destination register. For some of these
instructions, you can force a specific instruction size by using an instruction width suffix.
The .W suffix forces a 32-bit instruction encoding. The .N suffix forces a 16-bit instruction
encoding.
If you specify an instruction width suffix and the assembler cannot generate an instruction
encoding of the requested width, it generates an error.
In some cases it might be necessary to specify the .W suffix, for example if the operand is
the label of an instruction or literal data, as in the case of branch instructions. The reason for
this is that the assembler might not automatically generate the right size encoding.
To use an instruction width suffix, place it immediately after the instruction mnemonic and
condition code, if any. Specific example 3: Instruction width selection shows instructions
with the instruction width suffix.
Specific example 3: Instruction width selection
BCS.W label;
ADDS.W R0, R0, R1;
creates 32-bit instruction even for a short branch
creates a 32-bit instruction even though the same
; operation can be done by a 16-bit instruction
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Memory access instructions
Table 24 shows the memory access instructions:
Table 24. Memory access instructions
Mnemonic
Brief description
ADR
Load PC-relative address
ADR on page 69
CLREX
Clear exclusive
CLREX on page 79
LDM{mode}
Load multiple registers
LDM and STM on page 75
LDR{type}
Load register using immediate offset
LDR and STR, immediate offset on page 70
LDR{type}
Load register using register offset
LDR and STR, register offset on page 72
LDR{type}T
Load register with unprivileged access
LDR and STR, unprivileged on page 73
LDR
Load register using PC-relative address LDR, PC-relative on page 74
LDRD
Load register dual
LDR and STR, immediate offset on page 70
LDREX{type} Load register exclusive
LDREX and STREX on page 78
POP
Pop registers from stack
PUSH and POP on page 77
PUSH
Push registers onto stack
PUSH and POP on page 77
STM{mode}
Store multiple registers
LDM and STM on page 75
STR{type}
Store register using immediate offset
LDR and STR, immediate offset on page 70
STR{type}
Store register using register offset
LDR and STR, register offset on page 72
STR{type}T
Store register with unprivileged access
LDR and STR, unprivileged on page 73
STREX{type} Store register exclusive
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
ADR
Load PC-relative address.
Syntax
ADR{cond} Rd, label
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register
•
‘label’ is a PC-relative expression (see PC-relative expressions on page 64)
Operation
ADR determines the address by adding an immediate value to the PC. It writes the result to
the destination register.
ADR produces position-independent code, because the address is PC-relative.
If you use ADR to generate a target address for a BX or BLX instruction, you must ensure
that bit[0] of the address you generate is set to1 for correct execution.
Values of label must be within the range -4095 to 4095 from the address in the PC.
Note:
You might have to use the .W suffix to get the maximum offset range or to generate
addresses that are not word-aligned (see Instruction width selection on page 67).
Restrictions
Rd must be neither SP nor PC.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
ADR R1, TextMessage; write address value of a location labelled as
; TextMessage to R1
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LDR and STR, immediate offset
Load and Store with immediate offset, pre-indexed immediate offset, or post-indexed
immediate offset.
Syntax
op{type}{cond} Rt,
op{type}{cond} Rt,
op{type}{cond} Rt,
opD{cond} Rt, Rt2,
opD{cond} Rt, Rt2,
opD{cond} Rt, Rt2,
[Rn {, #offset}]; immediate offset
[Rn, #offset]!; pre-indexed
[Rn], #offset; post-indexed
[Rn {, #offset}]; immediate offset, two words
[Rn, #offset]!; pre-indexed, two words
[Rn], #offset; post-indexed, two words
Where:
•
‘op’ is either LDR (load register) or STR (store register)
•
‘type’ is one of the following:
B: Unsigned byte, zero extends to 32 bits on loads
SB: Signed byte, sign extends to 32 bits (LDR only)
H: Unsigned halfword, zero extends to 32 bits on loads
SH: Signed halfword, sign extends to 32 bits (LDR only)
—: Omit, for word
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rt’ is the register to load or store
•
‘Rn’ is the register on which the memory address is based
•
‘offset’ is an offset from Rn. If offset is omitted, the address is the contents of Rn
•
‘Rt2’ is the additional register to load or store for two-word operations
Operation
LDR instructions load one or two registers with a value from memory. STR instructions store
one or two register values to memory.
Load and store instructions with immediate offset can use the following addressing modes:
Offset addressing
The offset value is added to or subtracted from the address obtained from the register
Rn. The result is used as the address for the memory access. The register Rn is
unaltered. The assembly language syntax for this mode is: [Rn, #offset].
Pre-indexed addressing
The offset value is added to or subtracted from the address obtained from the register
Rn. The result is used as the address for the memory access and written back into the
register Rn. The assembly language syntax for this mode is: [Rn, #offset]!
Post-indexed addressing
The address obtained from the register Rn is used as the address for the memory
access. The offset value is added to or subtracted from the address, and written back
into the register Rn. The assembly language syntax for this mode is: [Rn], #offset.
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The value to load or store can be a byte, halfword, word, or two words. Bytes and halfwords
can either be signed or unsigned (see Address alignment on page 64).
Table 25 shows the range of offsets for immediate, pre-indexed and post-indexed forms.
Table 25. Immediate, pre-indexed and post-indexed offset ranges
Instruction type
Immediate offset
Pre-indexed
Post-indexed
Word, halfword, signed
halfword, byte, or signed byte
-255 to 4095
-255 to 255
-255 to 255
Two words
Multiple of 4 in the
range -1020 to 1020
Multiple of 4 in the
range -1020 to 1020
Multiple of 4 in the
range -1020 to 1020
Restrictions
•
•
•
For load instructions:
–
Rt can be SP or PC for word loads only.
–
Rt must be different from Rt2 for two-word loads.
–
Rn must be different from Rt and Rt2 in the pre-indexed or post-indexed forms.
When Rt is PC in a word load instruction.
–
bit[0] of the loaded value must be 1 for correct execution.
–
A branch occurs to the address created by changing bit[0] of the loaded value to 0.
–
If the instruction is conditional, it must be the last instruction in the IT block.
For store instructions:
–
Rt can be SP for word stores only.
–
Rt must not be PC.
–
Rn must not be PC.
–
Rn must be different from Rt and Rt2 in the pre-indexed or post-indexed forms
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
LDR R8, [R10]
; loads R8 from the address in R10.
LDRNE R2, [R5, #960]!; loads (conditionally) R2 from a word
; 960 bytes above the address in R5, and
; increments R5 by 960.
STR R2, [R9,#const-struc]; const-struc is an expression evaluating
; to a constant in the range 0-4095.
STRH R3, [R4], #4; Store R3 as halfword data into address in
; R4, then increment R4 by 4
LDRD R8, R9, [R3, #0x20]; Load R8 from a word 32 bytes above the
; address in R3, and load R9 from a word 36
; bytes above the address in R3
STRD R0, R1, [R8], #-16; Store R0 to address in R8, and store R1 to
; a word 4 bytes above the address in R8,
; and then decrement R8 by 16.
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LDR and STR, register offset
Load and Store with register offset.
Syntax
op{type}{cond} Rt, [Rn, Rm {, LSL #n}]
Where:
•
‘op’ is either LDR (load register) or STR (store register).
•
‘type’ is one of the following:
B: Unsigned byte, zero extends to 32 bits on loads.
SB: Signed byte, sign extends to 32 bits (LDR only).
H: Unsigned halfword, zero extends to 32 bits on loads.
SH: Signed halfword, sign extends to 32 bits (LDR only).
—: Omit, for word.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rt’ is the register to load or store.
•
‘Rn’ is the register on which the memory address is based.
•
‘Rm’ is a register containing a value to be used as the offset.
•
‘LSL #n’ is an optional shift, with n in the range 0 to 3.
Operation
LDR instructions load a register with a value from memory. STR instructions store a register
value into memory. The memory address to load from or store to is at an offset from the
register Rn. The offset is specified by the Rm register and can be shifted left by up to 3 bits
using LSL. The value to load or store can be a byte, halfword, or word. For load instructions,
bytes and halfwords can either be signed or unsigned (see Address alignment on page 64).
Restrictions
In these instructions:
•
Rn must not be PC.
•
Rm must be neither SP nor PC.
•
Rt can be SP only for word loads and word stores.
•
Rt can be PC only for word loads.
When Rt is PC in a word load instruction:
•
bit[0] of the loaded value must be 1 for correct execution, and a branch occurs to this
halfword-aligned address.
•
If the instruction is conditional, it must be the last instruction in the IT block.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
STR R0, [R5, R1]; store value of R0 into an address equal to
; sum of R5 and R1
LDRSB R0, [R5, R1, LSL #1]; read byte value from an address equal to
; sum of R5 and two times R1, sign extended it
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; to a word value and put it in R0
STR R0, [R1, R2, LSL #2]; stores R0 to an address equal to sum of R1
; and four times R2
3.4.4
LDR and STR, unprivileged
Load and Store with unprivileged access.
Syntax
op{type}T{cond} Rt, [Rn {, #offset}]; immediate offset
Where:
•
‘op’ is either LDR (load register) or STR (store register).
•
‘type’ is one of the following:
B: Unsigned byte, zero extends to 32 bits on loads.
SB: Signed byte, sign extends to 32 bits (LDR only).
H: Unsigned halfword, zero extends to 32 bits on loads.
SH: Signed halfword, sign extends to 32 bits (LDR only).
—: Omit, for word.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rt’ is the register to load or store.
•
‘Rn’ is the register on which the memory address is based.
•
‘offset’ is an offset from Rn and can be 0 to 255. If offset is omitted, the address is the
value in Rn.
Operation
These load and store instructions perform the same function as the memory access
instructions with immediate offset (see LDR and STR, immediate offset on page 70). The
difference is that these instructions have only unprivileged access even when used in
privileged software.
When used in unprivileged software, these instructions behave in exactly the same way as
normal memory access instructions with immediate offset.
Restrictions
In these instructions:
•
Rn must not be PC.
•
Rt must be neither SP nor PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
STRBTEQ R4, [R7]
; conditionally store
; R4 to an address in
LDRHT R2, [R2, #8]; load halfword value
; sum of R2 and 8 into R2,
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R7, with unprivileged access
from an address equal to
with unprivileged access
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LDR, PC-relative
Load register from memory.
Syntax
LDR{type}{cond} Rt, label
LDRD{cond} Rt, Rt2, label; load two words
Where:
•
‘type’ is one of the following:
B: Unsigned byte, zero extends to 32 bits.
SB: Signed byte, sign extends to 32 bits.
H: Unsigned halfword, sign extends to 32 bits.
SH: Signed halfword, sign extends to 32 bits.
—: Omit, for word.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rt’ is the register to load or store.
•
‘Rt2’ is the second register to load or store.
•
‘label’ is a PC-relative expression, see PC-relative expressions on page 64.
Operation
LDR loads a register with a value from a PC-relative memory address.
The memory address is specified by a label or by an offset from the PC.
The value to load or store can be a byte, halfword, or word. For load instructions, bytes and
halfwords can either be signed or unsigned (see Address alignment on page 64).
‘label’ must be within a limited range of the current instruction. Table 26 shows the possible
offsets between label and the PC. You might have to use the .W suffix to get the maximum
offset range (see Instruction width selection on page 67).
Table 26. label-PC offset ranges
Instruction type
Offset range
Word, halfword, signed halfword, byte, signed byte
−4095 to 4095
Two words
−1020 to 1020
Restrictions
In these instructions:
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•
Rt2 must be neither SP nor PC
•
Rt must be different from Rt2
•
Rt can be SP or PC only for word loads
•
When Rt is PC in a word load instruction: bit[0] of the loaded value must be 1 for
correct execution, and a branch occurs to this halfword-aligned address. If the
instruction is conditional, it must be the last instruction in the IT block.
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Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
LDR R0, LookUpTable; load R0 with a word of data from an address
; labelled as LookUpTable
LDRSB R7, localdata; load a byte value from an address labelled
; as localdata, sign extend it to a word
; value, and put it in R7
3.4.6
LDM and STM
Load and Store Multiple registers.
Syntax
op{addr_mode}{cond} Rn{!}, reglist
Where:
•
‘op’ is either LDM (load multiple register) or STM (store multiple register).
•
‘addr_mode’ is any of the following:
IA: Increment address after each access (this is the default).
DB: Decrement address before each access.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rn’ is the register on which the memory addresses are based.
•
‘!’ is an optional writeback suffix. If ! is present, the final address that is loaded from or
stored to is written back into Rn.
•
‘reglist’ is a list of one or more registers to be loaded or stored, enclosed in braces. It
can contain register ranges. It must be comma-separated if it contains more than one
register or register range, see Examples on page 76.
LDM and LDMFD are synonyms for LDMIA. LDMFD refers to its use for popping data from
full descending stacks.
LDMEA is a synonym for LDMDB, and refers to its use for popping data from empty
ascending stacks.
STM and STMEA are synonyms for STMIA. STMEA refers to its use for pushing data onto
empty ascending stacks.
STMFD is s synonym for STMDB, and refers to its use for pushing data onto full descending
stacks
Operation
LDM instructions load the registers in reglist with word values from memory addresses
based on Rn.
STM instructions store the word values in the registers in reglist to memory addresses
based on Rn.
For LDM, LDMIA, LDMFD, STM, STMIA, and STMEA the memory addresses used for the
accesses are at 4-byte intervals ranging from Rn to Rn + 4 * (n-1), where n is the number of
registers in reglist. The accesses happen in order of increasing register numbers, with the
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lowest numbered register using the lowest memory address and the highest number
register using the highest memory address. If the writeback suffix is specified, the value of
Rn + 4 * (n-1) is written back to Rn.
For LDMDB, LDMEA, STMDB, and STMFD the memory addresses used for the accesses
are at 4-byte intervals ranging from Rn to Rn - 4 * (n-1), where n is the number of registers
in reglist. The accesses happen in order of decreasing register numbers, with the highest
numbered register using the highest memory address and the lowest number register using
the lowest memory address. If the writeback suffix is specified, the value Rn - 4 * (n) is
written back to Rn.
The PUSH and POP instructions can be expressed in this form (see PUSH and POP for
details).
Restrictions
In these instructions:
•
Rn must not be PC.
•
reglist must not contain SP.
•
In any STM instruction, reglist must not contain PC.
•
In any LDM instruction, reglist must not contain PC if it contains LR.
•
reglist must not contain Rn if you specify the writeback suffix.
When PC is in reglist in an LDM instruction:
•
bit[0] of the value loaded to the PC must be 1 for correct execution, and a branch
occurs to this halfword-aligned address.
•
If the instruction is conditional, it must be the last instruction in the IT block.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
LDM R8,{R0,R2,R9}
; LDMIA is a synonym for LDM
STMDB R1!,{R3-R6,R11,R12}
Incorrect examples
STM R5!,{R5,R4,R9}
LDM R2, {}
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PUSH and POP
Push registers onto, and pop registers off a full-descending stack. PUSH and POP are
synonyms for STMDB and LDM (or LDMIA) with the memory addresses for the access
based on SP, and with the final address for the access written back to the SP. PUSH and
POP are the preferred mnemonics in these cases.
Syntax
PUSH{cond} reglist
POP{cond} reglist
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘reglist’ is a non-empty list of registers (or register ranges), enclosed in braces.
Commas must separate register lists or ranges (see Examples on page 76).
Operation
•
PUSH stores registers on the stack in order of decreasing register numbers, with the
highest numbered register using the highest memory address and the lowest
numbered register using the lowest memory address.
•
POP loads registers from the stack in order of increasing register numbers, with the
lowest numbered register using the lowest memory address and the highest numbered
register using the highest memory address.
•
PUSH uses the value in the SP register minus four as the highest memory address,
POP uses the SP register value as the lowest memory address, implementing a fulldescending stack. On completion, PUSH updates the SP register to point to the
location of the lowest store value, and POP updates the SP register to point to the
location above the highest location loaded.
•
If a POP instruction includes PC in its reglist, a branch to this location is performed
when the POP instruction has completed. Bit[0] of the value read for the PC is used to
update the APSR T-bit. This bit must be 1 to ensure correct operation. See LDM and
STM on page 75 for more information.
Restrictions
In these instructions:
•
‘reglist’ must not contain SP.
•
For the PUSH instruction, reglist must not contain PC.
•
For the POP instruction, reglist must not contain PC if it contains LR.
When PC is in reglist in a POP instruction: bit[0] of the value loaded to the PC must be
1 for correct execution, and a branch occurs to this halfword-aligned address. If the
instruction is conditional, it must be the last instruction in the IT block.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
PUSH {R0,R4-R7} ; Push R0,R4,R5,R6,R7 onto the stack
PUSH {R2,LR}
; Push R2 and the link-register onto the stack
POP {R0,R6,PC} ; Pop r0,r6 and PC from the stack, then branch to new PC.
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LDREX and STREX
Load and Store Register Exclusive.
Syntax
LDREX{cond} Rt, [Rn {, #offset}]
STREX{cond} Rd, Rt, [Rn {, #offset}]
LDREXB{cond} Rt, [Rn]
STREXB{cond} Rd, Rt, [Rn]
LDREXH{cond} Rt, [Rn]
STREXH{cond} Rd, Rt, [Rn]
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register for the returned status.
•
‘Rt’ is the register to load or store.
•
‘Rn’ is the register on which the memory address is based.
•
‘offset’ is an optional offset applied to the value in Rn. If offset is omitted, the address is
the value in Rn.
Operation
LDREX, LDREXB, and LDREXH load a word, byte, and halfword respectively from a
memory address.
STREX, STREXB, and STREXH attempt to store a word, byte, and halfword respectively to
a memory address. The address used in any store-exclusive instruction must be the same
as the address in the most recently executed load-exclusive instruction. The value stored by
the store-exclusive instruction must also have the same data size as the value loaded by the
preceding load-exclusive instruction. This means software must always use a loadexclusive instruction and a matching store-exclusive instruction to perform a
synchronization operation, see Synchronization primitives on page 33.
If a store-exclusive instruction performs the store, it writes 0 to its destination register.
If it does not perform the store, it writes 1 to its destination register.
If the store-exclusive instruction writes 0 to the destination register, it is guaranteed that no
other process in the system has accessed the memory location between the load-exclusive
and store-exclusive instructions.
For reasons of performance, keep the number of instructions between corresponding loadexclusive and store-exclusive instruction to a minimum.
Note:
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The result of executing a store-exclusive instruction to an address that is different from that
used in the preceding load-exclusive instruction is unpredictable.
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Restrictions
In these instructions:
•
Do not use PC.
•
Do not use SP for Rd and Rt.
•
For STREX, Rd must be different from both Rt and Rn.
•
The value of offset must be a multiple of four in the range 0-1020.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
MOV R1, #0x1
LDREX R0, [LockAddr]
CMP R0, #0
ITT EQ
STREXEQ R0, R1, [LockAddr]
CMPEQ R0, #0
BNE try
3.4.9
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
initialize the ‘lock taken’ value try
load the lock value
is the lock free?
IT instruction for STREXEQ and CMPEQ
try and claim the lock
did this succeed?
no – try again
yes – we have the lock
CLREX
Clear Exclusive.
Syntax
CLREX{cond}
Where:
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
Operation
Use CLREX to make the next STREX, STREXB, or STREXH instruction write 1 to its destination
register and fail to perform the store. It is useful in exception handler code to force the failure
of the store exclusive if the exception occurs between a load exclusive instruction and the
matching store exclusive instruction in a synchronization operation.
See Synchronization primitives on page 33 for more information.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
CLREX
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General data processing instructions
Table 27 shows the data processing instructions.
Table 27. Data processing instructions
Mnemonic
Brief description
See
ADC
Add with carry
ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, and RSB on page 82
ADD
Add
ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, and RSB on page 82
ADDW
Add
ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, and RSB on page 82
AND
Logical AND
AND, ORR, EOR, BIC, and ORN on page 84
ASR
Arithmetic Shift Right
ASR, LSL, LSR, ROR, and RRX on page 85
BIC
Bit Clear
AND, ORR, EOR, BIC, and ORN on page 84
CLZ
Count leading zeros
CLZ on page 86
CMN
Compare Negative
CMP and CMN on page 87
CMP
Compare
CMP and CMN on page 87
EOR
Exclusive OR
AND, ORR, EOR, BIC, and ORN on page 84
LSL
Logical Shift Left
ASR, LSL, LSR, ROR, and RRX on page 85
LSR
Logical Shift Right
ASR, LSL, LSR, ROR, and RRX on page 85
MOV
Move
MOV and MVN on page 88
MOVT
Move Top
MOVT on page 90
MOVW
Move 16-bit constant
MOV and MVN on page 88
MVN
Move NOT
MOV and MVN on page 88
ORN
Logical OR NOT
AND, ORR, EOR, BIC, and ORN on page 84
ORR
Logical OR
AND, ORR, EOR, BIC, and ORN on page 84
RBIT
Reverse Bits
REV, REV16, REVSH, and RBIT on page 91
REV
Reverse byte order in a word
REV, REV16, REVSH, and RBIT on page 91
REV16
Reverse byte order in each halfword
REV, REV16, REVSH, and RBIT on page 91
REVSH
Reverse byte order in bottom halfword and sign extend REV, REV16, REVSH, and RBIT on page 91
ROR
Rotate Right
ASR, LSL, LSR, ROR, and RRX on page 85
RRX
Rotate Right with Extend
ASR, LSL, LSR, ROR, and RRX on page 85
RSB
Reverse Subtract
ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, and RSB on page 82
SADD16
Signed Add 16
SADD16 and SADD8 on page 92
SADD8
Signed Add 8
SADD16 and SADD8 on page 92
SASX
Signed Add and Subtract with Exchange
SASX and SSAX on page 97
SSAX
Signed Subtract and Add with Exchange
SASX and SSAX on page 97
SBC
Subtract with Carry
ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, and RSB on page 82
SHADD16
Signed Halving Add 16
SHADD16 and SHADD8 on page 93
SHADD8
Signed Halving Add 8
SHADD16 and SHADD8 on page 93
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Table 27. Data processing instructions (continued)
Mnemonic
Brief description
See
SHASX
Signed Halving Add and Subtract with Exchange
SHASX and SHSAX on page 94
SHSAX
Signed Halving Subtract and Add with exchange
SHASX and SHSAX on page 94
SHSUB16
Signed Halving Subtract 16
SHSUB16 and SHSUB8 on page 95
SHSUB8
Signed Halving Subtract 8
SHSUB16 and SHSUB8 on page 95
SSUB16
Signed Subtract 16
SSUB16 and SSUB8 on page 96
SSUB8
Signed subtract 8
SSUB16 and SSUB8 on page 96
SUB
Subtract
ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, and RSB on page 82
SUBW
Subtract
ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, and RSB on page 82
TEQ
Test Equivalence
SADD16 and SADD8 on page 92
TST
Test
SADD16 and SADD8 on page 92
UADD16
Unsigned Add 16
UADD16 and UADD8 on page 99
UADD8
Unsigned Add 8
UADD16 and UADD8 on page 99
UASX
Unsigned Add and Subtract with Exchange
UASX and USAX on page 100
USAX
Unsigned Subtract and Add with Exchange
UASX and USAX on page 100
UHADD16
Unsigned Halving Add 16
UHADD16 and UHADD8 on page 101
UHADD8
Unsigned Halving Add 8
UHADD16 and UHADD8 on page 101
UHASX
Unsigned Halving Add and Subtract with Exchange
UHASX and UHSAX on page 102
UHSAX
Unsigned Halving Subtract and Add with Exchange
UHASX and UHSAX on page 102
UHSUB16
Unsigned Halving Subtract 16
UHSUB16 and UHSUB8 on page 103
UHSUB8
Unsigned Halving Subtract 8
UHSUB16 and UHSUB8 on page 103
USAD8
Unsigned Sum of Absolute Differences
USAD8 on page 105
USADA8
Unsigned Sum of Absolute Differences and accumulate USADA8 on page 106
USUB16
Unsigned Subtract 16
USUB16 and USUB8 on page 107
USUB8
Unsigned Subtract 8
USUB16 and USUB8 on page 107
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ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, and RSB
Add, Add with Carry, Subtract, Subtract with Carry, and Reverse Subtract.
Syntax
op{S}{cond} {Rd,} Rn, Operand2
op{cond} {Rd,} Rn, #imm12; ADD and SUB only
Where:
•
‘op’ is one of the following:
ADD: Add
ADC: Add with carry
SUB: Subtract
SBC: Subtract with carry
RSB: Reverse subtract
•
‘S’ is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated on the
result of the operation (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register. If Rd is omitted, the destination register is Rn
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the first operand
•
‘Operand2’ is a flexible second operand (see Flexible second operand on page 59 for
details of the options)
•
‘imm12’ is any value in the range 0—4095
Operation
The ADD instruction adds the value of operand2 or imm12 to the value in Rn.
The ADC instruction adds the values in Rn and operand2, together with the carry flag.
The SUB instruction subtracts the value of operand2 or imm12 from the value in Rn.
The SBC instruction subtracts the value of operand2 from the value in Rn. If the carry flag is
clear, the result is reduced by one.
The RSB instruction subtracts the value in Rn from the value of operand2. This is useful
because of the wide range of options for operand2.
Use ADC and SBC to synthesize multiword arithmetic (see Multiword arithmetic examples
on page 83 and ADR on page 69).
ADDW is equivalent to the ADD syntax that uses the imm12 operand. SUBW is equivalent
to the SUB syntax that uses the imm12 operand.
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Restrictions
In these instructions:
•
Operand2 must be neither SP nor PC
•
Rd can be SP only in ADD and SUB, and only with the following additional restrictions:
Rn must also be SP.
Any shift in operand2 must be limited to a maximum of three bits using LSL.
•
Rn can be SP only in ADD and SUB.
•
Rd can be PC only in the ADD{cond} PC, PC, Rm instruction where:
•
Note:
–
–
–
You must not specify the S suffix.
–
Rm must be neither PC nor SP.
–
If the instruction is conditional, it must be the last instruction in the IT block.
With the exception of the ADD{cond} PC, PC, Rm instruction, Rn can be PC only in
ADD and SUB, and only with the following additional restrictions:
–
You must not specify the S suffix.
–
The second operand must be a constant in the range 0 to 4095.
1
When using the PC for an addition or a subtraction, bits[1:0] of the PC are rounded to b00
before performing the calculation, making the base address for the calculation word-aligned.
2
If you want to generate the address of an instruction, you have to adjust the constant based
on the value of the PC. ARM recommends that you use the ADR instruction instead of ADD or
SUB with Rn equal to the PC, because your assembler automatically calculates the correct
constant for the ADR instruction.
When Rd is PC in the ADD{cond} PC, PC, Rm instruction:
•
Bit[0] of the value written to the PC is ignored.
•
A branch occurs to the address created by forcing bit[0] of that value to 0.
Condition flags
If S is specified, these instructions update the N, Z, C and V flags according to the result.
Examples
ADD R2, R1, R3
SUBS R8, R6, #240
RSB R4, R4, #1280
ADCHI R11, R0, R3
; sets the flags on the result
; subtracts contents of R4 from 1280
; only executed if C flag set and Z flag clear
Multiword arithmetic examples
Specific example 4: 64-bit addition shows two instructions that add a 64-bit integer
contained in R2 and R3 to another 64-bit integer contained in R0 and R1, and place the
result in R4 and R5.
Specific example 4: 64-bit addition
ADDS R4, R0, R2
ADC R5, R1, R3
; add the least significant words
; add the most significant words with carry
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Multiword values do not have to use consecutive registers. Specific example 5: 96-bit
subtraction shows instructions that subtract a 96-bit integer contained in R9, R1, and R11
from another contained in R6, R2, and R8. The example stores the result in R6, R9, and R2.
Specific example 5: 96-bit subtraction
SUBS R6, R6, R9
SBCS R9, R2, R1
SBC R2, R8, R11
3.5.2
; subtract the least significant words
; subtract the middle words with carry
; subtract the most significant words with carry
AND, ORR, EOR, BIC, and ORN
Logical AND, OR, Exclusive OR, Bit Clear, and OR NOT.
Syntax
op{S}{cond} {Rd,} Rn, Operand2
Where:
•
‘op’ is one of:
AND: Logical AND.
ORR: Logical OR or bit set.
EOR: Logical exclusive OR.
BIC: Logical AND NOT or bit clear.
ORN: Logical OR NOT.
•
‘S’ is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated on the
result of the operation, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the first operand.
•
‘Operand2’ is a flexible second operand, see Flexible second operand on page 59 for
details of the options.
Operation
The AND, EOR, and ORR instructions perform bitwise AND, exclusive OR, and OR
operations on the values in Rn and operand2.
The BIC instruction performs an AND operation on the bits in Rn with the complements of
the corresponding bits in the value of operand2.
The ORN instruction performs an OR operation on the bits in Rn with the complements of
the corresponding bits in the value of operand2.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or PC.
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Condition flags
If S is specified, these instructions:
•
Update the N and Z flags according to the result.
•
Can update the C flag during the calculation of operand2, see Flexible second operand
on page 59.
•
Do not affect the V flag.
Examples
AND R9, R2,#0xFF00
ORREQ R2, R0, R5
ANDS R9, R8, #0x19
EORS R7, R11, #0x18181818
BIC R0, R1, #0xab
ORN R7, R11, R14, ROR #4
ORNS R7, R11, R14, ASR #32
3.5.3
ASR, LSL, LSR, ROR, and RRX
Arithmetic Shift Right, Logical Shift Left, Logical Shift Right, Rotate Right, and Rotate Right
with Extend.
Syntax
op{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs
op{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, #n
RRX{S}{cond} Rd, Rm
Where:
Note:
•
‘op’ is one of the following:
ASR: Arithmetic Shift Right
LSL: Logical Shift Left
LSR: Logical Shift Right
ROR: Rotate Right
•
‘S’ is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated on the
result of the operation, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rm’ is the register holding the value to be shifted.
•
‘Rs’ is the register holding the shift length to apply to the value Rm. Only the least
significant byte is used and can be in the range 0 to 255.
