Analysis of Pumped Refrigerant Economizers Supporting The California Energy Commission Approval of the Liebert DSE; (R10/15); (SL-24685)

Analysis of Pumped Refrigerant Economizers Supporting The California Energy
Commission Approval of the Liebert® DSETM System for Use in California Data Centers
Table of Contents
3
Executive Summary
4
Energy and Water Savings
- Technology Comparison for Annual TDV Compliance Value
- Liebert® DSETM Pumped Refrigerant Economizer vs. Water and Airside Economizer Annual TDV Compliance Values
- Water and Airside Economizer Annual Water Consumption
5
How the Liebert DSE System Works
5
California Building Codes
6
Compliance Modeling Method
6
Project Approval Process
6Summary
7
Appendix A - Exceptional Design Compliance Caluclations for all 16 Climate Zones
11 Appendix B
11 Appendix C
2 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Executive Summary
The California Energy Commission has approved the Liebert® EconoPhaseTM Pumped Refrigerant Economizer used by the Liebert
DSETM thermal management system for use in California data centers under Title 24, as an alternative prescriptive method. The
Liebert DSE system meets or exceeds the full intent of the CEC Title 24 Energy Code for Computer Rooms while additionally not
requiring water for economization.
The California Energy Code (Title 24) now requires all data centers to meet the efficiency requirement of either one of three
prescriptive economization methods (outside air economization, water economization or pumped refrigerant economization) or to
demonstrate through the Exceptional Design Compliance method the proposed solution meets or exceeds the energy efficiency of the
prescriptive methods. This Technical Note describes the data, calculations and modeling submitted to the CEC that led to approval for
pumped refrigeration economization as a prescriptive option for data center cooling.
3 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Energy and Water Savings
calculation with additional energy required when limiting the low
end dew point of the outside air (at 41.9o F).
The Liebert® DSETM data center cooling system with pumped
refrigerant economization system is a break-through, disruptive
technology that solves many building design issues for thermal
management needs, and meets or exceeds the efficiency of
most water and air economization methods. Specifically, it
meets the requirement of full economization at 40o F outdoor
temperatures, and in many cases full economization is achieved
in most data centers at outdoor temperatures of 65o F or more.
The results are summarized below in Charts 1 and 2, with details
provided in Appendix A. The Liebert DSE system with EconoPhase
pumped refrigerant economizer was shown to be more efficient
than water economizers in every Climate Zone, except for
zones 10 and 15, as well as more efficient in certain zones when
compared to air economizers.
In terms of water consumption, the Liebert DSE system uses no
water, offering an advantage over the other two economizer
methods. The Liebert DSE system eliminates the need for water in
the heat rejection process, resulting in substantial annual savings,
as seen in Appendix A. A cooling system with a water economizer
uses an average of 4.3 million gallons of water per year for a data
center with an IT load of 1.2 MW. Additionally, an economizer,
for the same data center, using outside air consumes on average
2.7 million gallons (with no lower dew point control) or 3.2
million gallons (with lower dew point control) of water per year
during the chiller operation. Other advantages of not utilizing
water include a significant reduction in maintenance, chemical
treatment, and risk of exposure to harmful water borne bacteria.
The CEC modeling compared a water economizer system and air
economization system to the Liebert DSE pumped refrigerant
economizer system for all sixteen (16) climate zones in California.
The modeling was completed by a third party engineering firm
with PE licensure and LEED – AP qualification. The model used
the Performance Compliance Approach – as specified in Section
140.1 of the Energy Code – with calculation methodology for
a TDV (Time Dependent Valuation), a measure of energy usage
employed by the CEC. The air economization system in the CEC
program does not limit the lower dew point of the entering
outside air, and thus the comparison includes an evaluation
using the standard CEC program without dew point control and a
Technology Comparison for Annual TDV Compliance Value
3,500
Water Economizer
TDV Value
3,000
Air Economizer without
dew point control
Air Economizer
with dew point control
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Liebert DSE system
with Pumped
Refrigerant Economizer
Climate Zone
Chart 1
Liebert DSE System Pumped Refrigerant Economizer vs. Water and
Airside Economizers Annual TDV Compliance Value
600
Water Economizer
TDV Value
400
Air Economizer without
dew point control
Air Economizer with
dew point control
200
0
-200
-400
-600
-800
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Climate Zone
Chart 2
4 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
How the Liebert® DSETM System Works
Additionally, the Liebert DSE system uses Liebert iCOMTM thermal
controls, which allow the unit to go into economization mode
automatically when conditions meet the criteria to support
the load with economization. This allows 100% of the available
economization hours in the year to be utilized. Moreover, the
economization mode is not based on a fixed outdoor temperature
or chilled water temperature, and the unit is able to operate in
economizer mode at much higher outdoor temperatures when the
load varies (lower) or the return air conditions increases.
