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Windows 8.x HID Vendor & Custom Sensor
Collection Over the I2C Interface
Author:
Tom Tse
Microchip Technology
INTRODUCTION
This document provides an overview of how an application can talk to a HID vendor collection over the I2C interface
with a Microchip embedded controller or sensor hub.
HID is built on a couple of fundamental concepts, a Report Descriptor, and reports. Reports are the actual data blobs
that are exchanged between a device and a software client. The Report Descriptor describes the format and meaning
of each data blob that it supports.
Audience
This document is written for firmware designers who have a background and are familiar with the sensor platform for
Windows 8.x.
References
The following documents should be referenced when using this application note. See your Microchip representative for
availability.
•
•
•
•
SSC710x PCS or Data Sheet, TBD
SSC710x Demo Boards’ Schematics and User Manuals
Microsoft “HID Sensor Usages” White Paper, June 14, 2013
Microsoft “Integrating Motion and Orientation Sensors” White Paper, June 10, 2013
Glossary of Terms and Acronyms
This document contains the following terms, defined here for the purpose of convenience and general agreement:
Term
Description
SDT
Microsoft Sensor Diagnostic Tool Utility in Windows Driver Kit (WDK)
SF
Sensor Fusion
FW
SF Firmware
Acc
Accelerometer
Gyro
Gyroscope
Mag
Magnetometer
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VENDOR TOP LEVEL COLLECTIONS
The Report Descriptor will describe one or more Top Level Collections. A Top Level Collection is a grouping of functionality that targets a particular software consumer (or type of consumer) of the functionality. The device describes the purpose of each particular Top Level Collection in order to allow consumers of HID functionality to identify Top Level
Collections that they might be interested in.
For example, a Top Level Collection may be described as a Keyboard, Mouse, Consumer Control, Sensor, Display, etc.
In the HID specification, these Top Level Collections are also referred to as Application Collections. In Windows, HIDCLASS will generate a unique PDO (physical device object) for each Top Level Collection described by the Report
Descriptor.
In Windows 8, there is an in-box user mode Sensor HID Class driver that operates on the Sensor collection.
It is possible to define a vendor collection in the device firmware. The HIDCLASS driver will create a PDO for this. This
object can be operated upon from the user space using the HID.dll and HIDClass Support Routines.
Some possible usages (and not limited to) of Vendor collection in a Sensor Hub are as follows:
• Firmware update
• Acquisition of raw sensor readings
• Updating sensor calibration coefficients
WINDOWS 8 HID ARCHITECTURE
FIGURE 1:
BLOCK DIAGRAM
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The HID driver stack in Windows is built on the class driver named HIDCLASS.SYS. Clients and transport minidrivers
access the class driver from user-mode or kernel-mode.
The block diagram above includes the following:
• HID Clients – Identifies the Windows and 3rd party clients and their interfaces
• HIDClass driver
• HID Transport Minidriver - Identifies the Windows and 3rd party transports and their interfaces.
The system-supplied HID class driver is the WDM function driver and bus driver for the HIDClass device setup class.
The executable image of the HID class driver is hidclass.sys. The HID Class driver is the glue between HID clients and
various transports. This allows a HID Client to be written in an independent way from transports. This level of abstraction
allows clients to work (with little to no modifications) when a new standard or 3rd party transport is introduced.
SENSOR HID CLASS DRIVER
The inbox sensor HID class driver (SensorsHIDClassDriver.dll) ships with Windows 8 and supports seven categories of
sensors running over the HID transport:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Biometric
Electrical
Environmental
Light
Mechanical
Motion
Orientation
The Sensor HID Top-level collection in the device is opened for use by the Sensor HID Class Driver.
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SENSOR HUB – HID VENDOR COLLECTION
FIGURE 2:
BLOCK DIAGRAM SHOWING SENSOR COLLECTION AND VENDOR COLLECTION
IN THE SENSOR HUB DEVICE
The device in above block diagram has only one slave address and only one Alert line connected to Host.
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DEFINING THE VENDOR COLLECTION
The Vendor collection could be defined to simply consist of one input report and one output report, each of 32 bytes as
follows:
FIGURE 3:
VENDOR COLLECTION DEFINITION
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WINDOWS 8 DEVICE MANAGER VIEW
FIGURE 4:
WITH ONLY SENSOR COLLECTION
FIGURE 5:
WITH BOTH SENSOR COLLECTION AND VENDOR COLLECTION
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SENSORS RAW DATA ACQUISITION
Customers can use either sensor collection or vendor collection to acquire the raw data of sensors including accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. Raw data is the data from the sensors prior to SF algorithm processing.
