AN-1344: High Common-Mode Voltage Current Loop Transmitter Front End (Rev. 0) PDF

AN-1344
APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com
High Common-Mode Voltage Current Loop Transmitter Front End
by Jino Loquinario and Paul Blanchard
INTRODUCTION
This application note highlights the AD8479, a precision difference
amplifier that accurately measures differential signals with the
presence of very high input common-mode voltages (CMVs) that
range up to ±600 V (see Figure 2). The AD8479 serves as a front
end for a current loop transmitter, thus enabling the transmitter
to operate in applications with very high CMV, such as motor
controls and high voltage current sensing.
ILOOP
LONG WIRES
Rx
Figure 1. Current Loop Diagram
VS = ±15V
600
400
VS = ±5V
200
0
–200
–400
–600
–800
–20
–15
–10
–5
0
VOUT (V)
5
10
15
Figure 2. AD8479 Input CMV vs. Output Voltage
Rev. 0 | Page 1 of 5
20
12865-002
Tx
12865-001
INPUT
SIGNAL
800
COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE (V)
The current loop is a common signaling technique for sending
and receiving sensor data over long distances. In a current loop,
the current contains information from a transmitter that is
relayed to a receiver through very long wires (see Figure 1). This
transmission technique has an inherent insensitivity to electrical
noise, thus making it ideal for data transmission. Unlike voltage
signaling, current loops are immune to errors induced by IR drops
along the wires. Although the wire terminations in a loop are
less than ideal, all signaling currents flow through all components.
IR drops do not affect the signaling current as long as the supply is
greater than the combined voltage drop around the loop.
AN-1344
Application Note
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................... 1
Current Loop Transmitter Accuracy ..............................................5
Revision History ............................................................................... 2
Conclusion .....................................................................................5
Circuit Transfer Function ................................................................ 3
REVISION HISTORY
10/15—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 5
Application Note
AN-1344
CIRCUIT TRANSFER FUNCTION
Even at very high CMV, the AD8479 accepts differential voltage
and passes it through its output with a fixed gain of 1 and the
transfer function given by Equation 1.
VO = VD (G = 1) + VREF
From Equation 2 and the values shown in Figure 3,
 1 kΩ
  16.2 
 16.2 
VOUT  VO 
  1 
  VO  

1
kΩ

1
kΩ
1
.
8

 

 1.8 
(1)
where:
VO is theAD8479 output shown in Figure 3.
VD is the AD8479 differential input voltage shown in Figure 3.
VREF is the voltage applied to the +REF and –REF pins.
VOUT = VO (0.5) × (10) + VO (−9)
VOUT = 5 VO + VO (−9)
VOUT = −4 VO
(3)
From Equation 1, the following is true:
+15V
VO = VD + VREF
where VREF = VOUT.
+VS
+REF
OUT
–REF
–IN
–VS
Therefore,
VO
1kΩ
VO = VD + (−4 VO)
+VIN
+VS
R1
ADA4627-1
VCM
1.8kΩ
R2
–VIN
VOUT
5 VO = VD
VO = 1/5VD
(4)
–VS
VO
1.8kΩ
16.2kΩ
R3
–15V
IO
RL
1kΩ
NOTES
1. R1, R2, AND R3 IS AT 1%
12685-003
AD8479
VD
5 VO
–VIN
16.2kΩ
Figure 3. Current Loop Transmitter
Because the +REF and –REF pins are tied, the output is equal to
the reference voltage (VREF) when there is no differential voltage
present at the input.
The output goes to the ADA4627-1, which serves as an interface
between the AD8479 and the load. Connecting the output to the
ADA4627-1, as opposed to connecting it directly to the AD8479
output, helps to avoid variations on the output current, which is
highly affected by the load change. The ADA4627-1 also forces
the voltage for the reference pins of the AD8479, resulting in
the following output equation:
VOUT
 R1    R3  
R3 
  1      VO  
 VO 


 R2 
 R1  RL    R2  
–4 VO
12685-004
+IN
Figure 4. Simplified AD8479 Output Network
Use the voltage divider theorem to calculate the following:


