dm00112257

AN4467
Application note
Getting started with STM32L0xx hardware development
Introduction
This application note is intended for system designers who require a hardware
implementation overview of the development board features such as the power supply, the
clock management, the reset control, the boot mode settings and the debug management. It
shows how to use STM32L0xx product families and describes the minimum hardware
resources required to develop an STM32L0xx application.
Detailed reference design schematics are also contained in this document with descriptions
of the main components, interfaces and modes.
January 2015
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www.st.com
Contents
AN4467
Contents
1
Power supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1
2
4
2/33
1.1.1
Independent A/D converter supply and reference voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1.2
Independent LCD supply (STM32L0x3 only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.1.3
Voltage regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2
Power supply schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
1.3
Reset and power supply supervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3.1
Power-on reset (POR) / Power-down reset (PDR),
Brownout reset (BOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.2
Programmable voltage detector (PVD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.3
Brownout reset (BOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3.4
System reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1
MSI clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2
HSE OSC clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3
3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.1
External source (HSE bypass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.2
External crystal/ceramic resonator (HSE crystal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
LSE OSC clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.1
External crystal/ceramic resonator (LSE crystal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.2
External source (LSE bypass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4
Clock security system on HSE (CSSHSE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.5
HSI16 clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.6
LSI clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Boot configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.1
Boot mode selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.2
Embedded boot loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.3
BOOT0 pin connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Debug management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.2
SWD debug port (serial wire) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
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Contents
4.3
Pinout and debug port pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.4
Serial wire debug (SWD) pin assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
SWD pin assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.4.2
Internal pull-up and pull-down on SWD pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.4.3
SWD port connection with standard SWD connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.1
Printed circuit board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.2
Component position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.3
Ground and power supply (VSS, VDD, VSSA, VDDA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.4
Decoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.5
Other signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.6
Unused I/Os and features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Reference design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1
6.2
7
4.4.1
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1.1
Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1.2
Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1.3
Boot mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1.4
SWD interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1.5
Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Component references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
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3
List of tables
AN4467
List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
4/33
VLCD rails connections to GPIO pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Boot modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Interfaces for different device categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
SWD port pins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Mandatory components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Optional components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Reference connection for all packages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Document revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
DocID026156 Rev 2
AN4467
List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Power supply overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Power supply scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Optional LCD power supply scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Power supply supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Power on reset/power down reset waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
PVD thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Simplified diagram of the reset circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
External clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Crystal/ceramic resonators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
External clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Crystal/ceramic resonators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Host-to-board connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
SWD port connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Typical layout for VDD / VSS pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Reference design (based on STM32L053RBT6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
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Power supplies
AN4467
1
Power supplies
1.1
Introduction
The chip requires power supply on different power pins:
•
VDD= 1.65 to 3.6 V: external power supply for I/Os and the internal regulator. Provided
externally through VDD pins. For VDD below 1.8 V see Section 1.3.3: Brownout reset
(BOR)
•
VDDA = VDD: external analog power supply for ADC/DAC, Comparators, Reset blocks,
RCs and PLL. The minimum voltage to be applied to VDDA is 1.8 V when the DAC is
used.The VDDA voltage level must always be equal to VDD, a maximum difference of
300 mV between VDD and VDDA can be tolerated during power-up and normal
operation.
•
VLCD= 2.5 to 3.6 V when the LCD controller is powered externally. When the LCD is
powered internally from the voltage generated by the embedded step-up converter,
VLCD pin must be connected to a capacitor. If the LCD is not used at all, this pin should
be connected to VDDA.
•
VDD_USB = 3.0 to 3.6 V, VDD_USB is a dedicated independent USB power supply for
USB transceivers. The minimum value of 3.0 V guarantees the USB signal voltage
level. When USB is not used the application must supply VDD_USB = 1.65 to 3.6 V.
Digital power voltage (VCORE) is provided with an embedded linear voltage regulator with
three different programmable ranges from 1.2 to 1.8 V.
To be fully functional at full speed, the device requires a 1.71 to 3.6 V operating voltage
supply (VDD), making possible to reach the digital power voltage VCORE close to 1.8 V
(product voltage range 1).
Product voltage range 2 (VCORE = 1.5 V) and 3 (VCORE = 1.2 V) can be selected when the
VDD operates from 1.65 to 3.6 V. Therefore, frequency is limited to 16 MHz and 4.2 MHz,
respectively.
When the DAC and brownout reset (BOR) are not used, the device can operate at power
voltages below 1.8 V, down to 1.65 V.
6/33
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Power supplies
Figure 1. Power supply overview
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Note:
VDDA and VSSA must be connected to VDD and VSS, respectively.
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Power supplies
1.1.1
AN4467
Independent A/D converter supply and reference voltage
To improve conversion accuracy, the ADC and the DAC have an independent power supply
that can be filtered separately, and shielded from noise on the PCB.