•
‘n’ is the shift length. The range of shift lengths depends on the instruction as follows:
ASR: Shift length from 1 to 32
LSL: Shift length from 0 to 31
LSR: Shift length from 1 to 32
ROR: Shift length from 1 to 31
MOVS Rd, Rm is the preferred syntax for LSLS Rd, Rm, #0.
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Operation
ASR, LSL, LSR, and ROR move the bits in the Rm register to the left or right by the number
of places specified by constant n or register Rs.
RRX moves the bits in Rm register to the right by 1.
In all these instructions, the result is written to Rd, but the value in Rm register remains
unchanged. For details on what result is generated by the different instructions see Shift
operations on page 61.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
If S is specified:
•
These instructions update the N and Z flags according to the result
•
The C flag is updated to the last bit shifted out, except when the shift length is 0 (see
Shift operations on page 61).
Examples
ASR R7, R8, #9
LSLS R1, R2, #3
LSR R4, R5, #6
ROR R4, R5, R6
RRX R4, R5
3.5.4
;
;
;
;
;
arithmetic shift right by 9 bits
logical shift left by 3 bits with flag update
logical shift right by 6 bits
rotate right by the value in the bottom byte of R6
rotate right with extend
CLZ
Count leading zeros.
Syntax
CLZ{cond} Rd, Rm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rm’ is the operand register.
Operation
The CLZ instruction counts the number of leading zeros in the value in Rm and returns the
result in Rd. The result value is 32 if no bits are set in the source register, and zero if bit[31]
is set.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
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Examples
CLZ R4,R9
CLZNE R2,R3
3.5.5
CMP and CMN
Compare and Compare Negative.
Syntax
CMP{cond} Rn, Operand2
CMN{cond} Rn, Operand2
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the first operand.
•
‘Operand2’ is a flexible second operand (see Flexible second operand on page 59) for
details of the options.
Operation
These instructions compare the value in a register with operand2. They update the condition
flags on the result, but do not write the result to a register.
The CMP instruction subtracts the value of operand2 from the value in Rn. This is the same
as a SUBS instruction, except that the result is discarded.
The CMN instruction adds the value of operand2 to the value in Rn. This is the same as an
ADDS instruction, except that the result is discarded.
Restrictions
In these instructions:
•
Do not use PC.
•
Operand2 must not be SP.
Condition flags
These instructions update the N, Z, C and V flags according to the result.
Examples
CMP R2, R9
CMN R0, #6400
CMPGT SP, R7, LSL #2
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MOV and MVN
Move and Move NOT.
Syntax
MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Operand2
MOV{cond} Rd, #imm16
MVN{S}{cond} Rd, Operand2
Where:
•
‘S’ is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated on the
result of the operation (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Operand2’ is a flexible second operand (see Flexible second operand on page 59) for
details of the options.
•
‘imm16’ is any value in the range 0—65535.
Operation
The MOV instruction copies the value of operand2 into Rd.
When operand2 in a MOV instruction is a register with a shift other than LSL #0, the
preferred syntax is the corresponding shift instruction:
•
ASR{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, #n is the preferred syntax for MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, ASR #n
•
LSL{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, #n is the preferred syntax for MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, LSL #n if n
!= 0
•
LSR{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, #n is the preferred syntax for MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, LSR #n
•
ROR{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, #n is the preferred syntax for MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, ROR #n
•
RRX{S}{cond} Rd, Rm is the preferred syntax for MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, RRX
Also, the MOV instruction permits additional forms of operand2 as synonyms for shift
instructions:
•
MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, ASR Rs is a synonym for ASR{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs
•
MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, LSL Rs is a synonym for LSL{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs
•
MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, LSR Rs is a synonym for LSR{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs
•
MOV{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, ROR Rs is a synonym for ROR{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs
See ASR, LSL, LSR, ROR, and RRX on page 85.
The MVN instruction takes the value of operand2, performs a bitwise logical NOT operation
on the value, and places the result into Rd.
Note:
88/260
The MOVW instruction provides the same function as MOV, but is restricted to use of the
imm16 operand.
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Restrictions
You can use SP and PC only in the MOV instruction, with the following restrictions:
•
The second operand must be a register without shift
•
You must not specify the S suffix
When Rd is PC in a MOV instruction:
Note:
•
bit[0] of the value written to the PC is ignored
•
A branch occurs to the address created by forcing bit[0] of that value to 0.
Though it is possible to use MOV as a branch instruction, ARM strongly recommends the
use of a BX or BLX instruction to branch for software portability to the ARM instruction set.
Condition flags
If S is specified, these instructions:
•
Update the N and Z flags according to the result
•
Can update the C flag during the calculation of operand2 (see Flexible second operand
on page 59).
•
Do not affect the V flag
Example
MOVS R11, #0x000B
MOV R1, #0xFA05
MOVS R10, R12
MOV R3, #23
MOV R8, SP
MVNS R2, #0xF
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
write value of 0x000B to R11, flags get updated
write value of 0xFA05 to R1, flags not updated
write value in R12 to R10, flags get updated
write value of 23 to R3
write value of stack pointer to R8
write value of 0xFFFFFFF0 (bitwise inverse of 0xF)
to the R2 and update flags
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MOVT
Move Top.
Syntax
MOVT{cond} Rd, #imm16
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘imm16’ is a 16-bit immediate constant.
Operation
MOVT writes a 16-bit immediate value, imm16, to the top halfword, Rd[31:16], of its
destination register. The write does not affect Rd[15:0].
The MOV, MOVT instruction pair enables you to generate any 32-bit constant.
Restrictions
Rd must be neither SP nor PC.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
MOVT R3, #0xF123
90/260
; write 0xF123 to upper halfword of R3,
; lower halfword and APSR are unchanged
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
REV, REV16, REVSH, and RBIT
Reverse bytes and Reverse bits.
Syntax
op{cond} Rd, Rn
Where:
•
‘op’ is one of the following:
REV: Reverse byte order in a word.
REV16: Reverse byte order in each halfword independently.
REVSH: Reverse byte order in the bottom halfword, and sign extends to 32 bits.
RBIT: Reverse the bit order in a 32-bit word.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the operand.
Operation
Use these instructions to change endianness of data:
•
•
•
REV: Converts either:
–
32-bit big-endian data into little-endian data
–
or 32-bit little-endian data into big-endian data.
REV16: Converts either:
–
16-bit big-endian data into little-endian data
–
or 16-bit little-endian data into big-endian data.
REVSH: Converts either:
–
16-bit signed big-endian data into 32-bit signed little-endian data
–
or 16-bit signed little-endian data into 32-bit signed big-endian data.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
REV R3, R7
REV16 R0, R0
REVSH R0, R5
REVHS R3, R7
RBIT R7, R8
;
;
;
;
;
reverse
reverse
reverse
reverse
reverse
byte order of value in R7 and write it to R3
byte order of each 16-bit halfword in R0
Signed Halfword
with Higher or Same condition
bit order of value in R8 and write result to R7
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3.5.9
PM0214
SADD16 and SADD8
Signed Add 16 and Signed Add 8
Syntax
op{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is any of the following:
SADD16: Performs two 16-bit signed integer additions.
SADD8: Performs four 8-bit signed integer additions.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the operand.
•
‘Rm’ is the second register holding the operand.
Operation
Use these instructions to perform a halfword or byte add in parallel:
The SADD16 instruction:
1.
Adds each halfword from the first operand to the corresponding halfword of the second
operand.
2.
Writes the result in the corresponding halfwords of the destination register.
The SADD8 instruction:
1.
Adds each byte of the first operand to the corresponding byte of the second operand.
2.
Writes the result in the corresponding bytes of the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
SADD16 R1, R0
SADD8
92/260
; Adds the halfwords in R0 to the corresponding halfword
; of R1 and writes to corresponding halfword of R1.
R4, R0, R5 ; Adds bytes of R0 to the corresponding byte in R5 and
; writes to the corresponding byte in R4.
DocID022708 Rev 5
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3.5.10
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SHADD16 and SHADD8
Signed Halving Add 16 and Signed Halving Add 8
Syntax
op{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is any of the following:
SHADD16: Signed halving add 16.
SHADD8: Signed halving add 8.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the operand.
•
‘Rm’ is the second operand register.
Operation
Use these instructions to add 16-bit and 8-bit data and then to halve the result before writing
the result to the destination register:
The SHADD16 instruction:
1.
Adds each halfword from the first operand to the corresponding halfword of the second
operand.
2.
Shuffles the result by one bit to the right, halving the data.
3.
Writes the halfword results in the destination register.
The SHADDB8 instruction:
1.
Adds each byte of the first operand to the corresponding byte of the second operand.
2.
Shuffles the result by one bit to the right, halving the data.
3.
Writes the byte results in the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
SHADD16 R1, R0
SHADD8
;
;
R4, R0, R5 ;
;
Adds halfwords
writes halved
Adds bytes of
writes halved
in R0 to corresponding halfword of R1 &
result to corresponding halfword in R1
R0 to corresponding byte in R5 and
result to corresponding byte in R4.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
3.5.11
PM0214
SHASX and SHSAX
Signed Halving Add and Subtract with Exchange / Signed Halving Subtract and Add with
Exchange.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is any of the following:
SHASX: Add and subtract with exchange and halving.
SHSAX: Subtract and add with exchange and halving.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64):
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register:
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the operand:
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are the registers holding the first and second operands:
Operation
The SHASX instruction:
1.
Adds the top halfword of the first operand to the bottom halfword of second operand.
2.
Writes the halfword result of the addition to the top halfword of the destination register,
shifted by one bit to the right, causing a divide by two, or halving.
3.
Subtracts the top halfword of the second operand from the bottom highword of the first
operand.
4.
Writes the halfword result of the division in the bottom halfword of the destination
register, shifted by one bit to the right, causing a divide by two, or halving.
The SHSAX instruction:
1.
Subtracts the bottom halfword of the second operand from the top highword of the first
operand.
2.
Writes the halfword result of the addition to the bottom halfword of the destination
register, shifted by one bit to the right, causing a divide by two, or halving.
3.
Adds the bottom halfword of the first operand to the top halfword of the second
operand.
4.
Writes the halfword result of the division in the top halfword of the destination register,
shifted by one bit to the right, causing a divide by two, or halving.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
SHASX
94/260
R7, R4, R2 ; Adds top halfword of R4 to bottom halfword of R2
; and writes halved result to top halfword of R7
; Subtracts top halfword of R2 from bottom halfword of
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SHSAX
3.5.12
;
R0, R3, R5 ;
;
;
;
R4 and writes halved result to bottom halfword of R7
Subtracts bottom halfword of R5 from top halfword
of R3 and writes halved result to top halfword of R0
Adds top halfword of R5 to bottom halfword of R3 and
writes halved result to bottom halfword of R0.
SHSUB16 and SHSUB8
Signed Halving Subtract 16 and Signed Halving Subtract 8
Syntax
op{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is any of the following:
SHSUB16: Signed halving subtract 16
SHSUB8: Signed halving subtract 8
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the operand
•
‘Rm’ is the second operand register
Operation
Use these instructions to add 16-bit and 8-bit data and then to halve the result before writing
the result to the destination register:
The SHSUB16 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each halfword of the second operand from the corresponding halfwords of
the first operand.
2.
Shuffles the result by one bit to the right, halving the data.
3.
Writes the halved halfword results in the destination register.
The SHSUBB8 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each byte of the second operand from the corresponding byte of the first
operand,
2.
Shuffles the result by one bit to the right, halving the data,
3.
Writes the corresponding signed byte results in the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
SHSUB16 R1, R0
SHSUB8
R4, R0, R5
; Subtracts halfwords in R0 from corresponding halfword
; of R1 and writes to corresponding halfword of R1
; Subtracts bytes of R0 from corresponding byte in R5,
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
PM0214
; and writes to corresponding byte in R4.
3.5.13
SSUB16 and SSUB8
Signed Subtract 16 and Signed Subtract 8
Syntax
op{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is one of the following:
SSUB16: Performs two 16-bit signed integer subtractions.
SSUB8: Performs four 8-bit signed integer subtractions.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the operand.
•
‘Rm’ is the second operand register.
Operation
Use these instructions to change endianness of data:
The SSUB16 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each halfword from the second operand from the corresponding halfword of
the first operand.
2.
Writes the difference result of two signed halfwords in the corresponding halfword of
the destination register.
The SSUB8 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each byte of the second operand from the corresponding byte of the first
operand.
2.
Writes the difference result of four signed bytes in the corresponding byte of the
destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
SSUB16 R1, R0
SSUB8
96/260
R4, R0, R5
;
;
;
;
Subtracts halfwords in R0 from corresponding halfword
of R1 and writes to corresponding halfword of R1
Subtracts bytes of R5 from corresponding byte in
R0, and writes to corresponding byte of R4.
DocID022708 Rev 5
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3.5.14
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SASX and SSAX
Signed Add and Subtract with Exchange and Signed Subtract and Add with Exchange.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rm, Rn
Where:
•
op is any of the following:
SASX: Signed add and subtract with exchange.
SSAX: Signed subtract and add with exchange.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ ,‘Rm’ are the registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
The SASX instruction:
1.
Adds the signed top halfword of the first operand with to the signed bottom halfword of
the second operand.
2.
Writes the signed result of the addition to the top halfword of the destination register.
3.
Subtracts the signed bottom halfword of the second operand from the top signed
highword of the first operand.
4.
Writes the signed result of the subtraction to the bottom halfword of the destination
register.
The SSAX instruction:
1.
Subtracts the signed bottom halfword of the second operand from the top signed
highword of the first operand.
2.
Writes the signed result of the addition to the bottom halfword of the destination
register.
3.
Adds the signed top halfword of the first operand to the signed bottom halfword of the
second operand.
4.
Writes the signed result of the subtraction to the top halfword of the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
SASX R0, R4, R5
SSAX R7, R3, R2
;
;
;
;
;
;
Adds top halfword of R4 to bottom halfword of R5 and
writes to top halfword of R0
Subtracts bottom halfword of R5 from top halfword of R4
and writes to bottom halfword of R0
Subtracts top halfword of R2 from bottom halfword of R3
and writes to bottom halfword of R7
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
PM0214
; Adds top halfword of R3 with bottom halfword of R2 and
; writes to top halfword of R7.
3.5.15
TST and TEQ
Test bits and Test Equivalence.
Syntax
TST{cond} Rn, Operand2
TEQ{cond} Rn, Operand2
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the first operand.
•
‘Operand2’ is a flexible second operand (see Flexible second operand on page 59) for
details of the options.
Operation
These instructions test the value in a register against operand2. They update the condition
flags based on the result, but do not write the result to a register.
The TST instruction performs a bitwise AND operation on the value in Rn and the value of
operand2. This is the same as the ANDS instruction, except that it discards the result.
To test whether a bit of Rn is 0 or 1, use the TST instruction with an operand2 constant that
has that bit set to 1 and all other bits cleared to 0.
The TEQ instruction performs a bitwise exclusive OR operation on the value in Rn and the
value of operand2. This is the same as the EORS instruction, except that it discards the
result.
Use the TEQ instruction to test if two values are equal without affecting the V or C flags.
TEQ is also useful for testing the sign of a value. After the comparison, the N flag is the
logical exclusive OR of the sign bits of the two operands.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
These instructions:
•
Update the N and Z flags according to the result
•
Can update the C flag during the calculation of operand2 (see Flexible second operand
on page 59).
•
Do not affect the V flag
Examples
TST R0, #0x3F8
TEQEQ R10, R9
98/260
;
;
;
;
perform bitwise AND of R0 value to 0x3F8,
APSR is updated but result is discarded
conditionally test if value in R10 is equal to
value in R9, APSR is updated but result is discarded
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3.5.16
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
UADD16 and UADD8
Unsigned Add 16 and Unsigned Add 8
Syntax
op{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is one of the following:
UADD16: Performs two 16-bit unsigned integer additions.
UADD8: Performs four 8-bit unsigned integer additions.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the first register holding the operand.
•
‘Rm’ is the second register holding the operand.
Operation
Use these instructions to add 16- and 8-bit unsigned data:
The UADD16 instruction:
1.
Adds each halfword from the first operand to the corresponding halfword of the second
operand.
2.
Writes the unsigned result in the corresponding halfwords of the destination register.
The UADD16 instruction:
1.
Adds each byte of the first operand to the corresponding byte of the second operand.
2.
Writes the unsigned result in the corresponding byte of the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
UADD16 R1, R0
UADD8
R4, R0, R5
;
;
;
;
Adds halfwords in R0 to corresponding halfword of R1,
writes to corresponding halfword of R1
Adds bytes of R0 to corresponding byte in R5 and writes
to corresponding byte in R4.
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3.5.17
PM0214
UASX and USAX
Add and Subtract with Exchange and Subtract and Add with Exchange.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is one of:
UASX: Add and subtract with exchange.
USAX: Subtract and add with exchange.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ ‘Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
The UASX instruction:
1.
Subtracts the top halfword of the second operand from the bottom halfword of the first
operand.
2.
Writes the unsigned result from the subtraction to the bottom halfword of the
destination register.
3.
Adds the top halfword of the first operand with bottom halfword of the second operand.
4.
Writes the unsigned result of the addition to the top halfword of the destination register.
The USAX instruction:
1.
Adds the bottom halfword of the first operand to the top halfword of the second
operand.
2.
Writes the unsigned result of the addition to the bottom halfword of the destination
register.
3.
Subtracts the bottom halfword of the second operand from the top halfword of the first
operand.
4.
Writes the unsigned result from the subtraction to the top halfword of the destination
register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
UASX R0, R4, R5
USAX R7, R3, R2
100/260
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Adds top halfword of R4 to bottom halfword of R5 and
writes to top halfword of R0
Subtracts bottom halfword of R5 from top halfword of R0
and writes to bottom halfword of R0
Subtracts top halfword of R2 from bottom halfword of R3
and writes to bottom halfword of R7
Adds top halfword of R3 to bottom halfword of R2 and
DocID022708 Rev 5
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
; writes to top halfword of R7.
3.5.18
UHADD16 and UHADD8
Unsigned Halving Add 16 and Unsigned Halving Add 8
Syntax
op{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is any of the following:
UHADD16: Unsigned halving add 16.
UHADD8: Unsigned halving add 8.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the first operand.
•
‘Rm’ is the register holding the second operand.
Operation
Use these instructions to add 16- and 8-bit data and then to halve the result before writing
the result to the destination register:
The UHADD16 instruction:
1.
Adds each halfword from the first operand to the corresponding halfword of the second
operand.
2.
Shuffles the halfword result by one bit to the right, halving the data.
3.
Writes the unsigned results to the corresponding halfword in the destination register.
The UHADD8 instruction:
1.
Adds each byte of the first operand to the corresponding byte of the second operand.
2.
Shuffles the byte result by one bit to the right, halving the data.
3.
Writes the unsigned results in the corresponding byte in the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
UHADD16 R7, R3
UHADD8
;
;
R4, R0, R5 ;
;
Adds halfwords in R7 to corresponding halfword of R3 &
writes halved result to corresponding halfword in R7
Adds bytes of R0 to corresponding byte in R5 and writes
halved result to corresponding byte in R4.
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3.5.19
PM0214
UHASX and UHSAX
Unsigned Halving Add and Subtract with Exchange and Unsigned Halving Subtract and Add
with Exchange.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is one of the following:
UHASX: Add and subtract with exchange and halving.
UHSAX: Subtract and add with exchange and halving.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ ‘Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
The UHASX instruction:
1.
Adds the top halfword of the first operand to the bottom halfword of second operand.
2.
Shifts the result by one bit to the right, causing a divide by two, or halving.
3.
Writes the halfword result of the addition to the top halfword of the destination register.
4.
Subtracts top halfword of second operand from bottom highword of the first operand.
5.
Shifts the result by one bit to the right, causing a divide by two, or halving.
6.
Writes halfword result of the division in the bottom halfword of the destination register.
The UHSAX instruction:
1.
Subtracts the bottom halfword of the second operand from the top highword of the first
operand.
2.
Shifts the result by one bit to the right, causing a divide by two, or halving.
3.
Writes halfword result of the subtraction in the top halfword of the destination register.
4.
Adds the bottom halfword of the first operand to the top halfword of the second
operand.
5.
Shifts the result by one bit to the right, causing a divide by two, or halving.
6.
Writes halfword result of the addition to the bottom halfword of the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
UHASX
102/260
R7, R4, R2
;
;
;
;
Adds top halfword of R4 with bottom halfword of R2
and writes halved result to top halfword of R7
Subtracts top halfword of R2 from bottom halfword of
R7 and writes halved result to bottom halfword of R7
DocID022708 Rev 5
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
UHSAX
3.5.20
R0, R3, R5
;
;
;
;
Subtracts bottom halfword of R5 from top halfword of
R3 and writes halved result to top halfword of R0
Adds top halfword of R5 to bottom halfword of R3 and
writes halved result to bottom halfword of R0.
UHSUB16 and UHSUB8
Unsigned Halving Subtract 16 and Unsigned Halving Subtract 8
Syntax
op{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is any of the following:
UHSUB16: Performs two unsigned 16-bit integer additions, halves the results, and
writes the results to the destination register.
UHSUB8: Performs four unsigned 8-bit integer additions, halves the results, and writes
the results to the destination register.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the first register holding the operand.
•
‘Rm’ is the second register holding the operand.
Operation
Use these instructions to add 16-bit and 8-bit data and then to halve the result before writing
the result to the destination register:
The UHSUB16 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each halfword of the second operand from the corresponding halfword of the
first operand.
2.
Shuffles each halfword result to the right by one bit, halving the data.
3.
Writes each unsigned halfword result to corresponding halfword in destination register.
The UHSUB8 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each byte of second operand from the corresponding byte of the first
operand.
2.
Shuffles each byte result by one bit to the right, halving the data.
3.
Writes the unsigned byte results to the corresponding byte of the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
UHSUB16 R1, R0
; Subtracts halfwords in R0 from corresponding R1 halfword
; and writes halved result to corresponding halfword in R1
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
UHSUB8
3.5.21
PM0214
R4, R0, R5 ; Subtracts bytes of R5 from corresponding byte in R0 and
; writes halved result to corresponding byte in R4.
SEL
Select bytes. Selects each byte of its result from either its first operand or its second
operand, according to the values of the GE flags.
Syntax
SEL{<c>}{<q>} {<Rd>,} <Rn>, <Rm>
Where:
•
<c>, <q> are standard assembler syntax fields.
•
<Rd> is the destination register.
•
<Rn> is the first operand register.
•
<Rm> is the second operand register.
Operation
The SEL instruction:
1.
Reads the value of each bit of APSR.GE.
2.
Assigns the destination register the value of either the first or second operand register,
depending on the value of APSR.GE.
Restrictions
None.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
SADD16 R0, R1, R2
SEL R0, R0, R3
104/260
; Set GE bits based on result
; Select bytes from R0 or R3, based on GE.
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3.5.22
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
USAD8
Unsigned Sum of Absolute Differences
Syntax
USAD8{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the first operand register.
•
‘Rm’ is the second operand register.
Operation
The USAD8 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each byte of the second operand register from the corresponding byte of the
first operand register.
2.
Adds the absolute values of the differences together.
3.
Writes the result to the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
USAD8 R1, R4, R0
USAD8
R0, R5
; Subtracts each byte in R0 from corresponding byte of
; R4 adds the differences and writes to R1
; Subtracts bytes of R5 from corresponding byte in R0,
; adds the differences and writes to R0.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
3.5.23
PM0214
USADA8
Unsigned Sum of Absolute Differences and Accumulate
Syntax
USADA8{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm, Ra
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the first operand register.
•
‘Rm’ is the second operand register.
•
‘Ra’ is the register that contains the accumulation value.
Operation
The USADA8 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each byte of the second operand register from the corresponding byte of the
first operand register.
2.
Adds the unsigned absolute differences together.
3.
Adds the accumulation value to the sum of the absolute differences.
4.
Writes the result to the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
USADA8 R1, R0, R6 ; Subtracts bytes in R0 from corresponding halfword of R1
; adds differences, adds value of R6, writes to R1
USADA8 R4, R0, R5, R2 ; Subtracts bytes of R5 from corresponding byte in R0
; adds differences, adds value of R2 writes to R4.
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3.5.24
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
USUB16 and USUB8
Unsigned Subtract 16 and Unsigned Subtract 8
Syntax
op{cond}{Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is any of:
USUB16: Unsigned Subtract 16.
USUB8: Unsigned Subtract 8.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the operand
•
‘Rm’ is the second operand register
Operation
Use these instructions to subtract 16-bit and 8-bit data before writing the result to the
destination register:
The USUB16 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each halfword from the second operand register from the corresponding
halfword of the first operand register.
2.
Writes the unsigned result in the corresponding halfwords of the destination register.
The USUB8 instruction:
1.
Subtracts each byte of the second operand register from the corresponding byte of the
first operand register.
2.
Writes the unsigned byte result in the corresponding byte of the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
USUB16 R1, R0
USUB8
; Subtracts halfwords in R0 from corresponding halfword of
; R1 and writes to corresponding halfword in R1
R4, R0, R5 ; Subtracts bytes of R5 from corresponding byte in R0 and
; writes to the corresponding byte in R4.
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Multiply and divide instructions
Table 28 shows the multiply and divide instructions.
Table 28. Multiply and divide instructions
Mnemonic
Brief description
See
MLA
Multiply with Accumulate, 32-bit result
MUL, MLA, and MLS on page 109
MLS
Multiply and Subtract, 32-bit result
MUL, MLA, and MLS on page 109
MUL
Multiply, 32-bit result
MUL, MLA, and MLS on page 109
SDIV
Signed Divide
SDIV and UDIV on page 123
SMLA[B,T]
Signed Multiply Accumulate (halfwords)
SMLA and SMLAW on page 111
SMLAD, SMLADX
Signed Multiply Accumulate dual
SMLAD on page 113
SMLAL
Signed Multiply with Accumulate (32x32+64), 64-bit
result
SMLAL and SMLALD on page 114
SMLAL[B,T]
Signed Multiply Accumulate Long (halfwords)
SMLAL and SMLALD on page 114
SMLALD, SMLALDX
Signed Multiply Accumulate Long Dual
SMLAL and SMLALD on page 114
SMLAW[B|T]
Signed Multiply Accumulate (word by halfword)
SMLA and SMLAW on page 111
SMLSD
Signed Multiply Subtract Dual
SMLSD and SMLSLD on page 116
SMLSLD
Signed Multiply Subtract Long Dual
SMLSD and SMLSLD on page 116
SMMLA
Signed Most Significant Word Multiply Accumulate
SMMLA and SMMLS on page 118
SMMLS, SMMLSR
Signed Most Significant Word Multiply Subtract
SMMLA and SMMLS on page 118
SMUAD, SMUADX
Signed dual multiply add
SMUAD and SMUSD on page 120
SMUL[B,T]
Signed multiply (word by halfword)
SMUL and SMULW on page 121
SMMUL, SMMULR
Signed most significant word multiply
SMMUL on page 119
SMULL
Signed multiply (32x32), 64-bit result
SMMUL on page 119
SMULWB, SMULWT Signed multiply (word by halfword)
SMUL and SMULW on page 121
SMUSD, SMUSDX
Signed dual multiply subtract
SMUAD and SMUSD on page 120
UDIV
Unsigned Divide
SMLA and SMLAW on page 111
UMAAL
Unsigned Multiply Accumulate Accumulate Long
(32x32+32+32), 64-bit result
UMULL, UMAAL and UMLAL on
page 110
UMLAL
Unsigned Multiply with Accumulate (32x32+64), 64-bit UMULL, UMAAL and UMLAL on
result
page 110
UMULL
Unsigned Multiply (32x32), 64-bit result
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UMULL, UMAAL and UMLAL on
page 110
PM0214
3.6.1
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
MUL, MLA, and MLS
Multiply, Multiply with Accumulate, and Multiply with Subtract, using 32-bit operands, and
producing a 32-bit result.
Syntax
MUL{S}{cond} {Rd,} Rn, Rm ; Multiply
MLA{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra ; Multiply with accumulate
MLS{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra ; Multiply with subtract
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘S’ is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition code flags are updated on the
result of the operation (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register. If Rd is omitted, the destination register is Rn.
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are registers holding the values to be multiplied.
•
‘Ra’ is a register holding the value to be added to or subtracted from.
Operation
The MUL instruction multiplies the values from Rn and Rm, and places the least significant
32 bits of the result in Rd.
The MLA instruction multiplies the values from Rn and Rm, adds the value from Ra, and
places the least significant 32 bits of the result in Rd.
The MLS instruction multiplies the values from Rn and Rm, subtracts the product from the
value from Ra, and places the least significant 32 bits of the result in Rd.
The results do not depend on whether the operands are signed or unsigned.
Restrictions
In these instructions, do not use either SP or PC.
If you use the S suffix with the MUL instruction:
•
Rd, Rn, and Rm must all be in the range R0 to R7
•
Rd must be the same as Rm
•
You must not use the cond suffix
Condition flags
If S is specified, the MUL instruction:
•
Updates the N and Z flags according to the result.
•
Does not affect the C and V flags.
Examples
MUL R10, R2, R5
MLA R10, R2, R1, R5
MULS R0, R2, R2
MULLT R2, R3, R2
MLS R4, R5, R6, R7
;
;
;
;
;
multiply, R10
multiply with
multiply with
conditionally
multiply with
DocID022708 Rev 5
= R2 x R5
accumulate, R10 =
flag update, R0 =
multiply, R2 = R3
subtract, R4 = R7
(R2 x R1) + R5
R2 x R2
x R2
- (R5 x R6)
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
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PM0214
UMULL, UMAAL and UMLAL
Unsigned Long Multiply, with Optional Accumulate, 32-bit operands, producing a 64-bit
result.
Syntax
op{cond} RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
‘op’ is one of the following:
UMULL: Unsigned long multiply.
UMAAL: Unsigned long multiply, with accumulate accumulate.