The Liebert DSE thermal management system is the world’s most
efficient DX system. It consists of an indoor evaporator (CRACstyle unit), air cooled condenser and a refrigerant pump package,
as shown in Diagram 1. The system operates like a standard air
cooled Direct Expansion (DX) system, but when the criteria for
economization are met, the compressors turn off and a refrigerant
pump is turned on to move the refrigerant through the system and
reject the heat of the data center. The refrigerant pump power is
typically less than 5% of the energy of the compressor, but yields
the same capacity.
The system control will adjust the point of partial and full
economization, based on the IT load and the return air
temperatures , as seen in Chart 3 for operations in California
Climate Zone 3 (San Francisco). This means economization may
occur at higher ambient conditions, leading to a higher number of
economization hours, compared to a chilled water system. A chiller
plant typically has a fixed chilled water temperature that dictates
the ambient tempertaure where economization occurs.
California Building Codes
The California 2013 Building Energy Efficiency Standards
(Title 24), effective July 1, 2014, for Non Residential buildings
(Subchapter 5) in Section 140.0(c) require either the
performance compliance approach (energy budgets) in Section
140.1 or the prescriptive compliance approach in Section 140.2
for the Climate Zone in which the building will be located. The
prescriptive requirement for Computer Rooms is further defined
in Section 140.9, where either integrated air economizers
or integrated water economizers are capable of providing
100 percent of the expected system cooling load. For water
economizers, this must be met with outside air temperatures of
40°F dry-bulb/35°F wet-bulb conditions and below.
Additionally, containment is required for rooms with design loads
exceeding 175 kW per room. For the data center, this typically
means you can drive return air temperatures to the cooling system
higher than temperatures found in most office environments. It is
not uncommon today to see this value exceed 95°F.
Diagram 1: Liebert DSE System Components
Liebert DSE System-DA125 Economizer Hours
3000
69% - Full EconoPhase
2500
25% - Partial EconoPhase
Hours
2000
6% - Compressor
1500
Return Air Temperature: 90oF
1000
Percent Unit Load: 70%
San Francisco, CA
500
0
Below
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
Outdoor Ambient Temperature (F)A
Chart 3
5 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Above
95
Compliance Modeling Method
Compliance Modeling requirement in section 140.1 is based on
the 2013 Time Dependent Valuation (TDV), and for the Liebert®
DSETM system was conducted by AlaJor Engineering, Inc. Appendix
A shows the results from the preliminary baseline and proposed
models simulated for a project in all California Climate Zones. The
models use a 1,200kW data center with standard redundancy
assumptions (N+2) and conservative return air temperatures (80°F)
with containment.
The baseline water economizer model was created utilizing the
CEC’s CBECC-Com (Build 717) and extracting the baseline IDF
(Input Data File) model that was created. The extracted baseline
IDF model was modified to remove the air economizer and added
the water economizer. The model was simulated with EnergyPlus
and the results extracted to the Exceptional Design Compliance - End
Use Summary Comparison spreadsheet. The proposed Liebert DSE
model was created utilizing the CEC’s CBECC-Com (Build 717) and
extracting the proposed IDF model that was created. The extracted
proposed IDF model was modified and added custom curves for
the Liebert DSE equipment, developed from a regression analysis
from data provided for the operation for the Liebert EconoPhaseTM
pumped refrigerant system. The model was simulated and the
results extracted to the Exceptional Design Compliance - End Use
Summary Comparison spreadsheet.
For example, in Climate Zone 3 (San Francisco), the Liebert DSE
system was shown to reduce TDV value by 388.1 compared to a
water economizer and increase the TDV value by 140.3 compared
to an airside economizer. It eliminated 4.063 million gallons of
water usage compared to a water economizer and 1.943 million
gallons compared to an airside economizer.
Approval Process for Projects with the
Liebert DSE System
The CEC approved the inclusion of the Liebert EconoPhase
pumped refrigerant economizer as a prescriptive option on
September 9, 2015, as shown in the CEC’s Blueprint newsletter,
Issue 111 (see Appendix B).
The Liebert EconoPhase economizer is not yet accounted for in
the CEC’s performance software, so engineers and others wanting
to use the Liebert DSE with Econophase pumped refrigerant
economizer in California should follow this guideline:
If the project is complying using the performance approach,
then the cooling system serving the computer room should be
specified as a basic, efficient chilled water plant, with an integrated
water economizer. The compliance documents can be used to
show local government jurisdictions that the efficiency of the
Liebert DSE is equivalent or better than the chilled water system
and acceptable as a prescriptive alternative.
Summary
The use of refrigerant economizers provide significant benefits in
California data centers. There is on average a 5% to 6% reduction
in the TDV energy value, but more significantly it eliminates
the water requirement for these data centers. The inclusion
of a refrigerant economizer, such as the Liebert DSE system
with Liebert EconoPhase pumped refrigerant economizer,
in the prescriptive compliance method makes the adaption
and implementation of this technology on par with water
economization evaluations.
6 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Appendix A - Exceptional Design Compliance Calculations for all 16 Climate Zones
Baseline Airside
Economizer
(Current Model)
Baseline Waterside
Economizer
Baseline Airside
Economizer
(Modified DP control)
Liebert®
DSETM System
Proposed
Design Custom Curves
Liebert DSE System Comparison
(positive - favorable)
Climate Zone 1
End Use
TDV Btuh /ft 2
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
Space
Cooling
1,333.2
-
444.6
-
Fans
Climate Zone 2
TDV Margin vs.
Water Econ.
TDV Margin
vs. Air Econ.
(modified)
444.6
1,643.2
(310.1)
(1,198.7)
732.1
1,186.3
-
1,090.6
-
1,090.6
358.6
827.7
56.8
-
63.3
-
63.3
56.8
-
6.5
Pumps
242.8
-
77.6
-
77.6
-
242.8
77.6
Heat
Rejection
43.4
-
23.4
-
23.4
-
43.4
23.4
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
529.3
-
-
529.3
Compliance
Total
2,862.4
-
1,699.4
-
2,228.7
2,058.6
803.8
170.2
Interior
Equipment
9,802.2
-
9,802.2
-
9,802.2
9,802.2
-
-
12,664.6
3,875,000
11,501.6
940,069
12,030.9
11,860.8
803.8
170.2
Space
Cooling
1,415.3
-
813.8
-
813.8
2,006.5
(310.1)
(1,198.7)
Fans
1,244,185
1,114.1
-
1,110.6
-
1,110.6
539.3
827.7
732.1
Lighting
56.2
-
63.3
-
63.3
56.2
(591.2)
1,192.6)
Pumps
230.0
-
107.4
-
107.4
-
574.8
571.3
Heat
Rejection
72.3
-
59.2
-
59.2
-
-
7.0
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
448.6
-
230.0
107.4
Compliance
Total
2,887.9
-
2,602.9
2,602.0
72.3
59.2
Interior
Equipment
9,737.3
-
9,737.3
-
9,737.3
12,625.2
4,260,000
11,891.6
2,108,000
12,340.2
Space
Cooling
1,313.5
-
638.8
-
Fans
Total
Climate Zone 3
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
Lighting
Total
2,154.3
-
9,737.3
-
448.6
12,339.3
285.9
0.9
638.8
2,119.3
(805.8)
(1,480.5)
874.7
2,560,241
1,110.8
-
1,089.6
-
1,089.6
214.9
895.9
Lighting
63.5
-
63.5
-
63.5
63.5
-
-
Pumps
239.3
-
120.6
-
120.6
-
239.3
120.6
Heat
Rejection
58.6
-
36.4
-
36.4
-
58.6
36.4
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
308.4
-
-
308.4
Compliance
Total
2,785.7
-
2,257.3
2,397.7
388.1
(140.3)
Interior
Equipment
1,948.9
-
9,611.6
-
9,611.6
-
9,611.6
12,397.4
4,063,160
11,560.6
1,670,000
11,869.0
Space
Cooling
1,390.5
-
870.9
-
Fans
1,155.2
-
1,221.4
-
Lighting
55.6
-
63.3
-
Pumps
229.0
-
118.0
Heat
Rejection
75.8
-
68.3
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
Compliance
Total
2,906.1
-
2,341.9
Interior
Equipment
9,592.8
-
12,498.9
4,378,000
Total
Climate Zone 4
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
Total
9,611.6
-
-
12,009.3
388.1
(140.3)
870.9
2,014.3
(623.7)
(1,143.3)
1,221.4
542.2
613.0
679.2
63.3
55.6
-
7.7
-
118.0
-
229.0
118.0
-
68.3
-
75.8
68.3
332.1
-
-
332.1
-
2,674.0
2,612.1
294.0
62.0
9,592.8
-
9,592.8
9,592.8
-
-
11,934.8
2,449,000
12,266.9
12,204.9
294.0
62.0
1,943,161
2,805,930
7 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Appendix A (cont.)- Exceptional Design Compliance Calculations for all 16 Climate Zones
Baseline Airside
Economizer
(Current Model)
Baseline Waterside
Economizer
Baseline Airside
Economizer
(Modified DP control)
Liebert®
DSETM System
Proposed
Design Custom Curves
Liebert DSE System Comparison
(positive - favorable)
Climate Zone 5
End Use
TDV Btuh /ft 2
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
Space
Cooling
1,345.3
Fans
1,196.8
-
680.2
-
-
1,124.1
-
Lighting
56.2
-
63.8
-
Pumps
229.6
-
105.2
Heat
Rejection
44.0
Climate Zone 6
TDV Margin
vs. Air Econ.