Using The Vendor Collection
Using the vendor collection, it is possible to acquire the sensors raw data from a Windows 8 application. This is helpful
for calibration and debugging purposes.
Following is a snapshot which shows the acquisition of sensor raw data from the vendor collection using a console application. The Sensor Diagnostic Tool is getting the accelerometer data from the sensors collection at the same time.
FIGURE 6:
ACQUIRING SENSOR RAW DATA FROM THE VENDOR COLLECTION
Using The Sensor Collection
The following steps have been implemented in the firmware to add a Custom Sensor to acquire sensors RAW data from
the SSC7102 demo board:
• Modify HID Report descriptor to incorporate Custom sensor report
• Create new Input report and Feature Report structure
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MODIFY HID DESCRIPTOR
The following part has to be added to the HID Report descriptor:
/* Support RAW Sensor data */
HID_REPORT_ID(6),
//0x85,0x08,
HID_USAGE_PAGE_SENSOR,
// USAGE_PAGE (Sensor)
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_TYPE_OTHER_CUSTOM,
// USAGE (AmbientLight)
HID_COLLECTION(Physical),
// second nested sub-collection, for ALS
//feature reports (xmit/receive)
HID_USAGE_PAGE_SENSOR,
// 1: connection type
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_SENSOR_CONNECTION_TYPE,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_8(2),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(8),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_COLLECTION(Logical),
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_CONNECTION_TYPE_PC_INTEGRATED_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_CONNECTION_TYPE_PC_ATTACHED_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_CONNECTION_TYPE_PC_EXTERNAL_SEL,
HID_FEATURE(Data_Arr_Abs),
HID_END_COLLECTION,
// 2: reporting state
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_REPORTING_STATE,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_8(5),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(8),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_COLLECTION(Logical),
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_REPORTING_STATE_NO_EVENTS_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_REPORTING_STATE_ALL_EVENTS_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_REPORTING_STATE_THRESHOLD_EVENTS_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_REPORTING_STATE_NO_EVENTS_WAKE_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_REPORTING_STATE_ALL_EVENTS_WAKE_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_REPORTING_STATE_THRESHOLD_EVENTS_WAKE_SEL,
HID_FEATURE(Data_Arr_Abs),
HID_END_COLLECTION,
// 3: power state
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_POWER_STATE,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_8(5),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(8),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_COLLECTION(Logical),
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_POWER_STATE_UNDEFINED_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_POWER_STATE_D0_FULL_POWER_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_POWER_STATE_D1_LOW_POWER_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_POWER_STATE_D2_STANDBY_WITH_WAKE_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_POWER_STATE_D3_SLEEP_WITH_WAKE_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_POWER_STATE_D4_POWER_OFF_SEL,
HID_FEATURE(Data_Arr_Abs),
HID_END_COLLECTION,
// 4: sensor state
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_8(6),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(8),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_COLLECTION(Logical),
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_UNKNOWN_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_READY_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_NOT_AVAILABLE_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_NO_DATA_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_INITIALIZING_SEL,
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HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_ACCESS_DENIED_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_ERROR_SEL,
HID_FEATURE(Data_Arr_Abs),
HID_END_COLLECTION,
// 5: report interval
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_PROPERTY_REPORT_INTERVAL,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF,0xFF),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0),
HID_FEATURE(Data_Var_Abs),
// 6: accuracy
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA(HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE,HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_MOD_ACCURACY),
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF,0xFF),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
//HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0D),
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x00),
HID_FEATURE(Data_Var_Abs),
// 7: resolution
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA(HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE,HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_MOD_RESOLUTION),
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF,0xFF),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
//HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0D),
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x00),
HID_FEATURE(Data_Var_Abs),
// 8: change sensitivity
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA(HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE,HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_MOD_CHANGE_SENSITI
VITY_ABS),
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF,0xFF),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
//HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0D),
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x00),
HID_FEATURE(Data_Var_Abs),
// 9: max
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA(HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE,HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_MOD_MAX),
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01,0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF,0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_UNITS_NOT_SPECIFIED,
//HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
// scale unit to provide 1 digit past the decimal point
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x00),
// not scale
HID_FEATURE(Data_Var_Abs),
// 10: min
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA(HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE,HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_MOD_MIN),
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01,0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF,0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_UNITS_NOT_SPECIFIED,
//HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
// scale unit to provide 1 digit past the decimal point
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x00),
// not scale
HID_FEATURE(Data_Var_Abs),
//input reports (transmit)
HID_USAGE_PAGE_SENSOR,
// 1: sensor state
