AN1236 Using C30 and a Timer to Interface dsPIC33 DSCs and PIC24 MCUs with UNI/O® Bus-Compatible Serial EEPROMs The main features of 11XXX serial EEPROMs are: Martin Kvasnicka Microchip Technology Inc. INTRODUCTION As embedded systems become smaller, a growing need exists to minimize I/O pin usage for communication between devices. Microchip has addressed this need by developing the UNI/O® bus, a low-cost, easyto-implement solution requiring only a single I/O pin for bidirectional communication. UNI/O bus-compatible serial EEPROMs can be used to enhance any application facing restrictions on available I/O. Such restrictions can potentially stem from connectors, board space, or from the master device itself. The 11XXX family is the newest addition to Microchip Technology’s broad serial EEPROM product line, and is compatible with the newly developed UNI/O bus. FIGURE 1: • • • • • • • • Single I/O pin used for communication EEPROM densities from 1 Kb to 16 Kb Extremely small packages Bus speed from 10 kHz up to 100 kHz Wide voltage range from 1.8V to 5.5V Low-power operation Wide temperature range from -40°C to +125°C Over 1,000,000 erase/write cycles This application note is part of a series that provide source code to help the user implement the protocol with minimal effort. Figure 1 describes the hardware schematic for the interface between the Microchip 11XXX series of UNI/O bus-compatible serial EEPROMs and the dsPIC33FJ256GP710 Digital Signal Controller or the PIC24FJ128GA010 microcontroller. The schematics show the connections necessary between the Digital Signal Controller and the serial EEPROM as tested. The software was written assuming these connections. The single I/O connection between the Digital Signal Controller and the serial EEPROM includes a recommended pull-up resistor. CIRCUIT FOR dsPIC33FJ256GP710 OR PIC24FJ128GA010 AND 11XXX SERIAL EEPROM 100 Pin TQFP dsPIC33FJ256GP710 PIC24FJ128GA010 U2TX/CN18/RF5 U1TX/RF3 U2RX/CN17/RF4 51 50 U1RX/RF2 49 SDO1/RF8 52 U1RTS/CN21/RD15 53 U1CTS/CN20/RD14 SDI1/RF7 48 54 VDD SCK1/INT0/RF6 47 VSS Note 1: 2: SDA1/RG3 55 46 45 VCC (2) 56 VCC(2) SOT-23 VSS 3 11XXX Author: 2 VCC 20 kΩ (1) 1 SCIO A pull-up resistor (typically 20 kΩ) on SCIO is recommended to ensure bus idle during power-up. Decoupling capacitors (typically 0.1 μF) should be used to filter noise on VCC. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS01236B-page 1 AN1236 FIRMWARE DESCRIPTION The purpose of the firmware is to show how to generate specific UNI/O bus transactions using a general I/O pin on the Digital Signal Controller or microcontroller. The focus is to provide the designer with a strong understanding of communication with the 11XXX serial EEPROMs, thus allowing for more complex programs to be written in the future. The firmware was written in C language and tested using the Microchip Explorer 16 development board. The code can easily be modified to use any I/O pin that is available. No additional libraries are required with the provided code. The main program is organized into five sections: • • • • • Initialization Write Enable Page Write WIP Polling Sequential Read The program utilizes the WIP polling feature for detecting the completion of the write cycle after the page write operation. The read operation allows for verification that the data was properly written. No method of displaying the input data is provided, but an oscilloscope can be used. The code was tested using the 11LC160 serial EEPROM. This device features 2K x 8 (16 Kbits) of memory and 16-byte pages. Oscilloscope screen shots are labeled for ease in reading. The data sheet versions of the waveforms are shown below the oscilloscope screen shots. An external 8 MHz crystal oscillator is used to clock the Digital Signal Controller or microcontroller with the PLL enabled. During testing, a 50 kHz serial bus frequency was used. If a different clock is used, the code must be modified to generate the proper timings. All values represented in this application note are decimal values unless otherwise noted. DS01236B-page 2 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. AN1236 INITIALIZATION Before initiating communication with the 11XXX, the master device (DSC or MCU) must generate a low-tohigh edge on SCIO to release the serial EEPROM from Power-on Reset (POR). Because bus idle is high, the DSC or MCU creates a high-low-high