1.8 kΩ

 VIN  5VO 
 16.2 kΩ  1.8 kΩ 


−VIN = 5 VO (0.1)
−VIN = 0.5 VO
(5)
With the virtual short, calculate the following:
−VIN = +VIN
(2)
Combining the AD8479 and ADA4627-1 enables a current loop
transmitter front-end circuit to measure signals at very high CMVs.
+VIN = 0.5 VO
Therefore,
VO – VR1 = + VIN
VR1 = VO – (+ VIN)
VR1 = VO – 0.5 VO
VR1 = 0.5 VO
1
VR1  0.5 VD 
5 
VR1 
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 5
1
VD
10
(6)
AN-1344
Application Note
IO = VR1/R1
1
VD
IO  10
R1
+15V
+IN
+VS
+REF
AD8479
VD
OUT
–REF
–IN
–VS
VO
1kΩ
+VIN
+VIN
R1
ADA4627-1
VCM
1.8kΩ
IO = VD/10R1
–VIN
NOTES
1. R1, R2, AND R3 IS AT 1%
Figure 5. Output Current Path
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 5
IO
16.2kΩ
R3
–15V
RL
1kΩ
–VIN
R2
VD
IO 
A
10,000
VOUT
12685-005
Figure 5 shows the current path that carries the information.
Because the amplifier (ADA4627-1) has high input impedance,
the current flows directly through the load, which gives an
overall circuit transfer function of
Application Note
AN-1344
CURRENT LOOP TRANSMITTER ACCURACY
1000
Approximate the total error contributed by the resistor tolerances
by assuming that each of the critical resistors contributes equally to
the total error. The three critical resistors are R1, R2, and R3.
Resistors with a worst-case tolerance buildup of 1% yield a total
resistance error of 3% maximum. If root sum square (RSS)
errors are assumed, the total RSS error is 1√3 = 1.732%.
800
OUTPUT CURRENT (µA)
600
Table 1. Errors Due to Active Components
Error
Offset
Gain
0.5
0V
48V
96V
0.2
0.1
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
8
10
Figure 7. Output Current vs. Input Voltage for Various CMV Inputs
Figure 7 shows the transmitter output performance at three
CMVs. At 0 V CMV, a 45.3 ppm gain error with an offset of
0.0038 μA is present; at 48 V CMV, a 45.4 ppm gain error with an
offset of −0.2443 μA is present; and at 96 V CMV, a 45.4 ppm gain
error with an offset of −0.5262 μA is present. This performance
characteristic demonstrates that increasing the CMV has a
negligible effect on the output of the transmitter front end. This
result is due to the AD8479 allowing accurate measurement of
differential signals in the presence of CMV up to ±600 V due to
the ADA4627-1, a very low offset voltage wide bandwidth
precision amplifier.
In addition, this application circuit has an excellent commonmode ratio (CMR) of 94 dB in both 0 V and 48 V CMVs and
48 V and 96 V CMVs as measured.
0
–0.1
–0.2
CONCLUSION
–0.3
–0.4
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
8
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
10
12865-006
TOTAL UNCOMPENSTAED ERROR (%FSR)
–400
–1000
–10
These errors assume that the ideal resistors were selected and
that the errors resulted from their tolerances. Figure 6 shows the
actual error performance of the application circuit.
–0.5
–10
0
–200
–800
Full Scale Error = 3% + 0.05% = 3.05%
0.3
200
–600
Adding the worst-case resistor tolerance error of 3% to the
worst-case errors due to the offsets of active components yields:
0.4
400
12865-007
Error Component
AD8479
AD8479
Maximum Full-Scale Error
Total
Uncompensated
Error (%FSR)
0.03%
0.02%
0.05%
Error
Value
3 mV
0.02%
CMV = 0V, IO = 99.547 × VIN + 0.0038
CMV = 48V, IO = 99.546 × VIN – 0.2443
CMV = 96V, IO = 99.546 × VIN – 0.5262
Figure 6. Input Voltage vs. Total Uncompensated Error (%FSR) vs. Input CMV
For a maximum uncompensated error of 0.47% FSR, the system
shows highly dependable performance in terms of accuracy.
Despite the errors introduced by the resistors and the AD8479,
the system is able to maintain good accuracy over different CMV
values. With this performance, using the AD8479 as a current loop
transmitter front end enables instrumentation with high accuracy
up to 96 V (guaranteed to work up to ±600 V CMV). Because the
majority of the errors are introduced by passive components,
system performance can be improved further by using high
precision, very tight tolerance resistors.
Current loop signaling is more dependable than voltage signaling
for transmitting signals over long distances. Signals are contained
in the loop current transmitted for long distances, disregarding the
effects of voltage drops in the wire, a major concern for voltage
signaling. When transmitting signals as voltage, the supply current
induces voltage drops along the wires that usually appear as errors
in the signal measurement. Furthermore, current loop signaling
has a better immunity to noise than voltage signaling. This
application note implements a current loop transmitter front end
using the AD8479. This allows precision instrumentation over
very high CMV signals. This circuit addresses the need for
precision measurements for industrial and motor applications,
that is, industrial process-monitoring applications. As tested and
verified, this application circuit allows precision instrumentation
at CMVs up to 96 V (works up to 600 V CMV) with proven
accuracy over wide input voltage and CMV ranges. The Analog
Devices, Inc., amplifier devices used in this application note are
highly dependable for robust and precision application needs.
©2015 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
AN12865-0-10/15(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 5
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