•
The ADC voltage supply input is available on a separate VDDA pin
•
An isolated supply ground connection is provided on the VSSA pin
VDDA and VREF+ require a stable voltage. The consumption on VDDA can reach several mA
(see IDD(ADCx), IDD(DAC), IDD(COMPx), and IDDA in the product datasheets for further
information).
When available (depending on the package), VREF- must be tied to VSSA. VSSA and VREFmust be tied to VSS directly, without any filtering device, this avoids some ESD issues.
On some packages with the pin VREF+ to ensure a better accuracy on low-voltage inputs
and outputs, the user can connect to VREF+ a separate external reference voltage which is
lower than VDD. VREF+ is the highest voltage, represented by the full scale value, for an
analog input (ADC) or output (DAC) signal.
On packages without such a dedicated pin, VREF+ is internally connected to the ADC
voltage supply (VDDA).
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AN4467
1.1.2
Power supplies
Independent LCD supply (STM32L0x3 only)
The VLCD pin is provided to control the contrast of the glass LCD. This pin can be used in
two ways:
•
It can receive, from an external circuitry, the desired maximum voltage that is provided
on the segment and common lines to the glass LCD by the microcontroller.
•
It can also be used to connect an external capacitor that is used by the microcontroller
for its voltage step-up converter. This step-up converter is controlled by software to
provide the desired voltage to the segment and common lines of the glass LCD. Refer
to the specific product datasheet for the capacitor value.
The voltage provided to the segment and common lines defines the contrast of the glass
LCD pixels. This contrast can be reduced when the dead time between frames is
configured.
In case of LCD with big pixel, the high capacitance of the pixel might degrade the LCD
signal shape. So the device offer the possibility to connect internal VLCD rails (LCD_VLCD1,
LCD_VLCD2, LCD_VLCD3) to optional capacitors. This improves the Segment and
Common line signals shape with limited use of high drive resistor network, so it improves
the signal shape without extra current consumption. The values of these decoupling
capacitors must be tuned according to the LCD glass and the PCB capacitances. As a
guideline the user can set the decoupling capacitor values to approximately 10 times the
LCD and PCB capacitance. The LCD rail to be connected depends on the Bias
configuration.
Table 1. VLCD rails connections to GPIO pins
Bias
Rail
1.1.3
Pin selected by
CAPA[2:0] bits
1/2
1/3
1/4
LCD_VLCD3
Not used
Not used
3/4 VLCD
PB0 or PE12
LCD_VLCD2
1/2 VLCD
2/3 VLCD
2/4 VLCD
PB2
LCD_VLCD1
Not used
1/3 VLCD
1/4 VLCD
PB12 or PE11
Voltage regulator
The internal voltage regulator is always enabled after reset. It can be configured to provide
the core with three different voltage ranges. Choosing a range with low Vcore reduces the
consumption but lowers the maximum acceptable core speed. Consumption ranges in
decreasing consumption order are as follows:
Note:
•
Range 1, available only for VDD above 1.71 V, allows maximum speed;
•
Range 2 allows CPU frequency up to 16 MHz;
•
Range 3 allows CPU frequency up to 4.2 MHz.
In Range 1, when VDD is below 2.0 V, the CPU frequency in run mode must be managed to
prevent any changes exceeding a ratio of 4 in one shot. A delay of 5 µs must be respected
between 2 changes. There is no limitation when waking up from low-power mode.
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Power supplies
AN4467
Voltage regulator works in three different modes depending on the application:
10/33
•
in Run mode, the regulator supplies full power to the Vcore domain (core, memories and
digital peripherals);
•
in Stop mode, low-power run and low-power wait modes, the regulator supplies lowpower to the Vcore domain, preserving the contents of the registers and SRAM;
•
in Standby mode, the regulator is powered off. The contents of the registers and SRAM
are lost except for those powered with the Standby circuitry.
DocID026156 Rev 2
AN4467
Power supply schemes
The circuit is powered by a stabilized power supply, VDD.
•
The VDD pins must be connected to VDD with external decoupling capacitors; one
single tantalum or ceramic capacitor (minimum 4.7 µF, typically 10 µF) for the package
+ one 100 nF ceramic capacitor for each VDD pin).
•
The VDDA pin must be connected to two external decoupling capacitors (100 nF
ceramic capacitor + 1 µF tantalum or ceramic capacitor).
•
The VREF+ pin can be connected to the VDDA external power supply. If a separate,
external reference voltage is applied on VREF+, a 100 nF and a 1 µF capacitor must be
connected on this pin. To compensate peak consumption on Vref, the 1 µF capacitor
may be increased up to 10 µF when the sampling speed is high. When ADC or DAC is
used, VREF+ must remain between 1.8 V and VDDA. VREF+ can be grounded when ADC
and DAC are not active; this enables the user to power down an external voltage
reference.