pulse on SCIO. Once the serial EEPROM has been released from POR, a standby pulse with a minimum timing of TSTBY is performed to place the serial EEPROM into Standby mode, as shown in Figure 2. FIGURE 2: Note that once a command has successfully executed – indicated by the reception of a Slave Acknowledge (SAK) following the No Master Acknowledge (NoMAK) – the serial EEPROM enters Standby mode immediately and a standby pulse is not necessary. In this case, only the Start Header Setup time (TSS) must be observed before the DSC or MCU may initiate another command to the same device. STANDBY PULSE TSTBY SCIO Standby mode POR Release from POR © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS01236B-page 3 AN1236 WRITE ENABLE Start Header and Device Address Before a write operation to the array or the STATUS register can occur, the Write Enable Latch (WEL) must be set. This is done by issuing a Write Enable (WREN) instruction. To issue a WREN instruction, the DSC or MCU transmits the start header. This consists of a low pulse (THDR), followed by the start header (‘01010101’or 0x55), and a Master Acknowledge (MAK), followed by a NoSAK. Next, the DSC or MCU transmits the device address (‘10100000’or 0xA0) and another MAK. The serial EEPROM then responds with a SAK if the start header and device address were received correctly. Figure 3 shows the details of the start header and device address. The WEL can be cleared by issuing a Write Disable (WRDI) instruction. It is also cleared upon termination of a write cycle to either the array or STATUS register, and upon POR. The Write Enable operation has been broken down into the following components: the start header, which is followed by the device address and the command byte. Start Header MAK SAK START HEADER AND DEVICE ADDRESS MAK NoSAK FIGURE 3: Device Address SCIO 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 DS01236B-page 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. AN1236 Write Enable (WREN) Command Byte Once the SAK is received following the device address, the DSC or MCU sends the WREN command byte (‘10010110’ or 0x96) and performs a final Acknowledge sequence. During this last sequence, the DSC or MCU sends a NoMAK to signal the end of the operation. Once again, the serial EEPROM responds with a SAK, indicating it received the byte successfully. WRITE ENABLE COMMAND Command NoMAK SAK FIGURE 4: Figure 4 shows an example of the WREN command byte. SCIO 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS01236B-page 5 AN1236 PAGE WRITE Write Command and Word Address Once the WREN instruction has been performed, a page write operation can be executed to write data to the array. The serial EEPROM features a 16-byte page, so up to 16 bytes of data can be written within a single operation. After the start header and device address have been sent, the DSC or MCU transmits the Write command (‘01101100’ or 0x6C) and the word address. The serial EEPROM uses a 16-bit word address to access the array, so two bytes must be transmitted for the entire word address, with the Most Significant Byte sent first. After every byte, the DSC or MCU transmits a MAK and the serial EEPROM responds with a SAK. The page write operation consists of the following components: the Write command, followed by the word address and the data bytes. Note that the start header and device address are not illustrated in this section but are still required to initiate the operation. Figure 5 shows an example of the Write command and the word address. Before beginning the WRITE instruction, a period of TSS must be observed following the WREN operation. This period can be used in place of the standby pulse after a command has been executed successfully when addressing the same slave device. After the TSS period, the start header and device address are transmitted as described on page 4. Word Address MSB 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 SCIO Word Address LSB MAK SAK Command MAK SAK WRITE COMMAND AND WORD ADDRESS MAK SAK FIGURE 5: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 DS01236B-page 6 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. AN1236 Once all data bytes have been sent, the DSC or MCU terminates the command by generating a NoMAK in place of the MAK, and the serial EEPROM again responds with a SAK. This will also initiate the internal write cycle (TWC). Data Bytes Once the word address has been transmitted and the last SAK has been received, the data bytes can be sent. Up to 16 bytes of data can be sent within a single operation. After each byte is transmitted, the DSC or MCU sends a MAK and the serial EEPROM responds with a SAK. If at any point a NoSAK is received, this indicates an error occurred and the operation must be restarted, beginning with a standby pulse. Data Byte n-1 SCIO © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Data Byte n NoMAK SAK WRITE COMMAND FINAL TWO DATA BYTES MAK SAK FIGURE 6: Figure 6 shows the final two data bytes sent by the DSC or MCU, as well as the NoMAK and SAK. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 DS01236B-page 7 AN1236 WRITE-IN-PROCESS POLLING Write-In-Process Polling Routine After an array or STATUS register WRITE instruction is executed, the DSC or MCU must observe a write cycle time (TWC). Write cycle time is a maximum, so the actual time required is typically less. Therefore, to transfer data as efficiently as possible, using the WriteIn-Process (WIP) polling feature is highly recommended. Because the STATUS register can be read during a write cycle, the WIP bit can be continuously monitored to determine the completion of the write cycle. The process of WIP polling consists of the DSC or MCU sending a start header and device address after observing the TSS period. The DSC or MCU follows this by sending the Read Status Register (RDSR) command (‘00000101’ or 0x05). After sending the subsequent SAK, the serial EEPROM transmits the STATUS register. At this point, the STATUS register can be requested again by sending a MAK. The WEL and WIP values sent are updated dynamically, so the DSC or MCU can continuously check the STATUS register. Sending a NoMAK terminates the command. Figure 7 shows an example of WIP polling to check if a write operation has finished. In this example, the WIP bit is set (‘1’), which indicates that the write cycle has not yet completed. Command STATUS Register Data MAK SAK WIP POLLING ROUTINE (SHOWING WRITE-IN-PROCESS) MAK SAK FIGURE 7: SCIO 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 DS01236B-page 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. AN1236 WIP Polling Complete Figure 8 shows the final read of the STATUS register after the page write operation, in which the WIP bit is clear (‘0’). This indicates that the write cycle is complete and the serial EEPROM is ready to continue. STATUS Register Data STATUS Register Data NoMAK SAK WIP POLLING FINISHED (SHOWING WRITE COMPLETE) MAK SAK FIGURE 8: SCIO 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DS01236B-page 9 AN1236 SEQUENTIAL READ Command and Word Address for Read The serial EEPROM allows data to be read from the array in a random access manner. Reading data from the array is very similar to the write operation, except that the read is not limited to a single page. In order to read from the array, the start header and device address must first be sent after observing the TSS period. The Read command byte and word address bytes are transmitted next. The DSC or MCU generates a MAK after every byte, and the serial EEPROM responds with a SAK if no errors occurred. Figure 9 shows an example of the Read command (‘00000011’ or 0x03) followed by the word address. Word Address MSB 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 SCIO Word Address LSB MAK SAK Command MAK SAK READ – COMMAND BYTE AND WORD ADDRESS MAK SAK FIGURE 9: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 DS01236B-page 10 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. AN1236 The read operation is not limited to a single page, so the entire array can be read within a single operation if the DSC or MCU continues to request data. At the end of the array, the internal word address is automatically reset back to 0x000. A NoMAK terminates the operation. Reading Data Back After the Read command and word address have been sent and acknowledged, the serial EEPROM sends the first data byte from the array, starting at the address specified. In order to continue the read, the DSC or MCU must send a MAK after each data byte, with the serial EEPROM responding with a SAK if there are no errors. After each data byte has been sent, the serial EEPROM automatically increments the internal word address to output the next data byte. Data Byte n-1 SCIO © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Data Byte n NoMAK SAK READ – FINAL TWO DATA BYTES MAK SAK FIGURE 10: Figure 10 shows the DSC or MCU reading the final two bytes of data. The DSC or MCU sends a NoMAK after the last byte to indicate that no more data is requested and to terminate the command. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 DS01236B-page 11 AN1236 CONCLUSION This application note provides examples of the basic commands for communicating with the UNI/O buscompatible family of serial EEPROMs. These functions are designed to be used in an end application with very little modification. The code generated for this application note was tested using the Explorer 16 Development Board with the connections shown in Figure 1. DS01236B-page 12 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, rfPIC, SmartShunt and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL, SmartSensor and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICtail, PIC32 logo, PowerCal, PowerInfo, PowerMate, PowerTool, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2008, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS01236B-page 13 WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE AMERICAS ASIA/PACIFIC ASIA/PACIFIC EUROPE Corporate Office 2355 West Chandler Blvd. Chandler, AZ 85224-6199 Tel: 480-792-7200 Fax: 480-792-7277 Technical Support: http://support.microchip.com Web Address: www.microchip.com Asia Pacific Office Suites 3707-14, 37th Floor Tower 6, The Gateway Harbour City, Kowloon Hong Kong Tel: 852-2401-1200 Fax: 852-2401-3431 India - Bangalore Tel: 91-80-4182-8400 Fax: 91-80-4182-8422 India - New Delhi Tel: 91-11-4160-8631 Fax: 91-11-4160-8632 Austria - Wels Tel: 43-7242-2244-39 Fax: 43-7242-2244-393 Denmark - Copenhagen Tel: 45-4450-2828 Fax: 45-4485-2829 India - Pune Tel: 91-20-2566-1512 Fax: 91-20-2566-1513 France - Paris Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20 Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79 Japan - Yokohama Tel: 81-45-471- 6166 Fax: 81-45-471-6122 Germany - Munich Tel: 49-89-627-144-0 Fax: 49-89-627-144-44 Atlanta Duluth, GA Tel: 678-957-9614 Fax: 678-957-1455 Boston Westborough, MA Tel: 774-760-0087 Fax: 774-760-0088 Chicago Itasca, IL Tel: 630-285-0071 Fax: 630-285-0075 Dallas Addison, TX Tel: 972-818-7423 Fax: 972-818-2924 Detroit Farmington Hills, MI Tel: 248-538-2250 Fax: 248-538-2260 Kokomo Kokomo, IN Tel: 765-864-8360 Fax: 765-864-8387 Los Angeles Mission Viejo, CA Tel: 949-462-9523 Fax: 949-462-9608 Santa Clara Santa Clara, CA Tel: 408-961-6444 Fax: 408-961-6445 Toronto Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Tel: 905-673-0699 Fax: 905-673-6509 Australia - Sydney Tel: 61-2-9868-6733 Fax: 61-2-9868-6755 China - Beijing Tel: 86-10-8528-2100 Fax: 86-10-8528-2104 China - Chengdu Tel: 86-28-8665-5511 Fax: 86-28-8665-7889 Korea - Daegu Tel: 82-53-744-4301 Fax: 82-53-744-4302 China - Hong Kong SAR Tel: 852-2401-1200 Fax: 852-2401-3431 Korea - Seoul Tel: 82-2-554-7200 Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or 82-2-558-5934 China - Nanjing Tel: 86-25-8473-2460 Fax: 86-25-8473-2470 Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur Tel: 60-3-6201-9857 Fax: 60-3-6201-9859 China - Qingdao Tel: 86-532-8502-7355 Fax: 86-532-8502-7205 Malaysia - Penang Tel: 60-4-227-8870 Fax: 60-4-227-4068 China - Shanghai Tel: 86-21-5407-5533 Fax: 86-21-5407-5066 Philippines - Manila Tel: 63-2-634-9065 Fax: 63-2-634-9069 China - Shenyang Tel: 86-24-2334-2829 Fax: 86-24-2334-2393 Singapore Tel: 65-6334-8870 Fax: 65-6334-8850 China - Shenzhen Tel: 86-755-8203-2660 Fax: 86-755-8203-1760 Taiwan - Hsin Chu Tel: 886-3-572-9526 Fax: 886-3-572-6459 China - Wuhan Tel: 86-27-5980-5300 Fax: 86-27-5980-5118 Taiwan - Kaohsiung Tel: 886-7-536-4818 Fax: 886-7-536-4803 China - Xiamen Tel: 86-592-2388138 Fax: 86-592-2388130 Taiwan - Taipei Tel: 886-2-2500-6610 Fax: 886-2-2508-0102 China - Xian Tel: 86-29-8833-7252 Fax: 86-29-8833-7256 Thailand - Bangkok Tel: 66-2-694-1351 Fax: 66-2-694-1350 Italy - Milan Tel: 39-0331-742611 Fax: 39-0331-466781 Netherlands - Drunen Tel: 31-416-690399 Fax: 31-416-690340 Spain - Madrid Tel: 34-91-708-08-90 Fax: 34-91-708-08-91 UK - Wokingham Tel: 44-118-921-5869 Fax: 44-118-921-5820 China - Zhuhai Tel: 86-756-3210040 Fax: 86-756-3210049 01/02/08 DS01236B-page 14 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc.