CN-0052: Unipolar, Precision DC Digital-to-Analog Conversion using the...

Circuit Note
CN-0052
Devices Connected/Referenced
Circuit Designs Using Analog Devices Products
Apply these product pairings quickly and with confidence.
For more information and/or support call 1-800-AnalogD
(1-800-262-5643) or visit www.analog.com/circuits.
AD5450/AD5451/
AD5452/AD5453
8-/10-/12-/14-Bit Multiplying DACs
OP177
Ultra-Precision Operational
Amplifier
ADR01
Low Noise Precision 10 V Reference
Unipolar, Precision DC, Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using the
AD5450/AD5451/AD5452/AD5453 8-/10-/12-/14-Bit DACs
CIRCUIT FUNCTION AND BENEFITS
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The circuit described in this document is a high performance,
unipolar, precision DAC configuration that employs the AD5450/
AD5451/AD5452/AD5453 family of precision multiplying DACs,
the OP177 low noise, high precision operational amplifier (op
amp), and the ADR01 precision 10 V reference. Because the op
amp dictates the overall circuit dc performance in terms of
precision, the OP177, a high precision, low noise op amp, is well
matched for performance-driven applications. This circuit also
uses the ADR01, which is a high accuracy, high stability, 10 V
precision voltage reference. Because voltage reference temperature
coefficient and long-term drift are primary considerations for
applications requiring high precision conversion, this device is
also an ideal candidate.
The circuit uses the AD5450/AD5451/AD5452/AD5453
CMOS, current-output DACs, which provide 8-, 10-, 12- and
14-bit operation, respectively. Because this is a current-output
DAC, an op amp is required for current-to-voltage (I-V)
conversion at the output of the DAC. Because an op amp bias
current and offset voltage are both important selection criteria
for precision current output DACs, this circuit employs the
OP177 op amp, which has ultralow offset voltage (25 µV) and
bias current (2 nA). The OP177 and the AD5450/AD5451/
AD5452/AD5453 can be easily configured to provide a twoquadrant multiplying operation or a unipolar output voltage
swing, as shown in Figure 1.
VDD = 5V
VDD1 = 12V
VDD
VIN
VOUT
ADR01
VREF
VREF
0.1µF
AD5450/
AD5451/
AD5452/
AD5453
C1 = 1.8pF
RFB
VDD1 = 12V
IOUT1
OP177
VOUT = 0 TO –VREF
VSS = –12V
VDD
SYNC SCLK SDIN GND
10µF
µCONTROLLER
0.1µF
AGND
VSS
10µF
0.1µF
10µF
0.1µF
08611-001
VDD1
Figure 1. Unipolar Precision DC Configuration
(Simplified Schematic: Decoupling and All Connections Not Shown)
Rev. A
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CN-0052
Circuit Note
When an output amplifier is connected in unipolar mode, the
output voltage is given by
TA = 25°C
VREF = 10V
VDD = 5V
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
–0.4
–0.8
× (D/2N)
–1.2
where D is the digital word loaded to the DAC, and N is the
number of bits (D = 0 to 255 (8-bit AD5450); D = 0 to 1023
(10-bit AD5451); D = 0 to 4095 (12-bit AD5452); D = 0 to
16,383 (14-bit AD5453)).
–1.6
–2.0
0
2048
4096
6144
8192
10,240 12,288 14,336 16,384
CODE
08611-002
VOUT = −VREF
2.0
INL (LSB)
The AD5450/AD5451/AD5452/AD5453are designed on a 5 V
CMOS process and operate from a VDD power supply of 2.5 V to
5.5 V. The DACs accept VREF input ranges up to 10 V, as shown
with the ADR01 reference in Figure 1. The ADR01 requires a
supply voltage (VDD1) of 12 V minimum and can be driven from
the same supply voltage that powers the output amplifier.
Figure 2. AD5453 14-Bit DAC Relative Accuracy Plot.
The input offset voltage of an op amp is multiplied by the
variable noise gain (due to the code-dependent output resistance of the DAC) of the circuit. A change in this noise gain
between two adjacent digital codes produces a step change in
the output voltage due to the amplifier’s input offset voltage.
This output voltage change is superimposed on the desired
change in output between the two codes and gives rise to a
differential linearity error, which, if large enough, may cause
the DAC to be nonmonotonic. In general, the input offset
voltage should be a fraction of an LSB to ensure monotonic
behavior when stepping through codes.
Excellent grounding, layout, and decoupling techniques must be
used for proper operation of the circuit. All power supply pins
should be decoupled directly at the pin with a low inductance
(low ESL) 0.1 µF ceramic capacitor. The connection to ground
should be directly to a large area ground plane. Additional
decoupling using a 1 µF to 10 µF electrolytic capacitor is recommended on each power supply where it enters the PC board.
The decoupling capacitors are not shown in Figure 1 for
simplicity.
Relative accuracy or endpoint nonlinearity is one of the most
widely used techniques in determining the accuracy performance of a DAC circuit. This is a measure of the maximum
deviation from a straight line passing through the endpoints of
the DAC transfer function. It is measured after adjusting for
zero and full-scale error and is normally expressed in LSBs.
Figure 2 shows the performance of the circuit shown in Figure 1
using the AD5453 14-bit DAC and an OP177 amplifier.
To optimize high frequency performance, the I-V amplifier
should be located as close to the DAC as possible. The AD5450/
AD5451/AD5452/AD5453 data sheets show the schematics and
layouts used for the evaluation boards.
COMMON VARIATIONS
The OP1177 and AD8065 are other excellent op amp candidates
for the I-V conversion circuit. They also provide a low offset
voltage and ultralow bias current.
The 10.0 V output ADR01 can be replaced by either the ADR02
or ADR03, which are low noise references available from the
same reference family as the ADR01 and provide 5.0 V and
2.5 V outputs, respectively. The ADR445 and ADR441 ultralow
noise references are also suitable substitutes that provide 5.0 V
and 2.5 V, respectively. Note that the size of the reference input
voltage is restricted by the rail-to-rail voltage of the operational
amplifier selected.
Rev. A | Page 2 of 3
Circuit Note
CN-0052
LEARN MORE
Data Sheets and Evaluation Boards
Kester, Walt. The Data Conversion Handbook. Chapters 3, 7.
Analog Devices, 2005.
AD5450/AD5451/AD5452/AD5453 Data Sheets and
Evaluation Boards.
MT-015 Tutorial, Basic DAC Architectures II: Binary DACs.
Analog Devices.
OP177 Data Sheet.
MT-033 Tutorial, Voltage Feedback Op Amp Gain and
Bandwidth. Analog Devices.
OP1177 Data Sheet.
MT-031 Tutorial, Grounding Data Converters and Solving the
Mystery of AGND and DGND. Analog Devices.
ADR02 Data Sheet.
MT-035 Tutorial, Op Amp Inputs, Outputs, Single-Supply, and
Rail-to-Rail Issues. Analog Devices.
AD8065 Data Sheet.
ADR01 Data Sheet.
ADR03 Data Sheet.
ADR441 Data Sheet.
MT-101 Tutorial, Decoupling Techniques. Analog Devices.
ADR445 Data Sheet.
ADIsimPower Design Tool. Analog Devices.
REVISION HISTORY
Voltage Reference Wizard Design Tool. Analog Devices.
11/09—Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Updated Format ................................................................. Universal
1/09—Revision 0: Initial Release
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CN08611-0-11/09(A)
Rev. A | Page 3 of 3
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