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HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_8(6),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(8),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_COLLECTION(Logical),
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_UNKNOWN_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_READY_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_NOT_AVAILABLE_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_NO_DATA_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_INITIALIZING_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_ACCESS_DENIED_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_STATE_ERROR_SEL,
HID_INPUT(Data_Arr_Abs),
HID_END_COLLECTION,
// 2: event type
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_EVENT,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_8(0),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_8(5),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(8),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_COLLECTION(Logical),
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_EVENT_UNKNOWN_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_EVENT_STATE_CHANGED_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_EVENT_PROPERTY_CHANGED_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_EVENT_DATA_UPDATED_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_EVENT_POLL_RESPONSE_SEL,
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_EVENT_CHANGE_SENSITIVITY_SEL,
HID_INPUT(Data_Arr_Abs),
HID_END_COLLECTION,
//Data fields for Input report starts here
// 3: Accelerometer Raw data : X Axis
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE_1,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01,0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF,0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
HID_INPUT(Data_Var_Abs),
// 4: Accelerometer Raw data : Y Axis
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE_2,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01, 0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF, 0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1), //8
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
HID_INPUT(Data_Var_Abs),
// 5: Accelerometer Raw data : Z Axis
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE_3,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01,0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF,0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
HID_INPUT(Data_Var_Abs),
// 6: Magnetometer Raw data : X Axis
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE_4,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01, 0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF, 0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1), //8
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
HID_INPUT(Data_Var_Abs),
// 7: Magnetometer Raw data : Y Axis
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE_5,
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HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01,0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF,0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1),
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
HID_INPUT(Data_Var_Abs),
// 8: Magnetometer Raw data : Z Axis
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE_6,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01, 0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF, 0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1), //8
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
HID_INPUT(Data_Var_Abs),
// 9: Gyroometer Raw data : X Axis
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE_7,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01, 0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF, 0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1), //8
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
HID_INPUT(Data_Var_Abs),
//10: Gyroometer Raw data : Y Axis
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE_8,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01, 0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF, 0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1), //8
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
HID_INPUT(Data_Var_Abs),
//11: Gyroometer Raw data : Z Axis
HID_USAGE_SENSOR_DATA_CUSTOM_VALUE_9,
HID_LOGICAL_MIN_16(0x01, 0x80),
HID_LOGICAL_MAX_16(0xFF, 0x7F),
HID_REPORT_SIZE(16),
HID_REPORT_COUNT(1), //8
HID_UNIT_EXPONENT(0x0F),
HID_INPUT(Data_Var_Abs),
HID_END_COLLECTION,
Note:
// END_COLLECTION - for ID=0x08, Raw Sensor Data
Be aware, in the case of custom sensors, the values supported by the HID protocol for custom sensor only
supports unsigned Integer and float values for Custom sensor. This must be kept in mind while writing the
Custom sensor collection.
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INPUT REPORT AND FEATURE REPORT STRUCTURE
To create a new sensor, we need to define its associated input and feature report. Even though Custom sensor is not a
real sensor, we require the feature reports to pass enumeration as described below:
Following is the Feature report:
RAW_FEATURE_REPORT
{
HID_UCHAR
ucReportId;
HID_UCHAR
ucConnectionType;
HID_UCHAR
ucReportingState;
HID_UCHAR
ucPowerState;
HID_UCHAR
ucSensorState;
HID_USHORT ulReportInterval;
HID_USHORT usAccuracy;
HID_USHORT usResolution;
HID_USHORT usChangeSensitivity;
HID_SHORT
sMaximum;
HID_SHORT
sMinimum;
}
//read
//read
//PC
//MCU
//PC
//read
//read
//MCU
//read
//read
only
only
only
only
only
only
To update the Raw Data to the host, we need the input reports with 9 fields - 3 each for Acc, Gyro and Mag respectively.
Following is the input report:
RAW_INPUT_REPORT
{
HID_UCHAR
ucReportId;
HID_UCHAR
ucSensorState;
HID_UCHAR
ucEventType;
HID_SHORT accX, accY, accZ;
HID_SHORT magX, magY, magZ;
HID_SHORT gyrX, gyrY, gyrZ;
}
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//Accelerometer Raw Data
//Magnetometer Raw Data
//Gyrometer Raw Data
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Following is a snapshot which shows the acquisition of the sensor raw data from the sensor collection. The Sensor Diagnostic Tool displays all Acc, Mag, and Gyro raw data respectively.
FIGURE 7:
ACQUIRING SENSOR RAW DATA FROM THE SENSOR COLLECTION
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APPENDIX A:
TABLE A-1:
APPLICATION NOTE REVISION HISTORY
REVISION HISTORY
Revision Level & Date
REV A (12-13-13)
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Section/Figure/Entry
All
Correction
Initial Release
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Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
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Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
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Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
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DS00001619A-page 16
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 2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
08/20/13
DS00001619A-page 17
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