Datasheet

SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DESCRIPTION
DATASHEET
FEATURES
Up to 16-bit differential data acquisition
Programmable gain: (1/12 to 1000)
Sensor offset compensation up to 15 times full scale
of input signal
2 differential or 4 single-ended signal inputs
Programmable Resolution versus Speed versus
Supply current
Internal time base
Low-power (250 uA for 16b @ 250 S/s)
SPI interface, 2 Mbps serial clock
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The SX8723S is a data acquisition system based on
Semtech's low power ZoomingADC™ technology. It
directly connects most types of miniature sensors
with a general purpose microcontroller.
APPLICATIONS
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With 2 differential inputs, it can adapt to multiple
sensor systems. Its digital outputs are used to bias or
reset the sensing elements.
ORDERING INFORMATION
Industrial pressure sensing
Industrial temperature sensing
Industrial chemical sensing
Barometer
Compass
DEVICE
PACKAGE
REEL QUANTITY
SX8723SWLTDT
MLPQ-W-16 4x4
1000
- Available in tape and reel only
- WEEE/RoHS compliant, Pb-Free and Halogen Free.
FUNCTIONAL BLOC DIAGRAM
R
SX8723S
-
VREF
+
+
-
-
ZoomingADC
REF MUX
+
ot
AC0
AC1
AC2
AC3
AC4
AC5
SIGNAL MUX
N
VBATT
TM
PGA
ADC
READY
CONTROL LOGIC
SCLK
D0/VREF,OUT
GPIO
D1/VREF,IN
CHARGE
PUMP
4MHz
OSC
SPI
MOSI
MISO/READY
MCU
SS
VPUMP
VSS
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
February 2011
Page 1
www.semtech.com
SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
TABLE OF CONTENT
Section
Page
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
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Absolute Maximum Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Timing Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
POR Timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
SPI interface timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
SPI timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
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1
2
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
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Pin Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marking Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bloc diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VREF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GPIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optional Operating Mode: External Vref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Charge Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RC Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wake-up from sleep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ZoomingADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acquisition Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programmable Gain Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PGA & ADC Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ZoomingADC Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Multiplexers (AMUX and VMUX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
First Stage Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second Stage Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Third Stage Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conversion Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-Sampling Frequency (fs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-Sampling Ratio (OSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of Elementary Conversions (Nelconv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conversion Time & Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuous-Time vs. On-Request Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Code Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Saving Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Reduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gain Configuration Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPI interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write a single register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
N
3
4
5
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.4
6.5
6.5.1
7
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.7.1
7.7.2
7.7.3
7.7.4
7.7.5
7.7.6
7.7.7
7.7.8
7.7.9
8
8.1
8.2
9
9.1
9.2
9.2.1
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
February 2011
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www.semtech.com/products/
SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
TABLE OF CONTENT
Section
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Read a single register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Bytes Write/Read Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADC Samples Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAMPLE SHIFT Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMBINED DATA READY Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chip Start Detection with Slave Select Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improving Noise Immunity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Register Memory Map and Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Register Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Registers Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RC Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software reset register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ZADC Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mode Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Performances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switched Capacitor Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Linearity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Integral Non-Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differential Non-Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gain Error and Offset Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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9.2.2
9.2.3
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.4
9.5
10
10.1
10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.4
11
11.1
11.1.1
11.2
11.3
11.3.1
11.3.2
11.4
11.5
11.6
Page
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38
39
39
42
43
44
44
44
45
45
45
47
48
48
49
51
53
53
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56
59
60
Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Comparison by package pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
ot
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13
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FAMILY OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
14
15
16
17
18
N
MECHANICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
PCB Layout Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Evaluate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Package Outline Drawing: MLPQ-W16-4x4-EP1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Land Pattern Drawing: MLPQ-W16-4x4-EP1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape and Reel Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
February 2011
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
Note
Table 1.
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The Absolute Maximum Ratings, in table below, are stress ratings only. Functional operation
of the device at conditions other than those indicated in the Operating Conditions sections of
this specification is not implied.
Exposure to the absolute maximum ratings, where different to the operating conditions, for
an extended period may reduce the reliability or useful lifetime of the product.
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Parameter
Symbol
Power supply
Storage temperature
Temperature under bias
Input voltage
Min
Max
Units
VBATT
VSS - 0.3
6.5
V
TSTORE
-55
150
°C
TBIAS
-40
140
°C
VSS - 300
VBATT + 300
mV
260
°C
VINABS
Peak reflow temperature
Condition
All inputs
TPKG
ESD conditions
ESDHBM
2000
V
100
mA
N
ot
R
Latchup
Human Body Model ESD
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
February 2011
Page 4
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
2 Operating Conditions
Table 2.
Operating conditions limits
Parameter
Symbol
Unit
2.4
5.5
V
-40
125
°C
Typ
Max
Unit
16 b @ 250 Sample/s
ADC, fs = 125 kHz
250
300
16 b @ 1kSample/s
PGA3 + ADC, fs = 500 kHz
650
850
16 b + gain 1000 @ 1kSample/s
PGA3,2,1 + ADC, fs = 500 kHz
1000
1250
16 b @ 250 Sample/s
ADC, fs = 125 kHz
150
16 b @ 1 kSample/s
PGA3 + ADC, fs = 500 kHz
500
16 b + gain 1000 @ 1kSample/s
PGA3,2,1 + ADC, fs = 500 kHz
830
@25°C
150
up to 85°C
200
@125°C
250
.
Min
Typ
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TOP
Operating temperature
Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
CURRENT CONSUMPTION1
IOP33
ISLEEP
N
ot
Active current, 3.3V
IOP55
R
Active current, 5.5V
Sleep current
Max
VBATT
Power supply
Table 3.
Comment/Condition
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Unless otherwise specified: VREF,ADC = VBATT, VIN = 0V, Over-sampling frequency fS = 250 kHz, PGA3 on with Gain = 1,
PGA1&PGA2 off, offsets GDOff2 = GDOff3 = 0. Power operation: normal (IbAmpAdc[1:0] = IbAmpPga[1:0] = '01').
For resolution n = 12 bits: OSR = 32 and NELCONV = 4.
For resolution n = 16 bits: OSR = 256 and NELCONV = 2.
Bandgap chopped at NELCONV rate. If VBATT < 3V, Charge Pump is forced on. If VBATT > 3V, Charge Pump is forced off.
Comment/Condition
Min
μA
μA
250
nA
TIME BASE
Max ADC Over-Sampling frequency
fSmax
ADC Over-Sampling frequency drift
fST
@25°C
425
500
575
0.15
kHz
% / °C
DIGITAL I/O
VBATT
0.7
Input logic high
VIH
Input logic low
VIL
Output logic high
VOH
IOH < 4 mA
Output logic low
VOL
IOL < 4 mA
0.4
0.3
VBATT
VBATT-0.4
V
V
Leakages currents
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
February 2011
Page 5
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
Table 3.
DATASHEET
Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
Input leakage current
ILeakIn
Comment/Condition
Min
Digital input mode,
no pull-up or pull-down
-100
Typ
Max
Unit
100
nA
VREF: Internal Bandgap Reference
VBG
VBATT > 3V
1.19
VBGT
VBATT > 3V, over Temperature
-1.5
Total Output Noise
VBGN
VBATT > 3V
1.25
V
+1.5
%
1
mVrms
The device can be operated in either active or sleep states. The Sleep state is complete shutdown, but the active state can have a variety of
different current consumptions depending on the settings. Some examples are given here: The Sleep state is the default state after
power-on-reset. The chip can then be placed into an active state after a Slave Select command on SS pin is received.
Table 4.
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1.22
fo
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Absolute output voltage
Variation over Temperature
ZoomingADC Specifications
Parameter
Symbol
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Gain=1, OSR=32, VREF=5V. Note 1
-2.42
+2.42
V
Gain=100, OSR=32, VREF=5V
-24.2
+24.2
mV
Gain=1000, OSR=32, VREF=5V
-2.42
+2.42
mV
Note 1
1/12
1000
V/V
ANALOG INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Differential Input Voltage Range
VIN = VINP-VINN
PROGRAMMABLE GAIN AMPLIFIER
Total PGA Gain
GDTOT
PGA1 Gain
PGA2 Gain
PGA3 Gain
GD1
(see Table 10, page 22)
1
10
V/V
GD2
(see Table 11, page 22)
1
10
V/V
GD3
Step = 1/12 V/V
(see Table 12, page 22)
1/12
127/12
V/V
+3
%
Gain ≥ 1
R
Gain Settings Precision (each stage)
PGA2 Offset
N
PGA3 Offset
ot
Gain Temperature Dependence
-3
ppm / °C
Step = 0.2 V/V
(see Table 11, page 22)
-1
+1
V/V
GDOFF3
Step = 1/12 V/V
(see Table 12, page 22)
-63/12
+63/12
V/V
+3
%
Note 2
-3
±0.5
±5
Offset Temperature Dependence
Input Impedance on ADC
ZINADC
Input Impedance on PGA1
(see section 11.1, page 48)
ZINPGA1
Input Impedance on PGA2
ZINPGA2
Input Impedance on PGA3
ZINPGA3
February 2011
±5
GDOFF2
Offset Settings Precision
(PGA2 or PGA3)
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
±0.5
500
ppm / °C
kΩ
Gain = 1. Note 3
900
1150
kΩ
Gain = 10. Note 3
250
350
kΩ
Gain = 1. Note 3
500
1000
kΩ
Gain = 10. Note 3
125
270
kΩ
Gain = 1. Note 3
500
780
kΩ
Gain = 10. Note 3
125
190
kΩ
Page 6
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
Table 4.
DATASHEET
ZoomingADC Specifications
Parameter
Symbol
Output RMS Noise per over-sample
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
PGA1. Note 4
205
μV
PGA2. Note 4
340
μV
PGA3. Note 4
365
μV
Resolution
(No Missing Codes)
n
Note 5
Note 6
6
±1
LSB
resolution n = 12 bits. Note 9
±0.6
LSB
resolution n = 16 bits. Note 9
±1.5
LSB
resolution n = 12 bits. Note 10
±0.5
LSB
resolution n = 16 bits. Note 10
±0.5
LSB
VBATT = 5V +/- 0.3V. Note 11
78
dB
VBATT = 3V +/- 0.3V. Note 11
72
dB
n = 12 bits. Note 12
133
fs cycles
n = 16 bits. Note 12
517
fs cycles
n = 12 bits, fs = 250 kHz
1.88
kSps
n = 16 bits, fs = 250 kHz
0.483
kSps
Note 13
(see Table 11, page 22)
OSR
fs cycles
VBATT = 5.5V/3.3V
285/210
μA
VBATT = 5.5V/3.3V
104/80
μA
VBATT = 5.5V/3.3V
67/59
μA
VBATT = 5.5V/3.3V
98/91
μA
n = 16 bits. Note 8
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Offset Error
Differential Non-Linearity
DNL
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
DC
PSRR
Bits
%
Note 7
INL
16
±0.15
Gain Error
Integral Non-Linearity
fo
r
ADC STATIC PERFORMANCES
ADC DYNAMIC PERFORMANCES
Conversion Time
TCONV
Throughput Rate (Continuous Mode)
PGA Stabilization Delay
1/TCONV
ADC Only Consumption
PGA1 Consumption
R
ZADC ANALOG QUIESCENT CURRENT
ot
PGA2 Consumption
PGA3 Consumption
IQ
N
ANALOG POWER DISSIPATION: All PGAs & ADC Active
Normal Power Mode
VBATT = 5.5V/3.3V. Note 14
4.0/2.0
mW
3/4 Power Reduction Mode
VBATT = 5.5V/3.3V. Note 15
3.2/1.6
mW
1/2 Power Reduction Mode
VBATT = 5.5V/3.3V. Note 16
2.4/1.1
mW
1/4 Power Reduction Mode
VBATT = 5.5V/3.3V. Note 17
1.5/0.7
mW
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Gain defined as overall PGA gain GDTOT = GD1 x GD2 x GD3. Maximum input voltage is given by: VIN,MAX = ±(VREF / 2) (OSR / OSR+1).
Offset due to tolerance on GDoff2 or GDoff3 setting. For small intrinsic offset, use only ADC and PGA1.
Measured with block connected to inputs through Amux block. Normalized input sampling frequency for input impedance is fS = 500 kHz
(fS max, worst case). This figure must be multiplied by 2 for fS = 250 kHz, 4 for fS = 125 kHz. Input impedance is proportional to 1/fS.