UMLAL: Unsigned long multiply, with accumulate
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘RdHi, RdLo’ are the destination registers. They also hold the accumulating value.
•
‘Rn, Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
The UMULL instruction:
1.
Multiplies the two unsigned integers in the first and second operands.
2.
Writes the least significant 32 bits of the result in RdLo.
3.
Writes the most significant 32 bits of the result in RdHi.
The UMAAL instruction:
1.
Multiplies the two unsigned 32-bit integers in the first and second operands.
2.
Adds the unsigned 32-bit integer in RdHi to the 64-bit result of the multiplication.
3.
Adds the unsigned 32-bit integer in RdLo to the 64-bit result of the addition.
4.
Writes the top 32-bits of the result to RdHi.
5.
Writes the lower 32-bits of the result to RdLo.
The UMLAL instruction:
1.
Multiplies the two unsigned integers in the first and second operands.
2.
Adds the 64-bit result to the 64-bit unsigned integer contained in RdHi and RdLo.
3.
Writes the result back to RdHi and RdLo.
Restrictions
In these instructions:
•
Do not use either SP or PC.
•
RdHi and RdLo must be different registers.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
110/260
UMULL
R0, R4, R5, R6
UMAAL
R3, R6, R2, R7
; Multiplies R5 and R6, writes the top 32 bits to R4
; and the bottom 32 bits to R0
; Multiplies R2 and R7, adds R6, adds R3, writes the
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
UMLAL
3.6.3
R2, R1, R3, R5
; top 32 bits to R6, and the bottom 32 bits to R3
; Multiplies R5 and R3, adds R1:R2, writes to R1:R2.
SMLA and SMLAW
Signed Multiply Accumulate (halfwords).
Syntax
op{XY}{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm
op{Y}{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Where
•
op is one of the following:
SMLA: Signed multiply accumulate long (halfwords). X and Y specifies which half of the
source registers Rn and Rm are used as the first and second multiply operand.
–
If X is B, then the bottom halfword, bits [15:0], of Rn is used.
–
If X is T, then the top halfword, bits [31:16], of Rn is used.
–
If Y is B, then the bottom halfword, bits [15:0], of Rm is used.
–
If Y is T, then the top halfword, bits [31:16], of Rm is used.
SMLAW: Signed multiply accumulate (word by halfword). Y specifies which half of the
source Rm register is used as the second multiply operand.
–
If Y is T, then the top halfword, bits [31:16] of Rm is used.
–
If Y is B, then the bottom halfword, bits [15:0] of Rm is used.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register. If Rd is omitted, the destination register is Rn.
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are registers holding the values to be multiplied.
•
‘Ra’ is a register holding the value to be added to or subtracted from.
Operation
The SMALBB, SMLABT, SMLATB, SMLATT instructions:
1.
Multiply the specified signed halfword, top or bottom, values from Rn and Rm.
2.
Add the value in Ra to the resulting 32-bit product.
3.
Write the result of the multiplication and addition in Rd.
4.
The non-specified halfwords of the source registers are ignored.
The SMLAWB and SMLAWT instructions:
1.
Multiply the 32-bit signed values in Rn with:
a)
The top signed halfword of Rm, T instruction suffix.
b)
The bottom signed halfword of Rm, B instruction suffix.
2.
Add the 32-bit signed value in Ra to the top 32 bits of the 48-bit product.
3.
Write the result of the multiplication and addition in Rd.
4.
The bottom 16 bits of the 48-bit product are ignored.
5.
If overflow occurs during the addition of the accumulate value, the instruction sets the
Q flag in the APSR. No overflow can occur during the multiplication.
Restrictions
In these instructions, do not use SP or PC.
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Condition flags
If an overflow is detected, the Q flag is set.
Examples
SMLABB
SMLATB
SMLATT
SMLABT
SMLABT
SMLAWB
SMLAWT
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R5, R6, R4, R1 ; Multiplies bottom halfwords of R6 and R4, adds
; R1 and writes to R5
R5, R6, R4, R1 ; Multiplies top halfword of R6 with bottom halfword
; of R4, adds R1 and writes to R5
R5, R6, R4, R1 ; Multiplies top halfwords of R6 and R4, adds
; R1 and writes the sum to R5
R5, R6, R4, R1 ; Multiplies bottom halfword of R6 with top halfword
; of R4, adds R1 and writes to R5
R4, R3, R2
; Multiplies bottom halfword of R4 with top halfword
; of R3, adds R2 and writes to R4
R10, R2, R5, R3 ; Multiplies R2 with bottom halfword of R5, adds
; R3 to the result and writes top 32-bits to R10
R10, R2, R1, R5 ; Multiplies R2 with top halfword of R1, adds R5
; and writes top 32-bits to R10.
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3.6.4
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SMLAD
Signed Multiply Accumulate Long Dual
Syntax
op{X}{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
;
Where:
•
op is one of the following:
SMLAD: Signed multiply accumulate dual.
SMLADX: Signed multiply accumulate dual reverse. X specifies which halfword of the
source register Rn is used as the multiply operand.
If X is omitted, the multiplications are bottom × bottom and top × top.
If X is present, the multiplications are bottom × top and top × bottom.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the first operand register holding the values to be multiplied.
•
‘Rm’ is the second operand register.
•
‘Ra’ is the accumulate value.
Operation
The SMLAD and SMLADX instructions regard the two operands as four halfword 16-bit
values. The SMLAD and SMLADX instructions:
1.
Either:
a)
If X is not present, multiply the top signed halfword value in Rn with the top signed
halfword of Rm and the bottom signed halfword values in Rn with the bottom
signed halfword of Rm.
b)
If X is present, multiply the top signed halfword value in Rn with the bottom signed
halfword of Rm and the bottom signed halfword values in Rn with the top signed
halfword of Rm.
2.
Add both multiplication results to the signed 32-bit value in Ra.
3.
Write the 32-bit signed result of the multiplication and addition to Rd.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
SMLAD
R10, R2, R1, R5 ; Multiplies two halfword values in R2 with
; corresponding halfwords in R1, adds R5 and writes
; to R10
SMLALDX R0, R2, R4, R6 ; Multiplies top halfword of R2 with bottom halfword
; of R4, multiplies bottom halfword of R2 with top
; halfword of R4, adds R6 and writes to R0.
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SMLAL and SMLALD
Signed Multiply Accumulate Long, Signed Multiply Accumulate Long (halfwords) and Signed
Multiply Accumulate Long Dual.
Syntax
op{cond} RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
op{XY}{cond} RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
op{X}{cond} RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is one of the following:
–
SMLAL: Signed multiply accumulate long.
–
SMLAL: Signed multiply accumulate long (halfwords, X and Y). X and Y specify
which halfword of the source registers Rn and Rm are used as the first and
second multiply operand:
If X is B, then the bottom halfword, bits [15:0], of Rn is used.
If X is T, then the top halfword, bits [31:16], of Rn is used.
If Y is B, then the bottom halfword, bits [15:0], of Rm is used.
If Y is T, then the top halfword, bits [31:16], of Rm is used.
–
SMLALD: Signed multiply accumulate long Dual.
–
SMLALDX: Signed multiply accumulate long dual reversed:
If the X is omitted, the multiplications are bottom × bottom and top × top.
If X is present, the multiplications are bottom × top and top × bottom.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘RdHi, RdLo’ are the destination registers. RdLo is the lower 32 bits and RdHi is the
upper 32 bits of the 64-bit integer. For SMLAL, SMLALBB, SMLALBT, SMLALTB,
SMLALTT, SMLALD and SMLALDX, they also hold the accumulating value.
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands
Operation
The SMLAL instruction:
1.
Multiplies the two’s complement signed word values from Rn and Rm.
2.
Adds the 64-bit value in RdLo and RdHi to the resulting 64-bit product.
3.
Writes the 64-bit result of the multiplication and addition in RdLo and RdHi.
The SMLALBB, SMLALBT, SMLALTB and SMLALTT instructions:
1.
Multiplies the specified signed halfword, top or bottom, values from Rn and Rm.
2.
Adds the resulting sign-extended 32-bit product to the 64-bit value in RdLo and RdHi.
3.
Writes the 64-bit result of the multiplication and addition in RdLo and RdHi.
The non-specified halfwords of the source registers are ignored.
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The SMLALD and SMLALDX instructions interpret the values from Rn and Rm as four
halfword two’s complement signed 16-bit integers. These instructions:
•
If X is not present, multiply the top signed halfword value of Rn with the top signed
halfword of Rm and the bottom signed halfword values of Rn with the bottom signed
halfword of Rm.
•
Or if X is present, multiply the top signed halfword value of Rn with the bottom signed
halfword of Rm and the bottom signed halfword values of Rn with the top signed
halfword of Rm.
•
Add the two multiplication results to the signed 64-bit value in RdLo and RdHi to create
the resulting 64-bit product.
•
Write the 64-bit product in RdLo and RdHi.
Restrictions
In these instructions:
Do not use either SP or PC.
RdHi and RdLo must be different registers.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
SMLAL
R4, R5, R3, R8
SMLALBT R2, R1, R6, R7
SMLALTB R2, R1, R6, R7
SMLALD
R6, R8, R5, R1
SMLALDX R6, R8, R5, R1
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Multiplies R3 and R8, adds R5:R4 and writes to
R5:R4
Multiplies bottom halfword of R6 with top
halfword of R7, sign extends to 32-bit, adds
R1:R2 and writes to R1:R2
Multiplies top halfword of R6 with bottom
halfword of R7,sign extends to 32-bit, adds R1:R2
and writes to R1:R2
Multiplies top halfwords in R5 and R1 and bottom
halfwords of R5 and R1, adds R8:R6 and writes to
R8:R6
Multiplies top halfword in R5 with bottom
halfword of R1, and bottom halfword of R5 with
top halfword of R1, adds R8:R6 and writes to
R8:R6.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
3.6.6
PM0214
SMLSD and SMLSLD
Signed Multiply Subtract Dual and Signed Multiply Subtract Long Dual
Syntax
op{X}{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Where:
•
op is one of:
SMLSD: Signed multiply subtract dual.
SMLSDX: Signed multiply subtract dual reversed
SMLSLD: Signed multiply subtract long dual.
SMLSLDX: Signed multiply subtract long dual reversed.
–
If X is present, the multiplications are bottom × top and top × bottom.
–
If the X is omitted, the multiplications are bottom × bottom and top × top.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands
•
‘Ra’ is the register holding the accumulate value
Operation
The SMLSD instruction interprets the values from the first and second operands as four
signed halfwords. This instruction:
1.
Optionally rotates the halfwords of the second operand.
2.
Performs two signed 16 × 16-bit halfword multiplications.
3.
Subtracts the result of the upper halfword multiplication from the result of the lower
halfword multiplication.
4.
Adds the signed accumulate value to the result of the subtraction.
5.
Writes the result of the addition to the destination register.
The SMLSLD instruction interprets the values from Rn and Rm as four signed halfwords.
This instruction:
1.
Optionally rotates the halfwords of the second operand.
2.
Performs two signed 16 × 16-bit halfword multiplications.
3.
Subtracts the result of the upper halfword multiplication from the result of the lower
halfword multiplication.
4.
Adds the 64-bit value in RdHi and RdLo to the result of the subtraction.
5.
Writes the 64-bit result of the addition to the RdHi and RdLo.
Restrictions
In these instructions: Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
This instruction sets the Q flag if the accumulate operation overflows. Overflow cannot occur
during the multiplications or subtraction.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
For the Thumb instruction set, these instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
SMLS
R0, R4, R5, R6
SMLSDX
R1, R3, R2, R0
SMLSLD
R3, R6, R2, R7
SMLSLDX R3, R6, R2, R7
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Multiplies bottom halfword of R4 with bottom
halfword of R5, multiplies top halfword of R4
with top halfword of R5, subtracts second from
first, adds R6, writes to R0
Multiplies bottom halfword of R3 with top
halfword of R2, multiplies top halfword of R3
with bottom halfword of R2, subtracts second from
first, adds R0, writes to R1
Multiplies bottom halfword of R6 with bottom
halfword of R2, multiplies top halfword of R6
with top halfword of R2, subtracts second from
first, adds R6:R3, writes to R6:R3
Multiplies bottom halfword of R6 with top
halfword of R2, multiplies top halfword of R6
with bottom halfword of R2, subtracts second from
first, adds R6:R3, writes to R6:R3.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
3.6.7
PM0214
SMMLA and SMMLS
Signed Most Significant Word Multiply Accumulate and Signed Most Significant Word
Multiply Subtract.
Syntax
op{R}{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm, Ra
Where:
•
op is one of the following:
SMMLA: Signed most significant word multiply accumulate.
SMMLS: Signed most significant word multiply subtract.
•
R is a rounding error flag. If R is specified, the result is rounded instead of being
truncated, 0x80000000 is added to the product before the high word is extracted.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are registers holding the first and second multiply operands
•
‘Ra’ is the register holding the accumulate value
Operation
The SMMLA instruction interprets the values from Rn and Rm as signed 32-bit words:
1.
Multiplies the values in Rn and Rm.
2.
Optionally rounds the result by adding 0x80000000.
3.
Extracts the most significant 32 bits of the result.
4.
Adds the value of Ra to the signed extracted value.
5.
Writes the result of the addition in Rd.
The SMMLS instruction interprets the values from Rn and Rm as signed 32-bit words:
1.
Multiplies the values in Rn and Rm.
2.
Optionally rounds the result by adding 0x80000000.
3.
Extracts the most significant 32 bits of the result.
4.
Subtracts the extracted value of the result from the value in Ra.
5.
Writes the result of the subtraction in Rd.
Restrictions
In these instructions: Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
118/260
SMMLA
R0, R4, R5, R6
SMMLAR
R6, R2, R1, R4
SMMLSR
R3, R6, R2, R7
;
;
;
;
;
;
Multiplies R4 and R5, extracts top 32 bits,
adds R6, truncates and writes to R0
Multiplies R2 and R1, extracts top 32 bits,
adds R4, rounds and writes to R6
Multiplies R6 and R2, extracts top 32 bits,
subtracts R7, rounds and writes to R3
DocID022708 Rev 5
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SMMLS
3.6.8
R4, R5, R3, R8
; Multiplies R5 and R3, extracts top 32 bits,
; subtracts R8, truncates and writes to R4.
SMMUL
Signed most significant word multiply
Syntax
op{R}{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is one of the following:
SMMUL: Signed most significant word multiply.
R: a rounding error flag. If R is specified, the result is rounded instead of being
truncated. In this case the constant 0x80000000 is added to the product before the high
word is extracted.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
The SMMUL instruction interprets the values from Rn and Rm as two’s complement 32-bit
signed integers. The SMMUL instruction:
1.
Multiplies the values from Rn and Rm.
2.
Optionally rounds the result, otherwise truncates the result.
3.
Writes the most significant signed 32 bits of the result in Rd.
Restrictions
In this instruction: Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
This instruction does not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
SMULL
R0, R4, R5
SMULLR
R6, R2
;
;
;
;
Multiplies
and writes
Multiplies
and writes
R4
to
R6
to
and R5, truncates top 32 bits
R0
and R2, rounds the top 32 bits
R6.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
3.6.9
PM0214
SMUAD and SMUSD
Signed Dual Multiply Add and Signed Dual Multiply Subtract
Syntax
op{X}{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op is one of:
SMUAD: Signed dual multiply add.
SMUADX: Signed dual multiply add reversed.
SMUSD: Signed dual multiply subtract.
SMUSDX: Signed dual multiply subtract reversed.
–
If X is present, the multiplications are bottom × top and top × bottom.
If the X is omitted, the multiplications are bottom × bottom and top × top.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands
Operation
SMUAD interprets first and second operand values as two signed halfwords:
1.
Optionally rotates the halfwords of the second operand.
2.
Performs two signed 16 × 16-bit multiplications.
3.
Adds the two multiplication results together.
4.
Writes the result of the addition to the destination register.
SMUSD interprets the values from the first and second operands as two’s complement
signed integers:
1.
Optionally rotates the halfwords of the second operand.
2.
Performs two signed 16 × 16-bit multiplications.
3.
Subtracts the result of the top halfword multiplication from the result of the bottom
halfword multiplication.
4.
Writes the result of the subtraction to the destination register.
Restrictions
In these instructions: Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
Sets the Q flag if the addition overflows. The multiplications cannot overflow.
Examples
SMUAD
SMUADX
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R0, R4, R5 ;
;
;
R3, R7, R4 ;
;
;
Multiplies bottom halfword of R4 with the bottom
halfword of R5, adds multiplication of top halfword
of R4 with top halfword of R5, writes to R0
Multiplies bottom halfword of R7 with top halfword
of R4, adds multiplication of top halfword of R7
with bottom halfword of R4, writes to R3
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SMUSD
SMUSDX
3.6.10
R3, R6, R2 ;
;
;
R4, R5, R3 ;
;
;
Multiplies bottom halfword of R4 with bottom halfword
of R6, subtracts multiplication of top halfword of R6
with top halfword of R3, writes to R3
Multiplies bottom halfword of R5 with top halfword of
R3, subtracts multiplication of top halfword of R5
with bottom halfword of R3, writes to R4.
SMUL and SMULW
Signed Multiply (halfwords) and Signed Multiply (word by halfword)
Syntax
op{XY}{cond} Rd, Rn, Rm
op{Y}{cond} Rd. Rn, Rm
•
op is one of:
SMUL{XY} Signed multiply (halfwords). X and Y specify which halfword of the source
registers Rn and Rm is used as the first and second multiply operand.
If X is B, then the bottom halfword, bits [15:0] of Rn is used.
If X is T, then the top halfword, bits [31:16] of Rn is used.
If Y is B, then the bottom halfword, bits [15:0], of Rm is used.
If Y is T, then the top halfword, bits [31:16], of Rm is used.
SMULW{Y} Signed multiply (word by halfword). Y specifies which halfword of the
source Rm register is used as the second multiply operand.
If Y is B, then the bottom halfword (bits [15:0]) of Rm is used.
If Y is T, then the top halfword (bits [31:16]) of Rm is used.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands
Operation
The SMULBB, SMULTB, SMULBT and SMULTT instructions interprets the values from Rn
and Rm as four signed 16-bit integers. These instructions:
1.
Multiply the specified signed halfword, top or bottom, values from Rn and Rm.
2.
Write the 32-bit result of the multiplication in Rd.
The SMULWT and SMULWB instructions interprets the values from Rn as a 32-bit signed
integer and Rm as two halfword 16-bit signed integers. These instructions:
1.
Multiply the first operand and the top, T suffix, or the bottom, B suffix, halfword of the
second operand.
2.
Write the 32 signed most significant bits of the 48-bit result in the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or PC.
Examples
SMULBT
R0, R4, R5 ; Multiplies the bottom halfword of R4 with the top
; halfword of R5, multiplies results and writes to R0
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SMULBB
SMULTT
SMULTB
SMULWT
SMULWB
3.6.11
R0, R4, R5 ;
;
R0, R4, R5 ;
;
R0, R4, R5 ;
;
R4, R5, R3 ;
;
R4, R5, R3 ;
;
PM0214
Multiplies the bottom halfword of R4 with the bottom
halfword of R5, multiplies results and writes to R0
Multiplies the top halfword of R4 with the top
halfword of R5, multiplies results and writes to R0
Multiplies the top halfword of R4 with the bottom
halfword of R5, multiplies results and writes to R0
Multiplies R5 with the top halfword of R3,
extracts top 32 bits and writes to R4
Multiplies R5 with the bottom halfword of R3,
extracts top 32 bits and writes to R4.
UMULL, UMLAL, SMULL, and SMLAL
Signed and Unsigned Long Multiply, with optional Accumulate, using 32-bit operands and
producing a 64-bit result.
Syntax
op{cond} RdLo, RdHi, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
UMULL: Unsigned long multiply.
UMLAL: Unsigned long multiply, with accumulate.
SMULL: Signed long multiply.
SMLAL: Signed long multiply, with accumulate.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘RdHi, RdLo’ are the destination registers. For UMLAL and SMLAL they also hold the
accumulating value.
•
‘Rn’, ‘Rm’ are registers holding the operands
Operation
The UMULL instruction interprets the values from Rn and Rm as unsigned integers. It
multiplies these integers and places the least significant 32 bits of the result in RdLo, and
the most significant 32 bits of the result in RdHi.
The UMLAL instruction interprets the values from Rn and Rm as unsigned integers. It
multiplies these integers, adds the 64-bit result to the 64-bit unsigned integer contained in
RdHi and RdLo, and writes the result back to RdHi and RdLo.
The SMULL instruction interprets the values from Rn and Rm as two’s complement signed
integers. It multiplies these integers and places the least significant 32 bits of the result in
RdLo, and the most significant 32 bits of the result in RdHi.
The SMLAL instruction interprets the values from Rn and Rm as two’s complement signed
integers. It multiplies these integers, adds the 64-bit result to the 64-bit signed integer
contained in RdHi and RdLo, and writes the result back to RdHi and RdLo.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
Restrictions
In these instructions:
•
Do not use either SP or PC
•
RdHi and RdLo must be different registers.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
UMULL
SMLAL
3.6.12
R0, R4, R5, R6
R4, R5, R3, R8
; Unsigned (R4,R0) = R5 x R6
; Signed (R5,R4) = (R5,R4) + R3 x R8
SDIV and UDIV
Signed Divide and Unsigned Divide.
Syntax
SDIV{cond} {Rd,} Rn, Rm
UDIV{cond} {Rd,} Rn, Rm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register. If Rd is omitted, the destination register is Rn.
•
‘Rn,’ is the register holding the value to be divided.
•
‘Rm’ is a register holding the divisor.
Operation
SDIV performs a signed integer division of the value in Rn by the value in Rm.
UDIV performs an unsigned integer division of the value in Rn by the value in Rm.
For both instructions, if the value in Rn is not divisible by the value in Rm, the result is
rounded towards zero.
Restrictions
Do not use either SP or PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
SDIV R0, R2, R4; signed divide, R0 = R2/R4
UDIV R8, R8, R1; unsigned divide, R8 = R8/R1
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3.7
PM0214
Saturating instructions
This section describes the saturating instructions.
Table 29. Saturating instructions
Mnemonic
Brief description
See
SSAT
Signed Saturate
SSAT and USAT on page 125
SSAT16
Signed Saturate Halfword
SSAT16 and USAT16 on page 126
USAT
Unsigned Saturate
SSAT and USAT on page 125
USAT16
Unsigned Saturate Halfword
SSAT16 and USAT16 on page 126
QADD
Saturating Add
QADD and QSUB on page 127
QSUB
Saturating Subtract
QADD and QSUB on page 127
QSUB16
Saturating Subtract 16
QADD and QSUB on page 127
QASX
Saturating Add and Subtract with Exchange
QASX and QSAX on page 128
QSAX
Saturating Subtract and Add with Exchange
QASX and QSAX on page 128
QDADD
Saturating Double and Add
QDADD and QDSUB on page 129
QDSUB
Saturating Double and Subtract
QDADD and QDSUB on page 129
UQADD16
Unsigned Saturating Add 16
UQADD and UQSUB on page 131
UQADD8
Unsigned Saturating Add 8
UQADD and UQSUB on page 131
UQASX
Unsigned Saturating Add and Subtract with Exchange
UQASX and UQSAX on page 130
UQSAX
Unsigned Saturating Subtract and Add with Exchange
UQASX and UQSAX on page 130
UQSUB16
Unsigned Saturating Subtract 16
UQADD and UQSUB on page 131
UQSUB8
Unsigned Saturating Subtract 8
UQADD and UQSUB on page 131
For signed n-bit saturation, this means that:
•
if the value to be saturated is less than -2n-1, the result returned is -2n-1
•
if the value to be saturated is greater than 2n-1-1, the result returned is 2n-1-1
•
otherwise, the result returned is the same as the value to be saturated.
For unsigned n-bit saturation, this means that:
•
if the value to be saturated is less than 0, the result returned is 0
•
if the value to be saturated is greater than 2n-1, the result returned is 2n-1
•
otherwise, the result returned is the same as the value to be saturated.
If the returned result is different from the value to be saturated, it is called saturation. If
saturation occurs, the instruction sets the Q flag to 1 in the APSR. Otherwise, it leaves the Q
flag unchanged. To clear the Q flag to 0, you must use the MSR instruction, see MSR on
page 186.
To read the state of the Q flag, use the MRS instruction, see MRS on page 185.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SSAT and USAT
Signed Saturate and Unsigned Saturate to any bit position, with optional shift before
saturating.
Syntax
op{cond} Rd, #n, Rm {, shift #s}
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
SSAT: Saturates a signed value to a signed range.
USAT: Saturates a signed value to an unsigned range.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64).
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘n’ specifies the bit position to saturate to:
n ranges from 1 to 32 for SSAT
n ranges from 0 to 31 for USAT.
•
‘Rm’ is the register containing the value to saturate.
•
‘shift #s’ is an optional shift applied to Rm before saturating. It must be one of the
following:
ASR #s: where s is in the range 1 to 31.
LSL #s: where s is in the range 0 to 31.
Operation
These instructions saturate to a signed or unsigned n-bit value.
The SSAT instruction applies the specified shift, then saturates to the signed range -2n–1 ≤x
≤2n–1-1.
The USAT instruction applies the specified shift, then saturates to the unsigned range 0 ≤x ≤
2n-1.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
If saturation occurs, these instructions set the Q flag to 1.
Examples
SSAT
USATNE
R7, #16, R7, LSL #4
; Logical shift left value in R7 by 4, then
; saturate it as a signed 16-bit value and
; write it back to R7
R0, #7, R5; Conditionally saturate value in R5 as an
; unsigned 7 bit value and write it to R0.
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3.7.2
PM0214
SSAT16 and USAT16
Signed Saturate and Unsigned Saturate to any bit position for two halfwords.
Syntax
op{cond} Rd, #n, Rm
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
SSAT16 Saturates a signed halfword value to a signed range.
USAT16 Saturates a signed halfword value to an unsigned range.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘n’ specifies the bit position to saturate to:
n ranges from 1 to 16 for SSAT.
n ranges from 0 to 15 for USAT.
•
‘Rm’ is the register containing the value to saturate.
Operation
The SSAT16 instruction:
1.
Saturates two signed 16-bit halfword values of the register with the value to saturate
from selected by the bit position in n.
2.
Writes the results as two signed 16-bit halfwords to the destination register.
The USAT16 instruction:
1.
Saturates two unsigned 16-bit halfword values of the register with the value to saturate
from selected by the bit position in n.
2.
Writes the results as two unsigned halfwords in the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
If saturation occurs, these instructions set the Q flag to 1.
Examples
SSAT16
R7, #9, R2
USAT16NE
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R0, #13, R5
;
;
;
;
;
;
Saturates the top and bottom highwords of R2
as 9-bit values, writes to corresponding halfword
of R7
Conditionally saturates the top and bottom
halfwords of R5 as 13-bit values, writes to
corresponding halfword of R0.
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3.7.3
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
QADD and QSUB
Saturating Add and Saturating Subtract, signed.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm
op{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
QADD: Saturating 32-bit add.
QADD8: Saturating four 8-bit integer additions.
QADD16: Saturating two 16-bit integer additions.
QSUB: Saturating 32-bit subtraction.
QSUB8: Saturating four 8-bit integer subtraction.
QSUB16: Saturating two 16-bit integer subtraction.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn, Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
These instructions add or subtract two, four or eight values from the first and second
operands and then write a signed saturated value in the destination register.
The QADD and QSUB instructions apply the specified add or subtract, and then saturate the
result to the signed range -2n–1 ≤x ≤2n–1-1, where x is given by the number of bits applied in
the instruction, 32, 16 or 8.
If the returned result is different from the value to be saturated, it is called saturation. If
saturation occurs, the QADD and QSUB instructions set the APSR Q flag to 1. Otherwise, Q
flag is unchanged. The 8-bit and 16-bit QADD and QSUB instructions always leave Q flag
unchanged.
To clear the Q flag to 0, you must use the MSR instruction, see MSR on page 186.
To read the state of the Q flag, use the MRS instruction, see MRS on page 185.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
If saturation occurs, these instructions set the Q flag to 1.
Examples
QADD16
QADD8
QSUB16
R7, R4, R2 ;
;
;
R3, R1, R6 ;
;
R4, R2, R3 ;
Adds halfwords of R4 with corresponding halfword of
R2, saturates to 16 bits and writes to corresponding
halfword of R7
Adds bytes of R1 to corresponding bytes of R6,saturates
to 8 bits and writes to corresponding byte of R3
Subtracts halfwords of R3 from corresponding halfword
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
QSUB8
3.7.4
;
;
R4, R2, R5 ;
;
PM0214
of R2, saturates to 16 bits, writes to corresponding
halfword of R4
Subtracts bytes of R5 from the corresponding byte in R2
saturates to 8 bits, writes to corresponding byte ofR4.
QASX and QSAX
Saturating Add and Subtract with Exchange and Saturating Subtract and Add with
Exchange, signed.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rm, Rn
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
QASX Add and Subtract with Exchange and Saturate.
QSAX Subtract and Add with Exchange and Saturate.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn, Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
The QASX instruction:
1.
Adds the top halfword of the source operand with bottom halfword of second operand.
2.
Subtracts the top halfword of second operand from bottom highword of first operand.
3.
Saturates the result of the subtraction and writes a 16-bit signed integer in the range –
215 ≤x ≤215 – 1, where x equals 16, to the bottom halfword of the destination register.
4.
Saturates the results of the sum and writes a 16-bit signed integer in the range
5.
–215 ≤x ≤215 – 1, where x equals 16, to the top halfword of the destination register.
The QSAX instruction:
1.
Subtracts the bottom halfword of second operand from top highword of first operand.
2.
Adds the bottom halfword of source operand with top halfword of second operand.
3.
Saturates the results of the sum and writes a 16-bit signed integer in the range
4.
–215 ≤x ≤215 – 1, where x equals 16, to the bottom halfword of the destination register.
5.
Saturates the result of the subtraction and writes a 16-bit signed integer in the range –
215 ≤x ≤215 – 1, where x equals 16, to the top halfword of the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
QASX
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R7, R4, R2
; Adds top halfword of R4 to bottom halfword of R2,
; saturates to 16 bits, writes to top halfword of R7
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
QSAX R0, R3, R5
3.7.5
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Subtracts top highword of R2 from bottom halfword of
R4, saturates to 16 bits and writes to bottom halfword
of R7
Subtracts bottom halfword of R5 from top halfword of
R3, saturates to 16 bits, writes to top halfword of R0
Adds bottom halfword of R3 to top halfword of R5,
saturates to 16 bits, writes to bottom halfword of R0.
QDADD and QDSUB
Saturating Double and Add and Saturating Double and Subtract, signed.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rm, Rn
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
QDADD Saturating Double and Add.
QDSUB Saturating Double and Subtract.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn, Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
The QDADD instruction:
1.
Doubles the second operand value.
2.
Adds the result of the doubling to the signed saturated value in the first operand.
3.
Writes the result to the destination register.
The QDSUB instruction:
1.
Doubles the second operand value.
2.
Subtracts the doubled value from the signed saturated value in the first operand.
3.
Writes the result to the destination register.
Both the doubling and the addition or subtraction have their results saturated to the 32-bit
signed integer range –231 ≤x ≤231– 1. If saturation occurs in either operation, it sets the Q
flag in the APSR.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
If saturation occurs, these instructions set the Q flag to 1.
Examples
QDADD
R7, R4, R2
QDSUB
R0, R3, R5
; Doubles and saturates R4 to 32 bits, adds R2,
; saturates to 32 bits, writes to R7
; Subtracts R3 doubled and saturated to 32 bits
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; from R5, saturates to 32 bits, writes to R0.
3.7.6
UQASX and UQSAX
Saturating Add and Subtract with Exchange and Saturating Subtract and Add with
Exchange, unsigned.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rm, Rn
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
UQASX Add and Subtract with Exchange and Saturate.
UQSAX Subtract and Add with Exchange and Saturate.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn, Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
The UQASX instruction:
1.
Adds the bottom halfword of the source operand with top halfword of second operand.
2.
Subtracts the bottom halfword of the second operand from the top highword of the first
operand.
3.
Saturates the results of the sum and writes a 16-bit unsigned integer in the range
4.
0 ≤x ≤216 – 1, where x equals 16, to the top halfword of the destination register.
5.
Saturates the result of the subtraction and writes a 16-bit unsigned integer in the range
0 ≤x ≤216 – 1, where x equals 16, to the bottom halfword of the destination register.
The UQSAX instruction:
1.
Subtracts the bottom halfword of second operand from top highword of first operand.
2.
Adds the bottom halfword of the first operand with the top halfword of the second
operand.
3.
Saturates the result of the subtraction and writes a 16-bit unsigned integer in the range
0 ≤x ≤216 – 1, where x equals 16, to the top halfword of the destination register.
4.
Saturates the results of the addition and writes a 16-bit unsigned integer in the range 0
≤x ≤216 – 1, where x equals 16, to the bottom halfword of the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
UQASX
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R7, R4, R2 ; Adds top halfword of R4 with bottom halfword of R2,
; saturates to 16 bits, writes to top halfword of R7
; Subtracts top halfword of R2 from bottom halfword of
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
UQSAX
3.7.7
; R4, saturates to 16 bits, writes to bottom halfword of R7
R0, R3, R5 ; Subtracts bottom halfword of R5 from top halfword of
; R3, saturates to 16 bits, writes to top halfword of R0
; Adds bottom halfword of R4 to top halfword of R5
; saturates to 16 bits, writes to bottom halfword of R0.
UQADD and UQSUB
Saturating Add and Saturating Subtract Unsigned.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm
op{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
UQADD8 Saturating four unsigned 8-bit integer additions.
UQADD16 Saturating two unsigned 16-bit integer additions.
UDSUB8 Saturating four unsigned 8-bit integer subtractions.
UQSUB16 Saturating two unsigned 16-bit integer subtractions.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn, Rm’ are registers holding the first and second operands.
Operation
These instructions add or subtract two or four values and then writes an unsigned saturated
value in the destination register.
The UQADD16 instruction:
1.
Adds the respective top and bottom halfwords of the first and second operands.
2.
Saturates the result of the additions for each halfword in the destination register to the
unsigned range 0 ≤x ≤216-1, where x is 16.
The UQADD8 instruction:
1.
Adds each respective byte of the first and second operands.
2.
Saturates the result of the addition for each byte in the destination register to the
unsigned range 0 ≤x ≤28-1, where x is 8.
The UQSUB16 instruction:
1.
Subtracts both halfwords of the second operand from the respective halfwords of the
first operand.
2.
Saturates the result of the differences in the destination register to the unsigned range
0 ≤x ≤216-1, where x is 16.
The UQSUB8 instructions:
1.
Subtracts the respective bytes of the second operand from the respective bytes of the
first operand.
2.
Saturates the results of the differences for each byte in the destination register to the
unsigned range 0 ≤x ≤28-1, where x is 8.
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Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the condition code flags.
Examples
UQADD16 R7, R4, R2; Adds halfwords in R4 to corresponding halfword in R2,
; saturates to 16 bits, writes to corresponding halfword
; of R7
UQADD8 R4, R2, R5 ; Adds bytes of R2 to corresponding byte of R5, saturates
; to 8 bits, writes to corresponding bytes of R4
UQSUB16 R6, R3, R0 ; Subtracts halfwords in R0 from corresponding halfword
; in R3, saturates to 16 bits, writes to corresponding
; halfword in R6
UQSUB8 R1, R5, R6 ; Subtracts bytes in R6 from corresponding byte of R5,
; saturates to 8 bits, writes to corresponding byte of
R1.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
Packing and unpacking instructions
Table 30 shows the instructions that operate on packing and unpacking data:
Table 30. Packing and unpacking instructions
Mnemonic
Brief description
See
PKH
Pack Halfword
PKHBT and PKHTB on page 134
SXTAB
Extend 8 bits to 32 and add
SXTA and UXTA on page 136
SXTAB16
Dual extend 8 bits to 16 and add
SXTA and UXTA on page 136
SXTAH
Extend 16 bits to 32 and add
SXTA and UXTA on page 136
SXTB
Sign extend a byte
SXT and UXT on page 135
SXTB16
Dual extend 8 bits to 16 and add
SXT and UXT on page 135
SXTH
Sign extend a halfword
SXT and UXT on page 135
UXTAB
Extend 8 bits to 32 and add
SXTA and UXTA on page 136
UXTAB16
Dual extend 8 bits to 16 and add
SXTA and UXTA on page 136
UXTAH
Extend 16 bits to 32 and add
SXTA and UXTA on page 136
UXTB
Zero extend a byte
SXT and UXT on page 135
UXTB16
Dual zero extend 8 bits to 16 and add
SXT and UXT on page 135
UXTH
Zero extend a halfword
SXT and UXT on page 135
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PKHBT and PKHTB
Pack Halfword
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm {, LSL #imm}
op{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm {, ASR #imm}
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
PKHBT Pack Halfword, bottom and top with shift.
PKHTB Pack Halfword, top and bottom with shift.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the first operand register.
•
‘Rm’ is the second operand register holding the value to be optionally shifted.
•
‘imm’ is the shift length. The type of shift length depends on the instruction:
For PKHBT: LSL: a left shift with a shift length from 1 to 31, 0 means no shift.
For PKHTB: ASR: an arithmetic shift right with a shift length from 1 to 32,a shift of 32bits is encoded as 0b00000.
Operation
The PKHBT instruction:
1.
Writes the value of the bottom halfword of the first operand to the bottom halfword of
the destination register.
2.
If shifted, the shifted value of the second operand is written to the top halfword of the
destination register.
The PKHTB instruction:
1.
Writes the value of the top halfword of the first operand to the top halfword of the
destination register.
2.
If shifted, the shifted value of the second operand is written to the bottom halfword of
the destination register.
Restrictions
Rd must not be SP and must not be PC.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
PKHBT
PKHTB
134/260
R3, R4, R5 LSL #0 ; Writes bottom halfword of R4 to bottom halfword
; of R3, writes top halfword of R5, unshifted, to top
; halfword of R3
R4, R0, R2 ASR #1 ; Writes R2 shifted right by 1 bit to bottom half
; word of R4, and writes top halfword of R0 to top
; halfword of R4.
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3.8.2
The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SXT and UXT
Sign extend and Zero extend.
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd,} Rm {, ROR #n}
op{cond} {Rd}, Rm {, ROR #n}
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
SXTB Sign extends an 8-bit value to a 32-bit value.
SXTH Sign extends a 16-bit value to a 32-bit value.
SXTB16 Sign extends two 8-bit values to two 16-bit values.
UXTB Zero extends an 8-bit value to a 32-bit value.
UXTH Zero extends a 16-bit value to a 32-bit value.
UXTB16 Zero extends two 8-bit values to two 16-bit values.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rm’ is the register holding the value to extend.
•
‘ROR #n’ is one of:
ROR #8 Value from Rm is rotated right 8 bits.
ROR #16 Value from Rm is rotated right 16 bits.
ROR #24 Value from Rm is rotated right 24 bits.
If ROR #n is omitted, no rotation is performed.
Operation
These instructions do the following:
1.
Rotate the value from Rm right by 0, 8, 16 or 24 bits.
2.
Extract bits from the resulting value:
SXTB extracts bits[7:0] and sign extends to 32 bits.
UXTB extracts bits[7:0] and zero extends to 32 bits.
SXTH extracts bits[15:0] and sign extends to 32 bits.
UXTH extracts bits[15:0] and zero extends to 32 bits.
SXTB16 extracts bits[7:0] and sign extends to 16 bits,
and extracts bits [23:16] and sign extends to 16 bits.
UXTB16 extracts bits[7:0] and zero extends to 16 bits,
and extracts bits [23:16] and zero extends to 16 bits.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the flags.
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Examples
SXTH R4, R6, ROR #16 ; Rotates R6 right by 16 bits, obtains bottom halfword
; of result, sign extends to 32 bits and writes to R4
UXTB R3, R10
; Extracts lowest byte of value in R10, zero extends, and
; writes to R3.
3.8.3
SXTA and UXTA
Signed and Unsigned Extend and Add
Syntax
op{cond} {Rd,} Rn, Rm {, ROR #n}
op{cond} {Rd,} Rn, Rm {, ROR #n}
Where:
•
op’ is one of:
SXTAB Sign extends an 8-bit value to a 32-bit value and add.
SXTAH Sign extends a 16-bit value to a 32-bit value and add.
SXTAB16 Sign extends two 8-bit values to two 16-bit values and add.
UXTAB Zero extends an 8-bit value to a 32-bit value and add.
UXTAH Zero extends a 16-bit value to a 32-bit value and add.
UXTAB16 Zero extends two 8-bit values to two 16-bit values and add.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution on page 64)
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the first operand register.
•
‘Rm’ is the register holding the value to rotate and extend.
•
‘ROR #n’ is one of:
ROR #8 Value from Rm is rotated right 8 bits.
ROR #16 Value from Rm is rotated right 16 bits.
ROR #24 Value from Rm is rotated right 24 bits.
If ROR #n is omitted, no rotation is performed.
Operation
These instructions do the following:
1.
Rotate the value from Rm right by 0, 8, 16 or 24 bits.
2.
Extract bits from the resulting value:
SXTAB extracts bits[7:0] from Rm and sign extends to 32 bits.
UXTAB extracts bits[7:0] from Rm and zero extends to 32 bits.
SXTAH extracts bits[15:0] from Rm and sign extends to 32 bits.
UXTAH extracts bits[15:0] from Rm and zero extends to 32 bits.
SXTAB16 extracts bits[7:0] from Rm and sign extends to 16 bits,
and extracts bits [23:16] from Rm and sign extends to 16 bits.
UXTAB16 extracts bits[7:0] from Rm and zero extends to 16 bits,
and extracts bits [23:16] from Rm and zero extends to 16 bits.
3.
136/260
Adds the signed or zero extended value to the word or corresponding halfword of Rn
and writes the result in Rd.
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Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the flags.
Examples
SXTAH
UXTAB
3.9
R4, R8, R6, ROR
;
;
R3, R4, R10
;
;
#16 ; Rotates R6 right by 16 bits, obtains bottom
halfword, sign extends to 32 bits, adds R8,and
writes to R4
Extracts bottom byte of R10 and zero extends to 32
bits, adds R4, and writes to R3.
Bitfield instructions
Table 31 shows the instructions that operate on adjacent sets of bits in registers or bitfields.
Table 31. Instructions that operate on adjacent sets of bits
Mnemonic
Brief description
See
BFC
Bit field clear
BFC and BFI on page 138
BFI
Bit field insert
BFC and BFI on page 138
SBFX
Signed bit field extract
SBFX and UBFX on page 139
SXTB
Sign extend a byte
SXT and UXT on page 140
SXTH
Sign extend a halfword
SXT and UXT on page 140
UBFX
Unsigned bit field extract
SBFX and UBFX on page 139
UXTB
Zero extend a byte
SXT and UXT on page 140
UXTH
Zero extend a halfword
SXT and UXT on page 140
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BFC and BFI
Bit Field Clear and Bit Field Insert.
Syntax
BFC{cond} Rd, #lsb, #width
BFI{cond} Rd, Rn, #lsb, #width
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the source register.
•
‘lsb’ is the position of the least significant bit of the bitfield. lsb must be in the range 0 to
31.
•
‘width’ is the width of the bitfield and must be in the range 1 to 32-lsb.
Operation
BFC clears a bitfield in a register. It clears width bits in Rd, starting at the low bit position lsb.
Other bits in Rd are unchanged.
BFI copies a bitfield into one register from another register. It replaces width bits in Rd
starting at the low bit position lsb, with width bits from Rn starting at bit[0]. Other bits in Rd
are unchanged.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the flags.
Examples
BFC
BFI
138/260
R4, #8, #12
R9, R2, #8, #12
; Clear bit 8 to bit 19 (12 bits) of R4 to 0
; Replace bit 8 to bit 19 (12 bits) of R9 with
; bit 0 to bit 11 from R2
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
SBFX and UBFX
Signed Bit Field Extract and Unsigned Bit Field Extract.
Syntax
SBFX{cond} Rd, Rn, #lsb, #width
UBFX{cond} Rd, Rn, #lsb, #width
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rn’ is the source register.
•
‘lsb’ is the position of the least significant bit of the bitfield. lsb must be in the range 0 to
31.
•
‘width’ is the width of the bitfield and must be in the range 1 to 32-lsb.
Operation
SBFX extracts a bitfield from one register, sign extends it to 32 bits, and writes the result to
the destination register.
UBFX extracts a bitfield from one register, zero extends it to 32 bits, and writes the result to
the destination register.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the flags.
Examples
SBFX R0, R1, #20, #4 ;
;
UBFX R8, R11, #9, #10;
;
Extract bit 20 to bit 23 (4 bits) from R1 and sign
extend to 32 bits and then write the result to R0.
Extract bit 9 to bit 18 (10 bits) from R11 and zero
extend to 32 bits and then write the result to R8
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SXT and UXT
Sign extend and Zero extend.
Syntax
SXTextend{cond} {Rd,} Rm {, ROR #n}
UXTextend{cond} {Rd}, Rm {, ROR #n}
Where:
•
‘extend’ is one of:
B: Extends an 8-bit value to a 32-bit value.
H: Extends a 16-bit value to a 32-bit value.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘Rm’ is the register holding the value to extend.
•
ROR #n is one of:
ROR #8: Value from Rm is rotated right 8 bits.
ROR #16: Value from Rm is rotated right 16 bits.
ROR #24: Value from Rm is rotated right 24 bits.
If ROR #n is omitted, no rotation is performed.
Operation
These instructions do the following:
1.
2.
Rotate the value from Rm right by 0, 8, 16 or 24 bits.
Extract bits from the resulting value:
–
SXTB extracts bits[7:0] and sign extends to 32 bits.
–
UXTB extracts bits[7:0] and zero extends to 32 bits.
–
SXTH extracts bits[15:0] and sign extends to 32 bits.
–
UXTH extracts bits[15:0] and zero extends to 32 bits.
Restrictions
Do not use SP and do not use PC.
Condition flags
These instructions do not affect the flags.
Examples
140/260
SXTH
R4, R6, ROR #16
UXTB
R3, R10
;
;
;
;
;
Rotate R6 right by 16 bits, then obtain the lower
halfword of the result and then sign extend to
32 bits and write the result to R4.
Extract lowest byte of the value in R10 and zero
extend it, and write the result to R3
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
Branch and control instructions
Table 32 shows the branch and control instructions:
Table 32. Branch and control instructions
Mnemonic
3.9.5
Brief description
See
B
Branch
B, BL, BX, and BLX on page 141
BL
Branch with Link
B, BL, BX, and BLX on page 141
BLX
Branch indirect with Link
B, BL, BX, and BLX on page 141
BX
Branch indirect
B, BL, BX, and BLX on page 141
CBNZ
Compare and Branch if Non
Zero
CBZ and CBNZ on page 143
CBZ
Compare and Branch if Non
Zero
CBZ and CBNZ on page 143
IT
If-Then
IT on page 144
TBB
Table Branch Byte
TBB and TBH on page 146
TBH
Table Branch Halfword
TBB and TBH on page 146
B, BL, BX, and BLX
Branch instructions.
Syntax
B{cond} label
BL{cond} label
BX{cond} Rm
BLX{cond} Rm
Where:
•
‘B’ is branch (immediate).
•
‘BL’ is branch with link (immediate).
•
‘BX’ is branch indirect (register).
•
‘BLX’ is branch indirect with link (register).
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘label’ is a PC-relative expression. See PC-relative expressions on page 64.
•
‘Rm’ is a register that indicates an address to branch to. Bit[0] of the value in Rm must
be 1, but the address to branch to is created by changing bit[0] to 0.
Operation
All these instructions cause a branch to label, or to the address indicated in Rm. In addition:
•
The BL and BLX instructions write the address of the next instruction to LR (the link
register, R14).
•
The BX and BLX instructions cause a UsageFault exception if bit[0] of Rm is 0.
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B cond label is the only conditional instruction that can be either inside or outside an IT
block. All other branch instructions must be conditional inside an IT block, and must be
unconditional outside the IT block, see IT on page 144.
Table 33 shows the ranges for the various branch instructions.
Table 33. Branch ranges
Instruction
Branch range
B label
−16 MB to +16 MB
Bcond label (outside IT block)
−1 MB to +1 MB
Bcond label (inside IT block)
−16 MB to +16 MB
BL{cond} label
−16 MB to +16 MB
BX{cond} Rm
Any value in register
BLX{cond} Rm
Any value in register
You might have to use the .W suffix to get the maximum branch range. See Instruction width
selection on page 67.
Restrictions
The restrictions are:
•
Do not use PC in the BLX instruction
•
For BX and BLX, bit[0] of Rm must be 1 for correct execution but a branch occurs to the
target address created by changing bit[0] to 0
•
When any of these instructions is inside an IT block, it must be the last instruction of the
IT block.
Bcond is the only conditional instruction that is not required to be inside an IT block.
However, it has a longer branch range when it is inside an IT block.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
142/260
B
BLE
B.W
BEQ
BEQ.W
BL
loopA
ng
target
target
target
funC
BX
BXNE
LR
R0
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Branch to loopA
Conditionally branch to label ng
Branch to target within 16MB range
Conditionally branch to target
Conditionally branch to target within 1MB
Branch with link (Call) to function funC, return address
stored in LR
Return from function call
Conditionally branch to address stored in R0
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BLX
3.9.6
R0
; Branch with link and exchange (Call) to a address stored
; in R0
CBZ and CBNZ
Compare and Branch on Zero, Compare and Branch on Non-Zero.
Syntax
CBZ Rn, label
CBNZ Rn, label
Where:
•
‘Rn’ is the register holding the operand.
•
‘label’ is the branch destination.
Operation
Use the CBZ or CBNZ instructions to avoid changing the condition code flags and to reduce
the number of instructions.
CBZ Rn, label does not change condition flags but is otherwise equivalent to:
CMP
BEQ
Rn, #0
label
CBNZ Rn, label does not change condition flags but is otherwise equivalent to:
CMP
BNE
Rn, #0
label
Restrictions
The restrictions are:
•
Rn must be in the range of R0 to R7.
•
The branch destination must be within 4 to 130 bytes after the instruction.
•
These instructions must not be used inside an IT block.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
CBZ
CBNZ
R5, target ; Forward branch if R5 is zero
R0, target ; Forward branch if R0 is not zero
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IT
If-Then condition instruction.
Syntax
IT{x{y{z}}} cond
Where:
•
‘x’ specifies the condition switch for the second instruction in the IT block.
•
‘y’ specifies the condition switch for the third instruction in the IT block.
•
‘z’ specifies the condition switch for the fourth instruction in the IT block.
•
‘cond’ specifies the condition for the first instruction in the IT block.
The condition switch for the second, third and fourth instruction in the IT block can be either:
T: Then. Applies the condition cond to the instruction.
E: Else. Applies the inverse condition of cond to the instruction.
a)
It is possible to use AL (the always condition) for cond in an IT instruction. If this is
done, all of the instructions in the IT block must be unconditional, and each of x, y,
and z must be T or omitted but not E.
Operation
The IT instruction makes up to four following instructions conditional. The conditions can be
all the same, or some of them can be the logical inverse of the others. The conditional
instructions following the IT instruction form the IT block.
The instructions in the IT block, including any branches, must specify the condition in the
{cond} part of their syntax.
Your assembler might be able to generate the required IT instructions for conditional
instructions automatically, so that you do not need to write them yourself. See your
assembler documentation for details.
A BKPT instruction in an IT block is always executed, even if its condition fails.
Exceptions can be taken between an IT instruction and the corresponding IT block, or within
an IT block. Such an exception results in entry to the appropriate exception handler, with
suitable return information in LR and stacked PSR.
Instructions designed for use for exception returns can be used as normal to return from the
exception, and execution of the IT block resumes correctly. This is the only way that a PCmodifying instruction is permitted to branch to an instruction in an IT block.
Restrictions
The following instructions are not permitted in an IT block:
144/260
•
IT
•
CBZ and CBNZ
•
CPSID and CPSIE.
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Other restrictions when using an IT block are:
•
a branch or any instruction that modifies the PC must either be outside an IT block or
must be the last instruction inside the IT block. These are:
–
ADD PC, PC, Rm
–
MOV PC, Rm
–
B, BL, BX, BLX
–
any LDM, LDR, or POP instruction that writes to the PC
–
TBB and TBH
•
Do not branch to any instruction inside an IT block, except when returning from an
exception handler
•
All conditional instructions except Bcond must be inside an IT block. Bcond can be
either outside or inside an IT block but has a larger branch range if it is inside one
•
Each instruction inside the IT block must specify a condition code suffix that is either
the same or logical inverse as for the other instructions in the block.
Your assembler might place extra restrictions on the use of IT blocks, such as prohibiting the
use of assembler directives within them.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Example
ITTE
ANDNE
ADDSNE
MOVEQ
NE
R0, R0, R1
R2, R2, #1
R2, R3
;
;
;
;
Next 3 instructions are conditional
ANDNE does not update condition flags
ADDSNE updates condition flags
Conditional move
CMP
R0, #9
ITE
ADDGT
ADDLE
GT
R1, R0, #55
R1, R0, #48
;
;
;
;
;
Convert R0 hex value (0 to 15) into ASCII
('0'-'9', 'A'-'F')
Next 2 instructions are conditional
Convert 0xA -> 'A'
Convert 0x0 -> '0'
IT
ADDGT
GT
R1, R1, #1
; IT block with only one conditional instruction
; Increment R1 conditionally
ITTEE
MOVEQ
ADDEQ
ANDNE
BNE.W
EQ
R0, R1
R2, R2, #10
R3, R3, #1
dloop
;
;
;
;
;
;
IT
ADD
NE
R0, R0, R1
; Next instruction is conditional
; Syntax error: no condition code used in IT block
Next 4 instructions are conditional
Conditional move
Conditional add
Conditional AND
Branch instruction can only be used in the last
instruction of an IT block
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TBB and TBH
Table Branch Byte and Table Branch Halfword.
Syntax
TBB [Rn, Rm]
TBH [Rn, Rm, LSL #1]
Where:
•
‘Rn’ is the register containing the address of the table of branch lengths.
If Rn is PC, then the address of the table is the address of the byte immediately
following the TBB or TBH instruction.
•
‘Rm’ is the index register. This contains an index into the table. For halfword tables,
LSL #1 doubles the value in Rm to form the right offset into the table.
Operation
These instructions cause a PC-relative forward branch using a table of single byte offsets for
TBB, or halfword offsets for TBH. Rn provides a pointer to the table, and Rm supplies an
index into the table. For TBB the branch offset is twice the unsigned value of the byte
returned from the table. and for TBH the branch offset is twice the unsigned value of the
halfword returned from the table. The branch occurs to the address at that offset from the
address of the byte immediately after the TBB or TBH instruction.
Restrictions
The restrictions are:
•
Rn must not be SP
•
Rm must not be SP and must not be PC
•
When any of these instructions is used inside an IT block, it must be the last instruction
of the IT block.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
Examples
ADR.W R0, BranchTable_Byte
TBB [R0, R1] ; R1 is the index, R0 is the base address of the branch table
Case1
; an instruction sequence follows
Case2
; an instruction sequence follows
Case3
; an instruction sequence follows
BranchTable_Byte
DCB
0
; Case1 offset calculation
DCB
((Case2-Case1)/2) ; Case2 offset calculation
DCB
((Case3-Case1)/2) ; Case3 offset calculation
TBH
146/260
[PC, R1, LSL #1]
; R1 is the index, PC is used as base of the
; branch table
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BranchTable_H
DCI
((CaseA - BranchTable_H)/2)
DCI
((CaseB - BranchTable_H)/2)
DCI
((CaseC - BranchTable_H)/2)
; CaseA offset calculation
; CaseB offset calculation
; CaseC offset calculation
CaseA
; an instruction sequence follows
CaseB
; an instruction sequence follows
CaseC
; an instruction sequence follows
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Floating-point instructions
These instructions are only available if the FPU is included, and enabled, in the system. See
Enabling the FPU on page 256 for information about enabling the floating-point unit.
Table 34. Floating-point instructions
Mnemonic
148/260
Brief description
See
VABS
Floating-point Absolute
VABS on page 150
VADD
Floating-point Add
VADD on page 151
VCMP
Compare two floating-point registers, or one floatingVCMP, VCMPE on page 152
point register and zero
VCMPE
Compare two floating-point registers, or one floatingVCMP, VCMPE on page 152
point register and zero with Invalid Operation check
VCVT
Convert between floating-point and integer
VCVT, VCVTR between floatingpoint and integer on page 153
VCVT
Convert between floating-point and fixed point
VCVT between floating-point
and fixed-point on page 154
VCVTR
Convert between floating-point and integer with
rounding
VCVT, VCVTR between floatingpoint and integer on page 153
VCVTB
Converts half-precision value to single-precision
VCVTB, VCVTT on page 155
VCVTT
Converts single-precision register to half-precision
VCVTB, VCVTT on page 155
VDIV
Floating-point Divide
VDIV on page 156
VFMA
Floating-point Fused Multiply Accumulate
VFMA, VFMS on page 157
VFNMA
Floating-point Fused Negate Multiply Accumulate
VFNMA, VFNMS on page 158
VFMS
Floating-point Fused Multiply Subtract
VFMA, VFMS on page 157
VFNMS
Floating-point Fused Negate Multiply Subtract
VFNMA, VFNMS on page 158
VLDM
Load Multiple extension registers
VLDM on page 159
VLDR
Loads an extension register from memory
VLDR on page 160
VLMA
Floating-point Multiply Accumulate
VLMA, VLMS on page 161
VLMS
Floating-point Multiply Subtract
VLMA, VLMS on page 161
VMOV
Floating-point Move Immediate
VMOV immediate on page 162
VMOV
Floating-point Move Register
VMOV register on page 163
VMOV
Copy ARM core register to single precision
VMOV scalar to ARM core
register on page 164
VMOV
Copy 2 ARM core registers to 2 single precision
VMOV ARM core register to
single precision on page 165
VMOV
Copies between ARM core register to scalar
VMOV two ARM core registers
to two single precision on
page 166
VMOV
Copies between Scalar to ARM core register
VMOV ARM Core register to
scalar on page 167
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Table 34. Floating-point instructions
Mnemonic
Brief description
See
VMRS
Move to ARM core register from floating-point
System Register
VMRS on page 168
VMSR
Move to floating-point System Register from ARM
Core register
VMSR on page 169
VMUL
Multiply floating-point
VMUL on page 170
VNEG
Floating-point negate
VNEG on page 171
VNMLA
Floating-point multiply and add
VNMLA, VNMLS, VNMUL on
page 172
VNMLS
Floating-point multiply and subtract
VNMLA, VNMLS, VNMUL on
page 172
VNMUL
Floating-point multiply
VNMLA, VNMLS, VNMUL on
page 172
VPOP
Pop extension registers
VPOP on page 173
VPUSH
Push extension registers
VPUSH on page 174
VSQRT
Floating-point square root
VSQRT on page 175
VSTM
Store Multiple extension registers
VSTM on page 176
VSTR
Stores an extension register to memory
VSTR on page 177
VSUB
Floating-point Subtract
VSUB on page 178
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PM0214
VABS
Floating-point Absolute.
Syntax
VABS{cond}.F32 Sd, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd, Sm’ are the destination floating-point value and the operand floating-point value.
Operation
This instruction:
1.
Takes the absolute value of the operand floating-point register.
2.
Places the results in the destination floating-point register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
The floating-point instruction clears the sign bit.
Examples
VABS.F32 S4, S6
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VADD
Floating-point Add
Syntax
VADD{cond}.F32 {Sd,} Sn, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination floating-point value
•
‘Sn, Sm’ are the operand floating-point values.