•
Additional precautions can be taken to filter digital noise: VDDA can be connected to
VDD through a ferrite bead. In this case take care to keep a (VDDA- VDD) difference
lower than 300 mV.
Figure 2. Power supply scheme
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1. VREF+ is either connected to VDDA or to VREF.
2. N is the number of VDD and VSS inputs.
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Power supplies
AN4467
Figure 3. Optional LCD power supply scheme
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•
Option 1: LCD power supply is provided by a dedicated VLCD supply source, VSEL
switch is open.
•
Option 2: LCD power supply is provided by the internal step-up converter, VSEL switch
is closed, an external capacitance is needed for correct behavior of this converter.
Note:
The availability of the VLCD rails depend on device package.
1.3
Reset and power supply supervisor
The input supply to the main and low-power regulators is monitored by a power-on/powerdown/brownout reset circuit. Power-on/power-down reset are a null power monitoring with
fixed threshold voltages, whereas brownout reset gives the choice between several
thresholds with a very low, but not null, power consumption.
In addition, the STM32L0xx embeds a programmable voltage detector that compares the
power supply with the programmable threshold. An interrupt can be generated when the
power supply drops below the VPVD threshold and/or when the power supply is higher than
the VPVD threshold. The interrupt service routine then generates a warning message and/or
puts the MCU into a safe state.
12/33
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Power supplies
Figure 4. Power supply supervisors
VD D /V D DA
V PVD
V BOR
100 mV
hysteresis
100 mV
hysteresis
VPOR/ VPDR
IT enabled
PVD output
BOR reset
(NRST)
BOR/PDR reset
(NRST)
POR/PDR reset
(NRST)
PVD
BOR always active
BOR disabled by option byte
POR/PDR (BOR not available)
(Note 1)
(Note 2)
(Note 3)
(Note 4)
ai17211b
1. The PVD is available on all STM32L devices and it is enabled or disabled by software.
2. The BOR is available only on devices operating from 1.8 to 3.6 V, and unless disabled by option byte it
masks the POR/PDR threshold.
3. When the BOR is disabled by option byte, the reset is asserted when VDD goes below PDR level.
4. For devices operating from 1.65 to 3.6 V, there is no BOR and the reset is released when VDD goes above
POR level and asserted when VDD goes below PDR level.
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Power supplies
1.3.1
AN4467
Power-on reset (POR) / Power-down reset (PDR),
Brownout reset (BOR)
The monitoring voltage begins at 0.7 V.
During power-on, for devices operating between 1.8 and 3.6 V, the BOR keeps the device
under reset until the supply voltages (VDD and VDDA) come close to the lowest acceptable
voltage (1.8 V). At power-up this internal reset is maintained during ~ 1 ms to wait for the
supply to reach its final value and stabilize.
At power-down the reset is activated as soon as the power drops below the lowest limit (i.e.
1.65 V).
At power-on, a defined reset should be maintained below 0.7 V. The upper threshold for a
reset release is defined in the electrical characteristics section of the product datasheets.
Figure 5. Power on reset/power down reset waveform
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For a programmable threshold above the chip lowest limit, a brownout reset can be
configured to the desired value. The BOR can also be used to detect a power voltage drop
earlier. The threshold values of the BOR can be configured through the FLASH_OBR option
byte.
1.3.2
Programmable voltage detector (PVD)
The device features an embedded programmable voltage detector (PVD) that monitors the
VDD/VDDA power supply and compares it to the VPVD threshold. Seven different PVD levels
can be selected by software between 1.85 and 3.05 V, with 200 mV steps.
An interrupt can be generated when VDD/VDDA drops below the VPVD threshold and/or when
it’s higher than the VPVD threshold. The interrupt service routine then generates a warning
message and/or puts the MCU into a safe state.
The PVD is enabled by software configuration. As an example, the service routine can
perform emergency shutdown tasks.
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Power supplies
Figure 6. PVD thresholds
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1.3.3
Brownout reset (BOR)
During power on, the brownout reset (BOR) keeps the device under reset until the supply
voltage reaches the specified VBOR threshold.
For devices operating from 1.65 to 3.6 V, the BOR option is not available and the power
supply is monitored by the POR/PDR. As the POR/PDR thresholds are at 1.5 V, a “grey
zone” exists between the VPOR / VPDR thresholds and the minimum product operating
voltage 1.65 V.
For devices operating from 1.8 to 3.6 V, the BOR is always active at power on and its
threshold is 1.8 V.
When the system reset is released, the BOR level can be reconfigured or disabled by option
byte loading.
If the BOR level is kept at the lowest level, 1.8 V at power-on and 1.65 V at power down, the
system reset is fully managed by the BOR and the product operating voltages are within
safe ranges.
When the BOR option is disabled by option byte, the power down reset is controlled by the
PDR and a “grey zone” exists between the 1.65 V and VPDR.
VBOR is configured through device option bytes. By default, lowest level 0 threshold is
activated. Five programmable VBOR thresholds can be selected (see product datasheets for
actual VBOR0 to VBOR4 thresholds).
When the supply voltage (VDD) drops below the selected VBOR threshold, a device reset is
generated. When the VDD is above the VBOR upper limit the device reset is released and the
system can start.
BOR can be disabled by programming the device option bytes. To disable the BOR function,
VDD must have been higher than VBOR0 to start the device option byte programming
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32
Power supplies
AN4467
sequence. The power-on and power-down is then monitored by the POR and PDR (see
power-on reset (POR)/power-down reset (PDR) section in the product datasheets).
The BOR threshold hysteresis is ~100 mV (between the rising and the falling edge of the
supply voltage).
1.3.4
System reset
A system reset sets all registers to their reset values except for the RTC, backup registers
and RCC control/status register, RCC_CSR.
A system reset is generated when one of the following events occurs:
1.
A low level on the NRST pin (external reset)
2.
Window watchdog end-of-count condition (WWDG reset)
3.
Independent watchdog end-of-count condition (IWDG reset)
4.
A reset bit set by software (SWreset)
5.
Entering Standby or Stop mode configured to generate a reset (Low-power
management reset)
6.
Option byte loader reset
7.
Exiting Standby mode
8.
Firewall reset.
The reset source can be identified by checking the reset flags in the Control/Status register,
RCC_CSR.
Figure 7. Simplified diagram of the reset circuit
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The STM32L does not require an external reset circuit to power-up correctly. Only a pulldown capacitor is recommended to improve EMS performance by protecting the device
against parasitic resets (see Figure 7).
Charging/discharging the pull-down capacitor through the internal resistor adds to the
device power consumption. The recommended value of 100 nF for the capacitor can be
reduced to 10 nF to limit power consumption.
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2
Clocks
Clocks
Four different clock sources can be used to drive the system clock (SYSCLK):
•
HSI16 (high-speed internal) oscillator clock
•
HSE (high-speed external) oscillator clock
•
PLL clock
•
MSI (multispeed internal) oscillator clock
The MSI is used as a system clock source after startup from reset, wake-up from Standby
low-power modes.The MSI, HSI16 or HSI16 divided by four, are used as a system clock
source after wake-up from Stop low-power mode.
The devices have the following two secondary clock sources:
•
37 kHz low speed internal RC (LSI RC) which drives the independent watchdog and
optionally the RTC used for auto-wakeup from Stop/Standby mode.
•
32.768 kHz low speed external crystal (LSE crystal) which optionally drives the
real-time clock (RTCCLK)
The STM32L0x2 and STM32L0x3 have HSI48 (high-speed internal) oscillator clock
available for USB and Random generator. This permits a USB communication without the
need for external clock source.
Each clock source can be switched on or off independently when not used, to optimize
power consumption.
Refer to the STM32L0xx reference manuals (RM0367, RM0376, RM0377) for a description
of the clock tree.
2.1
MSI clock
The MSI clock signal is generated from an internal RC oscillator. Its frequency range can be
adjusted by software through the RCC_ICSCR register. Seven frequency ranges are
available: 65.5 kHz, 131 kHz, 262 kHz, 524 kHz, 1.05 MHz, 2.1 MHz (default value) and
4.2 MHz, all are multiple values of 32.768 kHz.
The MSI clock is used as a system clock after a restart from reset.
The MSI RC oscillator has the advantage of providing a low-cost (no external components)
low-power clock source. It is used as a wakeup clock in low-power modes to reduce power
consumption and wakeup time.
The MSIRDY flag in the RCC_CR register indicates wether the MSI RC is stable or not. At
startup, the MSI RC output clock is not released until this bit is set by hardware.
The MSI RC can be switched on and off through the RCC_CR register (default is on).
Calibration
If the application is subject to voltage or temperature variations, this may affect the RC
oscillator speed. You can trim the MSI frequency in the application through the RCC_ICSCR
register. Typically, this uses the HSE or LSE as reference (see RM0367/376/377 for details
on clock measurement with TIM21). For more information refer to AN3300 “How to calibrate
an STM32Lxx internal RC oscillator”.
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32
Clocks
2.2
AN4467
HSE OSC clock
The high-speed external clock signal (HSE) can be generated from two possible clock
sources:
•
HSE user external clock (see Figure 8)
•
HSE external crystal/ceramic resonator (see Figure 9)
Figure 8. External clock
Figure 9. Crystal/ceramic resonators
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1. The value of REXT depends on the crystal characteristics. A typical value is in the range of 5 to 6 RS
(resonator series resistance).To fine tune the REXT value ,refer to AN2867(Oscillator design guide for ST
microcontrollers)
2. Load capacitance, CL, has the following formula: CL = CL1 x CL2 / (CL1 + CL2) + Cstray where: Cstray is the
pin capacitance and board or trace PCB-related capacitance. Typically, it is between 2 pF and 7 pF. Please
refer to Section 5.4: Decoupling to minimize its value.
2.2.1
External source (HSE bypass)
In this mode, an external clock source must be provided. It can have a frequency of up to
32 MHz.
The external clock signal (square, sine or triangle) with a duty cycle of about 50%, has to
drive the OSC_IN pin, while the OSC_OUT pin can be used as a GPIO. For Category 2
devices, when the package does not provide OSC_IN, PA0 can receive the external clock
source, see CK_IN definition in RM0377. From current consumption standpoint a square
signal is preferred (see Figure 8).
When HSE Bypass is used with VDD below 2.0 V and in range 1, take care of the frequency
drop as explained in Section 1.1.3: Voltage regulator.
2.2.2
External crystal/ceramic resonator (HSE crystal)
The external oscillator frequency ranges from 1 to 25 MHz.
The external oscillator has the advantage of producing a very accurate rate on the main
clock. The associated hardware configuration is shown in Figure 9.
The resonator and the load capacitors have to be connected as close as possible to the
oscillator pins in order to minimize output distortion and startup stabilization time. The load
capacitance values must be adjusted according to the selected oscillator.
For CL1 and CL2 it is recommended to use high-quality ceramic capacitors in the 5 to 25 pF
range (typical), designed for high-frequency applications and selected to meet the
requirements of the crystal or resonator. CL1 and CL2, are usually the same value. The
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Clocks
crystal manufacturer typically specifies a load capacitance that is the series combination of
CL1 and CL2. The PCB and MCU pin capacitances must be included when sizing CL1 and
CL2 (10 pF can be used as a rough estimate of the combined pin and board capacitance).
Refer to the electrical characteristics sections in the datasheet of your product for more
details, and to application note AN2867 “Oscillator design guide for STM microcontrollers”.
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32
Clocks
2.3
AN4467
LSE OSC clock
The LSE crystal is a 32.768 kHz Low Speed External crystal or ceramic resonator. It has the
advantage of providing a low-power but highly accurate clock source to the real-time clock
peripheral (RTC) for clock/calendar or other timing functions.
2.3.1
External crystal/ceramic resonator (LSE crystal)
The LSE crystal is switched on and off using the LSEON bit in RCC control/status register
(RCC_CSR). The crystal oscillator driving strength can be changed at runtime using the
LSEDRV[1:0] bits (in RCC_CSR register) to obtain the best compromise between
robustness and short start-up time on one side and low-power consumption on the other
(see Figure 10).
The LSERDY flag (in RCC_CSR) indicates whether the LSE crystal is stable or not. At
startup, the LSE crystal output clock signal is not released until this bit is set by hardware.
An interrupt can be generated, if enabled, in the Clock interrupt enable register
(RCC_CIER).
2.3.2
External source (LSE bypass)
In this mode, an external clock source must be provided. It can have a frequency of up to 1
MHz. You select this mode by setting the LSEBYP and LSEON bits (in RCC_CSR). The
external clock signal (square, sinus or triangle) has to drive the OSC32_IN pin, from current
consumption standpoint a square signal is preferred. The OSC32_OUT pin can be used as
GPIO (see Figure 10)
Figure 10. External clock
Figure 11. Crystal/ceramic resonators
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1. OSC32_IN and OSC_OUT pins can be also used as GPIOs, but it is recommended not to use them as
both RTC and GPIO pins in the same application.
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2.4
Clocks
Clock security system on HSE (CSSHSE)
The clock security system can be activated by software. In this case, the clock detector is
enabled after the HSE oscillator startup delay, and disabled when this oscillator is stopped.
If a failure is detected on the HSE oscillator clock, this oscillator is automatically disabled
and an interrupt is generated to inform the software about the failure (clock security system
on HSE interrupt, CSSHSEI), allowing the MCU to perform rescue operations. The
CSSHSEI is linked to the Cortex®-M0+ NMI (non-maskable interrupt) exception vector.
If the HSE oscillator is used directly or indirectly as the system clock (indirectly means: it is
used as the PLL input clock, and the PLL clock is used as the system clock), a detected
failure causes the system clock to switch to the MSI oscillator and the external HSE
oscillator to be disabled. If the HSE oscillator clock is the clock entry of the PLL used as the
system clock when the failure occurs, the PLL is also disabled.
For details, see the STM32L0xx reference manuals (RM0367, RM0376, RM0377).
2.5
HSI16 clock
The HSI16 clock signal is generated from an internal 16 MHz RC oscillator and can be used
directly as a system clock or can used as PLL input. The HSI16 RC oscillator has the
advantage of providing a clock source at low cost (no external components). It also has a
faster startup time than the HSE crystal oscillator. However, even with calibration, the
frequency is less accurate than an external crystal oscillator or ceramic resonator.
Calibration
RC oscillator frequencies can vary from one chip to another due to manufacturing process
variations, This is why each device is factory calibrated by ST for 1% accuracy at TA = 25°C.
If the application is subject to voltage or temperature variations, the RC oscillator speed will
be impacted. You can trim the HSI16 frequency in the application through the RCC_ICSCR
register. Typically, this uses the HSE or LSE as reference (see RM0367/376/377 for details
on clock measurement with TIM21). For more information refer to AN3300 “How to calibrate
an STM32Lxx internal RC oscillator”.
2.6
LSI clock
The LSI RC acts as an low-power clock source that can be kept running in Stop and
Standby mode for the independent watchdog (IWDG) and RTC. The clock frequency is
around 40 kHz (between 30 and 60 kHz). For more details, refer to the electrical
characteristics section of the datasheets.
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Boot configuration
AN4467
3
Boot configuration
3.1
Boot mode selection
In the Root part number 1, three different boot modes can be selected through the BOOT0
pin and nBOOT1 option bit, as shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Boot modes
BOOT mode selection pins
Boot mode
BOOT1(1)
BOOT0
x
0
0
1
System memory
1
1
Embedded SRAM
Aliasing
Main Flash memory Main Flash memory is selected as boot space
System memory is selected as boot space
Embedded SRAM is selected as boot space
1. The BOOT1 value is the opposite of the nBOOT1 option bit.
The values on the BOOT0 pin and nBOOT1 bit are latched on the 4th rising edge of
SYSCLK after a reset. The user must set nBOOT1 and BOOT0 to select the required boot
mode.
BOOT0 is a dedicated pin.The BOOT0 pin and nBOOT1 bit are also resampled when
exiting Standby mode. Consequently, they must be kept in the required Boot mode
configuration in Standby mode. After this startup delay has elapsed, the CPU fetches the
top-of-stack value from address 0x0000 0000, and starts code execution from the boot
memory starting from 0x0000 0004.
Depending on the selected boot mode, main Flash program memory, system memory or
SRAM is accessible as follows:
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•
Boot from main Flash memory: the main Flash program memory is aliased in the boot
memory space (0x0000 0000), but is still accessible from its original memory space
(0x0800 0000). In other words, the Flash memory contents can be accessed starting
from address 0x0000 0000 or 0x0800 0000.
•
Boot from System memory: the system memory is aliased in the boot memory space
(0x0000 0000), but is still accessible from its original memory space (0x1FFF EC00).
•
Boot from embedded SRAM: the SRAM is aliased in the boot memory space (0x0000
0000), but is still accessible from its original memory space (0x2000 0000).
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3.2
Boot configuration
Embedded boot loader
The embedded boot loader is located in the System memory, programmed by ST during
production. It is used to reprogram the Non Volatile memory using one of the interfaces
listed in Table 3.
Table 3. Interfaces for different device categories
Interface
Ports
Device category
USART1
PA9/PA10
Cat 3
Cat 5
PA9/PA10
Cat 2
PA2/PA3
Cat 3
Cat 5
SPI1
PA4/PA5/PA6/PA7
Cat 2/3
Cat 5 (without USB)
SPI2
PB12/PB13/PB14/PB15
Cat 3
Cat 5 (without USB)
USB
PA11/PA12
Cat 5 (with USB)
I2C1
PB6/PB7
Cat 5 (without USB)
I2C2
PB10/PB11
Cat 5 (without USB)
USART2
For additional information, refer to application note AN2606.
3.3
BOOT0 pin connection
The BOOT0 pin of the Root part number 1 has a lower VIL than the other GPIO (for details
see datasheet I/O static characteristics), thus as it does not fit CMOS requirement, when
driven by another CMOS circuit the signal level must be verified.
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Debug management
AN4467
4
Debug management
4.1
Introduction
The host/target interface is the hardware equipment that connects the host to the application
board. This interface is made of three components: a hardware debug tool, a SW connector
and a cable connecting the host to the debug tool.
Figure 12 shows the connection of the host to a development board.
The Nucleo demonstration board embeds the debug tools (ST-LINK) so it can be directly
connected to the PC through an USB cable.
Figure 12. Host-to-board connection
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4.2
SWD debug port (serial wire)
The STM32L0xx core integrates the serial wire debug port (SW-DP). It is an ARM® standard
CoreSight™ debug port with a 2-pin (clock + data) interface to the debug access port.
4.3
Pinout and debug port pins
The STM32L0xx MCUs are offered in various packages with varying numbers of pins.
4.4
Serial wire debug (SWD) pin assignment
The same SWD pin assignment is available on all STM32L0xx packages.
Table 4. SWD port pins
SWD port
SWD pin name
Pin assignment
Type
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SWDIO
I/O
SWCLK
I
Debug assignment
Serial wire data input/output
PA13
Serial wire clock
PA14
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4.4.1
Debug management
SWD pin assignment
After reset (SYSRESETn or PORESETn), the pins used for the SWD are assigned as
dedicated pins which are immediately usable by the debugger host.
However, the MCU offers the possibility to disable the SWD, therefore releasing the
associated pins for general-purpose I/O (GPIO) usage. For more details on how to disable
SWD port, refer to the section on I/O pin alternate function multiplexer and mapping of
reference manuals RM0367/ 0376 / 0377.
4.4.2
Internal pull-up and pull-down on SWD pins
Once the SWD I/O is released by the user software, the GPIO controller takes control of
these pins. The reset states of the GPIO control registers put the I/Os in the equivalent
states:
•
SWDIO: alternate function pull-up
•
SWCLK: alternate function pull-down
Having embedded pull-up and pull-down resistors removes the need to add external
resistors.
4.4.3
SWD port connection with standard SWD connector
Figure 13 shows the connection between the STM32L0xx and a standard SWD connector.
Figure 13. SWD port connection
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Recommendations
AN4467
5
Recommendations
5.1
Printed circuit board
For technical reasons, it is best to use a multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) with a
separate layer dedicated to ground (VSS) and another dedicated to the VDD supply. This
provides good decoupling and a good shielding effect. For many applications, economical
reasons prohibit the use of this type of board. In this case, the major requirement is to
ensure a good structure for ground and for the power supply.
5.2
Component position
A preliminary layout of the PCB must make separate:
5.3
•
high-current circuits
•
low-voltage circuits
•
digital component circuits
•
circuits separated according to their EMI contribution. This will reduce cross-coupling
on the PCB that introduces noise.
Ground and power supply (VSS, VDD, VSSA, VDDA)
Every block (noisy, low-level sensitive, digital, etc.) should be grounded individually, and all
ground returns should be to a single point. Loops must be avoided or have a minimum area.
In order to improve analog performance, you must use separate supply sources for VDD and
VDDA, and place the decoupling capacitors as close as possible to the device. The power
supplies should be implemented close to the ground line to minimize the area of the
supplies loop. This is due to the fact that the supply loop acts as an antenna, and acts as the
main transmitter and receiver of EMI. All component-free PCB areas must be filled with
additional grounding to create a kind of shielding (especially when using single-layer PCBs).
5.4
Decoupling
All power supply and ground pins must be properly connected to the power supplies. These
connections, including pads, tracks and vias should have as low an impedance as possible.
This is typically achieved with thick track widths and, preferably, the use of dedicated power
supply planes in multilayer PCBs.
In addition, each power supply pair should be decoupled with filtering ceramic capacitors C
(100 nF) and a tantalum or ceramic capacitor C of about 10 µF connected in parallel on the
Root part number 1 device. Some package use a common VSS for several VDD instead of a
pair of power supply (one VSS for each VDD), in that case the capacitors must be between
each VDD and the common VSS.These capacitors need to be placed as close as possible to,
or below, the appropriate pins on the underside of the PCB. Typical values are 10 to 100 nF,
but exact values depend on the application needs.
Figure 14 shows the typical layout of such a VDD / VSS pair.
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Recommendations
Figure 14. Typical layout for VDD / VSS pair
5.5
Other signals
When designing an application, the EMC performance can be improved by closely studying
the following:
5.6
•
Signals for which a temporary disturbance affects the running process permanently
(which is the case for interrupts and handshaking strobe signals but, not the case for
LED commands).
For these signals, a surrounding ground trace, shorter lengths, and the absence of
noisy and sensitive traces nearby (crosstalk effect) improve EMC performance.
For digital signals, the best possible electrical margin must be reached for the two
logical states and slow Schmitt triggers are recommended to eliminate parasitic states.
•
Noisy signals (example, clock)
•
Sensitive signals (example, high impedance)
Unused I/Os and features
All microcontrollers are designed for a variety of applications and often a particular
application does not use 100% of the MCU resources.
To increase EMC performance and avoid extra power consumption, unused clocks,
counters or I/Os, should not be left free. I/Os should be connected to a fixed logic level of 0
or 1 by an external or internal pull-up or pull-down on the unused I/O pin. The other option is
to configure GPIO as output mode using software. Unused features should be frozen or
disabled, which is their default value.
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Reference design
AN4467
6
Reference design
6.1
Description
The reference design shown in Figure 15, is based on the STM32L053RBT6.
This reference design can be tailored to any Root part number 1 device with a different
package, using the pin correspondence given in Table 7: Reference connection for all
packages.
6.1.1
Clock
Two clock sources are used for the microcontroller:
•
LSE: X2– 32.768 kHz crystal for the embedded RTC
•
HSE: X1– 8 MHz crystal for the Root part number 1 microcontroller
Refer to Section 2: Clocks.
6.1.2
Reset
The reset signal in Figure 15 is active low. The reset sources include:
•
Reset button (B1)
•
Debugging tools via the connector CN1
Refer to Section 1.3: Reset and power supply supervisor.
6.1.3
Boot mode
The boot option is configured by setting switches SW1 (Boot 0). Refer to Section 3: Boot
configuration.
Note:
When waking up from Standby mode, the Boot pin is sampled. In this situation, you need to
pay attention to its value.
6.1.4
SWD interface
The reference design shows the connection between the Root part number 1 and a
standard SWD connector. Refer to Section 4: Debug management.
Note:
It is recommended to connect the reset pins so as to be able to reset the application from
the tools.
6.1.5
Power supply
Refer to Section 1: Power supplies.
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6.2
Reference design
Component references
Table 5. Mandatory components
Reference
Value
Quantity
STM32L053R8(T6)
1
C8, C9, C10, C13 Capacitor
100 nF
3 ... 5
C11
Capacitor
4.7 µF
1
Tantalum / chemical / ceramic capacitor
(decoupling capacitor)
C6, C12
Capacitor
1 µF
2
Ceramic capacitor
(LCD booster or decoupling capacitor)
U1A
Component name
Microcontroller
Comments
64-pin package
Ceramic capacitors
(decoupling capacitors)
Table 6. Optional components
Reference
Component name
Value
Quantity
Comments
R1
Resistor
390 Ω
1
Used for HSE: the value depends on the crystal
characteristics, refer to application note AN2687
C5
Capacitor
100 nF
1
Ceramic capacitor
C1, C2
Capacitor
6.8 pF
2
Used for LSE: the value depends on the crystal
characteristics. Fits for MC-306 32.768K-E3, which
has a load capacitance of 6 pF.
C3, C4
Capacitor
20 pF
2
Used for HSE: the value depends on the crystal
characteristics, refer to application note AN2687
X1
Quartz
8 MHz
1
Used for HSE
X2
Quartz
32.764 kHz
1
Used for LSE
CN1
SWD connector
HE10
1
SW1
Switch
-
2
B1
Push-button
-
1
-
L1
Ferrite bead
-
1
For EMC reduction on VDDA supply, can be replaced
by a direct connection between VDD and VDDA
Used to select the right boot mode
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Reference design
AN4467
Figure 15. Reference design (based on STM32L053RBT6)
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Reference design
Table 7. Reference connection for all packages
Package
LQFP
BGA
CSP
QFN
Number of pins
32
48
64
100
64
100
25
36
49
28
32(1)
32(2)
VLCD
-
1
1
6
B2
E2
-
-
B6
-
-
-
PC14-OSC32_IN
2
3
3
8
A1
D1
A5
A6
C6
2
2
1
PC15-OSC32_OUT
3
4
4
9
B1
E1
B5
B6
C7
3
3
2
PH0-OSC_IN
-
5
5
12
C1
F1
-
-
D6
-
-
-
PH1-OSC_OUT
-
6
6
13
D1
G1
-
-
D7
-
-
-
NRST
4
7
7
14
E1
H2
C5
C6
D5
4
4
3
VSSA
-
8
12
19
F1
J1
-
-
-
-
-
4
VREF-
-
-
-
20
-
K1
-
-
-
-
-
-
VREF+
-
-
-
21
G1
L1
-
E6
E6
-
-
-
VDDA
5
9
13
22
H1
M1
D4
D5
F7
5
5
5
VSS_4
-
-
18
27
C2
E3
-
-
-
-
-
-
VDD_4
-
-
19
28
D2
H3
-
-
-
-
-
-
VSS_1
16
23
31
49
D5
F12
-
-
D4
-
-
16
VDD_1
17
24
32
50
E5
G12
-
F1
G2
-
17
17
PA13
23
34
46
72
A8
A11
A1
A1
C2
21
23
23
VDD_5
-
-
-
73
-
C11
-
-
-
-
-
-
VSS_2
-
35
47
74
D6
F11
D5
-
-
-
-
-
VDD_USB
-
36
48
75
E6
G11
-
-
A1
-
-
24
PA14
24
37
49
76
A7
A10
C2
B2
B2
22
24
25
BOOT0
31
44
60
94
B4
A4
C4
C5
A5
1
31
30
VSS_3
32
47
63
99
D4
D3
-
D6
-
-
-
31
VDD_3
1
48
64
100
E4
C4
-
A5
A7
-
1
32
1. Cat 2/3 devices
2. Cat 5 devices
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Revision history
7
AN4467
Revision history
Table 8. Document revision history
Date
Revision
24-Apr-2014
1
Initial release
2
Updated Section 1.1: Introduction, Section 1.1.1: Independent A/D
converter supply and reference voltage, Section 1.1.3: Voltage
regulator and Section 2.2.1: External source (HSE bypass).
Added Table 3: Interfaces for different device categories.
Updated Table 1: VLCD rails connections to GPIO pins and Table 7:
Reference connection for all packages.
22-Jan-2015
32/33
Changes
DocID026156 Rev 2
AN4467
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