Figure independent from gain and sampling frequency. fS. The effective output noise is reduced by the over-sampling ratio
Resolution is given by n = 2 log2(OSR) + log2(NELCONV ). OSR can be set between 8 and 1024, in powers of 2. NELCONV can be set to 1, 2, 4 or 8.
If a ramp signal is applied to the input, all digital codes appear in the resulting ADC output data.
Gain error is defined as the amount of deviation between the ideal (theoretical) transfer function and the measured transfer function
(with the offset error removed).
Offset error is defined as the output code error for a zero volt input (ideally, output code = 0). For 1 LSB offset, NELCONV must be at least 2.
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
(13)
N
ot
R
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
fo
r
(10)
(11)
(12)
INL defined as the deviation of the DC transfer curve of each individual code from the best-fit straight line. This specification holds over
the full scale.
DNL is defined as the difference (in LSB) between the ideal (1 LSB) and measured code transitions for successive codes.
Values for Gain = 1. PSRR is defined as the amount of change in the ADC output value as the power supply voltage changes.
Conversion time is given by: TCONV = (NELCONV (OSR + 1) + 1) / fS. OSR can be set between 8 and 1024, in powers of 2. NELCONV can be set to 1,
2, 4 or 8.
PGAs are reset after each writing operation to registers RegACCfg1-5, corresponding to change of configuration or input switching. The
ADC should be started only some delay after a change of PGA configuration through these registers. Delay between change of configuration of PGA or input channel switching and ADC start should be equivalent to OSR (between 8 and 1024) number of cycles. This is done by
writing bit Start several cycles after PGA settings modification or channel switching. This delay does not apply to conversions made without the PGAs.
Nominal (maximum) bias currents in PGAs and ADC, i.e. IbAmpPga[1:0] = '11' and IbAmpAdc[1:0] = '11'.
Bias currents in PGAs and ADC set to 3/4 of nominal values, i.e. IbAmpPga[1:0] = '10', IbAmpAdc[1:0] = '10'.
Bias currents in PGAs and ADC set to 1/2 of nominal values, i.e. IbAmpPga[1:0] = '01', IbAmpAdc[1:0] = '01'.
Bias currents in PGAs and ADC set to 1/4 of nominal values, i.e. IbAmpPga[1:0] = '00', IbAmpAdc[1:0] = '00'.
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(9)
DATASHEET
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February 2011
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
2.1 Timing Characteristics
Table 5.
General timings
Parameter
Symbol
Comment/Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
ADC INTERRUPT (READY) TIMING SPECIFICATIONS
READY pulse width
tIRQ
Note 18
1
Startup sequence time at POR
tSTARTUP
Time to enable RC from Sleep after a SPI
command
(18)
100
tRCEN
tSTART_SPI
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Effective Start
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STARTUP TIMES
1/fs
800
μs
450
μs
μs
250
The READY pulse indicates End of Conversion. This is a Positive pulse of duration equal to one cycle of the ADC sampling rate in “continuous mode”. See also Figure 15, page 30 for data conversion waveforms.
2.1.1 POR Timings
The Slave Select pin (SS) can be used to detect the effective start of the device. See section 9.4, page 42 for functional
descriptions. The SPI interface can be accessed as soon as the SS pin (slave) is set to ‘input’ as illustrated on Figure 2.
MASTER
MSS
SS
SSS
SS
SX872xS
SLAVE
ot
R
Figure 1. SPI Master detecting start sequence through Slave Select pin
STARTUP SEQUENCE
SLEEP
WAKE-UP SEQUENCE
N
tSTARTUP
POR
MSS
Direction
OUTPUT
INPUT
SSS
tSTART_SPI
tRCEN
tPOR
SX status
POR
RC enabling
Self
calibration
tRCEN
RC disabling
RC enabling
Figure 2. Slave Select pin and Power-On-Reset Timings
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
2.1.2 SPI interface timings
Parameter
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
SS to SCLK Edge
tSSSC
30
ns
SCLK Period
tSC
500
ns
SCLK Low Pulse width
tSCL
200
ns
SCLK High Pulse width
tSCH
200
Data Output Valid after SCLK Edge
tDV
Data Input Setup Time before SCLK Edge
tDS
0
Data Input Hold Time after SCLK Edge
tDH
100
SS High after SCLK Edge
tSCSS
0
fo
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ns
125
200
250
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tSSD
SS High to MISO High Impedance
Units
ns
ns
ns
ns
30
ns
2.1.3 SPI timing diagram
SS
tSSSC
SCLK
tDS
MOSI
tSC
tSCH
tDH
tSCL
tDV
MISO
tSCSS
tSSD
N
ot
R
Figure 3. SPI timing diagram
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
SCLK
MOSI
15
14
13
1
12
D0
fo
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VPUMP
16
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AC3
AC2
3 Pin Configuration
2
AC4
4
AC5
5
6
7
8
READY
3
VSS
N.C.
SX8723S
(Top view)
VBATT
N.C.
11
MISO/READY
10
SS
9
D1
N
ot
R
4 Marking Information
nnnnn
yyww
xxxxx
xxxxx
8723S
YYWW
XXXXX
XXXXX
= Part Number
= Date Code1
= Semtech Lot Number
1.Date codes and Lot numbers starting with the ‘E’ character are used for Engineering samples
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
5 Pin Description
Note
Pin
Name
Type
Function
1
AC3
Analog Input
Differential sensor input in conjunction with AC2
2
N.C.
-
Not used
3
N.C.
4
AC4
5
AC5
6
VBATT
7
VSS
8
READY
9
D1
10
SS
11
MISO/READY
12
D0
13
MOSI
14
SCLK
15
VPUMP
16
AC2
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The bottom pad is internally connected to VSS. It should also be connected to
VSS on PCB to reduce noise and improve thermal behavior.
Not used
Differential sensor input in conjunction with AC5
Analog Input
Differential sensor input in conjunction with AC4
Power Input
2.4V to 5.5V power supply
Power Input
Chip Ground
Digital Output
Data Ready (active high). Conversion complete flag.
Digital IO
Digital output sensor drive (VBATT or VSS)
Analog
VREF Input in optional operating mode
Digital Input
Chip select (active low).
Digital Output
Serial data output (Master Input, Slave Output), or data out combined with
READY (active low when ADC Data Ready function enabled).
Digital IO
Digital output sensor drive (VBATT or VSS)
Analog
VREF Output in optional operating mode
Digital Input
Serial data input (Master Output, Slave Input).
Digital Input
Serial clock input.
R
-
Analog Input
ot
Power IO
Differential sensor input in conjunction with AC3
N
Analog Input
Charge pump output. Raises ADC supply above VBATT if VBATT supply is too low.
Recommended range for capacitor is 1nF to 10 nF. Connect the capacitor to
ground.
Revision 1.0
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
6 General Description
The SX8723S is a complete low-power acquisition path with programmable gain, acquisition speed and resolution.
6.1 Bloc diagram
SX8723S
fo
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VBATT
TM
+
+
-
-
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VREF
ZoomingADC
REF MUX
+
SIGNAL MUX
AC0
AC1
AC2
AC3
AC4
AC5
PGA
ADC
READY
CONTROL LOGIC
D0/VREFOUT
GPIO
4MHz
OSC
SPI
SCLK
MOSI
MISO/READY
SS
VPUMP
VSS
Figure 4. SX8723S bloc diagram
N
6.2 VREF
ot
R
D1/VREFIN
CHARGE
PUMP
The internally generated VREF is a trimmed bandgap reference with a nominal value of 1.22V that provides a stable
voltage reference for the ZoomingADC.
This reference voltage is directly connected to one of the ZoomingADC reference multiplexer inputs.
The bandgap voltage stability is only guaranteed for VBATT voltages of 3V and above. As VBATT drops down to 2.4V, the
bandgap voltage could reduce by up to 50mV.
The bandgap has relatively weak output drive so it is recommended that if the bandgap is required as a signal input
then PGA1 must be enabled with gain = 1.
6.3 GPIO
The GPIO block is a multipurpose 2 bit input/output port. In addition to digital behavior, D0 and D1 pins can be
programmed as analog pins in order to be used as output (reference voltage monitoring) and input for an external
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
reference voltage (For further details see Figure 7, Figure 8, Figure 9 and Figure 10). Each port terminal can be
individually selected as digital input or output.
RegOut[4]
RegOut[0]
0
D0/VREFOUT
1
RegMode[1]
V BG
1.22V
0
VREF
1
ZoomingADC
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Internal +
Bandgap
reference -
fo
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RegIn[0]
RegMode [0]
RegOut[5]
RegOut [1]
1
D1/VREFIN
0
RegIn [1]
Figure 5. GPIO bloc diagram
The direction of each bit within the GPIO block (input only or input/output) can be individually set using the bits of the
RegOut (address 0x40) register. If D[x]Dir = 1, both the input and output buffer are active on the corresponding GPIO
block pin. If D[x]Dir= 0, the corresponding GPIO block pin is an input only and the output buffer is in high impedance.
After power on reset the GPIO block pins are in input/output mode (D[x]Dir are reset to 1).
ot
R
The input values of GPIO block are available in RegIn (address 0x41) register (read only). Reading is always direct - there
is no debounce function in the GPIO block. In case of possible noise on input signals, an external hardware filter has to
be realized. The input buffer is also active when the GPIO block is defined as output and the effective value on the pin
can be read back.
N
Data stored in the LSB bits of RegOut register are outputted at GPIO block if D[x]Dir= 1. The default values after power
on reset is low (0).
The digital pins are able to deliver a driving current up to 8 mA.
When the bits VrefD0Out and VrefD1In in the RegMode (address 0x70) register are set to 1 the D0 and D1 pins digital
behavior are automatically bypassed in order to either input or output the voltage reference signals.
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
6.3.1 Optional Operating Mode: External Vref
D0 and D1 are multi-functional pins with the following functions in different operating modes (see RegMode register
for control settings):
0
GPIO
D0/VREFOUT
1
RegMode[1] = 0
RegMode[1] = 0
VBG
0
VREF
1
Internal +
Bandgap
reference -
ZoomingADC
0
RegMode[0] = 0
1
D1/VREFIN
GPIO
0
D1/VREFIN
Figure 7. D0 and D1 are Digital Inputs / Outputs
0
D0/VREFOUT
D0/VREFOUT
RegMode[1] = 1
RegMode[1] = 1
VBG
VREF
Internal +
Bandgap
reference -
R
ZoomingADC
1
0
GPIO
D1/VREFIN
N
ot
RegMode[0] = 0
D1/VREFIN
1
GPIO
0
Figure 9. D1 is Digital Input / Output and D0 Reference
Voltage Output
GPIO
1
VBG
1
RegMode[0] = 1
0
GPIO
0
ZoomingADC
Figure 8. D1 is Reference Voltage Input and D0 is Digital
Input / Output
1
Internal +
Bandgap
reference -
VREF
1
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Internal +
Bandgap
reference -
GPIO
1
fo
r
0
D0/VREFOUT
0
VREF
1
ZoomingADC
RegMode[0] = 1
1
0
GPIO
Figure 10. D0 is Reference Voltage Output and D1 is
Reference Voltage Input
This allows external monitoring of the internal bandgap reference or the ability to use an external reference input for
the ADC, or the option to filter the internal VREF output before feeding back as VREF,ADC input. The internally generated
VREF is a trimmed as ADC reference with a nominal value of 1.22V. When using an external VREF,ADC input, it may have
any value between 0V and VBATT. Simply substitute the external value for 1.22 V in the ADC conversion calculations.
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
6.4 Charge Pump
This block generates a supply voltage able to power the analog switch drive levels on the chip higher than VBATT if
necessary.
If VBATT voltage drops below 3V then the block should be activated. If VBATT voltage is greater than 3V then VBATT may
be switched straight through to the VPUMP output. If the charge pump is not activated then VPUMP = VBATT.
fo
r
If control input bit MultForceOff = 1 in RegMode (address 0x70)register then the charge pump is disabled and VBATT is
permanently connected to VPUMP output.
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If control input bit MultForceOn = 1 in RegMode register then the charge pump is permanently enabled. This overrides
MultForceOff bit in RegMode register.
An external capacitor is required on VPUMP pin. This capacitor should be large enough to ensure that generated
voltage is smooth enough to avoid affecting conversion accuracy but not so large that it gives an unacceptable settling
time. A recommended value is around 2.2nF.
6.5 RC Oscillator
This block provides the master clock reference for the chip. It produces a clock at 4 MHz which is divided internally in
order to generate the clock sources needed by the other blocks.
The oscillator technique is a low power relaxation design and it is designed to vary as little as possible over
temperature and supply voltage.
This oscillator is trimmed at manufacture chip test.
R
The RC oscillator will start up after a chip reset to allow the trimming values to be read and calibration registers. Once
this has been done, the oscillator will be shut down and the chip will enter a sleep state while waiting for a SPI
communication.
ot
The worst case duration from reset ( or POR ) to the sleep state is 800us.
6.5.1 Wake-up from sleep
N
When the device is in sleep state, the RC oscillator will start up after a communication. The start up sequence for the RC
oscillator is 450us in worst case.
During this time, the internal blocs using the RC can not be used: no ADC conversion can be started.
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
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7 ZoomingADC
7.1 Overview
The ZoomingADC is a complete and versatile low-power analog front-end interface typically intended for sensing
applications. In the following text the ZoomingADC will be referred as ZADC.
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The key features of the ZADC are:
Programmable 6 to 16-bit dynamic range over-sampled ADC
Flexible gain programming between 1/12 and 1000
Flexible and large range offset compensation
Differential or single-ended input
2-channel differential reference inputs
Power saving modes
AMUX
Analog
Inputs
Reference
Inputs
VSS
VREF
AC2
AC3
AC4
AC5
N.C.
N.C.
VIN
VD1
±Vin
S
PGA1
VD2
VIN,ADC
±Vin
±Vin
±Vin
±Voff PGA2
±Voff PGA3
±Vref
ADC
VREF,ADC
VBATT
VSS
VREF
VSS
VMUX
ot
R
ANALOG ZOOM
Figure 11. ZADC General Functional Block Diagram
N
The total acquisition chain consists of an input multiplexer, 3 programmable gain amplifier stages and an over sampled
A/D converter. The reference voltage can be selected on two different channels. Two offset compensation amplifiers
allow for a wide offset compensation range. The programmable gain and offset allow the application to zoom in on a
small portion of the reference voltage defined input range.
7.1.1 Acquisition Chain
Figure 11, page 17 shows the general block diagram of the acquisition chain (AC). A control block (not shown in
Figure 11) manages all communications with the SPI peripheral. The clocking is derived from the internal 4 MHz
Oscillator.
Analog inputs can be selected through an 8 input multiplexer, while reference input is selected between two
differential channels. It should however be noted that only 7 acquisition channels (including the VREF) are available
when configured as single ended since the input amplifier is always operating in differential mode with both positive
and negative input selected through the multiplexer.
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
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The core of the zooming section is made of three differential programmable amplifiers (PGA). After selection of an
input and reference signals VIN and VREF,ADC combination, the input voltage is modulated and amplified through
stages 1 to 3. Fine gain programming up to 1'000 V/V is possible. In addition, the last two stages provide
programmable offset. Each amplifier can be bypassed if needed.
The output of the cascade of PGA is directly fed to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which converts the signal
VIN,ADC into digital.
ec
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Like most ADCs intended for instrumentation or sensing applications, the ZoomingADCTM is an over-sampled
converter 1. The ADC is a so-called incremental converter; with bipolar operation (the ADC accepts both positive and
negative differential input voltages). In first approximation, the ADC output result relative to full-scale (FS) delivers the
quantity:
OUTADC VIN , ADC
≅
FS / 2
VREF / 2
Equation 1
in two's complement (see Equation 18 and Equation 19, page 30 for details). The output code OUTADC is -FS / 2 to +
FS / 2 for VIN,ADC = -VREF,ADC / 2 to + VREF,ADC / 2 respectively. As will be shown, VIN,ADC is related to input voltage VIN by
the relationship:
VIN , ADC = GDTOT ⋅VIN − GDoffTOT ⋅ S ⋅VREF [V ]
Equation 2
R
where GDTOT is the total PGA gain, GDOFFTOT is the total magnitude of PGA offset and S is the sign of the offset (see
Table 8, page 21).
ot
7.1.2 Programmable Gain Amplifiers
N
As seen in Figure 11, page 17, the zooming function is implemented with three programmable gain amplifiers (PGA).
These are:
PGA1: coarse gain tuning
PGA2: medium gain and offset tuning
PGA3: fine gain and offset tuning. Should be set ON for high linearity data acquisition
All gain and offset settings are realized with ratios of capacitors. The user has control over each PGA activation and
gain, as well as the offset of stages 2 and 3. These functions are examined hereafter.
1.
Over-sampled converters are operated with a sampling frequency fS much higher than the input signal's Nyquist rate (typically fS is 201'000 times the input signal bandwidth). The sampling frequency to throughput ratio is large (typically 10-500). These converters include
digital decimation filtering. They are mainly used for high resolution, and/or low-to-medium speed applications.
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7.1.3 PGA & ADC Enabling
Depending on the application objectives, the user may enable or bypass each PGA stage. This is done according to the
word Enable and the coding given in Table 6. To reduce power dissipation, the ADC can also be inactivated while idle.
Table 6. ADC and PGA Enabling
Block
XXX0
XXX1
ADC disabled
ADC enabled
XX0X
XX1X
PGA1 disabled
PGA1 enabled
X0XX
X1XX
PGA2 disabled
PGA2 enabled
0XXX
1XXX
PGA3 disabled
PGA3 enabled
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Enable
(RegACCfg1[3:0])
7.2 ZoomingADC Registers
The system has a bank of eight 8-bit registers: six registers are used to configure the acquisition chain (RegAcCfg0 to
RegAcCfg5), and two registers are used to store the output code of the analog-to-digital conversion (RegAcOutMsb &
Lsb).
Table 7. Registers to Configure the Acquisition Chain (AC) and to Store the Analog-to-Digital Conversion
(ADC) Result
Register
Name
Bit position
7
6
RegACCfg2
Default value:
3
2
1
0
R
Out[15:8]
SetNelconv
01, Note 3
SetOsr
010, Note 4
Continuous
0, Note 5
IbAmpAdc
11, Note 7
IbAmpPga
11, Note 8
Enable
0000, Note 9
SetFs
00, Note 10
Pga2Gain
00, Note 12
Pga2Offset
0000, Note 14
N
RegACCfg1
Default value:
Start
0, Note 2
ot
RegACCfg0
Default
values:
4
Out[7:0]
Note 1
RegACOutLsb
RegACOutMs
b
5
RegACCfg3
Default value:
Pga1Gain
0, Note 11
Pga3Gain
0001100, Note 13
RegACCfg4
Default value:
DataReadyEn
0, Note 15
Pga3Offset
0000000, Note 16
RegACCfg5
Default value:
Busy
0, Note 17
Def
0, Note 18
Amux
00000, Note 19
SampleShiftEn
0, Note 6
Vmux
0, Note 20
(r = read; w = write; rw = read & write)
(1)
(2)
Out: (r) digital output code of the analog-to-digital converter. (MSB = Out[15])
Start: (w) setting this bit triggers a single conversion (after the current one is finished). This bit always reads back 0.
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SetNelconv: (rw) sets the number of elementary conversions to 2(SetNelconv[1:0]). To compensate for offsets, the input signal is chopped
between elementary conversions (1,2,4,8).
(4)
(5)
SetOsr: (rw) sets the over-sampling rate (OSR) of an elementary conversion to 2(3+SetOsr[2:0]). OSR = 8, 16, 32, ..., 512, 1024.
Continuous: (rw) setting this bit starts a conversion. When this bis is 1, A new conversion will automatically begin directly when the previous one is finished.
SampleShiftEn: (rw) the 16-bit samples can be directly shifted out though the SPI interface by the master when a conversion is done.
IbAmpAdc: (rw) sets the bias current in the ADC to 0.25 x (1+ IbAmpAdc[1:0]) of the normal operation current (25, 50, 75 or 100% of nominal current). To be used for low-power, low-speed operation.
IbAmpPga: (rw) sets the bias current in the PGAs to 0.25 x (1+IbAmpPga[1:0]) of the normal operation current (25, 50, 75 or 100% of nominal current). To be used for low-power, low-speed operation.
Enable: (rw) enables the ADC modulator (bit 0) and the different stages of the PGAs (PGAi by bit i=1,2,3). PGA stages that are disabled are
bypassed.
SetFs: (rw) These bits set the over sampling frequency of the acquisition chain. Expressed as a fraction of the oscillator frequency, the
sampling frequency is given as: 11 ' 500 kHz, 10 ' 250 kHz, 01 ' 125 kHz, 00 ' 62.5 kHz.
Pga1Gain: (rw) sets the gain of the first stage: 0 ' 1, 1 ' 10.
Pga2Gain: (rw) sets the gain of the second stage: 00 ' 1, 01 ' 2, 10 ' 5, 11 ' 10.
Pga3Gain: (rw) sets the gain of the third stage to Pga3Gain[6:0] 1/12.
Pga2Offset: (rw) sets the offset of the second stage between -1 and +1, with increments of 0.2. The MSB gives the sign (0 positive, 1 negative); amplitude is coded with the bits Pga2Offset[5:0].
DataReadyEn: (rw) enables the combined data ready mode with the MISO of the SPI interface.
Pga3Offset: (rw) sets the offset of the third stage between -5.25 and +5.25, with increments of 1/12. The MSB gives the sign (0 positive, 1
negative); amplitude is coded with the bits Pga3Offset[5:0].
Busy: (r) set to 1 if a conversion is running.
Def: (w) sets all values to their defaults (PGA disabled, AMux not changed, VMux not changed, ADC enabled, nominal modulator bias current (100%), 2 elementary conversions, OSR = 32, NELCONV = 2, fs = 62.5kHz) and starts a new conversion without waiting the end of the
preceding one.
Amux(4:0): (rw) Amux[4] sets the mode (0 ' differential inputs, 1 ' single ended inputs with A0= common reference) Amux[3] sets the sign
(0 ' straight, 1' cross) Amux[2:0] sets the channel.
Vmux: (rw) sets the differential reference channel (0 ' VBATT, 1 ' VREF).
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
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(6)
(7)
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(3)
7.3 Input Multiplexers (AMUX and VMUX)
N
ot
R
The ZoomingADC has analog inputs AC0 to AC5 and reference inputs. Let us first define the differential input voltage
VIN and reference voltage VREF,ADC respectively as:
VIN = VINP −VINN
[V ]
Equation 3
VREF = VREFP − VREFN
[V ]
Equation 4
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As shown in Table 8, the inputs can be configured in two ways: either as 4 differential channels (VIN1= AC1 - AC0,... , VIN3
= AC5 - AC4), or AC0 can be used as a common reference, providing 7 signal paths all referred to AC0. The control word
for the analog input selection is Amux. Notice that the Amux bit 4 controls the sign of the input voltage.
Table 8. Analog Input Selection
VINP
Amux
(RegACCfg5[5:1])
VINN
Sign S = 1
Sign S = -1
00x00
AC1(VREF)
AC0(VSS)
00x01
AC3
AC2
00x10
AC5
AC4
01x00
01x01
VINP
01x10
AC1(VSS)
AC0(VREF)
AC2
AC3
AC4
AC5
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00x11
N.C.
N.C.
VINN
fo
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Amux
(RegACCfg5[5:1])
01x11
N.C.
N.C.
10000
AC0(VSS)
11000
AC0(VSS)
10001
AC1(VREF)
11001
AC1(VREF)
10010
AC2
11010
AC2
AC3
10011
10100
10101
10110
10111
11011
AC0(VSS)
AC0(VSS)
AC3
AC4
11100
AC4
AC5
11101
AC5
N.C.
11110
N.C.
N.C.
11111
N.C.
Similarly, the reference voltage is chosen among two differential channels (VREF = VBATT-VSS, VREF = VBG-VSS or VREF =
VREF,IN-VSS) as shown in Table 9. The selection bit is Vmux. The reference inputs VREFP and VREFN (common-mode) can
be up to the power supply range.
R
Table 9. Analog reference Input Selection
N
ot
Vmux
(RegACCfg5[0])
1.
VREFP
VREFN
0
VREF = VBATT
VSS
1
VREF = VBG or VREF,IN1
VSS
External voltage reference on D1 GPIO pin. See section 6.3 on page 13 about
GPIO and “RegMode[0x70]” on page 47.
7.4 First Stage Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA1)
The first stage can have a buffer function (unity gain) or provide a gain of 10 (see Table 10). The voltage VD1 at the
output of PGA1 is:
VD1 = GD1 ⋅ VIN
[V ]
Equation 5
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where GD1 is the gain of PGA1 (in V/V) controlled with the Pga1Gain bit.
Table 10. PGA1 gain settings
PGA1 gain [V/V]
GD1 [V/V]
0
1
1
10
7.5 Second Stage Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA2)
fo
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Pga1Gain bit
(RegACCfg3[7])
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The second PGA has a finer gain and offset tuning capability, as shown in Table 11. The VD2 voltage at the output of
PGA2 is given by:
VD 2 = GD2 ⋅ VD1 − GDoff 2 ⋅ S ⋅ VREF
[V ]
Equation 6
where GD2 and GDOFF2 are respectively the gain and offset of PGA2 (in V/V). These are controlled with the words
Pga2Gain[1:0] and Pga2Offset[3:0].
Table 11. PGA2 gain and offset settings
PGA2 gain [V/V]
GD2 [V/V]
Pga2Offset bit field
(RegACCfg2[3:0])
PGA2 offset
GDOFF2 [V/V]
00
1
0000
0
01
2
0001
+0.2
10
5
0010
+0.4
11
10
0011
+0.6
0100
+0.8
0101
+1
N
ot
R
Pga2Gain bit field
(RegACCfg2[5:4])
1000
0
1001
-0.2
1010
-0.4
1011
-0.6
1100
-0.8
1101
-1.0
7.6 Third Stage Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA3)
The finest gain and offset tuning is performed with the third and last PGA stage, according to the coding of Table 12.
Table 12. PGA3 Gain and Offset Settings
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Pga3Gain bit field
(RegACCfg3[6:0])
PGA3 Gain
GD3 [V/V]
Pga3Offset bit field
(RegACCfg4[6:0])
PGA3 Offset
GDOFF3 [V/V]
0000000
0
0000000
0
0000001
1/12 (=0.083)
0000001
+1/12 (=0.083)
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Table 12. PGA3 Gain and Offset Settings
PGA3 Gain
GD3 [V/V]
Pga3Offset bit field
(RegACCfg4[6:0])
PGA3 Offset
GDOFF3 [V/V]
...
...
...
0000110
6/12
0010000
+16/12
...
...
...
...
0001100
12/12
0100000
32/12
0010000
16/12
...
fo
r
Pga3Gain bit field
(RegACCfg3[6:0])
...
...
...
0111111
0100000
32/12
1000000
+63/12 (=+5.25)
...
...
1000001
-1/12 (=-0.083)
1000000
64/12
1000010
-2/12
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0
...
...
...
...
1111111
127/12 (=10.58)
1010000
-16/12
...
...
1100000
-32/12
...
...
1111111
-63/12 (=-5.25)
The output of PGA3 is also the input of the ADC. Thus, similarly to PGA2, we find that the voltage entering the ADC is
given by:
VIN , ADC = GD3 ⋅ VD 2 − GDoff 3 ⋅ S ⋅ VREF
[V ]
R
Equation 7
ot
where GD3 and GDOFF3 are respectively the gain and offset of PGA3 (in V/V). The control words are Pga3Gain[6:0] and
Pga3Offset[6:0].
N
To remain within the signal compliance of the PGA stages (no saturation), the condition:
VIN , VD1 , VD 2 <
VBATT
2
Equation 8
must be verified.
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To remain within the signal compliance of the ADC (no saturation), the condition:
⎛ V ⎞⎛ OSR − 1 ⎞
VIN , ADC < ⎜ REF ⎟⎜
⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ OSR ⎠
fo
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Equation 9
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must be verified.
Finally, combining Equation 5 to Equation 7 for the three PGA stages, the input voltage VIN,ADC of the ADC is related to
VIN by:
VIN , ADC = GDTOT ⋅ V IN − GDoff TOT ⋅ S ⋅ V REF
[V ]
Equation 10
where the total PGA gain is defined as:
GDTOT = GD3 ⋅ GD2 ⋅ GD1
Equation 11
and the total PGA offset is:
Equation 12
N
ot
R
GDoffTOT = GDoff 3 + GD3 ⋅ GDoff 2
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7.7 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)
The main performance characteristics of the ADC (resolution, conversion time, etc.) are determined by three
programmable parameters. The setting of these parameters and the resulting performances are described later.
Over-sampling frequency
Over-Sampling Ratio
Number of Elementary Conversions
fo
r
fs:
OSR:
NELCONV:
7.7.1 Conversion Sequence
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A conversion is started each time the bit Start or the Def bit is set. As depicted in Figure 12, a complete analog-todigital conversion sequence is made of a set of NELCONV elementary incremental conversions and a final quantization
step. Each elementary conversion is made of (OSR+1) over-sampling periods Ts=1/fs, i.e.:
TELCONV = (OSR + 1) / f S [s]
Equation 13
The result is the mean of the elementary conversion results. An important feature is that the elementary conversions
are alternatively performed with the offset of the internal amplifiers contributing in one direction and the other to the
output code. Thus, converter internal offset is eliminated if at least two elementary sequences are performed (i.e. if
NELCONV >= 2). A few additional clock cycles are also required to initiate and end the conversion properly.
1
+
N
ot
Conversion index
Offset
Elementary
Conversion
R
Init
Note
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Elementary
Conversion
Elementary
Conversion
Elementary
Conversion
2
-
NELCONV-1
+
NELCONV
-
TCONV
End
Conversion
Result
Figure 12. Analog-to-Digital Conversion Sequence
The internal bandgap reference state may be forced High or Low, or may be set
to toggle during conversion at either the same rate or half the rate of the
Elementary Conversion. This may be useful to help eliminate bandgap related
internal offset voltage and 1/fs noise.
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7.7.2 Over-Sampling Frequency (fs)
The word SetFs[1:0] (see Table 13) is used to select the over-sampling frequency fs. The over-sampling frequency is
derived from the 4MHz oscillator clock.
Table 13. Sampling frequency settings
Over-Sampling Frequency fs
[Hz]
00
62.5 kHz
01
125 kHz
10
250 kHz
11
500 kHz
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SetFs bit field
(RegACCfg2[7:6])
7.7.3 Over-Sampling Ratio (OSR)
The over-sampling ratio (OSR) defines the number of integration cycles per elementary conversion. Its value is set with
the word SetOsr[2:0] in power of 2 steps (see Table 14) given by:
OSR = 2 3+SetOsr[2:0] [−]
Equation 14
N
ot
R
Table 14. Over-sampling ratio settings
SetOsr[2:0]
(RegACCfg[4:2])
Over-Sampling Ratio
OSR [-]
000
8
001
16
010
32
011
64
100
128
101
256
110
512
111
1024
7.7.4 Number of Elementary Conversions (Nelconv)
As mentioned previously, the whole conversion sequence is made of a set of NELCONV elementary incremental
conversions. This number is set with the word SetNelconv[1:0] in power of 2 steps (see Table 15) given by:
N ELCONV = 2 SetNelconv [1:0]
[−]
Equation 15
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Table 15. Number of elementary conversion
# of Elementary Conversion
NELCONV [-]
00
1
01
2
10
4
11
8
fo
r
SetOsr[2:0]
(RegACCfg[4:2])
7.7.5 Resolution
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As already mentioned, NELCONV must be equal or greater than 2 to reduce internal amplifier offsets.
The theoretical resolution of the ADC, without considering thermal noise, is given by:
n = 2 ⋅ log2 (OSR) + log2 ( N ELCONV ) [bit]
Equation 16
6.0
11
10
01
00
R
Resolution - n[bits]
14.0
N
16.0
12.0
ot
10.0
8.0
SetNelconv[1:0]
4.0
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
SetOsr[2:0]
Figure 13. Resolution vs. SetOsr[2:0] and SetNelconv[2:0]
Using look-up Table 16 or the graph plotted in Figure 13, resolution can be set between 6 and 16 bits. Notice that,
because of 16-bit register use for the ADC output, practical resolution is limited to 16 bits, i.e. n = 16. Even if the
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resolution is truncated to 16 bit by the output register size, it may make sense to set OSR and NELCONV to higher values
in order to reduce the influence of the thermal noise in the PGA.
Table 16. Resolution1 vs. SetOsr and SetNelconv settings
SetNelconv control bits
‘00‘
‘01‘
‘10‘
‘11’
‘000‘
6
7
8
9
‘001‘
8
9
10
‘010‘
10
11
12
‘011‘
12
13
14
15
14
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
‘101‘
‘110‘
‘111‘
1.
11
13
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‘100‘
fo
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SetOsr
control bits
In shaded area, the resolution is truncated to 16 bits due to output register size RegACOut[15:0]
7.7.6 Conversion Time & Throughput
As explained in Figure 13, conversion time is given by:
R
TCONV = ( NELCONV ⋅ (OSR+1) +1) / f S [s]
Equation 17
N
ot
and throughput is then simply 1/TCONV. For example, consider an over-sampling ratio of 256, 2 elementary conversions,
and a sampling frequency of 500 kHz (SetOsr = "101", SetNelconv = "01" and SetFs = "00"). In this case, using Table 17,
the conversion time is 515 sampling periods, or 1.03ms. This corresponds to a throughput of 971Hz in continuous-time
mode. The plot of Figure 14 illustrates the classic trade-off between resolution and conversion time.
Table 17. Normalized conversion time (Tconv x fs) vs. SetOsr and SetNelconv settings1
SetOsr bits
OSR
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SetNelconv control bits
NELCONV
‘00‘
1
‘01‘
2
‘10‘
4
‘11‘
8
‘000‘
10
19
37
73
‘001‘
18
35
69
137
‘010‘
34
67
133
265
‘011‘
66
131
261
521
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Table 17. Normalized conversion time (Tconv x fs) vs. SetOsr and SetNelconv settings1
SetNelconv control bits
NELCONV
SetOsr bits
OSR
‘10‘
4
‘11‘
8
‘100‘
130
259
517
1033
‘101‘
258
515
1029
2057
‘110‘
514
1027
2053
4105
‘111‘
1026
2051
4101
8201
fo
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‘01‘
2
Normalized to sampling period 1/fs
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1.
‘00‘
1
Resolution - n[bits]
16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
11
8.0
6.0
10
01
00
100
1000
10000
Normalized Conversion Time – Tconv x fs [-]
ot
R
4.0
10
1.
N
Figure 14. Resolution vs. normalized1 conversion time for different SetNelconv[1:0]
Normalized Conversion Time - TCONV x fs
7.7.7 Continuous-Time vs. On-Request Conversion
The ADC can be operated in two distinct modes: "continuous-time" and "on-request" modes (selected using the bit
Continuous).
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In "continuous-time" mode, the input signal is repeatedly converted into digital. After a conversion is finished, a new
one is automatically initiated. The new value is then written in the result register, and the corresponding internal
trigger pulse is generated. This operation is sketched in Figure 15. The conversion time in this case is defined as TCONV.
Tconv
Internal trig
fo
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Output code RegACOut[15:0]
Busy
1/fs
Ready
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Figure 15. ADC “Continuous-Time” Operation
In the "on-request" mode, the internal behavior of the converter is the same as in the "continuous-time" mode, but the
conversion is initiated on user request (with the Start bit). As shown in Figure 16, the conversion time is also TCONV.
Tconv
Internal trig
START Request
Output code RegACOut[15:0]
Busy
Ready
Figure 16. ADC “On-Request” Operation
R
7.7.8 Output Code Format
N
ot
The ADC output code is a 16-bit word in two's complement format (see Table 18). For input voltages outside the range,
the output code is saturated to the closest full-scale value (i.e. 0x7FFF or 0x8000). For resolutions smaller than 16 bits,
the non-significant bits are forced to the values shown in Table 19. The output code, expressed in LSBs, corresponds to:
OUT ADC = 2 16 ⋅
V IN , ADC
V REF
⋅
OSR + 1
OSR
Equation 18
Recalling Equation 10, page 24, this can be rewritten as:
OUTADC = 216 ⋅
VIN
VREF
⎛
V
⋅ ⎜⎜ GDTOT − GDoff TOT ⋅ S ⋅ REF
VIN
⎝
⎞ OSR + 1
⎟⎟ ⋅
[ LSB ]
⎠ OSR
Equation 19
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where, from Equation 11 and Equation 12, the total PGA gain and offset are respectively:
GDTOT = GD3 ⋅ GD2 ⋅ GD1
Equation 20
fo
r
and:
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es n
ig de
ns d
GDoffTOT = GDoff 3 + GD3 ⋅ GDoff 2
Equation 21
Table 18. Basic ADC Relationships (example for: VREF = 5V, OSR = 512, n = 16bits)
ADC Input Voltage
VIN,ADC
% of Full Scale (FS)
Output in LSBs
Hexadecimal Output Code
+2.49505 V
+0.5 x FS
+215-1 = 32’767
7FFF
+2.49497 V
...
+215-2 = 32’766
7FFE
...
...
...
...
+76.145 μV
...
0
0
-76.145 μV
...
...
...
...
0000
-1
FFFF
...
...
-0.5 x FS
-2 -1 = -32’767
8001
-215 = -32’768
8000
ot
-2.49513 V
0001
0
15
R
-2.49505 V
+1
N
Table 19. Last forced LSBs in conversion output register for resolution settings smaller than 16bits1
SetOsr[2:0]
1.
SetNelconv = ‘00’
SetNelconv = ‘01’
SetNelconv = ‘10’
SetNelconv = ‘11’
‘000’
1000000000
100000000
10000000
1000000
‘001’
10000000
1000000
100000
10000
‘010’
100000
10000
1000
100
‘011’
1000
100
10
1
‘100’
10
1
-
-
‘101’
-
-
-
-
‘110’
-
-
-
-
‘111’
-
-
-
-
(n<16) (RegACOutMsb[7:0] & RegACOutLsb[7:0])
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The equivalent LSB size at the input of the PGA chain is:
LSB =
1 V REF
OSR
[V / V ]
⋅
⋅
n
2 GDTOT OSR + 1
Notice that the input voltage VIN,ADC of the ADC must satisfy the condition:
OSR
1
⋅ (VREFP − VREFN ) ⋅
2
OSR + 1
ec
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VIN , ADC ≤
fo
r
Equation 22
Equation 23
to remain within the ADC input range.
7.7.9 Power Saving Modes
During low-speed operation, the bias current in the PGAs and ADC can be programmed to save power using the
control words IbAmpPga[1:0] and IbAmpAdc[1:0] (see Table 20). If the system is idle, the PGAs and ADC can even be
disabled, thus, reducing power consumption to its minimum. This can considerably improve battery lifetime.
Table 20. ADC & PGA power saving modes and maximum sampling frequency
IbAmpAdc [1:0]
ADC Bias Current PGA Bias Current
1/4 x IADC
1/2 x IADC
IADC
00
01
11
1/4 x IPGA
1/2 x IPGA
IPGA
Max. fs [kHz]
125
250
500
125
250
500
N
ot
R
00
01
11
IbAmpPga [1:0]
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8 Application hints
8.1 Power Reduction
The ZoomingADC is particularly well suited for low-power applications. When very low power consumption is of
primary concern, such as in battery operated systems, several parameters can be used to reduce power consumption
as follows:
ec
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fo
r
Operate the acquisition chain with a reduced supply voltage VBATT.
Disable the PGAs which are not used during analog-to-digital conversion with Enable[3:0].
Disable all PGAs and the ADC when the system is idle and no conversion is performed.
Use lower bias currents in the PGAs and the ADC using the control words IbAmpPga[1:0] and IbAmpAdc[1:0].
Reduce sampling frequency.
N
ot
R
Finally, remember that power reduction is typically traded off with reduced linearity, larger noise and slower maximum
sampling speed.
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8.2 Gain Configuration Flow
The diagram below shows the flow to set the gain of your configuration:
fo
r
Set gain
Yes
No
Gain < 100 ?
No
Enable PGA1,2&3
ec
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Gain < 10 ?
Yes
Enable PGA2&3
Set PGA 1 gain
Set PGA 3 gain
Set PGA 2 gain
Set PGA 2 gain
Set PGA 3 gain
Set PGA 3 gain
GAIN =
PGA2 x PGA3
GAIN =
PGA1 x PGA2 x PGA3
N
ot
R
Enable PGA3
GAIN = PGA3
End
Figure 17. Gain configuration flowchart
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9 SPI interface
9.1 Overview
fo
r
The SX8723S serial port interface implements the following:
4-pin Interface + options for synchronization to ADC sample ready
7-bit Target Address (max 128 registers)
2 Mbps serial clock
MSB first
ec
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The serial interface is a slave port for communication with a serial microprocessor bus, allowing the SX8723S to be
controlled by an external processor. The serial interface header must be connected to the host processor, which acts as
the master.
The serial interface signals are:
SCLK:
Serial Clock
Active low Slave Select
SS:
MISO/READY: Master Input, Slave Output (data out) and optional active low ADC data Ready signal.
MOSI:
Master Output, Slave Input.
MASTER
SCLK
SCLK
MOSI
MOSI
MISO
MISO
SS
SS1
SS2
SLAVE 1
SS3
SCLK
MOSI
R
MISO
ot
SS
SLAVE 2
N
SCLK
MOSI
MISO
SS
SLAVE 3
Figure 18. Example of SPI bus with 1 master and 3 slaves
The address and data are transmitted and received MSB first. Valid read/write accesses are possible only when SS is
active. MISO and MOSI lines are push-pull pads. As the waveforms illustrate (see below), the slave interface implements
a 16-bit shift register. The SPI implemented on the SX8723S is set to the common setting CPOL=0 and CPHA=0 which
means data are sampled on the rising edge of the clock, and shifted on the falling one.
The first bit in the serial data is the Direction Bit. This must be set to '1' for reading, and '0' for writing. The following 7
bits represent the target register address, shifted in MSB first. The next byte represents register data, shifted in/out MSB
first.
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9.2 Data transmission
9.2.1 Write a single register
To write to a register, the Host must provide the following:
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
15
MOSI
R/W
MISO
ec
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SS
12
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
D7
D6
Write + Register Address
D5
16
fo
r
1
SCLK
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Register Data
Figure 19. SPI waveform - Write a single register
9.2.2 Read a single register
To read a register from the memory map, the Host must provide the following:
1
SCLK
SS
MOSI
MISO
R/W
2
A6
3
A5
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
7
A1
8
9
11
12
13
14
15
16
A0
D7
Read + Register Address
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Register Data
Figure 20. SPI waveform - Read a single register
N
ot
R
10
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9.2.3 Multiple Bytes Write/Read Protocol
The SPI protocol is designed to be able to do multiple read/write during a transaction. During one single operation, as
long as Slave Select (SS) stay asserted, the register address is automatically increased to allow sequential read/write (or
sequential retrieval of data). The register address will be auto-incremented in multiple read/write commands. Between
each different operation though the communication should be restarted.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
SS
R/W
A6
A5
A4
MISO
A3
A2
A1
A0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
17
18
19
D0
D7
D6
D5
ec
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MOSI
16
Write + Register Address
20
21
fo
r
1
SCLK
Register Data[address]
D4
D3
22
D2
23
D1
24
D0
Register Data[address+1]
Figure 21. SPI waveform - Multiple bytes SPI Write protocol (2 bytes example)
1
2
3
4
SCLK
SS
MOSI
R/W
A6
A5
A4
MISO
5
A3
6
A2
7
A1
8
9
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
A0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
Register Data 1
D1
D0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Register Data + 1
R
Read + Register Address
10
N
ot
Figure 22. SPI waveform - Multiple bytes SPI Read protocol (2 bytes example)
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9.3 ADC Samples Reading
Reset
ec
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1
fo
r
The default SPI mode the ADC samples must be read with the default SPI read sequences described in 9.2. Data
transmission.
The SAMPLE SHIFT mode allow to read directly the 16-bit conversion result of RegACOutLsb[0x50] and
RegACOutMsb[0x51] without a register read sequence. This mode is described in 9.3.1. SAMPLE SHIFT Mode.
The COMBINED DATA READY mode is a SAMPLE SHIFT mode which combines the ADC Ready function with the SPI
MISO signal to reduce the number of wires to 4 between the master and the slave. This mode is described in 9.3.2.
COMBINED DATA READY Mode section.
Default SPI
mode
4
Disable SAMPLE SHIFT
mode
SampleShiftEn bit set to ‘0’
2
Enable SAMPLE SHIFT
mode
SampleShiftEn bit set to ‘1’
SAMPLE
SHIFT
mode
Disable COMBINED
DATA READY
R
5
DataReadyEn set to 0
3
DataReadyEn set to 1
ot
N
Enable COMBINED
DATA READY mode
COMBINED
DATA READY
with MISO
mode
Figure 23. ADC samples reading modes with the SPI interface
When the device is in Sample Shift Mode or Combined Data Ready mode, the register reading will give erroneous data.
Always disable the Sample Shift Mode and Combined Data Ready mode to read the registers.
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9.3.1 SAMPLE SHIFT Mode
If the SampleShiftEn bit of RegACCfg0[0x52] is active, the MISO/READY pin is used to shift out ADC samples data. The
other registers can not be read in this mode. The ADC samples are clocked out at falling edge of SCLK, MSB first (see
Figure 24 below).
1
2
3
4
5
6
ADC sample LSB shifted out
(RegACOutLsb)
7
8
9
10
11
12
SS
MOSI
13
14
15
ec
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SCLK
fo
r
ADC sample MSB shifted out
(RegACOutMsb)
16
1
NOP
MISO
D15
READY
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
D15
ADC end of conversion, sample READY
Figure 24. Data Retrieval with the SAMPLE SHIFT Mode (COMBINED DATA READY Mode Disabled)
As illustrated in Figure 25, five wires are necessary to connect the master in this mode if to be synchronized to the ADC
end of conversion.
N
ot
R
MASTER
SCLK
SCLK
MOSI
MOSI
MISO
MISO
SS
SS1
READY SX872xS
SLAVE 1
READY1
SS2
READY2
SCLK
MOSI
MISO
SS
READY SX872xS
SLAVE 2
Figure 25. Example with two SX872xS slaves
When the DataReady bit is set to '0', this pin functions as MISO only. The COMBINED DATA READY mode is disabled.
9.3.2 COMBINED DATA READY Mode
This combined functionality allows for the same control as the SAMPLE SHIFT mode but with fewer pins. Samples
shifted out (MISO) are combined with ADC data ready signal (READY). The DataReadyEn bit in register
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RegACCfg4[0x56] determines the function of this pin. As illustrated in Figure 26, four wires are necessary to connect
the master in this mode if to be synchronized to the ADC end of conversion. The DataReadyEn bit modifies only the
MISO/READY pin functionality. The READY pin functionality remains unaffected. In either mode, the MISO/READY pin
goes to a high-impedance state when SS is taken high.
SCLK
SCLK
MOSI
MOSI
fo
r
MASTER
MISO/READY
MISO/READY
SX872xS
SS
SLAVE
ec
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SS
Figure 26. Example of 4-wire Slave
When the DataReadyEn bit in RegACCfg4[0x56] register is set to '1', this pin functions as both MISO and READY. Data
are shifted out from this pin, MSB first, at the falling edge of SCLK. When the DataReadyModeEn bit is enabled and a
new conversion is complete, MISO/READY goes low if it is high. If it is already low, then MISO/READY goes high and then
goes low (see Figure 27 below).
ADC sample MSB shifted out
(RegACOutMsb)
1
SCLK
SS
MOSI
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
ot
READY
3
NOP
R
MISO/
READY
2
ADC sample LSB shifted out
(RegACOutLsb)
N
ADC end of conversion, sample READY
Figure 27. Data Retrieval with the COMBINED DATA READY mode enabled
Similar to the READY pin (but with opposite polarity), a falling edge on the MISO/READY pin signals that a new
conversion result is ready. After MISO/READY goes low, the data can be clocked out by providing 16 clocks pulses on
SCLK.
In order to force MISO/READY high (so that MISO/READY can be polled for a '0' instead of waiting for a falling edge), a no
operation command (NOP) or any other command that does not load the data output register can be sent after
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reading out the data. The MISO/READY pin goes high after the first rising edge of SCLK after reading the conversion
result completely (see Figure 28 below).
1
2
3
4
5
6
ADC sample LSB shifted out
(RegACOutLsb)
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
SCLK
SS
MOSI
D15
D14
READY
D13
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
ec
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NOP
MISO/
READY
16
fo
r
ADC sample MSB shifted out
(RegACOutMsb)
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
ADC end of conversion, sample READY
Figure 28. MISO/READY Forced High After Retrieving the Conversion Result
The same condition also applies after a Read Register command. After all the register bits have been read out, the
rising edge of SCLK forces MISO/READY high.
N
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The Combined Data Ready mode must not be used with more than one slave.
To get the interruption on MISO pin, SS should be set to low during all the duration of the Combined Data Ready mode.
In Combined Data Ready mode, MISO is set to high after the data reception.
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9.4 Chip Start Detection with Slave Select Pin
At power-up or after a soft reset, SS pin is set to output low during the chip initialization (~250us). If the host SS pin is
configured at an input pulled high during the power-up sequence, it can detect the SX8723S effective start.
MASTER
SCLK
fo
r
Note that if the host pin has a default output high logical level during the power-up or reset sequences this output it
will create a short circuit. Therefore, a resistor should be put on the line to ensure that no current spikes are generated.
SCLK
MOSI
MOSI
MISO/READY
MISO/READY
SX872xS
SS
SLAVE
ec
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10K
SS
Figure 29. Set a resistor if the host is a high logical level during the startup or the reset
The best value for SS resistor should be between 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ. In that range, the current spike is completely avoided
and the falling/rising time is ensured.
On Figure 30 the SPI master uses a separate input for startup status reading. The master SS pin is always configured as
output for SPI Slave Select. As in the precedent figure, the resistor on the line to ensure that no current spikes are
generated when Master and Slave SS pins are both configured as outputs during a startup sequence.
MASTER
10K
SS
SS
Sx_rdy
R
SX872xS
SLAVE
N
ot
Figure 30. SPI Master using a separate input for startup status reading
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9.5 Improving Noise Immunity
Noise may cause incorrect device operation and incorrect data reception. Careful circuit design and PCB layout
prevents much of the problems. Noise immunity can be improved using the following methods:
Keep SPI lines on the PCB away from noisy lines and devices such as switchers.
Terminate SPI lines at the device using termination resistors as shown in Figure 31.
MASTER
SCLK
100
SCLK
100
MOSI
ec
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MOSI
fo
r
The recommended value for theses resistors is around 100 Ω.
MISO/READY
SS
100
10K
MISO/READY
SX872xS
SS
SLAVE
Figure 31. Resistors to improve noise immunity between master and slave
N
ot
R
The SCLK, MISO, MOSI and SS lines can also be decoupled with capacitors to increase noise performance. The values of
R and C then depend on the transmission speed of the SPI bus. For a transmission speed of around 100 kHz, an R of 100
Ω and C of 1nF is suggested. For higher transmission speeds, the values of R and C should be reduced accordingly. But
if the operating environment is very noisy, larger values of R and C must be selected, and the transmission speed
should be reduced.
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10 Register Memory Map and Description
10.1 Register Map
Table 21 below describes the register/memory map that can be accessed through the SPI interface. It indicates the
register name, register address and the register contents.
Address
Register
Bit
Description
RegRCen
1
RC oscillator control
0x30
GPIO Registers
0x40
RegOut
0x41
RegIn
0x44
RegSoftReset
ADC Registers
0x50
RegACOutLsb
0x51
RegACOutMsb
0x52
RegACCfg0
0x53
RegACCfg1
0x54
RegACCfg2
0x55
RegACCfg3
0x56
RegACCfg4
0x57
RegACCfg5
Mode Register
RegMode
8
D0 pads data output and direction control
4
D0 pads input data
SPI software reset
8
LSB of ADC result
8
MSB of ADC result
8
ADC conversion control
8
ADC conversion control
8
ADC conversion control
8
ADC conversion control
8
ADC conversion control
8
ADC conversion control
8
Chip operating mode register
R
0x70
ec
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RC Register
fo
r
Table 21. Register Map
10.2 Registers Descriptions
N
ot
The register descriptions are presented here in ascending order of Register Address. Some registers carry several
individual data fields of various sizes; from single-bit values (e.g. flags), upwards. Some data fields are spread across
multiple registers. After power on reset the registers will have the values indicated in the tables "Reset" column.
Please write the “Reserved” bits with their reset values.
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10.2.1 RC Register
Table 22. RegRCen[0x30]
Bit Name
Mode
Reset
Description
7:1
-
r
0000000
Reserved
0
RCEn
rw
1
Enables RC oscillator. Set 0 for low power mode.
Table 23. RegIn[0x41]
Bit Name
7:2
-
1
D1In
0
D0In
Mode
Reset
Description
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Bit
fo
r
Bit
r
0000
Reserved
r
-
D1 pad value
r
-
D0 pad value
10.2.2 Software reset register
Table 24. RegSoftReset[0x44]
Bit
Name
Mode
Reset
Description
7:0
SoftReset
rw
00000000
Write the 0xDE (b11011110) value into this register to reset the device.
Mode
Reset
Description
r
00000000
LSB of the ADC result
Name
Mode
Reset
Description
Out[15:8]
r
00000000
MSB of the ADC result
10.2.3 ZADC Registers
Name
7:0
Out[7:0]
N
ot
Bit
R
Table 25. RegACOutLsb[0x50]
Table 26. RegACOutMsb[0x51]
Bit
7:0
Table 27. RegACCfg0[0x52]
Bit
Name
Mode
Reset
Description
7
Start
rw
0
Starts an ADC conversion
6:5
SetNelconv
rw
01
Sets the number of elementary conversion to 2SetNelconv.
To compensate for offset the signal is chopped between elementary
conversion.
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Table 27. RegACCfg0[0x52]
Name
Mode
Reset
Description
4:2
SetOsr
rw
010
Sets the ADC over-sampling rate of an elementary conversion to 23+SetOsr.
1
Continuous
rw
0
Sets the continuous ADC conversion mode
0
SampleShiftEn
rw
0
ADC samples can be read directly on the SPI
See section 9.3.1, page 39.
Mode
Reset
Description
rw
11
Bias current selection for the ADC
rw
11
Bias current selection for the PGA
rw
0
PGA3 enable
rw
0
PGA2 enable
rw
0
PGA1 enable
rw
0
ADC enable
Mode
Reset
Description
rw
00
ADC Sampling Frequency selection
rw
00
PGA2 gain selection
rw
0000
PGA2 offset selection
Mode
Reset
Description
Pga1Gain
rw
0
PGA1 gain selection
Pga3Gain
rw
0001100
PGA3 gain selection
Mode
Reset
Description
fo
r
Bit
Bit
Name
7:6
IbAmpAdc
5:4
IbAmpPga
3
2
1
Enable
0
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Table 28. RegACCfg1[0x53]
Table 29. RegACCfg2[0x54]
Name
7:6
SetFs
5:4
Pga2Gain
3:0
Pga2Offset
R
Bit
7
6:0
Name
N
Bit
ot
Table 30. RegACCfg3[0x55]
Table 31. RegACCfg4[0x56]
Bit
Name
7
DataReadyEn
rw
0
Combined SPI MISO and ADC Data Ready signal.
0 : Combined Data Ready mode disabled
1 : Combined Data Ready mode enabled
See section 9.3.2, page 39.
6:0
Pga3Offset
rw
0000000
PGA3 offset selection
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Table 32. RegACCfg5[0x57]
Name
Mode
Reset
Description
7
Busy
r
0
ADC activity flag
6
Def
rw
0
Selects ADC and PGA default configuration, starts an ADC conversion
5:1
Amux
rw
00000
Input channel configuration selector
0
Vmux
rw
0
Reference channel selector
0 : VBATT
1 : VREF
ec
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D e
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ig de
ns d
10.2.4 Mode Registers
fo
r
Bit
Table 33. RegMode[0x70]
Bit
Name
7
-
6
-
5:4
Chopper
3
MultForceOn
2
MultForceOff
1
VrefD0Out
0
VrefD1In
Description
r
1
reserved
r
0
reserved
rw
00
VREF chopping control. Note 1
11 : Chop at NELCONV/2 rate
10 : Chop at NELCONV rate
01 : Chop state=1
00 : Chop state=0
rw
0
Force charge pump On. Takes priority. Note 2
rw
1
Force charge pump Off. Note 2
rw
0
Enable VREF output on D0 pin
rw
0
Enable external VREF on D1 pin
R
The chop control is to allow chopping of the internal bandgap reference. This may be useful to help eliminate bandgap related internal
offset voltage and 1/f noise. The bandgap chop state may be forced High or Low, or may be set to toggle during conversion at either the
same rate or half the rate of the Elementary Conversion. (See Conversion Sequence in the ZoomingADC description).
The internal charge pump may be forced On when VBATT supply is below 3V or Off when VBATT supply is above 3V. Enabling the charge
pump increase the current consumption. If the ADC is not being run at full rate or full accuracy then it may operate sufficiently well when
VBATT is less than 3V and internal charge pump forced Off.
N
(2)
Reset
ot
(1)
Mode
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11 Typical Performances
Note
fo
r
The graphs and tables provided following this note are statistical summary
based on limited number of samples and are provided for informational
purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or
guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the
specified operating range and therefore outside the warranted range.
11.1 Input impedance
ec
N o
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m
D e
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ns d
The PGAs of the ZoomingADC are a switched capacitor based blocks (see Switched Capacitor Principle section). This
means that it does not use resistors to fix gains, but capacitors and switches. This has important implications on the
nature of the input impedance of the block.
Using switched capacitors is the reason why, while a conversion is done, the input impedance on the selected channel
of the PGAs is inversely proportional to the sampling frequency fs and to stage gain as given in Equation 24.
Z in ≥
1
[Ω]
(Cg ⋅ gain + Cp )
Equation 24
The input impedance observed is the input impedance of the first PGA stage that is enabled or the input impedance of
the ADC if all three stages are disabled.
Cg multiplied by gain is the equivalent gain capacitor and Cp is the parasitic capacitor of the first enabled stage. The
values for each ZoomingADC bloc are provided in Table 34:
R
Table 34. Capacitor values
ot
Acquisition Chain Stage
PGA1
N
PGA2
PGA3
Gain capacitor Cg
Parasitic capacitor Cp
Units
0.45
1.04
pF
0.54
1.5
pF
0.775
1.8
pF
ADC
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Table 34 gives typical impedance values for various gain configurations.
Table 35. Typical Input Impedances
PGA1gain
PGA2 gain
PGA3 gain
ZIN [MΩ]
1
2
5
10
1
2
4
8
10
62.5
10.26
2.59
7.95
5.05
2.84
2.24
6.25
4.32
2.86
1.87
1.63
125
5.14
1.30
3.99
2.54
1.44
1.11
3.13
2.16
1.43
0.94
0.82
250
2.57
0.65
1.98
1.26
0.71
0.56
1.56
1.08
0.72
0.47
0.41
500
1.29
0.32
0.99
0.63
0.36
0.28
0.78
0.54
0.36
0.24
0.21
fo
r
10
ec
N o
ew m
m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
fs
[kHz]
1
PGA1 (with a gain of 10) and PGA2 (with a gain of 10) have each a minimum input impedance of 300 kΩ at fs = 500 kHz.
PGA3 (with a gain of 10) have a minimum input impedance of 250 kΩ at fs = 500 kHz.
Larger input impedance can be obtained by reducing the gain and/or by reducing the over-sampling frequency fs.
Therefore, with a gain of 1 and a sampling frequency of 62.5 kHz, Zin > 10.2 MΩ for PGA1.
The input impedance on channels that are not selected is very high (>10MΩ).
11.1.1 Switched Capacitor Principle
Basically, a switched capacitor is a way to emulate a resistor by using a capacitor. The capacitors are much easier to
realize on CMOS technologies and they show a very good matching precision.
V1
V1
V2
f
f
V2
Figure 32. The Switched Capacitor Principle
ot
R
R
N
A resistor is characterized by the current that flows through it (positive current leaves node V1):
I=
V1 −V2
[ A]
R
Equation 25
One can verify that the mean current leaving node V1 with a capacitor switched at frequency f is:
I = (V 1 − V 2) ⋅ C [ A]
Equation 26
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Therefore as a mean value, the switched capacitor 1/(f x C) is equivalent to a resistor. It is important to consider that
this is only a mean value. If the current is not integrated (low impedance source), the impedance is infinite during the
whole time but the transition.
What does it mean for the ZoomingADC?
If the fs clock is reduced, the mean impedance is increased. By dividing the fs clock by a factor 10, the impedance is
increased by a factor 10.
fo
r
One can reduce the capacitor that is switched by using an amplifier set to its minimal gain. In particular if PGA1 is used
with gain 1, its mean impedance is 10x bigger than when it is used with gain 10.
Current
integration
ec
N o
ew m
m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
Sensor
impedence
V1
Sensor
Node
Capacitance
ZoomingADC (model)
f
f V2
C
Figure 33. The Switched Capacitor Principle
One can increase the effective impedance by increasing the electrical bandwidth of the sensor node so that the
switching current is absorbed through the sensor before the switching period is over. Measuring the sensor node will
show short voltage spikes at the frequency fs, but these will not influence the measurement. Whereas if the bandwidth
of the node is lower, no spikes will arise, but a small offset can be generated by the integration of the charges
generated by the switched capacitors, this corresponds to the mean impedance effect.
Notes:
One can increase the mean input impedance of the ZoomingADC by lowering the acquisition clock fs.
One can increase the mean input impedance of the ZoomingADC by decreasing the gain of the first enabled amplifier.
One can increase the effective input impedance of the ZoomingADC by having a source with a high electrical bandwidth (sensor electrical bandwidth much higher than fs).
N
ot
R
(1)
(2)
(3)
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11.2 Frequency Response
f
i ⋅ fs
NOTCH = -----------------------------------OSR ⋅ N ELCONV
For
fo
r
The incremental ADC is an over-sampled converter with two main blocks: an analog modulator and a low-pass digital
filter. The main function of the digital filter is to remove the quantization noise introduced by the modulator. This filter
determines the frequency response of the transfer function between the output of the ADC and the analog input VIN.
Notice that the frequency axes are normalized to one elementary conversion period OSR / fs. The plots of Figure 34,
page 52 also show that the frequency response changes with the number of elementary conversions NELCONV
performed. In particular, notches appear for NELCONV >= 2 These notches occur at:
i = 1, 2, … ( N ELCONV – 1 )
ec
N o
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m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
Equation 27
and are repeated every fs / OSR.
Information on the location of these notches is particularly useful when specific frequencies must be filtered out by the
acquisition system. This chip has no dedicated 50/60 Hz rejection filtering but some rejection can be achieved by using
Equation 27 and setting the appropriate values of OSR, fs and NELCONV.
Table 36. 50/60 Hz Line Rejection Examples
Rejection [Hz]
60
fs [kHz]
OSR [-]
NELCONV [-]
61
125
1024
2
61
250
1024
4
61
500
1024
8
53
62.5
1024
8
46
62.5
1024
4
46
125
1024
8
N
ot
R
50
fNOTCH [Hz]
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0
-20
-20
Magnitude [dB]
0
-40
fo
r
Filter profile with NELCONV = 2
-40
ec
N o
ew m
m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
Magnitude [dB]
Filter profile with NELCONV = 1
-60
-60
-80
-80
0
2
4
6
8
10
0
2
4
Normalized frequency - f x Tconv
10
8
10
0
0
-20
Magnitude [dB]
-20
Magnitude [dB]
8
Filter profile with NELCONV = 8
Filter profile with NELCONV = 4
-40
-40
-60
R
-60
-80
0
2
4
-80
6
8
0
10
2
4
ot
Filter Profile w ith Data Rate = 46SPS or 53SPS
Filter Profile w ith Data Rate = 61SPS
0
N
0
-10
6
Normalized frequency - f x Tconv
Normalized frequency - f x Tconv
-10
-20
Magnitude [dB]
Magnitude [dB]
6
Normalized frequency - f x Tconv
-30
-40
-20
-30
-40
-50
-50
-60
-60
50
55
60
65
70
40
45
50
55
60
Frequency [Hz]
Frequency [Hz]
Figure 34. Frequency Response. Normalized Magnitude vs. Frequency for Different NELCONV
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11.3 Linearity
11.3.1 Integral Non-Linearity
fo
r
The different PGA stages have been designed to find the best compromise between the noise performance, the
integral non-linearity and the power consumption. To obtain this, the first stage has the best noise performance and
the third stage the best linearity performance. For large input signals (small PGA gains, i.e. up to about 50), the noise
added by the PGA is very small with respect to the input signal and the second and third stage of the PGA should be
used to get the best linearity. For small input signals (large gains, i.e. above 50), the noise level in the PGA is important
and the first stage of the PGA should be used.
The following figures show the Integral non linearity for different gain settings over the chip temperature range
ec
N o
ew m
m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
11.3.1.1 Gain 1
VBATT=5V; VREF=VBATT; PGAs disabled; OSR=1024; Nelconv=8; fs=250kHz; Resolution=16bits.
10
10
INL Gain 1 @ -40°C
6
6
4
4
2
INL [LSB]
INL [LSB]
INL Gain 1 @ 25°C
8
8
0
-2
2
0
-2
-4
-4
-6
-6
-8
-8
-10
-10
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
-2
2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
Figure 35. INL -40°C
INL Gain 1 @ 85°C
8
2
-2
-4
1.5
2
1
1.5
2
INL Gain 1 @ 125°C
6
4
N
0
1
8
INL [LSB]
4
INL [LSB]
10
ot
6
0.5
Figure 36. INL 25°C
R
10
0
VIN [V]
VIN [V]
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-6
-8
-8
-10
-10
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
VIN [V]
February 2011
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
VIN [V]
Figure 37. INL 85°C
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
-2
Figure 38. INL 125°C
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11.3.1.2 Gain 10
VBATT=5V; VREF=VBATT; ADC and PGA3 enabled; GD3=10; OSR=1024; Nelconv=8; fs=250kHz; Resolution=16bits.
10
INL Gain 10 @ -40°C
6
6
4
4
2
2
INL [LSB]
8
0
-2
fo
r
INL Gain 10 @ 25°C
8
0
-2
-4
-4
-6
-6
ec
N o
ew m
m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
INL [LSB]
10
-8
-8
-10
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
-10
-0.2
0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
Figure 39. INL -40°C
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.015
0.02
Figure 40. INL 25°C
10
10
INL Gain 10 @ 125°C
INL Gain 10 @ 85°C
8
8
6
6
4
4
2
INL [LSB]
INL [LSB]
0
VIN [V]
VIN [V]
0
-2
2
0
-2
-4
-4
-6
-6
-8
-8
-10
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
-10
-0.2
0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
R
Figure 41. INL 85°C
0.05
Figure 42. INL 125°C
ot
11.3.1.3 Gain 100
0
VIN [V]
VIN [V]
N
VBATT=5V; VREF=VBATT; ADC, PGA2 and PGA3 enabled; GD2=10; GD3=10; OSR=1024; Nelconv=8; fs=250kHz;
Resolution=16bits.
50
INL Gain 100 @ -40°C
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
INL [LSB]
INL [LSB]
50
0
-10
0
-10
-20
-20
-30
-30
-40
-40
-50
-0.02
-0.015
-0.01
-0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
VIN [V]
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
February 2011
INL Gain 100 @ 25°C
-50
-0.02
-0.015
-0.01
-0.005
0
0.005
0.01
VIN [V]
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Figure 43. INL -40°C
50
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
-10
0
-10
-20
-20
-30
-30
-40
-40
-0.015
-0.01
-0.005
-50
-0.02
ec
N o
ew m
m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
-50
-0.02
INL Gain 100 @ 125°C
fo
r
INL Gain 100 @ 85°C
40
INL [LSB]
INL [LSB]
50
Figure 44. INL 25°C
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
-0.015
-0.01
-0.005
VIN [V]
Figure 45. INL 85°C
11.3.1.4 Gain 1000
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
VIN [V]
Figure 46. INL 125°C
VBATT=5V; VREF=VBATT; ADC, PGA3, PGA2, PGA1 enabled; GD1=10, GD2=10, GD3=10; OSR=1024; NELCONV=8; fs=250KHz;
Resolution=16bits.
200
200
INL Gain 1000 @ 25°C
INL Gain 1000 @ -40°C
150
150
100
100
50
INL [LSB]
INL [LSB]
50
0
0
-50
-50
-100
R
-100
-150
-200
-0.002
-0.001
-0.0005
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
-200
-0.002
0.002
-0.0015
-0.001
ot
-0.0015
-150
-0.0005
50
INL [LSB]
INL [LSB]
50
0
-50
-100
-100
-150
-150
-0.0005
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
VIN [V]
February 2011
-200
-0.002
-0.0015
-0.001
-0.0005
0
0.0005
0.0015
0.002
VIN [V]
Figure 49. INL 85°C
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
0.001
0
-50
-0.001
0.002
INL Gain 1000 @ 125°C
100
-0.0015
0.0015
150
100
-200
-0.002
0.001
200
INL Gain 1000 @ 85°C
150
0.0005
Figure 48. INL 25°C
N
Figure 47. INL -40°C
200
0
VIN [V]
VIN [V]
Figure 50. INL 125°C
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11.3.2 Differential Non-Linearity
ec
N o
ew m
m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
fo
r
The differential non-linearity is generated by the ADC. The PGA does not add differential non-linearity. Figure 51 shows
the differential non-linearity.
Figure 51. Differential Non-Linearity of the ADC Converter
11.4 Noise
R
Ideally, a constant input voltage VIN should result in a constant output code. However, because of circuit noise, the
output code may vary for a fixed input voltage. Thus, a statistical analysis on the output code of 1200 conversions for a
constant input voltage was performed to derive the equivalent noise levels of PGA1, PGA2, and PGA3.
N
ot
The extracted RMS output noise of PGA1, 2, and 3 are given in Table 37, page 58: standard output deviation and
output rms noise voltage.
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VN1
±Vin
S
VREFN,WB
VBATT
VSS
VREF
VSS
PGA1
VN2
VN3
±Vin
±Vin
±Vin
±Voff PGA2
±Voff PGA3
±Vref
VREF,ADC
gains:
offsets:
VIN,ADC
GD1
ADC
fo
r
Reference
Inputs
VIN
ec
N o
ew m
m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
Analog
Inputs
VSS
VREF
AC2
AC3
AC4
AC5
N.C.
N.C.
DATASHEET
GD2
GDOFF2
GD3
GDOFF3
Figure 52. Simple Noise Model for PGAs and ADC
VN1, VN2, and VN3 are the output RMS noise figures of Table 37, GD1, GD2, and GD3 are the PGA gains of stages 1 to 3
respectively. VREFN,WB is the wide band noise on the reference voltage.
The simple noise model of Figure 52 is used to estimate the equivalent input referred RMS noise VN,IN of the acquisition
chain in the model of Figure 54, page 58. This is given by the relationship:
2
R
2
⎞ ⎛ VREFN ,WB (GD2 ⋅ GDOFF 2 + GDOFF 3 ) ⎞ ⎛ 1 VREFN ,WB ⎞
⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜
⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜ ⋅
⎟⎟
GD
GD
2
TOT
TOT ⎠
⎠ ⎝
⎠ ⎝
V 2 rms
(OSR ⋅ N ELCONV )
2
2
2
[
]
Equation 28
N
ot
VN , IN
2
⎛ VN 1 ⎞ ⎛ VN 2
⎞ ⎛ VN 3
⎜⎜
⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜
⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜
⋅
GD
GD
GD
⎝
1 ⎠
1
2 ⎠
⎝ GDTOT
=⎝
On the numerator of Equation 28:
1 the first parenthesis is the PGA1 gain amplifier contribution to noise
2 the second parenthesis is the PGA2 gain amplifier contribution to noise
3 the third parenthesis is the PGA3 gain amplifier contribution to noise
4 the fourth parenthesis is PGA2 and PGA3 offset amplifiers contributions to noise
5 the last parenthesis is the contribution of the noise on the references of the ADC
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As shown in Equation 28, noise can be reduced by increasing OSR and NELCONV (increases the ADC averaging effect,
but reduces noise).
Table 37. PGA Noise Measurement (n = 16bits, OSR = 512, NELCONV = 2, VREF = 5V)
Parameter
Output RMS noise [uV]
PGA1
PGA2
PGA3
VN1 = 205
VN2 = 340
VN3 = 365
fo
r
Figure 53 shows the distribution for the ADC alone (PGA1, 2, and 3 bypassed). Quantization noise is dominant in this
case, and, thus, the ADC thermal noise is below 16 bits.
Occurences
[% of total samples]
ec
N o
ew m
m
D e
es n
ig de
ns d
80
60
40
20
0
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
Output Code Deviation From Mean Value [LSB]
Figure 53. ADC Noise (PGA1, 2 & 3 Bypassed, OSR = 512, NELCONV = 2)
Reference
Inputs
R
VIN
ot
VN,IN
N
Analog
Inputs
VSS
VREF
AC2
AC3
AC4
AC5
N.C.
N.C.
±Vin
S
PGA1
VIN,ADC
±Vin
±Vin
±Vin
±Voff PGA2
±Voff PGA3
±Vref
ADC
VREF,ADC
VBATT
VSS
VREF
VSS
Figure 54. Total Input Referred Noise
As an example, consider the system where: GD2 = 10 (GD1 = 1; PGA3 bypassed), OSR = 512, NELCONV = 2, VREF = 5 V. In
this case, the noise contribution VN1 of PGA1 is dominant over that of PGA2. Using Equation 28, page 57, we get: VN,IN
= 6.4 μV (RMS) at the input of the acquisition chain, or, equivalently, 0.85 LSB at the output of the ADC. Considering 0.2
V (RMS) maximum signal amplitude, the signal-to-noise ratio is 90dB.
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DATASHEET
11.5 Gain Error and Offset Error
Gain error is defined as the amount of deviation between the ideal transfer function (theoretical Equation 19, page
30) and the measured transfer function (with the offset error removed).
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The actual gain of the different stages can vary depending on the fabrication tolerances of the different elements.
Although these tolerances are specified to a maximum of ±3%, they will be most of the time around ±0.5%. Moreover,
the tolerances between the different stages are not correlated and the probability to get the maximal error in the same
direction in all stages is very low. Finally, these gain errors can be calibrated by the software at the same time with the
gain errors of the sensor for instance.
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Figure 55 shows gain error drift vs. temperature for different PGA gains. The curves are expressed in% of Full-Scale
Range (FSR) normalized to 25°C.
Offset error is defined as the output code error for a zero volt input (ideally, output code = 0). The offset of the ADC and
the PGA1 stage are completely suppressed if NELCONV > 1.
The measured offset drift vs. temperature curves for different PGA gains are depicted in Figure 56. The output offset
error, expressed in LSB for 16-bit setting, is normalized to 25°C. Notice that if the ADC is used alone, the output offset
error is below +/-1 LSB and has no drift.
0.0
-0.1
-0.2
1
5
20
100
R
Gain Error [% of FSR]
0.1
-0.3
ot
-0.4
-50
-25
0
25
Output Offset Er ror [LSB]
NORMALIZED TO 25°C
0.2
50
75
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-25
0
25
50
75
100
Temperature [°C]
N
Figure 55. Gain Error vs. Temperature for Different Gains
February 2011
1
5
20
100
80
-50
100
Temperature [°C]
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
NORMALIZED TO 25°C
100
Page 59
Figure 56. Offset Error vs. Temperature for Different Gains
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
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11.6 Power Consumption
As mentioned in section 6.4, page 16 the Charge Pump must be enabled if VBATT is below 3V. Figure 57 plots the
variation of current consumption with supply voltage VBATT, as well as the distribution between the 3 PGA stages and
the ADC (see Table 38, page 61). In this case the Charge Pump is forced ON for VBATT < 4.2V and forced OFF for VBATT >
4.2V.
1'100
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ADC
1'000
ADC+PGA1
ADC+PGA12
900
ADC+PGA123
IDD[uA]
800
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700
600
500
400
300
200
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VBATT [V]
Figure 57. Current Consumption vs. Supply Voltage and PGAs
As shown in Figure 58, if lower sampling frequency is used, the current consumption can be lowered by reducing the
bias currents of the PGAs and the ADC with registers IbAmpPga and IbAmpAdc. (In Figure 58, IbAmpPga/Adc = '11', '10',
'00' for fs = 500, 250, 62.5 kHz respectively. In this case the Charge Pump is forced ON for VBATT < 4.2V and forced OFF
for VBATT > 4.2V.
R
1'100
1'000
IDD [uA]
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900
62.5Khz, Ibias = 0.25
125Khz, Ibias = 0.25
250Khz, Ibias = 0.5
500Khz, Ibias = 1
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VBATT [V]
Figure 58. Current Consumption vs. Temperature and ADC Sampling Frequency
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
Current consumption vs. temperature is depicted in Figure 59, showing the increase between -40 and +125°C.
1300
Vbatt = 2.4v
1200
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Vbatt = 3.5v
Vbatt = 5.5v
1000
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IDD [uA]
1100
900
800
700
600
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Temperature [°C]
Figure 59. Current Consumption vs. Temperature and Supply Voltage
Table 38. Typical Current Distribution in Acquisition Chain (n = 16 bits, fs = 250kHz)
Supply
VBATT = 3.5V
PGA2
PGA3
Total
207
70
51
78
406
282
82
61
91
516
338
103
67
98
606
Unit
uA
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VBATT = 5.5V
PGA1
R
VBATT = 2.4V
ADC
Revision 1.0
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February 2011
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
FAMILY OVERVIEW
This chapter gives an overview of similar devices based on the ZoomingADC but with different features or packages.
Each part is described in it’s own datasheet.
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12 Comparison Table
Table 39. Family Comparison Table
Part number
SX8724C
SX8725C
SX8723S
SX8724S
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SX8723C
SX8725S
Package
MLPD-W-12 4x4
MLPQ-16 4x4
MLPD-W-12 4x4
MLPQ-16 4x4
MLPQ-16 4x4
MLPQ-16 4x4
Protocol
I2C
I2C
I2C
SPI
SPI
SPI
GPIO
D0
I2C addr, Digital
IO or Vref OUT
I2C addr, Digital
IO or Vref OUT
I2C add, Digital IO Digital IO or Vref
or Vref OUT
OUT
Digital IO or Vref
OUT
Digital IO or Vref
OUT
D1
I2C addr, Digital
IO or Vref IN
I2C addr, Digital
IO or Vref IN
I2C addr, Digital
IO or Vref IN
Digital IO or Vref
OUT.
Digital IO or Vref
IN
Digital IO or Vref
IN
D2
N.A.
Digital IO
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
D3
N.A.
Digital IO
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
3
1
2
3
1
2
N
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Differential input
channels
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
13 Comparison by package pinout
11 AC2
AC3
VBATT
3
10 VPUMP
N.C.
VSS
4
READY
5
D1
6
SX8723C
(Top view)
N.C.
15
14
13
1
2
SX8723S
(Top view)
3
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9 SCL
MOSI
2
16
4
7 D0
SDA
AC2
VPUMP
SCLK
MOSI
13
16
15
14
13
11 D2
AC6
2
10 D3
AC7
3
AC4
4
SX8724C
(Top view)
9
D1
8
5
VBATT
VSS
READY
N
N.C.
1
12 AC3
N.C.
2
11 AC2
AC3
1
VBATT
3
10 VPUMP
N.C.
2
VSS
4
SX8725C
(Top view)
READY 5
D1 6
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
9 SCL
N.C.
3
8 SDA
N.C.
4
7 D0
February 2011
Page 63
6
7
MISO/READY
10
SS
9
D1
12
D0
11
MISO/READY
10
SS
9
D1
12
D0
11
MISO/READY
10
SS
9
D1
8
MOSI
7
AC5
6
ot
AC5
5
16
15
14
13
SX8725S
(Top view)
5
6
7
8
READY
4
SCLK
AC4
SX8724S
(Top view)
VSS
3
R
AC7
11
READY
1
VSS
AC3
VBATT
12 D0
VPUMP
2
14
VBATT
AC6
15
AC2
1
D0
8
N.C.
AC3
7
SCL
16
6
VPUMP
AC2
AC5
5
VBATT
AC4
8 SDA
12
READY
AC5
SCLK
12 AC3
VSS
1
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AC4
VPUMP
SPI versions
AC2
I2C versions
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ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
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MECHANICAL
14 PCB Layout Considerations
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PCB layout considerations to be taken when using the SX8723S are relatively simple to get the highest performances
out of the ZoomingADC. The most important to achieve good performances out the ZoomingADC is to have a good
voltage reference. The SX8723S has already an internal reference that is good enough to get the best performances
with a minimal amount of external components, but, in case an external reference is needed this one must be as clean
as possible in order to get the desired performance. Separating the digital from the analog lines will be also a good
choice to reduce the noise induced by the digital lines. It is also advised to have separated ground planes for digital
and analog signals with the shortest return path, as well as making the power supply lines as wider as possible and to
have good decoupling capacitors.
15 How to Evaluate
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For evaluation purposes SX8724SEVK evaluation kit can be ordered. This kit connects to any PC using a USB port. A
software gives the user the ability to control the registers as well as getting the raw data from the ZoomingADC and
displaying it on the "Graphical User Interface". For more information please look at SEMTECH web site (http://
www.semtech.com/analog-controllers-sensors-converters/).
Revision 1.0
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
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16 Package Outline Drawing: MLPQ-W16-4x4-EP1
D
DIMENSIONS
MILLIMETERS
DIM
MIN NOM MAX
B
PIN 1
INDICATOR
(LASER MARK)
0.70
0.80
0.00
0.05
(0.20)
0.25 0.30 0.35
3.90 4.00 4.10
2.55 2.70 2.80
3.90 4.00 4.10
2.55 2.70 2.80
0.65 BSC
0.30 0.40 0.50
16
0.08
0.10
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E
A2
A
aaa C
A
A1
A2
b
D
D1
E
E1
e
L
N
aaa
bbb
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A
SEATING
PLANE
C
A1
D1
LxN
e/2
E/2
2
1
N
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R
E1
N
e
bxN
D/2
bbb
C A B
NOTES:
1.
CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS (ANGLES IN DEGREES).
2.
COPLANARITY APPLIES TO THE EXPOSED PAD AS WELL AS THE TERMINALS.
Figure 60. Package Outline Drawing
Revision 1.0
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
K
DIM
G
H
Z
Y
X
DIMENSIONS
INCHES
MILLIMETERS
C
G
H
K
P
X
Y
Z
(.156)
.122
.106
.106
.026
.016
.033
.189
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(C)
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17 Land Pattern Drawing: MLPQ-W16-4x4-EP1
(3.95)
3.10
2.70
2.70
0.65
0.40
0.85
4.80
P
NOTES:
1. CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS (ANGLES IN DEGREES).
2. THIS LAND PATTERN IS FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES ONLY.
CONSULT YOUR MANUFACTURING GROUP TO ENSURE YOUR
COMPANY'S MANUFACTURING GUIDELINES ARE MET.
3. THERMAL VIAS IN THE LAND PATTERN OF THE EXPOSED PAD
SHALL BE CONNECTED TO A SYSTEM GROUND PLANE.
FAILURE TO DO SO MAY COMPROMISE THE THERMAL AND/OR
FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE OF THE DEVICE.
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4. SQUARE PACKAGE - DIMENSIONS APPLY IN BOTH " X " AND " Y " DIRECTIONS.
Figure 61. Land Pattern Drawing
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© Semtech
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING
DATASHEET
18 Tape and Reel Specification
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MLP/QFN (0.70mm - 1.00mm package thickness)
Single Sprocket holes
Tolerances for Ao & Bo are +/- 0.20mm
Tolerances for Ko is +/- 0.10mm
Tolerance for Pocket Pitch is +/- 0.10mm
Tolerance for Tape width is +/-0.30mm
Trailer and Leader Length are minimum required length
Package Orientation and Feed Direction
MLP (rectangular)
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MLP (square)
Direction of Feed
Direction of Feed
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Figure 62. Direction of Feed
Figure 63. User direction of feed
Table 40. Tape and reel specifications
Pkg size
4x4
Revision 1.0
© Semtech
carrier tape (mm)
Tape
Width
(W)
12
Reel
Pocket
Pitch (P)
Ao
Bo
Ko
Reel Size
(in)
8
4.35
4.35
1.10
7/13
February 2011
Page 67
Reel
Width
(mm)
12.4
Trailer
Length (mm)
400
Leader
Length
(mm)
400
QTY per
Reel
1000/3000
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SX8723S
ZoomingADC for sensing data acquisition
DATASHEET
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© Semtech 2010
All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written consent of the copyright
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Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and trademarks are the property of their respective
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R
Contact information
ot
Semtech Corporation Advanced Communications & Sensing Products
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N
E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]
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