Operation
This instruction:
1.
Adds the values in the two floating-point operand registers.
2.
Places the results in the destination floating-point register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
VADD.F32 S4, S6, S7
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
3.10.3
PM0214
VCMP, VCMPE
Compares two floating-point registers, or one floating-point register and zero.
Syntax
VCMP{E}{cond}.F32 Sd, Sm
VCMP{E}{cond}.F32 Sd, #0.0
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘E’ If present, any NaN operand causes an Invalid Operation exception. Otherwise,
only a signaling NaN causes the exception.
•
‘Sd’ is the floating-point operand to compare.
•
‘Sm’ is the floating-point operand that is compared with
Operation
This instruction:
1.
Compares:
Two floating-point registers.
One floating-point register and zero.
1.
Writes the result to the FPSCR flags.
Restrictions
This instruction can raise an Invalid Operation exception if either operand is any type of
NaN. It always raises an Invalid Operation exception if either operand is a signaling NaN.
Condition flags
When this instruction writes the result to the FPSCR flags, the values are normally
transferred to the ARM flags by a subsequent VMRS instruction, see VMRS on page 168.
Examples
VCMP.F32
VCMP.F32
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S4, #0.0
S4, S2
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VCVT, VCVTR between floating-point and integer
Converts a value in a register from floating-point to a 32-bit integer.
Syntax
VCVT{R}{cond}.Tm.F32 Sd, Sm
VCVT{cond}.F32.Tm Sd, Sm
Where:
•
‘R’ .
If R is specified, the operation uses the rounding mode specified by the FPSCR.
If R is omitted. the operation uses the Round towards Zero rounding mode.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Tm’ is the data type for the operand. It must be one of:
•
S32
signed 32-bit value.
U32
unsigned 32-bit value.
‘Sd, Sm’ are the destination register and the operand register.
Operation
These instructions:
1.
Either
•
Converts a value in a register from floating-point value to a 32-bit integer.
•
Converts from a 32-bit integer to floating-point value.
2.
Places the result in a second register.
The floating-point to integer operation normally uses the Round towards Zero rounding
mode, but can optionally use the rounding mode specified by the FPSCR.
The integer to floating-point operation uses the rounding mode specified by the FPSCR.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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VCVT between floating-point and fixed-point
Converts a value in a register from floating-point to and from fixed-point.
Syntax
VCVT{cond}.Td.F32 Sd, Sd, #fbits
VCVT{cond}.F32.Td Sd, Sd, #fbits
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Td’ is the data type for the fixed-point number. It must be one of:
S16
signed 16-bit value.
U16
unsigned 16-bit value.
S32
signed 32-bit value.
U32
unsigned 32-bit value.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination register and the operand register.
•
‘fbits’ is the number of fraction bits in the fixed-point number:
If Td is S16 or U16, fbits must be in the range 0-16.
I f Td is S32 or U32, fbits must be in the range 1-32.
Operation
These instructions:
Either
Converts a value in a register from floating-point to fixed-point.
Converts a value in a register from fixed-point to floating-point.
Places the result in a second register.
The floating-point values are single-precision.
The fixed-point value can be 16-bit or 32-bit. Conversions from fixed-point values take their
operand from the low-order bits of the source register and ignore any remaining bits.
Signed conversions to fixed-point values sign-extend the result value to the destination
register width.
Unsigned conversions to fixed-point values zero-extend the result value to the destination
register width.
The floating-point to fixed-point operation uses the Round towards Zero rounding mode.
The fixed-point to floating-point operation uses the Round to Nearest rounding mode.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VCVTB, VCVTT
Converts between a half-precision value and a single-precision value.
Syntax
VCVT{y}{cond}.F32.F16 Sd, Sm
VCVT{y}{cond}.F16.F32 Sd, Sm
Where:
•
‘y’ Specifies which half of the operand register Sm or destination register Sd is used for
the operand or destination:
If y is B, then the bottom half, bits [15:0], of Sm or Sd is used.
If y is T, then the top half, bits [31:16], of Sm or Sd is used.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination register
•
‘Sm’ is the operand register.
Operation
This instruction with the .F16.32 suffix:
1.
Converts the half-precision value in the top or bottom half of a single-precision. register
to single-precision.
2.
Writes the result to a single-precision register.
This instruction with the .F32.F16 suffix:
1.
Converts the value in a single-precision register to half-precision.
2.
Writes the result into the top or bottom half of a single-precision register, preserving the
other half of the target register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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PM0214
VDIV
Divides floating-point values.
Syntax
VDIV{cond}.F32 {Sd,} Sn, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination register
•
‘Sn, Sm’ are the operand registers.
Operation
This instruction:
1.
Divides one floating-point value by another floating-point value.
2.
Writes the result to the floating-point destination register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VFMA, VFMS
Floating-point Fused Multiply Accumulate and Subtract.
Syntax
VFMA{cond}.F32 {Sd,} Sn, Sm
VFMS{cond}.F32 {Sd,} Sn, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination register
•
‘Sn, Sm’ are the operand registers.
Operation
The VFMA instruction:
1.
Multiplies the floating-point values in the operand registers.
2.
Accumulates the results into the destination register.
3.
The result of the multiply is not rounded before the accumulation.
The VFMS instruction:
1.
Negates the first operand register.
2.
Multiplies the floating-point values of the first and second operand registers.
3.
Adds the products to the destination register.
4.
Places the results in the destination register.
5.
The result of the multiply is not rounded before the addition.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
3.10.9
PM0214
VFNMA, VFNMS
Floating-point Fused Negate Multiply Accumulate and Subtract.
Syntax
VFNMA{cond}.F32 {Sd,} Sn, Sm
VFNMS{cond}.F32 {Sd,} Sn, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination register
•
‘Sn, Sm’ are the operand registers.
Operation
The VFNMA instruction:
1.
Negates the first floating-point operand register.
2.
Multiplies the first floating-point operand with second floating-point operand.
3.
Adds the negation of the floating -point destination register to the product
4.
Places the result into the destination register.
The result of the multiply is not rounded before the addition.
The VFNMS instruction:
1.
Multiplies the first floating-point operand with second floating-point operand.
2.
Adds the negation of the floating-point value in the destination register to the product.
3.
Places the result in the destination register.
The result of the multiply is not rounded before the addition.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VLDM
Floating-point Load Multiple
Syntax
VLDM{mode}{cond}{.size} Rn{!}, list
Where:
•
‘mode’ is the addressing mode:
IA: Increment After. The consecutive addresses start at the address specified in Rn.
DB: Decrement Before. The consecutive addresses end just before the address
specified in Rn.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Size’ is an optional data size specifier.
•
‘Rn’ is the base register. The SP can be used
•
‘!’ is the command to the instruction to write a modified value back to Rn. This is
required if mode == DB, and is optional if mode == IA.
•
‘list’ is the list of extension registers to be loaded, as a list of consecutively numbered
doubleword or singleword registers, separated by commas and surrounded by
brackets.
Operation
This instruction loads multiple extension registers from consecutive memory locations using
an address from an ARM core register as the base address.
Restrictions
The restrictions are:
•
If size is present, it must be equal to the size in bits, 32 or 64, of the registers in list.
•
For the base address, the SP can be used.
•
In the ARM instruction set, if ! is not specified the PC can be used.
•
list must contain at least one register. If it contains doubleword registers, it must not
contain more than 16 registers.
•
If using the Decrement Before addressing mode, the write back flag, !, must be
appended to the base register specification.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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PM0214
VLDR
Loads a single extension register from memory
Syntax
VLDR{cond}{.64}
VLDR{cond}{.64}
VLDR{cond}{.64}
VLDR{cond}{.32}
VLDR{cond}{.32}
VLDR{cond}{.32}
Dd,
Dd,
Dd,
Sd,
Sd,
Sd,
[Rn{#imm}]
label
[PC, #imm}]
[Rn {, #imm}]
label
[PC, #imm]
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘64, 32 are the optional data size specifiers.
•
Dd is the destination register for a doubleword load.
•
Sd is the destination register for a singleword load.
•
Rn is the base register. The SP can be used.
•
imm is the + or - immediate offset used to form the address.
Permitted address values are multiples of 4 in the range 0 to 1020.
•
label is the label of the literal data item to be loaded.
Operation
This instruction loads a single extension register from memory, using a base address from
an ARM core register, with an optional offset.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VLMA, VLMS
Multiplies two floating-point values, and accumulates or subtracts the results.
Syntax
VLMA{cond}.F32 Sd, Sn, Sm
VLMS{cond}.F32 Sd, Sn, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination floating-point value
•
‘Sn, Sm’ are the operand floating-point values.
Operation
The floating-point Multiply Accumulate instruction:
1.
Multiplies two floating-point values.
2.
Adds the results to the destination floating-point value.
The floating-point Multiply Subtract instruction:
1.
Multiplies two floating-point values.
2.
Subtracts the products from the destination floating-point value.
Places the results in the destination register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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3.10.13
PM0214
VMOV immediate
Move floating-point immediate
Syntax
VMOV{cond}.F32 Sd, #imm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the branch destination
•
‘imm’ is a floating-point constant.
Operation
This instruction copies a constant value to a floating-point register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VMOV register
Copies the contents of one register to another.
Syntax
VMOV{cond}.F64 Dd, Dm
VMOV{cond}.F32 Sd, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Dd’ is the destination register, for a doubleword operation.
•
‘Dm’ is the source register, for a doubleword operation.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination register, for a singleword operation.
•
‘Sm’ is the source register, for a singleword operation.
Operation
This instruction copies the contents of one floating-point register to another.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
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PM0214
VMOV scalar to ARM core register
Transfers one word of a doubleword floating-point register to an ARM core register.
Syntax
VMOV{cond} Rt, Dn[x]
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rt’ is the destination ARM core register.
•
‘Dn’ is the 64-bit doubleword register.
•
‘x’ Specifies which half of the doubleword register to use:
If x is 0, use lower half, if x is 1, use upper half.
Operation
This instruction transfers one word from the upper or lower half of a doubleword floatingpoint register to an ARM core register.
Restrictions
Rt cannot be PC or SP.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VMOV ARM core register to single precision
Transfers a single-precision register to and from an ARM core register.
Syntax
VMOV{cond} Sn, Rt
VMOV{cond} Rt, Sn
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sn’ is the single-precision floating-point register.
•
‘Rt’ is the ARM core register.
Operation
This instruction transfers:
•
The contents of a single-precision register to an ARM core register.
•
The contents of an ARM core register to a single-precision register.
Restrictions
Rt cannot be PC or SP.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
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PM0214
VMOV two ARM core registers to two single precision
Transfers two consecutively numbered single-precision registers to and from two ARM core
registers.
Syntax
VMOV{cond} Sm, Sm1, Rt, Rt2
VMOV{cond} Rt, Rt2, Sm, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sm’ is the first single-precision register.
•
‘Sm1’ is a second single-precision register (the next single-precision register after Sm).
•
‘Rt’ is the ARM core register that Sm is transferred to or from.
•
‘Rt2’ is the ARM core register that Sm1 is transferred to or from.
Operation
This instruction transfers:
1.
Contents of two consecutively numbered single-precision registers to two ARM core
registers.
2.
Contents of two ARM core registers to a pair of single-precision registers.
Restrictions
The restrictions are:
•
The floating-point registers must be contiguous, one after the other.
•
The ARM core registers do not have to be contiguous.
•
Rt cannot be PC or SP.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VMOV ARM Core register to scalar
Transfers one word to a floating-point register from an ARM core register.
Syntax
VMOV{cond}{.32} Dd[x], Rt
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
32 is an optional data size specifier.
•
Dd[x] is the destination, where [x] defines which half of the doubleword is transferred,
as follows:
If x is 0, the lower half is extracted
If x is 1, the upper half is extracted.
•
Rt is the source ARM core register.
Operation
This instruction transfers one word to the upper or lower half of a doubleword floating-point
register from an ARM core register.
Restrictions
Rt cannot be PC or SP.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
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VMRS
Move to ARM Core register from floating-point System Register.
Syntax
VMRS{cond} Rt, FPSCR
VMRS{cond} APSR_nzcv, FPSCR
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rt’ is the destination ARM core register. This register can be R0-R14.
•
‘APSR_nzcv’ Transfer floating-point flags to the APSR flags.
Operation
This instruction performs one of the following actions:
1.
Copies the value of the FPSCR to a general-purpose register.
2.
Copies the value of the FPSCR flag bits to the APSR N, Z, C, and V flags.
Restrictions
Rt cannot be PC or SP.
Condition flags
These instructions optionally change the flags: N, Z, C, V
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VMSR
Move to floating-point System Register from ARM Core register.
Syntax
VMSR{cond} FPSCR, Rt
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rt’ is the general-purpose register to be transferred to the FPSCR.
Operation
This instruction moves the value of a general-purpose register to the FPSCR. See Floatingpoint status control register (FPSCR) on page 254 for more information.
Restrictions
The restrictions are Rt cannot be PC or SP.
Condition flags
This instruction updates the FPSCR.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
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VMUL
Floating-point Multiply.
Syntax
VMUL{cond}.F32 {Sd,} Sn, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination floating-point value
•
‘Sn, Sm’ are the operand floating-point values.
Operation
This instruction:
1.
Multiplies two floating-point values.
2.
Places the results in the destination register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VNEG
Floating-point Negate.
Syntax
VNEG{cond}.F32 Sd, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination floating-point value
•
‘Sm’ is the operand floating-point value.
Operation
This instruction:
1.
Negates a floating-point value.
2.
Places the results in a second floating-point register.
3.
The floating-point instruction inverts the sign bit.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
3.10.23
PM0214
VNMLA, VNMLS, VNMUL
Floating-point multiply with negation followed by add or subtract.
Syntax
VNMLA{cond}.F32 Sd, Sn, Sm
VNMLS{cond}.F32 Sd, Sn, Sm
VNMUL{cond}.F32 {Sd,} Sn, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination floating-point value
•
‘Sn, Sm’ are the operand floating-point values.
Operation
The VNMLA instruction:
1.
Multiplies two floating-point register values.
2.
Adds the negation of the floating-point value in the destination register to the negation
of the product.
3.
Writes the result back to the destination register.
The VNMLS instruction:
1.
Multiplies two floating-point register values.
2.
Adds the negation of the floating-point value in the destination register to the product.
3.
writes the result back to the destination register.
The VNMUL instruction:
1.
Multiplies together two floating-point register values.
2.
Writes the negation of the result to the destination register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VPOP
Floating-point extension register Pop.
Syntax
VPOP{cond}{.size} list
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘size’ is an optional data size specifier. If present, it must be equal to the size in bits, 32
or 64, of the registers in list.
•
‘list’ is a list of extension registers to be loaded, as a list of consecutively numbered
doubleword or singleword registers, separated by commas and surrounded by
brackets.
Operation
This instruction loads multiple consecutive extension registers from the stack.
Restrictions
The list must contain at least one register, and not more than sixteen registers.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
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VPUSH
Floating-point extension register Push.
Syntax
VPUSH{cond}{.size} list
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘size’ is an optional data size specifier. If present, it must be equal to the size in bits, 32
or 64, of the registers in list.
•
‘list’ is a list of the extension registers to be stored, as a list of consecutively numbered
doubleword or singleword registers, separated by commas and surrounded by
brackets.
Operation
This instruction stores multiple consecutive extension registers to the stack.
Restrictions
The restrictions are list must contain at least one register, and not more than sixteen.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VSQRT
Floating-point Square Root.
Syntax
VSQRT{cond}.F32 Sd, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination floating-point value
•
‘Sm’ is the operand floating-point value.
Operation
This instruction:
1.
Calculates the square root of the value in a floating-point register.
2.
Writes the result to another floating-point register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
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VSTM
Floating-point Store Multiple.
Syntax
VSTM{mode}{cond}{.size} Rn{!}, list
Where:
•
‘mode’ is the addressing mode:
IA Increment After. The consecutive addresses start at the address specified in Rn.
This is the default and can be omitted.
DB Decrement Before. The consecutive addresses end just before the address
specified in Rn.
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘size’ is an optional data size specifier. If present, it must be equal to the size in bits, 32
or 64, of the registers in list.
•
‘Rn’ is the base register. The SP can be used.
•
‘!’ is the function that causes the instruction to write a modified value back to Rn.
Required if mode == DB.
•
‘list’ is a list of the extension registers to be stored, as a list of consecutively numbered
doubleword or singleword registers, separated by commas and surrounded by
brackets.
Operation
This instruction stores multiple extension registers to consecutive memory locations using a
base address from an ARM core register.
Restrictions
The restrictions are:
•
list must contain at least one register.
•
If it contains doubleword registers it must not contain more than 16 registers.
•
Use of the PC as Rn is deprecated.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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The STM32 Cortex-M4 instruction set
VSTR
Floating-point Store.
Syntax
VSTR{cond}{.32} Sd, [Rn{, #imm}]
VSTR{cond}{.64} Dd, [Rn{, #imm}]
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘32, 64’ are the optional data size specifiers.
•
‘Sd’ is the source register for a singleword store.
•
‘Dd’ is the source register for a doubleword store.
•
‘Rn’ is the base register. The SP can be used.
•
‘imm’ is the + or - immediate offset used to form the address. Values are multiples of 4
in the range 0-1020. imm can be omitted, meaning an offset of +0.
Operation
This instruction stores a single extension register to memory, using an address from an
ARM core register, with an optional offset, defined in imm.
Restrictions
The restrictions are the use of PC for Rn is deprecated.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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VSUB
Floating-point Subtract.
Syntax
VSUB{cond}.F32 {Sd,} Sn, Sm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Sd’ is the destination floating-point value
•
‘Sn, Sm’ are the operand floating-point values.
Operation
This instruction:
1.
Subtracts one floating-point value from another floating-point value.
2.
Places the results in the destination floating-point register.
Restrictions
There are no restrictions.
Condition flags
These instructions do not change the flags.
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Miscellaneous instructions
Table 35 shows the remaining Cortex-M4 instructions:
Table 35. Miscellaneous instructions
Mnemonic
Brief description
See
BKPT
Breakpoint
BKPT on page 180
CPSID
Change Processor State, Disable Interrupts
CPS on page 181
CPSIE
Change Processor State, Enable Interrupts
CPS on page 181
DMB
Data Memory Barrier
DMB on page 182
DSB
Data Synchronization Barrier
DSB on page 183
ISB
Instruction Synchronization Barrier
ISB on page 184
MRS
Move from special register to register
MRS on page 185
MSR
Move from register to special register
MSR on page 186
NOP
No Operation
NOP on page 187
SEV
Send Event
SEV on page 188
SVC
Supervisor Call
SVC on page 189
WFE
Wait For Event
WFE on page 190
WFI
Wait For Interrupt
WFI on page 191
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BKPT
Breakpoint.
Syntax
BKPT #imm
Where:
•
‘imm’ is an expression evaluating to an integer in the range 0-255 (8-bit value).
Operation
The BKPT instruction causes the processor to enter Debug state. Debug tools can use this
to investigate system state when the instruction at a particular address is reached.
imm is ignored by the processor. If required, a debugger can use it to store additional
information about the breakpoint.
The BKPT instruction can be placed inside an IT block, but it executes unconditionally,
unaffected by the condition specified by the IT instruction.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
BKPT 0xAB
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; Breakpoint with immediate value set to 0xAB (debugger can
; extract the immediate value by locating it using the PC)
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CPS
Change processor state.
Syntax
CPSeffect iflags
Where:
•
‘effect’ is one of:
IE: Clears the special purpose register.
ID: Sets the special purpose register.
•
‘iflags’ is a sequence of one or more flags:
i: Set or clear PRIMASK.
f: Set or clear FAULTMASK.
Operation
CPS changes the PRIMASK and FAULTMASK special register values. See Exception mask
registers on page 22 for more information about these registers.
Restrictions
The restrictions are:
•
Use CPS only from privileged software, it has no effect if used in unprivileged software
•
CPS cannot be conditional and so must not be used inside an IT block.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the condition flags.
Examples
CPSID
CPSID
CPSIE
CPSIE
i
f
i
f
;
;
;
;
Disable interrupts and configurable fault handlers (set PRIMASK)
Disable interrupts and all fault handlers (set FAULTMASK)
Enable interrupts and configurable fault handlers(clear PRIMASK)
Enable interrupts and fault handlers (clear FAULTMASK)
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DMB
Data memory barrier.
Syntax
DMB{cond}
Where: ‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
Operation
DMB acts as a data memory barrier. It ensures that all explicit memory accesses that
appear, in program order, before the DMB instruction are completed before any explicit
memory accesses that appear, in program order, after the DMB instruction. DMB does not
affect the ordering or execution of instructions that do not access memory.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
DMB
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; Data Memory Barrier
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DSB
Data synchronization barrier.
Syntax
DSB{cond}
Where: ‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
Operation
DSB acts as a special data synchronization memory barrier. Instructions that come after the
DSB, in program order, do not execute until the DSB instruction completes. The DSB
instruction completes when all explicit memory accesses before it complete.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
DSB ; Data Synchronisation Barrier
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ISB
Instruction synchronization barrier.
Syntax
ISB{cond}
Where: ‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
Operation
ISB acts as an instruction synchronization barrier. It flushes the pipeline of the processor, so
that all instructions following the ISB are fetched from cache or memory again, after the ISB
instruction is completed.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
ISB
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; Instruction Synchronisation Barrier
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MRS
Move the contents of a special register to a general-purpose register.
Syntax
MRS{cond} Rd, spec_reg
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rd’ is the destination register.
•
‘spec_reg’ can be any of: APSR, IPSR, EPSR, IEPSR, IAPSR, EAPSR, PSR, MSP,
PSP, PRIMASK, BASEPRI, BASEPRI_MAX, FAULTMASK, or CONTROL.
Operation
Use MRS in combination with MSR as part of a read-modify-write sequence for updating a
PSR, for example to clear the Q flag. See MSR on page 186.
In process swap code, the programmers model state of the process being swapped out
must be saved, including relevant PSR contents. Similarly, the state of the process being
swapped in must also be restored. These operations use MRS in the state-saving
instruction sequence and MSR in the state-restoring instruction sequence.
BASEPRI_MAX is an alias of BASEPRI when used with the MRS instruction.
Restrictions
Rd must not be SP and must not be PC.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
MRS
R0, PRIMASK ; Read PRIMASK value and write it to R0
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MSR
Move the contents of a general-purpose register into the specified special register.
Syntax
MSR{cond} spec_reg, Rn
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘Rn’ is the source register.
•
‘spec_reg’ can be any of: APSR, IPSR, EPSR, IEPSR, IAPSR, EAPSR, PSR, MSP,
PSP, PRIMASK, BASEPRI, BASEPRI_MAX, FAULTMASK, or CONTROL.
Operation
The register access operation in MSR depends on the privilege level. Unprivileged software
can only access the APSR, see Table 4: APSR bit definitions on page 20. Privileged
software can access all special registers.
In unprivileged software writes to unallocated or execution state bits in the PSR are ignored.
When you write to BASEPRI_MAX, the instruction writes to BASEPRI only if either:
•
Rn is non-zero and the current BASEPRI value is 0
•
Rn is non-zero and less than the current BASEPRI value.
See MRS on page 185.
Restrictions
Rn must not be SP and must not be PC.
Condition flags
This instruction updates the flags explicitly based on the value in Rn.
Examples
MSR
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CONTROL, R1 ; Read R1 value and write it to the CONTROL register
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NOP
No Operation.
Syntax
NOP{cond}
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
Operation
NOP does nothing. NOP is not necessarily a time-consuming NOP. The processor might
remove it from the pipeline before it reaches the execution stage.
Use NOP for padding, for example to place the following instruction on a 64-bit boundary.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
NOP
; No operation
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SEV
Send Event.
Syntax
SEV{cond}
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
Operation
SEV is a hint instruction that causes an event to be signaled to all processors within a
multiprocessor system. It also sets the local event register to 1, see Power management on
page 46.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
SEV ; Send Event
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SVC
Supervisor Call.
Syntax
SVC{cond} #imm
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
•
‘imm’ is an expression evaluating to an integer in the range 0-255 (8-bit value).
Operation
The SVC instruction causes the SVC exception. imm is ignored by the processor. If
required, it can be retrieved by the exception handler to determine what service is being
requested.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
SVC
value
0x32
; Supervisor Call (SVC handler can extract the immediate
; by locating it via the stacked PC)
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WFE
Wait For Event. WFE is a hint instruction.
Syntax
WFE{cond}
Where: ‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
Operation
If the event register is 0, WFE suspends execution until one of the following events occurs:
•
An exception, unless masked by exception mask registers or the current priority level
•
An exception enters Pending state, if SEVONPEND in System Control Register is set
•
A Debug Entry request, if Debug is enabled
•
An event signaled by a peripheral or another processor in a multiprocessor system
using the SEV instruction.
If the event register is 1, WFE clears it to 0 and returns immediately.
For more information see Power management on page 46.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
WFE
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; Wait for event
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WFI
Wait for Interrupt.
Syntax
WFI{cond}
Where:
•
‘cond’ is an optional condition code, see Conditional execution on page 64.
Operation
WFI is a hint instruction that suspends execution until one of the following events occurs:
•
An exception
•
A Debug Entry request, regardless of whether Debug is enabled.
Condition flags
This instruction does not change the flags.
Examples
WFI ; Wait for interrupt
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Core peripherals
4.1
About the STM32 Cortex-M4 core peripherals
The address map of the Private peripheral bus (PPB) is:
Table 36. STM32 core peripheral register regions
Address
Core peripheral
Description
0xE000E010-0xE000E01F
System timer
Table 54 on page 250
0xE000E100-0xE000E4EF
Nested vectored interrupt
controller
Table 48 on page 218
0xE000ED00-0xE000ED3F System control block
0xE000ED88-0xE000ED8B
Floating point unit
coprocessor access control
0xE000ED90-0xE000EDB8 Memory protection unit
Table 52 on page 243
Table 55 on page 251
Table 43 on page 205
0xE000EF00-0xE000EF03
Nested vectored interrupt
controller
Table 48 on page 218
0xE000EF30-0xE000EF44
Floating point unit
Table 55 on page 251
In register descriptions,
•
•
4.2
Register type is described as follows:
–
RW: Read and write.
–
RO: Read-only.
–
WO: Write-only.
Required privilege gives the privilege level required to access the register, as follows:
–
Privileged: Only privileged software can access the register.
–
Unprivileged: Both unprivileged and privileged software can access the register.
Memory protection unit (MPU)
This section describes the Memory protection unit (MPU) which is implemented in some
STM32 microcontrollers. Refer to the corresponding device datasheet to see if the MPU is
present in the STM32 type you are using.
The MPU divides the memory map into a number of regions, and defines the location, size,
access permissions, and memory attributes of each region. It supports:
•
Independent attribute settings for each region
•
Overlapping regions
•
Export of memory attributes to the system.
The memory attributes affect the behavior of memory accesses to the region. The CortexM4 MPU defines:
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•
Eight separate memory regions, 0-7
•
A background region.
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When memory regions overlap, a memory access is affected by the attributes of the region
with the highest number. For example, the attributes for region 7 take precedence over the
attributes of any region that overlaps region 7.
The background region has the same memory access attributes as the default memory
map, but is accessible from privileged software only.
The Cortex-M4 MPU memory map is unified. This means instruction accesses and data
accesses have same region settings.
If a program accesses a memory location that is prohibited by the MPU, the processor
generates a memory management fault. This causes a fault exception, and might cause
termination of the process in an OS environment.
In an OS environment, the kernel can update the MPU region setting dynamically based on
the process to be executed. Typically, an embedded OS uses the MPU for memory
protection.
Configuration of MPU regions is based on memory types, see Section 2.2.1: Memory
regions, types and attributes on page 28.
Table 37 shows the possible MPU region attributes.
Table 37. Memory attributes summary
Memory type
Shareability
Other attributes
Description
-
All accesses to Strongly-ordered
memory occur in program order. All
Strongly-ordered regions are assumed
to be shared.
Shared
-
Memory-mapped peripherals that
several processors share.
Non-shared
-
Memory-mapped peripherals that only a
single processor uses.
Shared
Non-cacheable
Normal memory that is shared between
Write-through Cacheable
several processors.
Write-back Cacheable
Non-shared
Non-cacheable
Normal memory that only a single
Write-through Cacheable
processor uses.
Write-back Cacheable
Strongly-ordered -
Device
Normal
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MPU access permission attributes
This section describes the MPU access permission attributes. The access permission bits,
TEX, C, B, S, AP, and XN, of the MPU_RASR register, control access to the corresponding
memory region. If an access is made to an area of memory without the required
permissions, then the MPU generates a permission fault.
Table 38 shows the encodings for the TEX, C, B, and S access permission bits.
Table 38. TEX, C, B, and S encoding
TEX
C
0
b000
B
Shareable
-
1
Shareable
-
Not shareable
Outer and inner write-through. No
write allocate.
0
0
b010
b1BB
Other attributes
x(1)
1
0
Shareability
x (1) Strongly-ordered
1
1
Memory type
0
0
b001
S
0
Device
Normal
1
0
Normal
1
0
Normal
1
Shareable
Not shareable
Shareable
Not shareable
Shareable
Outer and inner write-back. No write
allocate.
Outer and inner noncacheable.
1
x(1)
Reserved encoding
-
0
x(1)
Implementation defined attributes.
-
1
0
Normal
1
Not shareable
Shareable
Outer and inner write-back. Write
and read allocate.
Not shareable
Nonshared Device.
0
x(1)
1
(1)
x
Reserved encoding
-
x(1)
Reserved encoding
-
1
x(1)
A
A
0
Device
Normal
1
Not shareable
Shareable
Cached memory(2) , BB = outer
policy, AA = inner policy.
1. THe MPU ignores the value fo this bit.
2. See Table 39 for the encoding of the AA and BB bits.
Table 39 shows the cache policy for memory attribute encodings with a TEX value is in the
range 4-7.
Table 39. Cache policy for memory attribute encoding
Encoding, AA or BB
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Corresponding cache policy
00
Non-cacheable
01
Write back, write and read allocate
10
Write through, no write allocate
11
Write back, no write allocate
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Table 40 shows the AP encodings that define the access permissions for privileged and
unprivileged software.
Table 40. AP encoding
4.2.2
AP[2:0]
Privileged
permissions
Unprivileged
permissions
000
No access
No access
All accesses generate a permission fault
001
RW
No access
Access from privileged software only
010
RW
RO
Writes by unprivileged software generate
a permission fault
011
RW
RW
Full access
100
Unpredictable
Unpredictable
101
RO
No access
110
RO
RO
Read only, by privileged or unprivileged
software
111
RO
RO
Read only, by privileged or unprivileged
software
Description
Reserved
Reads by privileged software only
MPU mismatch
When an access violates the MPU permissions, the processor generates a memory
management fault, see Section 2.1.4: Exceptions and interrupts on page 25. The MMFSR
indicates the cause of the fault. See Section 4.4.15: Memory management fault address
register (MMFAR) on page 241 for more information.
4.2.3
Updating an MPU region
To update the attributes for an MPU region, update the MPU_RNR, MPU_RBAR and
MPU_RASR registers. You can program each register separately, or use a multiple-word
write to program all of these registers. You can use the MPU_RBAR and MPU_RASR
aliases to program up to four regions simultaneously using an STM instruction.
Updating an MPU region using separate words
Simple code to configure one region:
LDR R0,=MPU_RNR
STR R1, [R0, #0x0]
STR R4, [R0, #0x4]
STRH R2, [R0, #0x8]
STRH R3, [R0, #0xA]
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
R1 = region number
R2 = size/enable
R3 = attributes
R4 = address
0xE000ED98, MPU region number register
Region Number
Region Base Address
Region Size and Enable
Region Attribute
Disable a region before writing new region settings to the MPU if you have previously
enabled the region being changed. For example:
; R1 = region number
; R2 = size/enable
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; R3 = attributes
; R4 = address
; 0xE000ED98, MPU region number register
; Region Number
; Disable
; Region Size and Enable
; Region Base Address
; Region Attribute
; Enable
; Region Size and Enable
LDR R0,=MPU_RNR
STR R1, [R0, #0x0]
BIC R2, R2, #1
STRH R2, [R0, #0x8]
STR R4, [R0, #0x4]
STRH R3, [R0, #0xA]
ORR R2, #1
STRH R2, [R0, #0x8]
Software must use memory barrier instructions:
•
Before MPU setup if there might be outstanding memory transfers, such as buffered
writes, that might be affected by the change in MPU settings
•
After MPU setup if it includes memory transfers that must use the new MPU settings.
However, memory barrier instructions are not required if the MPU setup process starts by
entering an exception handler, or is followed by an exception return, because the exception
entry and exception return mechanism cause memory barrier behavior.
Software does not need any memory barrier instructions during MPU setup, because it
accesses the MPU through the PPB, which is a Strongly-Ordered memory region.
For example, if you want all of the memory access behavior to take effect immediately after
the programming sequence, use a DSB instruction and an ISB instruction:
•
A DSB is required after changing MPU settings, such as at the end of context switch.
•
An ISB is required if the code that programs the MPU region or regions is entered using
a branch or call. If the programming sequence is entered using a return from exception,
or by taking an exception, then you do not require an ISB.
Updating an MPU region using multi-word writes
You can program directly using multi-word writes, depending on how the information is
divided. Consider the following reprogramming:
LDR
STR
STR
STR
R0,
R1,
R2,
R3,
=MPU_RNR
[R0, #0x0]
[R0, #0x4]
[R0, #0x8]
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
R1 = region number
R2 = address
R3 = size, attributes in one
0xE000ED98, MPU region number register
Region Number
Region Base Address
Region Attribute, Size and Enable
Use an STM instruction to optimize this:
LDR R0, =MPU_RNR
STM R0, {R1-R3}
;
;
;
;
;
R1 = region number
R2 = address
R3 = size, attributes in one
0xE000ED98, MPU region number register
Region Number, address, attribute, size and enable
You can do this in two words for pre-packed information. This means that the RBAR
contains the required region number and had the VALID bit set to 1, see MPU region base
address register (MPU_RBAR) on page 202. Use this when the data is statically packed, for
example in a boot loader:
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LDR R0, =MPU_RBAR
STR R1, [R0, #0x0]
STR R2, [R0, #0x4]
; R1 = address and region number in one
; R2 = size and attributes in one
; 0xE000ED9C, MPU Region Base register
; Region base address and
; region number combined with VALID (bit 4) set to 1
; Region Attribute, Size and Enable
Use an STM instruction to optimize this:
LDR R0,=MPU_RBAR
STM R0, {R1-R2}
;
;
;
;
;
R1 = address and region number in one
R2 = size and attributes in one
0xE000ED9C, MPU Region Base register
Region base address, region number and VALID bit,
and Region Attribute, Size and Enable
Subregions
Regions of 256 bytes or more are divided into eight equal-sized subregions. Set the
corresponding bit in the SRD field of the RASR to disable a subregion, see Section 4.2.9:
MPU region attribute and size register (MPU_RASR) on page 203. The least significant bit
of SRD controls the first subregion, and the most significant bit controls the last subregion.
Disabling a subregion means another region overlapping the disabled range matches
instead. If no other enabled region overlaps the disabled subregion the MPU issues a fault.
Regions of 32, 64, and 128 bytes do not support subregions, With regions of these sizes,
you must set the SRD field to 0x00, otherwise the MPU behavior is Unpredictable.
Example of SRD use:
Two regions with the same base address overlap. Region one is 128KB, and region two is
512KB. To ensure the attributes from region one apply to the first128KB region, set the SRD
field for region two to b00000011 to disable the first two subregions, as the figure shows.
Figure 18. Subregion example
Region 2, with
subregions
Region 1
Disabled subregion
Disabled subregion
Base address of both regions
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512KB
448KB
384KB
320KB
256KB
192KB
128KB
64KB
0
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MPU design hints and tips
To avoid unexpected behavior, disable the interrupts before updating the attributes of a
region that the interrupt handlers might access.
Ensure software uses aligned accesses of the correct size to access MPU registers:
•
Except for the RASR, it must use aligned word accesses
•
For the RASR it can use byte or aligned halfword or word accesses.
The processor does not support unaligned accesses to MPU registers.
When setting up the MPU, and if the MPU has previously been programmed, disable
unused regions to prevent any previous region settings from affecting the new MPU setup.
Recommended MPU configuration
The STM32 microcontroller system has only a single processor, so you should program the
MPU as follows:
Table 41. Memory region attributes for STM32
Memory region
TEX
C
B S
Memory type and attributes
Flash memory
b000
1
0
0 Normal memory, Non-shareable, write-through
Internal SRAM
b000
1
0
1 Normal memory, Shareable, write-through
External SRAM
b000
1
1
1 Normal memory, Shareable, write-back, write-allocate
Peripherals
b000
0
1
1 Device memory, Shareable
In STM32 implementations, the shareability and cache policy attributes do not affect the
system behavior. However, using these settings for the MPU regions can make the
application code more portable. The values given are for typical situations.
Note:
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The MPU attributes don't affect DMA data accesses to the memory/peripherals address
spaces. therefore, in order to protect the memory areas against inadvertent DMA accesses,
the MPU must control the SW/CPU access to the DMA registers.
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4.2.5
MPU type register (MPU_TYPER)
Address offset: 0x00
Reset value: 0x0000 0800
Required privilege: Privileged
The MPU_TYPER register indicates whether the MPU is present, and if so, how many
regions it supports.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
r
r
r
19
18
17
10
9
8
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Reserved
r
16
IREGION[7:0]
DREGION[7:0]
r
20
r
r
SEPA
RATE
r
Bits 31:24 Reserved.
Bits 23:16 IREGION[7:0]: Number of MPU instruction regions.
These bits indicates the number of supported MPU instruction regions.
Always contains 0x00. The MPU memory map is unified and is described by the DREGION
field.
Bits 15:8 DREGION[7:0]: Number of MPU data regions.
These bits indicates the number of supported MPU data regions.
0x08: Eight MPU regions
0x00: MPU not present
Bits 7:1 Reserved.
Bit 0 SEPARATE: Separate flag.
This bit indicates support for unified or separate instruction and data memory maps:
0 = Unified
1 = Separate
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MPU control register (MPU_CTRL)
Address offset: 0x04
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The MPU_CTRL register:
•
Enables the MPU
•
Enables the default memory map background region
•
Enables use of the MPU when in the hard fault, Non-maskable Interrupt (NMI), and
FAULTMASK escalated handlers.
When ENABLE and PRIVDEFENA are both set to 1:
•
For privileged accesses, the default memory map is as described in Section 2.2:
Memory model on page 27. Any access by privileged software that does not address
an enabled memory region behaves as defined by the default memory map.
•
Any access by unprivileged software that does not address an enabled memory region
causes a memory management fault.
XN and Strongly-ordered rules always apply to the System Control Space regardless of the
value of the ENABLE bit.
When the ENABLE bit is set to 1, at least one region of the memory map must be enabled
for the system to function unless the PRIVDEFENA bit is set to 1. If the PRIVDEFENA bit is
set to 1 and no regions are enabled, then only privileged software can operate.
When the ENABLE bit is set to 0, the system uses the default memory map. This has the
same memory attributes as if the MPU is not implemented, see Table 12: Memory access
behavior on page 29. The default memory map applies to accesses from both privileged
and unprivileged software.
When the MPU is enabled, accesses to the System Control Space and vector table are
always permitted. Other areas are accessible based on regions and whether PRIVDEFENA
is set to 1.
Unless HFNMIENA is set to 1, the MPU is not enabled when the processor is executing the
handler for an exception with priority –1 or –2. These priorities are only possible when
handling a hard fault or NMI exception, or when FAULTMASK is enabled. Setting the
HFNMIENA bit to 1 enables the MPU when operating with these two priorities.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
Reserved
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14
HFNMIENA
15
PRIVDEFENA
Reserved
rw
rw
rw
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Core peripherals
Bits 31:3 Reserved, forced by hardware to 0.
Bit 2 PRIVDEFENA: Enable priviliged software access to default memory map.
0: If the MPU is enabled, disables use of the default memory map. Any memory access to a
location not covered by any enabled region causes a fault.
1: If the MPU is enabled, enables use of the default memory map as a background region for
privileged software accesses.
Note: When enabled, the background region acts as if it is region number -1. Any region that
is defined and enabled has priority over this default map.
If the MPU is disabled, the processor ignores this bit.
Bit 1 HFNMIENA: Enables the operation of MPU during hard fault, NMI, and FAULTMASK handlers.
When the MPU is enabled:
0: MPU is disabled during hard fault, NMI, and FAULTMASK handlers, regardless of the
value of the ENABLE bit
1: The MPU is enabled during hard fault, NMI, and FAULTMASK handlers.
Note: When the MPU is disabled, if this bit is set to 1 the behavior is unpredictable.
Bit 0 ENABLE: Enables the MPU
0: MPU disabled
1: MPU enabled
4.2.7
MPU region number register (MPU_RNR)
Address offset: 0x08
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The MPU_RNR register selects which memory region is referenced by the MPU_RBAR and
MPU_RASR registers.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
Reserved
REGION[7:0]
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:8 Reserved, forced by hardware to 0.
Bits 7:0 REGION[7:0]: MPU region
These bits indicate the MPU region referenced by the MPU_RBAR and MPU_RASR registers.
The MPU supports 8 memory regions, so the permitted values of this field are 0-7.
Normally, you write the required region number to this register before accessing the
MPU_RBAR or MPU_RASR. However you can change the region number by writing to the
MPU_RBAR register with the VALID bit set to 1, see MPU region base address register
(MPU_RBAR). This write updates the value of the REGION field.
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MPU region base address register (MPU_RBAR)
Address offset: 0x0C
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The MPU_RBAR register defines the base address of the MPU region selected by the
MPU_RNR register, and can update the value of the MPU_RNR register.
Write to the MPU_RBAR register with the VALID bit set to 1 to change the current region
number and update the MPU_RNR register.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADDR[31:N]...
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
....ADDR[31:N]
VALID
rw
REGION[3:0]
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:N ADDR[31:N]: Region base address field
The value of N depends on the region size.
The region size, as specified by the SIZE field in the MPU_RASR, defines the value of N:
N = Log2(Region size in bytes),
If the region size is configured to 4 GB, in the MPU_RASR register, there is no valid ADDR
field. In this case, the region occupies the complete memory map, and the base address is
0x00000000.
The base address is aligned to the size of the region. For example, a 64 KB region must be
aligned on a multiple of 64 KB, for example, at 0x00010000 or 0x00020000.
Bits N-1:5 Reserved, forced by hardware to 0.
Bit 4 VALID: MPU region number valid
Write:
0: MPU_RNR register not changed, and the processor:
–
Updates the base address for the region specified in the MPU_RNR
–
Ignores the value of the REGION field
1: the processor:
–
updates the value of the MPU_RNR to the value of the REGION field
–
updates the base address for the region specified in the REGION field.
Read:
Always read as zero.
Bits 3:0 REGION[3:0]: MPU region field
For the behavior on writes, see the description of the VALID field.
On reads, returns the current region number, as specified by the MPU_RNR register.
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4.2.9
MPU region attribute and size register (MPU_RASR)
Address offset: 0x10
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The MPU_RASR register defines the region size and memory attributes of the MPU region
specified by the MPU_RNR, and enables that region and any subregions.
MPU_RASR is accessible using word or halfword accesses:
•
The least significant halfword holds the region size and the region and subregion
enable bits.
29
Reserved
28
27
XN
rw
15
14
13
12
11
26
25
24
AP[2:0]
rw
rw
rw
rw
22
21
Reserved
rw
rw
rw
10
9
8
SRD[7:0]
rw
23
7
6
20
TEX[2:0]
rw
rw
18
17
16
S
C
B
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
Reserved
rw
19
EN ABLE
30
The most significant halfword holds the region attributes
Reserved
31
•
SIZE
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:29 Reserved, forced by hardware to 0.
Bit 28 XN: Instruction access disable bit:
0: Instruction fetches enabled
1: Instruction fetches disabled.
Bit 27 Reserved, forced by hardware to 0.
Bits 26:24 AP[2:0]: Access permission
For information about access permission, see Section 4: Core peripherals
For a description of AP bits encoding refer to Table 40 on page 195.
Bits 23:22 Reserved, forced by hardware to 0.
Bits 21:19 TEX[2:0]: memory attribute
For a description of TEX bits encoding refer to Table 38 on page 194
Bit 18 S: Shareable memory attribute
For a description of S bits encoding refer to Table 38 on page 194
Bit 17 C: memory attribute
Bit 16 B: memory attribute
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Bits 15:8 SRD: Subregion disable bits.
For each bit in this field:
0: corresponding sub-region is enabled
1: corresponding sub-region is disabled
See Subregions on page 197 for more information.
Region sizes of 128 bytes and less do not support subregions. When writing the attributes for
such a region, write the SRD field as 0x00.
Bits 7:6 Reserved, forced by hardware to 0.
Bits 5:1 SIZE: Size of the MPU protection region.
The minimum permitted value is 3 (b00010), see SIZE field values for more information.
Bit 0 ENABLE: Region enable bit.
SIZE field values
The SIZE field defines the size of the MPU memory region specified by the MPU_RNR
regsiter as follows:
(Region size in bytes) = 2(SIZE+1)
The smallest permitted region size is 32B, corresponding to a SIZE value of 4. Table 42
gives example SIZE values, with the corresponding region size and value of N in the
MPU_RBAR.
Table 42. Example SIZE field values
Region size
Value of N(1)
Note
b00100 (4)
32B
5
Minimum permitted size
b01001 (9)
1KB
10
-
b10011 (19)
1MB
20
-
b11101 (29)
1GB
30
-
b11111 (31)
4GB
b01100
SIZE value
1. In the MPU_RBAR register see Section 4.2.8 on page 202
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4.2.10
Core peripherals
MPU register map
Reset Value
S C B
SRD[7:0]
EN ABLE
REGION[3:0]
SIZE
EN ABLE
AP[2:0]
Reserved
XN
Reserved
(2)
SIZE
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reserved
MPU_RASR_A2
0x20
ADDR[31:N]...
(1)
Reset Value
SRD[7:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MPU_RBAR_A2
0x1C
S C B
EN ABLE
Reserved
AP[2:0]
REGION[3:0]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
XN
Reserved
(2)
SIZE
VALID
ADDR[31:N]...
Reserved
MPU_RASR_A1
0x18
SRD[7:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(1)
Reset Value
S C B
Reserved
AP[2:0]
TEX[2:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MPU_RBAR_A1
0x14
VALID
ADDR[31:N]...
VALID
Reset Value
REGION[3:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TEX[2:0]
MPU_RASR
REGION[7:0]
Reserved
MPU_RBAR
Reset Value
0x10
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MPU_RNR
Reset Value
0x0C
Reserved
TEX[2:0]
0x08
Reserved
PRIVDEFENA
HFNMIENA
ENABLE
MPU_CTRL
Reset Value
DREGION[7:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reserved
0x04
IREGION[7:0]
Reserved
Reset Value
Reserved
Reserved
MPU_TYPER
XN
Reserved
0x00
Register
Reserved
Offset
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
SEPARATE 0
Table 43. MPU register map and reset values
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Reset Value
S C B
SIZE
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1. Alias of MPU_RBAR register
2. Alias of MPU_RASR register
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SRD[7:0]
EN ABLE
AP[2:0]
Reserved
(2)
XN
Reserved
Reserved
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MPU_RASR_A3
0x20
REGION[3:0]
ADDR[31:N]...
(1)
Reset Value
VALID
MPU_RBAR_A3
0x1C
Reserved
Register
TEX[2:0]
Offset
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 43. MPU register map and reset values (continued)
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4.3
Core peripherals
Nested vectored interrupt controller (NVIC)
This section describes the Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC) and the registers it
uses. The NVIC supports:
•
Up to 81 interrupts (interrupt number depends on the STM32 device type; refer to the
datasheets)
•
A programmable priority level of 0-15 for each interrupt. A higher level corresponds to a
lower priority, so level 0 is the highest interrupt priority
•
Level and pulse detection of interrupt signals
•
Dynamic reprioritization of interrupts
•
Grouping of priority values into group priority and subpriority fields
•
Interrupt tail-chaining
•
An external Non-maskable interrupt (NMI)
The processor automatically stacks its state on exception entry and unstacks this state on
exception exit, with no instruction overhead. This provides low latency exception handling.
The hardware implementation of the NVIC registers is:
Table 44. NVIC register summary
Address
Name
Type
Required
privilege
Reset value
Description
0xE000E100- NVIC_ISER0RW
0xE000E10B NVIC_ISER2
Privileged
0x00000000
Table 4.3.2: Interrupt set-enable registers
(NVIC_ISERx) on page 209
0XE000E180- NVIC_ICER0RW
0xE000E18B NVIC_ICER2
Privileged
0x00000000
Table 4.3.3: Interrupt clear-enable registers
(NVIC_ICERx) on page 210
0XE000E200- NVIC_ISPR0RW
0xE000E20B NVIC_ISPR2
Privileged
0x00000000
Table 4.3.4: Interrupt set-pending registers
(NVIC_ISPRx) on page 211
0XE000E280- NVIC_ICPR0RW
0xE000E29C NVIC_ICPR2
Privileged
0x00000000
Table 4.3.5: Interrupt clear-pending registers
(NVIC_ICPRx) on page 212
0xE000E300- NVIC_IABR0RW
0xE000E31C NVIC_IABR2
Privileged
0x00000000
Table 4.3.6: Interrupt active bit registers
(NVIC_IABRx) on page 213
0xE000E400- NVIC_IPR00xE000E503 NVIC_IPR20
RW
Privileged
0x00000000
Table 4.3.7: Interrupt priority registers
(NVIC_IPRx) on page 214
0xE000EF00
WO
Configurable
0x00000000
Table 4.3.8: Software trigger interrupt register
(NVIC_STIR) on page 215
STIR
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Accessing the Cortex-M4 NVIC registers using CMSIS
CMSIS functions enable software portability between different Cortex-M profile processors.
To access the NVIC registers when using CMSIS, use the following functions:
Table 45. CMSIS access NVIC functions
CMSIS function(1)
void NVIC_EnableIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn)
Enables an interrupt or exception.
void NVIC_DisableIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn)
Disables an interrupt or exception.
void NVIC_SetPendingIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn)
Sets the pending status of interrupt or
exception to 1.
void NVIC_ClearPendingIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn)
Clears the pending status of interrupt or
exception to 0.
uint32_t NVIC_GetPendingIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn)
Reads the pending status of interrupt or
exception. This function returns nonzero value if the pending status is set to
1.
void NVIC_SetPriority(IRQn_Type IRQn, uint32_t priority)
Sets the priority of an interrupt or
exception with configurable priority level
to 1.
uint32_t NVIC_GetPriority(IRQn_Type IRQn)
Reads the priority of an interrupt or
exception with configurable priority
level. This function return the current
priority level.
1. The input parameter IRQn is the IRQ number,
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4.3.2
Interrupt set-enable registers (NVIC_ISERx)
Address offset: 0x00 - 0x0B
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
SETENA[31:16]
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
SETENA[15:0]
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
Bits 31:0 SETENA: Interrupt set-enable bits.
Write:
0: No effect
1: Enable interrupt
Read:
0: Interrupt disabled
1: Interrupt enabled.
If a pending interrupt is enabled, the NVIC activates the interrupt based on its priority. If an
interrupt is not enabled, asserting its interrupt signal changes the interrupt state to pending,
but the NVIC never activates the interrupt, regardless of its priority.
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Interrupt clear-enable registers (NVIC_ICERx)
Address offset: 0x00 - 0x0B
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The ICER0-ICER2 registers disable interrupts, and show which interrupts are enabled.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
CLRENA[31:16]
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
CLRENA[15:0]
rc_w1
Bits 31:0 CLRENA: Interrupt clear-enable bits.
Write:
0: No effect
1: Disable interrupt
Read:
0: Interrupt disabled
1: Interrupt enabled.
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4.3.4
Interrupt set-pending registers (NVIC_ISPRx)
Address offset: 0x00 - 0x0B
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The ISPR0-ISPR2 registers force interrupts into the pending state, and show which
interrupts are pending.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
SETPEND[31:16]
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
rs
SETPEND[15:0]
rs
rs
Bits 31:0 SETPEND: Interrupt set-pending bits
Write:
0: No effect
1: Changes interrupt state to pending
Read:
0: Interrupt is not pending
1: Interrupt is pending
Writing 1 to the ISPR bit corresponding to an interrupt that is pending:
–
has no effect.
Writing 1 to the ISPR bit corresponding to a disabled interrupt:
–
sets the state of that interrupt to pending.
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Interrupt clear-pending registers (NVIC_ICPRx)
Address offset: 0x00 - 0x0B
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The ICPR0-ICPR2 registers remove the pending state from interrupts, and show which
interrupts are pending.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
CLRPEND[31:16]
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
CLRPEND[15:0]
rc_w1
Bits 31:0 CLRPEND: Interrupt clear-pending bits
Write:
0: No effect
1: Removes the pending state of an interrupt
Read:
0: Interrupt is not pending
1: Interrupt is pending
Writing 1 to an ICPR bit does not affect the active state of the corresponding interrupt.
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4.3.6
Interrupt active bit registers (NVIC_IABRx)
Address offset: 0x00- 0x0B
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The IABR0-IABR2 registers indicate which interrupts are active.
The bit assignments are:
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
ACTIVE[31:16]
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
ACTIVE[15:0]
r
r
Bits 31:0 ACTIVE: Interrupt active flags
0: Interrupt not active
1: Interrupt active
A bit reads as 1 if the status of the corresponding interrupt is active or active and pending.
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Interrupt priority registers (NVIC_IPRx)
Address offset: 0x00- 0x0B
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The NVIC_IPR0-IPR80 registers provide an 8-bit priority field for each interrupt. These
registers are byte-accessible. Each register holds four priority fields, that map to four
elements in the CMSIS interrupt priority array IP[0] to IP[67], as shown in Figure 19.
Figure 19. NVIC_IPRx register mapping
31
Reserved
16 15
Reserved
Reserved
0
IP[80]
IP[4m+ 2]
IP[3]
IP[2]
IP[4m+ 1]
IP[4m]
IP[1]
IP[0]
...
IP[4m+ 3]
...
IPRm
8 7
...
...
IPR20
24 23
IPR0
Table 46. IPR bit assignments
Bits
[31:24]
[23:16]
[15:8]
[7:0]
Name
Function
Priority, byte offset 3
Each priority field holds a priority value, 0-255. The lower the value,
Priority, byte offset 2 the greater the priority of the corresponding interrupt. The processor
Priority, byte offset 1 implements only bits[7:4] of each field, bits[3:0] read as zero and
ignore writes.
Priority, byte offset 0
See Interrupt set-enable registers (NVIC_ISERx) on page 209 for more information about
the interrupt priority array, that provides the software view of the interrupt priorities.
Find the IPR number and byte offset for interrupt N as follows:
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•
The corresponding IPR number, M, is given by M = N DIV 4
•
The byte offset of the required Priority field in this register is N MOD 4, where:
–
byte offset 0 refers to register bits[7:0]
–
byte offset 1 refers to register bits[15:8]
–
byte offset 2 refers to register bits[23:16]
–
byte offset 3 refers to register bits[31:24].
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Core peripherals
Software trigger interrupt register (NVIC_STIR)
Address offset: 0xE00
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: When the USERSETMPEND bit in the SCR is set to 1, unprivileged
software can access the STIR, see Section 4.4.6: System control register (SCR). Only
privileged software can enable unprivileged access to the STIR.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
6
5
20
19
18
17
16
4
3
2
1
0
w
w
w
w
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
INTID[8:0]
Reserved
w
w
w
w
w
Bits 31:9 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
Bits 8:0 INTID Software generated interrupt ID
Write to the STIR to generate a Software Generated Interrupt (SGI). The value to be written is
the Interrupt ID of the required SGI, in the range 0-239. For example, a value of 0x03 specifies
interrupt IRQ3.
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Level-sensitive and pulse interrupts
STM32 interrupts are both level-sensitive and pulse-sensitive. Pulse interrupts are also
described as edge-triggered interrupts.
A level-sensitive interrupt is held asserted until the peripheral deasserts the interrupt signal.
Typically this happens because the ISR accesses the peripheral, causing it to clear the
interrupt request. A pulse interrupt is an interrupt signal sampled synchronously on the
rising edge of the processor clock. To ensure the NVIC detects the interrupt, the peripheral
must assert the interrupt signal for at least one clock cycle, during which the NVIC detects
the pulse and latches the interrupt.
When the processor enters the ISR, it automatically removes the pending state from the
interrupt, see Hardware and software control of interrupts. For a level-sensitive interrupt, if
the signal is not deasserted before the processor returns from the ISR, the interrupt
becomes pending again, and the processor must execute its ISR again. This means that the
peripheral can hold the interrupt signal asserted until it no longer needs servicing.
Hardware and software control of interrupts
The Cortex-M4 latches all interrupts. A peripheral interrupt becomes pending for one of the
following reasons:
•
The NVIC detects that the interrupt signal is HIGH and the interrupt is not active
•
The NVIC detects a rising edge on the interrupt signal
•
Software writes to the corresponding interrupt set-pending register bit, see
Section 4.3.4: Interrupt set-pending registers (NVIC_ISPRx), or to the STIR to make an
SGI pending, see Section 4.3.8: Software trigger interrupt register (NVIC_STIR).
A pending interrupt remains pending until one of the following:
•
•
The processor enters the ISR for the interrupt. This changes the state of the interrupt
from pending to active. Then:
–
For a level-sensitive interrupt, when the processor returns from the ISR, the NVIC
samples the interrupt signal. If the signal is asserted, the state of the interrupt
changes to pending, which might cause the processor to immediately re-enter the
ISR. Otherwise, the state of the interrupt changes to inactive.
–
For a pulse interrupt, the NVIC continues to monitor the interrupt signal, and if this
is pulsed the state of the interrupt changes to pending and active. In this case,
when the processor returns from the ISR the state of the interrupt changes to
pending, which might cause the processor to immediately re-enter the ISR. If the
interrupt signal is not pulsed while the processor is in the ISR, when the processor
returns from the ISR the state of the interrupt changes to inactive.
Software writes to the corresponding interrupt clear-pending register bit.
For a level-sensitive interrupt, if the interrupt signal is still asserted, the state of the
interrupt does not change. Otherwise, the state of the interrupt changes to inactive.
For a pulse interrupt, state of the interrupt changes to:
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–
Inactive, if the state was pending
–
Active, if the state was active and pending.
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Core peripherals
NVIC design hints and tips
Ensure software uses correctly aligned register accesses. The processor does not support
unaligned accesses to NVIC registers. See the individual register descriptions for the
supported access sizes.
An interrupt can enter pending state even it is disabled. Disabling an interrupt only prevents
the processor from taking that interrupt.
Before programming VTOR to relocate the vector table, ensure the vector table entries of
the new vector table are setup for fault handlers, NMI and all enabled exception like
interrupts. For more information see Section 4.4.4: Vector table offset register (VTOR) on
page 226.
NVIC programming hints
Software uses the CPSIE I and CPSID I instructions to enable and disable interrupts. The
CMSIS provides the following intrinsic functions for these instructions:
void __disable_irq(void) // Disable Interrupts
void __enable_irq(void) // Enable Interrupts
In addition, the CMSIS provides a number of functions for NVIC control, including:
Table 47. CMSIS functions for NVIC control
CMSIS interrupt control function
Description
void NVIC_SetPriorityGrouping(uint32_t priority_grouping)
Set the priority grouping
void NVIC_EnableIRQ(IRQn_t IRQn)
Enable IRQn
void NVIC_DisableIRQ(IRQn_t IRQn)
Disable IRQn
uint32_t NVIC_GetPendingIRQ (IRQn_t IRQn)
Return true (IRQ-Number) if IRQn is
pending
void NVIC_SetPendingIRQ (IRQn_t IRQn)
Set IRQn pending
void NVIC_ClearPendingIRQ (IRQn_t IRQn)
Clear IRQn pending status
uint32_t NVIC_GetActive (IRQn_t IRQn)
Return the IRQ number of the active
interrupt
void NVIC_SetPriority (IRQn_t IRQn, uint32_t priority)
Set priority for IRQn
uint32_t NVIC_GetPriority (IRQn_t IRQn)
Read priority of IRQn
void NVIC_SystemReset (void)
Reset the system
The input parameter IRQn is the IRQ number, see Table 16: Properties of the different
exception types on page 37. For more information about these functions see the CMSIS
documentation.
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NVIC register map
This table shows the NVIC register map and reset values. The base address of the main
NVIC register block is 0xE000E100. The NVIC_STIR register is located in a separate block
at 0xE000EF00.
Offset
0x000
0x004
0x008
0x080
0x084
0x088
0x100
0x104
0x108
0x180
0x184
0x188
0x200
0x204
0x208
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Register
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 48. NVIC register map and reset values
NVIC_ISER0
SETENA[31:0]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ISER1
SETENA[63:32]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ISER2
Reserved
Reset Value
SETENA [80:64]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ICER0
CLRENA[31:0]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ICER1
CLRENA[63:32]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ICER2
Reserved
Reset Value
CLRENA [80:64]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ISPR0
SETPEND[31:0]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ISPR1
SETPEND[63:32]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ISPR2
Reserved
Reset Value
SETPEND [80:64]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ICPR0
CLRPEND[31:0]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ICPR1
CLRPEND[63:32]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_ICPR2
Reserved
Reset Value
CLRPEND [80:64]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_IABR0
ACTIVE[31:0]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_IABR1
ACTIVE[63:32]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NVIC_IABR2
Reset Value
Reserved
ACTIVE [80:64]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Core peripherals
Offset
0x300
:
0x320
Register
NVIC_IPR0
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 48. NVIC register map and reset values (continued)
IP[3]
IP[2]
IP[1]
IP[0]
Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
:
:
NVIC_IPR20
Reset Value
Reserved
IP[80]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SCB registers
Reserved
0xE00
NVIC_STIR
Reset Value
Reserved
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INTID[8:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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System control block (SCB)
The System control block (SCB) provides system implementation information, and system
control. This includes configuration, control, and reporting of the system exceptions.
Table 49. Summary of the system control block registers
Type
Required
Reset value
privilege
ACTLR
RW
Privileged 0x00000000
0xE000ED00 CPUID
RO
Privileged 0x410FC241 Table 4.4.2: CPUID base register (CPUID) on page 223
0xE000ED04 ICSR
RW(1) Privileged 0x00000000
Table 4.4.3: Interrupt control and state register (ICSR)
on page 224
0xE000ED08 VTOR
RW
Privileged 0x00000000
Table 4.4.4: Vector table offset register (VTOR) on
page 226
0xE000ED0C AIRCR
RW(1) Privileged 0xFA050000
Table 4.4.5: Application interrupt and reset control
register (AIRCR) on page 227
0xE000ED10 SCR
RW
Privileged 0x00000000
Table 4.4.6: System control register (SCR) on
page 229
0xE000ED14 CCR
RW
Privileged 0x00000200
Table 4.4.7: Configuration and control register (CCR)
on page 230
0xE000ED18 SHPR1
RW
Privileged 0x00000000
0xE000ED1C SHPR2
RW
Privileged 0x00000000
0xE000ED20 SHPR3
RW
Privileged 0x00000000
0xE000ED24 SHCRS RW
Privileged 0x00000000
Table 4.4.9: System handler control and state register
(SHCSR) on page 234
0xE000ED28 CFSR
RW
Privileged 0x00000000
Table 4.4.10: Configurable fault status register (CFSR;
UFSR+BFSR+MMFSR) on page 236
MMSR
0xE000ED28 (2)
RW
Privileged 0x00
MemManage Fault Status Register Table 4.4.10 on
page 236
0xE000ED29 BFSR(2) RW
Privileged 0x00
BusFault Status Register Table 4.4.10 on page 236
Address
Name
0xE000E008
(2)
Description
Table 4.4.1: Auxiliary control register (ACTLR) on
page 221
Table 4.4.8: System handler priority registers (SHPRx)
on page 232
0xE000ED2A UFSR
RW
Privileged 0x0000
UsageFault Status Register Table 4.4.10 on page 236
0xE000ED2C HFSR
RW
Privileged 0x00000000
Table 4.4.14: Hard fault status register (HFSR) on
page 240
0xE000ED34 MMAR
RW
Privileged Unknown
Table 4.4.15: Memory management fault address
register (MMFAR) on page 241
0xE000ED38 BFAR
RW
Privileged Unknown
Table 4.4.16: Bus fault address register (BFAR) on
page 241
0xE000ED3C AFSR
RW
Privileged 0x00000000
Table 4.4.17: Auxiliary fault status register (AFSR) on
page 242
1. See the register description for more information.
2. A subregister of the CFSR
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4.4.1
Auxiliary control register (ACTLR)
Address offset: 0x00 (base adress = 0xE000 E008)
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
By default this register is set to provide optimum performance from the Cortex-M4
processor, and does not normally require modification. The ACTLR register provides disable
bits for the following processor functions:
31
30
•
IT folding
•
write buffer use for accesses to the default memory map
•
interruption of multi-cycle instructions.
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
Reserved
10
9
8
DISOO
FP
DISFP
CA
rw
rw
7
DISFOL DISDE DISMC
D
FWBUF YCINT
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:10 Reserved
Bit 9 DISOOFP
Disables floating point instructions completing out of order with respect to integer instructions.
Bit 8 DISFPCA
Disables automatic update of CONTROL.FPCA.
The value of this bit should be written as zero or preserved (SBZP).
Bit 7:3 Reserved
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Bit 2 DISFOLD
Disables folding of IT instructions:
0: Enables IT instructions folding.
1: Disables IT instructions folding.
In some situations, the processor can start executing the first instruction in an IT block while it
is still executing the IT instruction. This behavior is called IT folding, and improves
performance, However, IT folding can cause jitter in looping. If a task must avoid jitter, set the
DISFOLD bit to 1 before executing the task, to disable IT folding.
Bit 1 DISDEFWBUF
This bit only affects write buffers implemented in the Cortex-M4 processor.
Disables write buffer use during default memory map accesses: This causes all BusFaults to
be precise BusFaults but decreases performance because any store to memory must
complete before the processor can execute the next instruction.
0: Enable write buffer use
1: Disable write buffer use: Stores to memory is completed before next instruction.
Bit 0 DISMCYCINT
Disables interrupt of multi-cycle instructions. When set to 1, disables interruption of load
multiple and store multiple instructions. This increases the interrupt latency of the processor
because any LDM or STM must complete before the processor can stack the current state and
enter the interrupt handler.
0: Enable interruption latency of the processor (load/store and multiply/divide operations).
1: Disable interruptions latency.
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Core peripherals
4.4.2
CPUID base register (CPUID)
Address offset: 0x00
Reset value: 0x410F C241
Required privilege: Privileged
The CPUID register contains the processor part number, version, and implementation
information.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
Implementer
21
20
19
Variant
18
17
16
Constant
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
PartNo
r
Revision
r
r
Bits 31:24 Implementer: Implementer code
0x41: ARM
Bits 23:20 Variant: Variant number
The r value in the rnpn product revision identifier
0x0: revision 0
Bits 19:16 Constant: Reads as 0xF
Bits 15:4 PartNo: Part number of the processor
0xC24: = Cortex-M4
Bits 3:0 Revision: Revision number
The p value in the rnpn product revision identifier, indicates patch release.
0x1: = patch 1
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Interrupt control and state register (ICSR)
Address offset: 0x04
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The ICSR:
•
Provides:
•
Set-pending and clear-pending bits for the PendSV and SysTick exceptions
Indicates:
–
The exception number of the exception being processed
–
Whether there are preempted active exceptions
–
The exception number of the highest priority pending exception
–
Whether any interrupts are pending.
When you write to the ICSR, the effect is unpredictable if you:
•
Write 1 to the PENDSVSET bit and write 1 to the PENDSVCLR bit
•
Write 1 to the PENDSTSET bit and write 1 to the PENDSTCLR bit.
15
14
13
25
rw
w
rw
w
12
11
10
9
VECTPENDING[3:0]
r
r
r
r
r
24
23
Reserved
22
21
ISRPENDING
26
PENDSTCLR
rw
27
PENDSTSET
Reserved
28
PENDSVCLR
29
RETOBASE
30
NMIPENDSET
31
A set-pending bit for the Non-Maskable Interrupt (NMI) exception
–
PENDSVSET
Caution:
–
20
19
7
6
17
16
VECTPENDING[6:4]
Reserved
r
8
18
5
4
3
r
r
r
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
VECTACTIVE[8:0]
Reserved
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit 31 NMIPENDSET: NMI set-pending bit.
Write:
0: No effect
1: Change NMI exception state to pending.
Read:
0: NMI exception is not pending
1: NMI exception is pending
Because NMI is the highest-priority exception, normally the processor enter the NMI
exception handler as soon as it registers a write of 1 to this bit, and entering the handler clears
this bit to 0. A read of this bit by the NMI exception handler returns 1 only if the NMI signal is
reasserted while the processor is executing that handler.
Bits 30:29 Reserved
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Bit 28 PENDSVSET: PendSV set-pending bit.
Write:
0: No effect
1: Change PendSV exception state to pending.
Read:
0: PendSV exception is not pending
1: PendSV exception is pending
Writing 1 to this bit is the only way to set the PendSV exception state to pending.
Bit 27 PENDSVCLR: PendSV clear-pending bit. This bit is write-only. On a read, value is unknown.
0: No effect
1: Removes the pending state from the PendSV exception.
Bit 26 PENDSTSET: SysTick exception set-pending bit.
Write:
0: No effect
1: Change SysTick exception state to pending
Read:
0: SysTick exception is not pending
1: SysTick exception is pending
Bit 25 PENDSTCLR: SysTick exception clear-pending bit. Write-only. On a read, value is unknown.
0: No effect
1: Removes the pending state from the SysTick exception.
Bit 24 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
Bit 23 This bit is reserved for Debug use and reads-as-zero when the processor is not in Debug.
Bit 22 ISRPENDING: Interrupt pending flag, excluding NMI and Faults.
0: Interrupt not pending
1: Interrupt pending
Bits 21:19 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
Bits 18:12 VECTPENDING: Pending vector. Indicates the exception number of the highest priority
pending enabled exception.
0: No pending exceptions
Other values: The exception number of the highest priority pending enabled exception.
The value indicated by this field includes the effect of the BASEPRI and FAULTMASK
registers, but not any effect of the PRIMASK register.
Bit 11 RETTOBASE: Return to base level. Indicates whether there are preempted active
exceptions:
0: There are preempted active exceptions to execute
1: There are no active exceptions, or the currently-executing exception is the only active
exception.
Bits 10:9 Reserved
Bits 8:0 VECTACTIVE Active vector. Contains the active exception number:
0: Thread mode
Other values: The exception number(1) of the currently active exception.
Note: Subtract 16 from this value to obtain CMSIS IRQ number required to index into the
Interrupt Clear-Enable, Set-Enable, Clear-Pending, Set-Pending, or Priority Registers,
see Table 5 on page 21.
1. This is the same value as IPSR bits[8:0], see Interrupt program status register on page 21.
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Vector table offset register (VTOR)
Address offset: 0x08
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
TBLOFF[29:16]
Reserved
15
14
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
TBLOFF[15:9]
Reserved
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:30 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bits 29:9 TBLOFF: Vector table base offset field.
It contains bits [29:9] of the offset of the table base from memory address 0x00000000. When
setting TBLOFF, you must align the offset to the number of exception entries in the vector
table. The minimum alignment is 128 words. Table alignment requirements mean that bits[8:0]
of the table offset are always zero.
Bit 29 determines whether the vector table is in the code or SRAM memory region.
0: Code
1: SRAM
Note: Bit 29 is sometimes called the TBLBASE bit.
Bits 8:0 Reserved, must be kept cleared
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4.4.5
Application interrupt and reset control register (AIRCR)
Address offset: 0x0C
Reset value: 0xFA05 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The AIRCR provides priority grouping control for the exception model, endian status for data
accesses, and reset control of the system.
To write to this register, you must write 0x5FA to the VECTKEY field, otherwise the
processor ignores the write.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
VECTKEYSTAT[15:0](read)/ VECTKEY[15:0](write)
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ENDIANESS
rw
15
PRIGROUP
Reserved
r
Reserved
rw
rw
rw
SYS
VECT
VECT
RESET
CLR
RESET
REQ ACTIVE
w
w
w
Bits 31:16 VECTKEYSTAT/ VECTKEY Register key
Reads as 0xFA05
On writes, write 0x5FA to VECTKEY, otherwise the write is ignored.
Bit 15 ENDIANESS Data endianness bit
Reads as 0.
0: Little-endian
Bits 14:11 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bits 10:8 PRIGROUP: Interrupt priority grouping field
This field determines the split of group priority from subpriority, see Binary point on page 227.
Bits 7:3 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 2 SYSRESETREQ System reset request
This is intended to force a large system reset of all major components except for debug.
This bit reads as 0.
0: No system reset request
1: Asserts a signal to the outer system that requests a reset.
Bit 1 VECTCLRACTIVE
Reserved for Debug use. This bit reads as 0. When writing to the register you must write 0 to
this bit, otherwise behavior is unpredictable.
Bit 0 VECTRESET
Reserved for Debug use. This bit reads as 0. When writing to the register you must write 0 to
this bit, otherwise behavior is unpredictable.
Binary point
The PRIGROUP field indicates the position of the binary point that splits the PRI_n fields in
the Interrupt Priority Registers into separate group priority and subpriority fields. Table 50
shows how the PRIGROUP value controls this split. If you implement fewer than 8 priority
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bits you might require more explanation here, and want to remove invalid rows from the
table, and modify the entries in the number of columns.
Table 50. Priority grouping
Interrupt priority level value, PRI_N[7:4]
PRIGROUP
[2:0]
Number of
Binary
point (1)
Group priority
bits
Subpriority
bits
Group
priorities
Sub
priorities
0b0xx
0bxxxx
[7:4]
None
16
None
0b100
0bxxx.y
[7:5]
[4]
8
2
0b101
0bxx.yy
[7:6]
[5:4]
4
4
0b110
0bx.yyy
[7]
[6:4]
2
8
0b111
0b.yyyy
None
[7:4]
None
16
1. PRI_n[7:4] field showing the binary point. x denotes a group priority field bit, and y denotes a subpriority
field bit.
Determining preemption of an exception uses only the group priority field, see Section 2.3.6:
Interrupt priority grouping on page 40.
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Core peripherals
System control register (SCR)
Address offset: 0x10
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The SCR controls features of entry to and exit from low power state.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
SEVON
PEND
Reserved
rw
Res.
SLEEP
SLEEP
ON
DEEP
EXIT
rw
Res.
rw
Bits 31:5 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 4 SEVEONPEND Send Event on Pending bit
When an event or interrupt enters pending state, the event signal wakes up the processor from
WFE. If the processor is not waiting for an event, the event is registered and affects the next
WFE.
The processor also wakes up on execution of an SEV instruction or an external event
0: Only enabled interrupts or events can wakeup the processor, disabled interrupts are
excluded
1: Enabled events and all interrupts, including disabled interrupts, can wakeup the
processor.
Bit 3 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 2 SLEEPDEEP
Controls whether the processor uses sleep or deep sleep as its low power mode:
0: Sleep
1: Deep sleep.
Bit 1 SLEEPONEXIT
Configures sleep-on-exit when returning from Handler mode to Thread mode. Setting this bit to
1 enables an interrupt-driven application to avoid returning to an empty main application.
0: Do not sleep when returning to Thread mode.
1: Enter sleep, or deep sleep, on return from an interrupt service routine.
Bit 0 Reserved, must be kept cleared
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PM0214
Configuration and control register (CCR)
Address offset: 0x14
Reset value: 0x0000 0200
Required privilege: Privileged
The CCR controls entry to Thread mode and enables:
31
30
•
The handlers for NMI, hard fault and faults escalated by FAULTMASK to ignore bus
faults
•
Trapping of divide by zero and unaligned accesses
•
Access to the STIR by unprivileged software, see Software trigger interrupt register
(NVIC_STIR) on page 215.
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res.
USER
SET
MPEND
NON
BASE
THRD
ENA
rw
rw
Reserved
15
14
13
12
Reserved
11
10
9
8
STK
ALIGN
BFHF
NMIGN
rw
rw
7
Reserved
UN
DIV_0_
ALIGN_
TRP
TRP
rw
rw
Bits 31:10 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 9 STKALIGN
Configures stack alignment on exception entry. On exception entry, the processor uses bit 9 of
the stacked PSR to indicate the stack alignment. On return from the exception it uses this
stacked bit to restore the correct stack alignment.
0: 4-byte aligned
1: 8-byte aligned
Bit 8 BFHFNMIGN
Enables handlers with priority -1 or -2 to ignore data bus faults caused by load and store
instructions. This applies to the hard fault, NMI, and FAULTMASK escalated handlers. Set this
bit to 1 only when the handler and its data are in absolutely safe memory. The normal use of
this bit is to probe system devices and bridges to detect control path problems and fix them.
0: Data bus faults caused by load and store instructions cause a lock-up
1: Handlers running at priority -1 and -2 ignore data bus faults caused by load and store
instructions.
Bits 7:5 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 4 DIV_0_TRP
Enables faulting or halting when the processor executes an SDIV or UDIV instruction with a
divisor of 0:
0: Do not trap divide by 0
1: Trap divide by 0.
When this bit is set to 0, a divide by zero returns a quotient of 0.
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Bit 3 UNALIGN_ TRP
Enables unaligned access traps:
0: Do not trap unaligned halfword and word accesses
1: Trap unaligned halfword and word accesses.
If this bit is set to 1, an unaligned access generates a usage fault.
Unaligned LDM, STM, LDRD, and STRD instructions always fault irrespective of whether
UNALIGN_TRP is set to 1.
Bit 2 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 1 USERSETMPEND
Enables unprivileged software access to the STIR, see Software trigger interrupt register
(NVIC_STIR) on page 215:
0: Disable
1: Enable.
Bit 0 NONBASETHRDENA
Configures how the processor enters Thread mode.
0: Processor can enter Thread mode only when no exception is active.
1: Processor can enter Thread mode from any level under the control of an EXC_RETURN
value, see Exception return on page 43.
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PM0214
System handler priority registers (SHPRx)
The SHPR1-SHPR3 registers set the priority level, 0 to 255 of the exception handlers that
have configurable priority.
SHPR1-SHPR3 are byte accessible.
The system fault handlers and the priority field and register for each handler are:
Table 51. System fault handler priority fields
Handler
Field
Memory management fault
PRI_4
Bus fault
PRI_5
Usage fault
PRI_6
SVCall
PRI_11
PendSV
PRI_14
SysTick
PRI_15
Register description
System handler priority register 1 (SHPR1)
System handler priority register 2 (SHPR2) on
page 232
System handler priority register 3 (SHPR3) on
page 233
Each PRI_N field is 8 bits wide, but the processor implements only bits[7:3] of each field,
and bits[3:0] read as zero and ignore writes (where M=4).
System handler priority register 1 (SHPR1)
Address offset: 0x18
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
rw
rw
7
6
21
20
19
rw
rw
r
r
r
r
5
4
3
2
1
0
PRI_6[7:4]
18
17
16
PRI_6[3:0]
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
10
PRI_5[7:4]
rw
rw
rw
9
8
PRI_5[3:0]
rw
r
r
r
PRI_4[7:4]
r
rw
rw
rw
PRI_4[7:4]
rw
r
Bits 31:24 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bits 23:16 PRI_6: Priority of system handler 6, usage fault
Bits 15:8 PRI_5: Priority of system handler 5, bus fault
Bits 7:0 PRI_4: Priority of system handler 4, memory management fault
System handler priority register 2 (SHPR2)
Address offset: 0x1C
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
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31
Core peripherals
30
29
28
27
PRI_11[7:4]
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
PRI_11[3:0]
Reserved
rw
rw
rw
rw
r
r
r
r
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
21
20
19
18
17
16
Reserved
Bits 31:24 PRI_11: Priority of system handler 11, SVCall
Bits 23:0 Reserved, must be kept cleared
System handler priority register 3 (SHPR3)
Address: 0xE000 ED20
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
31
30
29
28
27
PRI_15[7:4]
26
25
24
23
PRI_15[3:0]
22
PRI_14[7:4]
PRI_14[3:0]
rw
rw
rw
rw
r
r
r
r
rw
rw
rw
rw
r
r
r
r
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Reserved
Bits 31:24 PRI_15: Priority of system handler 15, SysTick exception
Bits 23:16 PRI_14: Priority of system handler 14, PendSV
Bits 15:0 Reserved, must be kept cleared
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PM0214
System handler control and state register (SHCSR)
Address offset: 0x24
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The SHCSR enables the system handlers, and indicates:
•
The pending status of the bus fault, memory management fault, and SVC exceptions
•
The active status of the system handlers.
If you disable a system handler and the corresponding fault occurs, the processor treats the
fault as a hard fault.
You can write to this register to change the pending or active status of system exceptions.
An OS kernel can write to the active bits to perform a context switch that changes the
current exception type.
31
30
•
Software that changes the value of an active bit in this register without correct
adjustment to the stacked content can cause the processor to generate a fault
exception. Ensure software that writes to this register retains and subsequently
restores the current active status.
•
After you have enabled the system handlers, if you have to change the value of a bit in
this register you must use a read-modify-write procedure to ensure that you change
only the required bit.
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
SV
CALL
PEND
ED
BUS
FAULT
PEND
ED
MEM
FAULT
PEND
ED
USG
FAULT
PEND
ED
SYS
TICK
ACT
PEND
SV
ACT
Res.
MONIT
OR
ACT
SV
CALL
ACT
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
6
5
4
Reserved
18
17
16
USG
FAULT
ENA
BUS
FAULT
ENA
MEM
FAULT
ENA
rw
rw
rw
3
2
1
0
USG
FAULT
ACT
Res.
BUS
FAULT
ACT
MEM
FAULT
ACT
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:19 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 18 USGFAULTENA: Usage fault enable bit, set to 1 to enable (1)
Bit 17 BUSFAULTENA: Bus fault enable bit, set to 1 to enable (1)
Bit 16 MEMFAULTENA: Memory management fault enable bit, set to 1 to enable (1)
Bit 15 SVCALLPENDED: SVC call pending bit, reads as 1 if exception is pending (2)
Bit 14 BUSFAULTPENDED: Bus fault exception pending bit, reads as 1 if exception is pending (2)
Bit 13 MEMFAULTPENDED: Memory management fault exception pending bit, reads as 1 if
exception is pending (2)
Bit 12 USGFAULTPENDED: Usage fault exception pending bit, reads as 1 if exception is pending (2)
Bit 11 SYSTICKACT: SysTick exception active bit, reads as 1 if exception is active (3)
Bit 10 PENDSVACT: PendSV exception active bit, reads as 1 if exception is active
Bit 9 Reserved, must be kept cleared
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Bit 8 MONITORACT: Debug monitor active bit, reads as 1 if Debug monitor is active
Bit 7 SVCALLACT: SVC call active bit, reads as 1 if SVC call is active
Bits 6:4 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 3 USGFAULTACT: Usage fault exception active bit, reads as 1 if exception is active
Bit 2 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 1 BUSFAULTACT: Bus fault exception active bit, reads as 1 if exception is active
Bit 0 MEMFAULTACT: Memory management fault exception active bit, reads as 1 if exception is
active
1. Enable bits, set to 1 to enable the exception, or set to 0 to disable the exception.
2. Pending bits, read as 1 if the exception is pending, or as 0 if it is not pending. You can write to these bits to change the
pending status of the exceptions.
3. Active bits, read as 1 if the exception is active, or as 0 if it is not active. You can write to these bits to change the active
status of the exceptions, but see the Caution in this section.
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Configurable fault status register (CFSR; UFSR+BFSR+MMFSR)
Address offset: 0x28
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The following subsections describe the subregisters that make up the CFSR:
•
Usage fault status register (UFSR) on page 237
•
Bus fault status register (BFSR) on page 238
•
Memory management fault address register (MMFSR) on page 239
The CFSR is byte accessible. You can access the CFSR or its subregisters as follows:
•
Access the complete CFSR with a word access to 0xE000ED28
•
Access the MMFSR with a byte access to 0xE000ED28
•
Access the MMFSR and BFSR with a halfword access to 0xE000ED28
•
Access the BFSR with a byte access to 0xE000ED29
•
Access the UFSR with a halfword access to 0xE000ED2A.
The CFSR indicates the cause of a memory management fault, bus fault, or usage fault.
Figure 20. CFSR subregisters
31
30
29
28
14
13
BFARV
ALID Reserv
ed
rw
12
LSP
ERR
STK
ERR
rw
rw
8VDJH)DXOW6WDWXV5HJLVWHU
%XV)DXOW6WDWXV
5HJLVWHU
0HPRU\0DQDJHPHQW
)DXOW6WDWXV5HJLVWHU
8)65
%)65
00)65
27
26
Reserved
15
11
10
IMPRE
UNSTK
CIS
ERR
ERR
rw
rw
25
24
DIVBY
ZERO
UNALI
GNED
rc_w1
rc_w1
9
8
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
NOCP
INVPC
INV
STATE
UNDEF
INSTR
Reserved
7
PRECI
S ERR
IBUS
ERR
MMAR
VALID
rw
rw
rw
6
Reserv
ed
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
rc_w1
4
3
2
1
0
MLSP
ERR
MSTK
ERR
M
UNSTK
ERR
Res.
DACC
VIOL
IACC
VIOL
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
5
Bits 31:16 UFSR: see Usage fault status register (UFSR) on page 237
Bits 15:8 BFSR: see Bus fault status register (BFSR) on page 238
Bits 7:0 MMFSR: see Memory management fault address register (MMFSR) on page 239
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Core peripherals
Usage fault status register (UFSR)
Bits 31:26 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 25 DIVBYZERO: Divide by zero usage fault. When the processor sets this bit to 1, the PC value
stacked for the exception return points to the instruction that performed the divide by zero.
Enable trapping of divide by zero by setting the DIV_0_TRP bit in the CCR to 1, see
Configuration and control register (CCR) on page 230.
0: No divide by zero fault, or divide by zero trapping not enabled
1: The processor has executed an SDIV or UDIV instruction with a divisor of 0.
Bit 24 UNALIGNED: Unaligned access usage fault. Enable trapping of unaligned accesses by
setting the UNALIGN_TRP bit in the CCR to 1, see Configuration and control register (CCR)
on page 230.
Unaligned LDM, STM, LDRD, and STRD instructions always fault irrespective of the setting of
UNALIGN_TRP.
0: No unaligned access fault, or unaligned access trapping not enabled
1: the processor has made an unaligned memory access.
Bits 23:20 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 19 NOCP: No coprocessor usage fault. The processor does not support coprocessor instructions:
0: No usage fault caused by attempting to access a coprocessor
1: the processor has attempted to access a coprocessor.
Bit 18 INVPC: Invalid PC load usage fault, caused by an invalid PC load by EXC_RETURN:
When this bit is set to 1, the PC value stacked for the exception return points to the instruction
that tried to perform the illegal load of the PC.
0: No invalid PC load usage fault
1: The processor has attempted an illegal load of EXC_RETURN to the PC, as a result of an
invalid context, or an invalid EXC_RETURN value.
Bit 17 INVSTATE: Invalid state usage fault. When this bit is set to 1, the PC value stacked for the
exception return points to the instruction that attempted the illegal use of the EPSR.
This bit is not set to 1 if an undefined instruction uses the EPSR.
0: No invalid state usage fault
1: The processor has attempted to execute an instruction that makes illegal use of the
EPSR.
Bit 16 UNDEFINSTR: Undefined instruction usage fault. When this bit is set to 1, the PC value
stacked for the exception return points to the undefined instruction.
An undefined instruction is an instruction that the processor cannot decode.
0: No undefined instruction usage fault
1: The processor has attempted to execute an undefined instruction.
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PM0214
Bus fault status register (BFSR)
Bit 15 BFARVALID: Bus Fault Address Register (BFAR) valid flag. The processor sets this bit to 1
after a bus fault where the address is known. Other faults can set this bit to 0, such as a
memory management fault occurring later.
If a bus fault occurs and is escalated to a hard fault because of priority, the hard fault handler
must set this bit to 0. This prevents problems if returning to a stacked active bus fault handler
whose BFAR value is overwritten.
0: Value in BFAR is not a valid fault address
1: BFAR holds a valid fault address.
Bit 14 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 13 LSPERR: Bus fault on floating-point lazy state preservation.
0: No bus fault occurred during floating-point lazy state preservation.
1: A bus fault occurred during floating-point lazy state preservation
Bit 12 STKERR: Bus fault on stacking for exception entry. When the processor sets this bit to 1, the
SP is still adjusted but the values in the context area on the stack might be incorrect. The
processor does not write a fault address to the BFAR.
0: No stacking fault
1: Stacking for an exception entry has caused one or more bus faults.
Bit 11 UNSTKERR: Bus fault on unstacking for a return from exception. This fault is chained to the
handler. This means that when the processor sets this bit to 1, the original return stack is still
present. The processor does not adjust the SP from the failing return, does not performed a
new save, and does not write a fault address to the BFAR.
0: No unstacking fault
1: Unstack for an exception return has caused one or more bus faults.
Bit 10 IMPRECISERR: Imprecise data bus error. When the processor sets this bit to 1, it does not
write a fault address to the BFAR. This is an asynchronous fault. Therefore, if it is detected
when the priority of the current process is higher than the bus fault priority, the bus fault
becomes pending and becomes active only when the processor returns from all higher priority
processes. If a precise fault occurs before the processor enters the handler for the imprecise
bus fault, the handler detects both IMPRECISERR set to 1 and one of the precise fault status
bits set to 1.
0: No imprecise data bus error
1: A data bus error has occurred, but the return address in the stack frame is not related to
the instruction that caused the error.
Bit 9 PRECISERR: Precise data bus error. When the processor sets this bit is 1, it writes the faulting
address to the BFAR.
0: No precise data bus error
1: A data bus error has occurred, and the PC value stacked for the exception return points to
the instruction that caused the fault.
Bit 8 IBUSERR: Instruction bus error. The processor detects the instruction bus error on prefetching
an instruction, but it sets the IBUSERR flag to 1 only if it attempts to issue the faulting
instruction.
When the processor sets this bit is 1, it does not write a fault address to the BFAR.
0: No instruction bus error
1: Instruction bus error.
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Core peripherals
Memory management fault address register (MMFSR)
Bit 7 MMARVALID: Memory Management Fault Address Register (MMAR) valid flag. If a memory
management fault occurs and is escalated to a hard fault because of priority, the hard fault
handler must set this bit to 0. This prevents problems on return to a stacked active memory
management fault handler whose MMAR value is overwritten.
0: Value in MMAR is not a valid fault address
1: MMAR holds a valid fault address.
Bit 6 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 5 MLSPERR:
0: No MemManage fault occurred during floating-point lazy state preservation
1: A MemManage fault occurred during floating-point lazy state preservation
Bit 4 MSTKERR: Memory manager fault on stacking for exception entry. When this bit is 1, the SP
is still adjusted but the values in the context area on the stack might be incorrect. The
processor has not written a fault address to the MMAR.
0: No stacking fault
1: Stacking for an exception entry has caused one or more access violations.
Bit 3 MUNSTKERR: Memory manager fault on unstacking for a return from exception. This fault is
chained to the handler. This means that when this bit is 1, the original return stack is still
present. The processor has not adjusted the SP from the failing return, and has not performed
a new save. The processor has not written a fault address to the MMAR.
0: No unstacking fault
1: Unstack for an exception return has caused one or more access violations.
Bit 2 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 1 DACCVIOL: Data access violation flag. When this bit is 1, the PC value stacked for the
exception return points to the faulting instruction. The processor has loaded the MMAR with
the address of the attempted access.
0: No data access violation fault
1: The processor attempted a load or store at a location that does not permit the operation.
Bit 1 IACCVIOL: Instruction access violation flag. This fault occurs on any access to an XN region,
even the MPU is disabled or not present.
When this bit is 1, the PC value stacked for the exception return points to the faulting
instruction. The processor has not written a fault address to the MMAR.
0: No instruction access violation fault
1: The processor attempted an instruction fetch from a location that does not permit
execution.
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PM0214
Hard fault status register (HFSR)
Address offset: 0x2C
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The HFSR gives information about events that activate the hard fault handler. This register
is read, write to clear. This means that bits in the register read normally, but writing 1 to any
bit clears that bit to 0.
31
30
DEBU
G_VT
FORC
ED
29
rc_w1
rc_w1
15
14
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
5
4
3
2
1
0
VECT
TBL
Res.
Reserved
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
Reserved
rc_w1
Bit 31 DEBUG_VT: Reserved for Debug use. When writing to the register you must write 0 to this bit,
otherwise behavior is unpredictable.
Bit 30 FORCED: Forced hard fault. Indicates a forced hard fault, generated by escalation of a fault
with configurable priority that cannot be handles, either because of priority or because it is
disabled.
When this bit is set to 1, the hard fault handler must read the other fault status registers to find
the cause of the fault.
0: No forced hard fault
1: Forced hard fault.
Bits 29:2 Reserved, must be kept cleared
Bit 1 VECTTBL: Vector table hard fault. Indicates a bus fault on a vector table read during
exception processing. This error is always handled by the hard fault handler.
When this bit is set to 1, the PC value stacked for the exception return points to the instruction
that was preempted by the exception.
0: No bus fault on vector table read
1: Bus fault on vector table read.
Bit 0 Reserved, must be kept cleared
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4.4.15
Memory management fault address register (MMFAR)
Address offset: 0x34
Reset value: undefined
Required privilege: Privileged
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
MMFAR[31:16]
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
MMFAR[15:0]
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:0 MMFAR: Memory management fault address
When the MMARVALID bit of the MMFSR is set to 1, this field holds the address of the
location that generated the memory management fault.
When an unaligned access faults, the address is the actual address that faulted. Because a
single read or write instruction can be split into multiple aligned accesses, the fault address
can be any address in the range of the requested access size.
Flags in the MMFSR register indicate the cause of the fault, and whether the value in the
MMFAR is valid. See Configurable fault status register (CFSR; UFSR+BFSR+MMFSR) on
page 236.
4.4.16
Bus fault address register (BFAR)
Address offset: 0x38
Reset value: undefined
Required privilege: Privileged
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
BFAR[31:16]
BFAR[15:0]
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:0 BFAR: Bus fault address
When the BFARVALID bit of the BFSR is set to 1, this field holds the address of the location
that generated the bus fault.
When an unaligned access faults the address in the BFAR is the one requested by the
instruction, even if it is not the address of the fault.
Flags in the BFSR register indicate the cause of the fault, and whether the value in the BFAR
is valid. See Configurable fault status register (CFSR; UFSR+BFSR+MMFSR) on page 236.
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4.4.17
PM0214
Auxiliary fault status register (AFSR)
Address offset: 0x3C
Reset value: undefined
Required privilege: Privileged
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
IMPDEF[31:16]
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
IMPDEF[15:0]
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:0 IMPDEF: Implementation defined. The AFSR contains additional system fault information. The
bits map to the AUXFAULT input signals.
This register is read, write to clear. This means that bits in the register read normally, but
writing 1 to any bit clears that bit to 0.
Each AFSR bit maps directly to an AUXFAULT input of the processor, and a single-cycle HIGH
signal on the input sets the corresponding AFSR bit to one. It remains set to 1 until you write 1
to the bit to clear it to zero.
When an AFSR bit is latched as one, an exception does not occur. Use an interrupt if an
exception is required.
4.4.18
System control block design hints and tips
Ensure software uses aligned accesses of the correct size to access the system control
block registers:
•
except for the CFSR and SHPR1-SHPR3, it must use aligned word accesses
•
for the CFSR and SHPR1-SHPR3 it can use byte or aligned halfword or word
accesses.
The processor does not support unaligned accesses to system control block registers.
In a fault handler. to determine the true faulting address:
1.
Read and save the MMFAR or BFAR value.
2.
Read the MMARVALID bit in the MMFSR, or the BFARVALID bit in the BFSR. The
MMFAR or BFAR address is valid only if this bit is 1.
Software must follow this sequence because another higher priority exception might change
the MMFAR or BFAR value. For example, if a higher priority handler preempts the current
fault handler, the other fault might change the MMFAR or BFAR value.
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4.4.19
Core peripherals
SCB register map
The table provides shows the System control block register map and reset values. The base
address of the SCB register block is 0xE000 ED00 for register described in Table 52.
Reset Value
0x10
0 0 0 0
Reserved
RETOBASE
VECTPENDING[9:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
VECTACTIVE[8:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TABLEOFF[29:9]
VECTKEY[15:0]
Reserved
1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
SCR
Reserved
Reserved
0 0 0
0 0 0
Reserved
CCR
Reserved
Reset Value
0x18
SHPR1
Reset Value
1 0
Reserved
PRI6
PRI5
Reserved
0
STKALIGN
BFHFNIGN
Reset Value
0x14
SYSRESETREQ
VECTCLRACTIVE
VECTRESET
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SEVONPEND
Reserved
SLEEPDEEP
SLEEPONEXIT
Reserved
AIRCR
Revision
0 0
DIV_0_TRP
UNALIGN_TRP
Reserved
USERSETMPEND
NONBASETHRDENA
0x0C
Reset Value
PartNo
PRIGROUP[2:0]
0x08
Constant
ENDIANESS
0
ISRPENDING
Reset Value
Reserved
ICSR
VTOR
Variant
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
PENDSVSET
PENDSVCLR
PENDSTSET
PENDSTCLR
Reset Value
Implementer
Reserved
0x04
CPUID
NMIPENDSET
0x00
Register
Reserved
Offset
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 52. SCB register map and reset values
0 0
0 0
PRI4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Reset Value
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SHPR3
PRI15
Reset Value
Reserved
PRI14
SHCRS
Reserved
Reset Value
0x2C
0x34
0x38
0x3C
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CFSR
Reset Value
UFSR
BFSR
0 0
0
0 0
MMFSR
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
HFSR
DEBUG_VT
FORCED
0x28
Reserved
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reset Value
0 0
Reserved
VECTTBL
Reserved
0x24
PRI11
USG FAULT ACT
Reserved
BUS FAULT ACT
MEM FAULT ACT
0x20
SHPR2
Reserved
0x1C
Register
USG FAULT ENA
BUS FAULT ENA
MEM FAULT ENA
SV CALL PENDED
BUS FAULT PENDED
MEM FAULT PENDED
USG FAULT PENDED
SYS TICK ACT
PENDSV ACT
Reserved
MONITOR ACT
SV CALL ACT
Offset
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 52. SCB register map and reset values (continued)
0
MMAR
MMAR[31:0]
Reset Value
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
BFAR
BFAR[31:0]
Reset Value
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
AFSR
IMPDEF[31:0]
Reset Value
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
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4.5
Core peripherals
SysTick timer (STK)
The processor has a 24-bit system timer, SysTick, that counts down from the reload value to
zero, reloads (wraps to) the value in the STK_LOAD register on the next clock edge, then
counts down on subsequent clocks.
When the processor is halted for debugging the counter does not decrement.
Table 53. System timer registers summary
Address
Name
Type
Required
privilege
Reset value
Description
RW
Privileged
0x00000000
SysTick control and status register (STK_CTRL)
on page 246
0xE000E014 STK_LOAD RW
Privileged
Unknown
SysTick reload value register (STK_LOAD) on
page 247
0xE000E018 STK_VAL
RW
Privileged
Unknown
SysTick current value register (STK_VAL) on
page 248
0xE000E01C STK_CALIB RO
Privileged
0xC0000000
SysTick calibration value register (STK_CALIB)
on page 249
0xE000E010 STK_CTRL
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SysTick control and status register (STK_CTRL)
Address offset: 0x00
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
The SysTick CTRL register enables the SysTick features.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
COUNT
FLAG
Reserved
rw
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Reserved
3
2
1
0
CLKSO
URCE
TICK
INT
EN
ABLE
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:17 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
Bit 16 COUNTFLAG:
Returns 1 if timer counted to 0 since last time this was read.
Bits 15:3 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
Bit 2 CLKSOURCE: Clock source selection
Selects the clock source.
0: AHB/8
1: Processor clock (AHB)
Bit 1 TICKINT: SysTick exception request enable
0: Counting down to zero does not assert the SysTick exception request
1: Counting down to zero to asserts the SysTick exception request.
Note: Software can use COUNTFLAG to determine if SysTick has ever counted to zero.
Bit 0 ENABLE: Counter enable
Enables the counter. When ENABLE is set to 1, the counter loads the RELOAD value from the
LOAD register and then counts down. On reaching 0, it sets the COUNTFLAG to 1 and
optionally asserts the SysTick depending on the value of TICKINT. It then loads the RELOAD
value again, and begins counting.
0: Counter disabled
1: Counter enabled
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4.5.2
SysTick reload value register (STK_LOAD)
Address offset: 0x04
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
RELOAD[23:16]
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
RELOAD[15:0]
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:24 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
Bits 23:0 RELOAD: RELOAD value
The LOAD register specifies the start value to load into the STK_VAL register when the
counter is enabled and when it reaches 0.
Calculating the RELOAD value
The RELOAD value can be any value in the range 0x00000001-0x00FFFFFF. A start value of
0 is possible, but has no effect because the SysTick exception request and COUNTFLAG are
activated when counting from 1 to 0.
The RELOAD value is calculated according to its use:
l
To generate a multi-shot timer with a period of N processor clock cycles, use a RELOAD
value of N-1. For example, if the SysTick interrupt is required every 100 clock pulses, set
RELOAD to 99.
l
To deliver a single SysTick interrupt after a delay of N processor clock cycles, use a
RELOAD of value N. For example, if a SysTick interrupt is required after 100 clock
pulses, set RELOAD to 99.
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SysTick current value register (STK_VAL)
Address offset: 0x08
Reset value: 0x0000 0000
Required privilege: Privileged
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
CURRENT[23:16]
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
CURRENT[15:0]
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bits 31:24 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
Bits 23:0 CURRENT: Current counter value
The VAL register contains the current value of the SysTick counter.
Reads return the current value of the SysTick counter.
A write of any value clears the field to 0, and also clears the COUNTFLAG bit in the
STK_CTRL register to 0.
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4.5.4
SysTick calibration value register (STK_CALIB)
Address offset: 0x0C
Reset value: 0x0000000
Required privilege: Privileged
The CALIB register indicates the SysTick calibration properties.
31
30
NO
REF
29
SKEW
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
TENMS[23:16]
Reserved
r
r
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
8
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
TENMS[15:0]
r
r
Bit 31 NOREF: NOREF flag. Reads as zero. Indicates that a separate reference clock is provided.
The frequency of this clock is HCLK/8.
Bit 30 SKEW: SKEW flag: Indicates whether the TENMS value is exact. Reads as one. Calibration
value for the 1 ms inexact timing is not known because TENMS is not known. This can affect
the suitability of SysTick as a software real time clock.
Bits 29:24 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
Bits 23:0 TENMS[23:0]: Calibration value. Indicates the calibration value when the SysTick counter
runs on HCLK max/8 as external clock. The value is product dependent, please refer to the
Product Reference Manual, SysTick Calibration Value section. When HCLK is programmed at
the maximum frequency, the SysTick period is 1ms.
If calibration information is not known, calculate the calibration value required from the
frequency of the processor clock or external clock.
4.5.5
SysTick design hints and tips
The SysTick counter runs on the processor clock. If this clock signal is stopped for low
power mode, the SysTick counter stops.
Ensure software uses aligned word accesses to access the SysTick registers.
The SysTick counter reload and current value are undefined at reset, the correct
initialization sequence for the SysTick counter is:
1.
Program reload value.
2.
Clear current value.
3.
Program Control and Status register.
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PM0214
SysTick register map
The table provided shows the SysTick register map and reset values. The base address of
the SysTick register block is 0xE000 E010.
Offset
0x00
Register
STK_CTRL
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
COUNTFLAG 16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
CLKSOURCE 2
TICK INT
1
EN ABLE
0
Table 54. SysTick register map and reset values
Reserved
Reset Value
0x04
0x08
0x0C
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STK_LOAD
Reset Value
STK_VAL
Reset Value
STK_CALIB
Reset Value
Reserved
0
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
1 0 0
RELOAD[23:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CURRENT[23:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TENMS[23:0]
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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4.6
Core peripherals
Floating point unit (FPU)
The Cortex-M4F FPU implements the FPv4-SP floating-point extension.
The FPU fully supports single-precision add, subtract, multiply, divide, multiply and
accumulate, and square root operations. It also provides conversions between fixed xxxxxpoint and floating-point data formats, and floating-point constant instructions.
The FPU provides floating-point computation functionality that is compliant with the
ANSI/IEEE standard 754-2008, IEEE standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, referred
to as the IEEE 754 standard.
The FPU contains 32 single-precision extension registers, which you can also access as 16
doubleword registers for load, store, and move operations.
Table 55 shows the floating-point system registers in the Cortex-M4F system control block
(SCB). The base address of the additional registers for the FP extension is 0xE000 ED00.
Table 55. Cortex-M4F floating-point system registers
Address
Name
Type
Reset
Description
0xE000ED88
CPACR
RW
0x00000000
Section 4.6.1: Coprocessor access control register (CPACR) on
page 252
0xE000EF34
FPCCR
RW
0xC0000000
Section 4.6.2: Floating-point context control register (FPCCR)
on page 252
0xE000EF38
FPCAR
RW
-
Section 4.6.3: Floating-point context address register (FPCAR)
on page 254
0xE000EF3C
FPDSCR
RW
0x00000000
Section 4.6.5: Floating-point default status control register
(FPDSCR) on page 256
-
FPSCR
RW
-
Section 4.6.4: Floating-point status control register (FPSCR) on
page 254
The following sections describe the floating-point system registers whose implementation is
specific to this processor.
Note:
For more details on the IEEE standard and floating-point arithmetic (IEEE 754), refer to the
AN4044 Application note. Available from website www.st.com.
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Coprocessor access control register (CPACR)
Address offset (from SCB): 0x88
Reset value: 0x0000000
Required privilege: Privileged
The CPACR register specifies the access privileges for coprocessors.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
CP11
CP10
rw
rw
19
Reserved
15
14
13
12
11
18
17
16
Reserved
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Reserved
Bits 31:24 Reserved. Read as Zero, Write Ignore.
Bits 23:20 CPn: [2n+1:2n] for n values 10 and 11. Access privileges for coprocessor n. The possible
values of each field are:
0b00: Access denied. Any attempted access generates a NOCP UsageFault.
0b01: Privileged access only. An unprivileged access generates a NOCP fault.
0b10: Reserved. The result of any access is Unpredictable.
0b11: Full access.
Bits 19:0 Reserved. Read as Zero, Write Ignore.
4.6.2
Floating-point context control register (FPCCR)
Address offset: 0x04
Reset value: 0xC000000
Required privilege: Privileged
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
21
20
19
18
17
16
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BFRDY
HFRDY
THREAD
31
MMRDY
The FPCCR register sets or returns FPU control data.
22
rw
rw
rw
rw
ASPEN LSPEN
13
12
Reserved
11
10
9
8
rw
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LSPACT
14
Reserved
15
MONRDY
rw
Reserved
Reserved
rw
rw
rw
PM0214
Core peripherals
Bit 31 ASPEN: Enables CONTROL<2> setting on execution of a floating-point instruction. This
results in automatic hardware state preservation and restoration, for floating-point context, on
exception entry and exit.
0: Disable CONTROL<2> setting on execution of a floating-point instruction.
1: Enable CONTROL<2> setting on execution of a floating-point instruction.
Bit 30 LSPEN:
0: Disable automatic lazy state preservation for floating-point context.
1: Enable automatic lazy state preservation for floating-point context.
Bits 29:9 Reserved.
Bit 8 MONRDY:
0: DebugMonitor is disabled or priority did not permit setting MON_PEND when the floatingpoint stack frame was allocated.
1: DebugMonitor is enabled and priority permits setting MON_PEND when the floating-point
stack frame was allocated.
Bit 7 Reserved.
Bit 6 BFRDY:
0: BusFault is disabled or priority did not permit setting the BusFault handler to the pending
state when the floating-point stack frame was allocated.
1: BusFault is enabled and priority permitted setting the BusFault handler to the pending state
when the floating-point stack frame was allocated.
Bit 5 MMRDY:
0: MemManage is disabled or priority did not permit setting the MemManage handler to the
pending state when the floating-point stack frame was allocated.
1: MemManage is enabled and priority permitted setting the MemManage handler to the
pending state when the floating-point stack frame was allocated.
Bit 4 HFRDY:
0: Priority did not permit setting the HardFault handler to the pending state when the floatingpoint stack frame was allocated.
1: Priority permitted setting the HardFault handler to the pending state when the floating-point
stack frame was allocated.
Bit 3 THREAD:
0: Mode was not Thread Mode when the floating-point stack frame was allocated.
1: Mode was Thread Mode when the floating-point stack frame was allocated.
Bit 2 Reserved.
Bit 1 USER:
0: Privilege level was not user when the floating-point stack frame was allocated.
1: Privilege level was user when the floating-point stack frame was allocated.
Bit 1 LSPACT:
0: Lazy state preservation is not active.
1: Lazy state preservation is active. floating-point stack frame is allocated but saving state to it
is deferred.
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PM0214
Floating-point context address register (FPCAR)
Address offset: 0x08
Reset value: 0x0000000
Required privilege: Privileged
The FPCAR register holds the location of the unpopulated floating-point register space
allocated on an exception stack frame.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADDRESS[31:16]
rw
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
ADDRESS[15:3]
Reserved
rw
Bits 31:3 ADDRESS: Location of unpopulated floating-point register space allocated on an exception
stack frame.
Bits 2:0 Reserved. Read as Zero, Writes Ignored.
4.6.4
Floating-point status control register (FPSCR)
Address offset: Not mapped
Reset value: 0x0000000
Required privilege: Privileged
The FPSCR register provides all necessary user level control of the floating-point system.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
N
Z
C
V
AHP
DN
FZ
rw
rw
rw
rw
Reserv
ed
23
22
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
21
20
19
18
17
16
RMode
Reserved
5
IDC
Reserved
4
3
2
1
0
IXC
UFC
OFC
DZC
IOC
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Reserved
rw
Bit 31 N: Negative condition code flag. Floating-point comparison operations update these flags. For
more details on the result, refer to Table 56.
0: Operation result was positive, zero, greater than, or equal.
1: Operation result was negative or less than.
Bit 30 Z: Zero condition code flag. Floating-point comparison operations update these flags. For more
details on the result, refer to Table 56.
0: Operation result was not zero.
1: Operation result was zero.
Bit 29 C: Carry condition code flag. Floating-point comparison operations update these flags. For more
details on the result, refer to Table 56.
0: Add operation did not result in a carry bit or subtract operation resulted in a borrow bit.
1: Add operation resulted in a carry bit or subtract operation did not result in a borrow bit.
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Bit 28 V: Overflow condition code flag. Floating-point comparison operations update this flag. For more
details on the result, refer to Table 56.
0: Operation did not result in an overflow
1: Operation resulted in an overflow.
Bit 27 Reserved.
Bit 26 AHP: Alternative half-precision control bit:
0: IEEE half-precision format selected.
1: Alternative half-precision format selected.
Bit 25 DN: Default NaN mode control bit:
0: NaN operands propagate through to the output of a floating-point operation.
1: Any operation involving one or more NaNs returns the Default NaN.
Bit 24 FZ: Flush-to-zero mode control bit:
0: Flush-to-zero mode disabled. Behavior of the floating-point system is fully compliant with the
IEEE 754 standard.
1: Flush-to-zero mode enabled.
Bits 23:22 RMode: Rounding Mode control field. The specified rounding mode is used by almost all
floating-point instructions:
0b00: Round to nearest (RN) mode
0b01: Round towards plus infinity (RP) mode
0b10: Round towards minus infinity (RM) mode
0b11: Round towards zero (RZ) mode.
Bit 21:8 Reserved.
Bit 7 IDC: Input denormal cumulative exception bit. Cumulative exception bit for floating-point
exception.
1: Indicates that the corresponding exception occurred since 0 was last written to it.
Bit 6:5 Reserved
Bit 4 IXC: Inexact cumulative exception bit. Cumulative exception bit for floating-point exception.
1: Indicates that the corresponding exception occurred since 0 was last written to it.
Bit 3 UFC: Underflow cumulative exception bit. Cumulative exception bit for floating-point exception.
1: Indicates that the corresponding exception occurred since 0 was last written to it.
Bit 2 OFC: Overflow cumulative exception bit. Cumulative exception bit for floating-point exception.
1: Indicates that the corresponding exception occurred since 0 was last written to it.
Bit 1 DZC: Division by zero cumulative exception bit. Cumulative exception bit for floating-point
exception. 1: Indicates that the corresponding exception occurred since 0 was last written to it.
Bit 0 IOC: Invalid operation cumulative exception bit. Cumulative exception bit for floating-point
exception. 1: Indicates that the corresponding exception occurred since 0 was last written to it.
Table 56. Effect of a Floating-point comparison on the condition flags
Comparison result
N
Z
C
V
Equal
0
1
1
0
Less than
1
0
0
0
Greater than
0
0
1
0
Unordered
0
0
1
1
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PM0214
Floating-point default status control register (FPDSCR)
Address offset: 0x0C
Reset value: 0x0000000
Required privilege: Privileged
The FPDSCR register holds the default values for the floating-point status control data.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
AHP
DN
FZ
23
22
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
10
9
8
7
6
21
20
Reserved
15
14
13
19
18
17
16
1
0
RMode
Reserved
12
11
5
4
3
2
Reserved
Bits 31:27 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
Bit 26 AHP: Default value for FPSCR.AHP
Bit 25 DN: Default value for FPSCR.DN
Bit 24 FZ: Default value for FPSCR.FZ
Bits 23:22 RMode: Default value for FPSCR.RMode
Bits 21:0 Reserved, must be kept cleared.
4.6.6
Enabling the FPU
The FPU is disabled from reset. You must enable it before you can use any floating-point
instructions.
The example shows an example code sequence for enabling the FPU in both privileged and
user modes. The processor must be in privileged mode to read from and write to the
CPACR.
Example
LDR.W
R0,
LDR
R1,
ORR
R1,
; CPACR is located at address 0xE000ED88
=0xE000ED88
; Read CPACR
[R0]
; Set bits 20-23 to enable CP10 and CP11 coprocessors
R1, #(0xF << 20)
; Write back the modified value to the CPACR
[R0]; wait for store to complete
STR
R1,
DSB
;reset pipeline now the FPU is enabled
ISB
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4.6.7
Core peripherals
Enabling and clearing FPU exception interrupts
The FPU exception flags are generating an interrupt through the interrupt controller. The
FPU interrupt is globally controlled through the interrupt controller.
A mask bit is also provided in the System Configuration Controller (SYSCFG), allowing to
enable/disable individually each FPU flag interrupt generation.
Note:
In STM32F4xx devices there is no individual mask and the enable/disable of the FPU
interrupts is done at interrupt controller level. As it occurs very frequently, the IXC exception
flag is not connected to the interrupt controller in these devices , and cannot generate an
interrupt. If needed, it must be managed by polling.
Clearing the FPU exception flags depends on the FPU context save/restore configuration:
•
No floating-point register saving: when Floating-point context control register (FPCCR)
Bit 30 LSPEN=0 and Bit 31 ASPEN=0.
You must clear interrupt source in Floating-point Status and Control Register (FPSCR).
Example:
register uint32_t fpscr_val = 0;
fpscr_val = __get_FPSCR();
{ check exception flags }
fpscr_val &= (uint32_t)~0x8F; // Clear all exception flags
__set_FPSCR(fpscr_val);
•
Lazy save/restore: when Floating-point context control register (FPCCR)
Bit 30 LSPEN=1 and Bit 31 ASPEN=X.
In the case of lazy floating-point context save/restore, a dummy read access should be
made to Floating-point Status and Control Register (FPSCR) to force state
preservation and FPSCR clear.
Then handle FPSCR in the stack.
Example:
register uint32_t fpscr_val = 0;
register uint32_t reg_val = 0;
reg_val = __get_FPSCR();
//dummy access
fpscr_val=*(__IO uint32_t*)(FPU->FPCAR +0x40);
{ check exception flags }
fpscr_val &= (uint32_t)~0x8F ;
// Clear all exception flags
*(__IO uint32_t*)(FPU->FPCAR +0x40)=fpscr_val;
__DMB() ;
•
Automatic floating-point registers save/restore: when Floating-point context control
register (FPCCR)
Bit 30 LSPEN=0 and Bit 31 ASPEN=1.
In case of automatic floating-point context save/restore, a read access should be made
to Floating-point Status and Control Register (FPSCR) to force clear.
Then handle FPSCR in the stack.
Example:
// FPU Exception handler
void FPU_ExceptionHandler(uint32_t lr, uint32_t sp)
{
register uint32_t fpscr_val;
if(lr == 0xFFFFFFE9)
{
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sp = sp + 0x60;
}
else if(lr == 0xFFFFFFED)
{
sp = __get_PSP() + 0x60 ;
}
fpscr_val = *(uint32_t*)sp;
{ check exception flags }
fpscr_val &= (uint32_t)~0x8F ;
// Clear all exception flags
*(uint32_t*)sp = fpscr_val;
__DMB() ;
}
// FPU IRQ Handler
void __asm FPU_IRQHandler(void)
{
IMPORT FPU_ExceptionHandler
MOV R0, LR
// move LR to R0
MOV R1, SP
// Save SP to R1 to avoid any modification to
// the stack pointer from FPU_ExceptionHandler
VMRS R2, FPSCR
// dummy read access, to force clear
B
FPU_ExceptionHandler
BX
LR
}
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Revision history
Revision history
Table 57. Document revision history
Date
Revision
20-Feb-2012
1
Initial release.
09-Jul-2012
2
Changed reset value in Section 4.6.2: Floating-point context control
register (FPCCR).
Added Table 1: Applicable products.
3
Added information on the STM32F3xxx Cortex-M4 processor.
Added extra part numbers to Table 1: Applicable products.
Added related documentation references to Introduction.
Changed “IEEE754-compliant single-precision FPU” bullet in
Section 1.3.3: Cortex-M4 processor features and benefits summary.
Added information on extended interrupt/event controller to
Section 2.5.3: External event input / extended interrupt and event
input.
Changed first “interrupt” bullet in Section 4.3: Nested vectored
interrupt controller (NVIC).
Removed outdated reset value information in Section 4.4.7:
Configuration and control register (CCR), and for 0x14 offset in
Table 51: System fault handler priority fields.
Added a note about IEEE 754 to Section 4.6: Floating point unit
(FPU).
4
Updated Reference documents.
Updated Section 4.4.1: Auxiliary control register (ACTLR).
Updated Section 4.5.1: SysTick control and status register
(STK_CTRL).
5
Updated:
– Introduction
– Reference documents
– Section 2.5.3: External event input / extended interrupt and event
input
– Section 4.6.7: Enabling and clearing FPU exception interrupts
– Table 50: Priority grouping
Removed
– Table 1: Applicable products
04-Sep-2012
12-May-2014
18-Apr-2016
Changes
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