(modified)
680.2
1,827.2
(481.9)
(1,147.0)
1,124.1
542.5
654.3
581.6
63.8
56.2
-
7.7
-
105.2
-
229.6
105.2
-
44.0
-
55.0
44.0
385.5
-
-
385.5
55.0
-
-
-
Compliance
Total
2,882.8
-
2,017.3
-
2,402.8
2,425.8
457.0
(23.0)
Interior
Equipment
9,638.4
-
9,638.4
-
9,638.4
9,638.4
-
-
12,521.2
4,003,000
12,041.2
1,785,000
12,041.2
12,064.2
457.0
(23.0)
Space
Cooling
1,369.5
-
1,020.1
-
1,020.1
1,996.1
(626.6)
(976.0)
Fans
499.2
2,137,256
1,076.5
-
1,040.8
-
1,040.8
541.6
534.9
Lighting
57.1
-
63.5
-
63.5
57.1
-
6.4
Pumps
236.6
-
155.6
-
155.6
-
236.6
155.6
Heat
Rejection
88.0
-
88.0
-
89.1
88.0
166.9
-
-
166.9
89.1
-
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
Compliance
Total
2,828.8
-
2,368.0
-
2,534.9
2,594.8
234.0
(59.9)
Interior
Equipment
9,565.6
-
9,565.6
-
9,565.6
9,565.6
(0.0)
(0.0)
12,394.3
4,258,000
12,100.5
2,932,000
12,100.5
12,160.4
233.9
(59.9)
Space
Cooling
1,409.2
-
1,093.8
-
1,093.8
2,063.8
(654.6)
(970.1)
Fans
617.4
Total
Climate Zone 7
TDV Margin vs.
Water Econ.
Add for Low
DP Control
Total
3,144,342
1,112.8
-
1,166.7
-
1,166.7
549.3
563.5
Lighting
57.4
-
64.0
-
64.0
57.4
-
6.6
Pumps
238.6
-
161.6
-
161.6
-
238.6
161.6
Heat
Rejection
87.6
-
88.8
-
88.8
-
87.6
88.8
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
144.3
-
-
144.3
Compliance
Total
2,905.6
-
2,719.2
2,670.5
235.0
48.6
Interior
Equipment
Climate Zone 8
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
2,574.9
-
9,776.8
-
9,776.8
-
9,776.8
Total
12,682.3
4,280,000
12,495.9
3,085,000
12,495.9
Space
Cooling
1,408.8
-
1,062.6
-
Fans
1,092.1
-
1,146.4
-
Lighting
57.1
-
63.2
Pumps
228.4
-
Heat
Rejection
86.1
-
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
Compliance
Total
2,872.6
-
2,507.0
Interior
Equipment
9,655.5
-
12,528.1
4,312,000
Total
9,776.7
0.0
0.0
12,447.3
235.1
48.7
1,062.6
2,079.7
(670.9)
(1,017.1)
1,146.4
537.5
554.6
608.9
-
63.2
57.1
-
6.1
149.2
-
149.2
-
228.4
149.2
85.6
-
85.6
-
86.1
85.6
153.7
-
-
153.7
-
2,660.7
2,674.3
198.3
(13.6)
9,655.5
-
9,655.5
9,655.5
-
-
12,316.2
3,019,000
12,316.2
12,329.8
198.3
(13.6)
3,262,297
3,208,878
8 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Appendix A (cont.) - Exceptional Design Compliance Calculations for all 16 Climate Zones
Baseline Airside
Economizer
(Current Model)
Baseline Waterside
Economizer
Baseline Airside
Economizer
(Modified DP control)
Liebert®
DSETM System
Proposed
Design Custom Curves
Liebert DSE System Comparison
(positive - favorable)
Climate Zone 9
End Use
TDV Btuh /ft 2
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
Space
Cooling
1,411.4
-
1,076.5
-
Fans
1,067.7
-
1,044.6
-
Lighting
56.3
-
63.1
Pumps
230.0
-
Heat
Rejection
Climate Zone 10
TDV Margin vs.
Water Econ.
TDV Margin
vs. Air Econ.
(modified)
1,076.5
2,074.7
(663.3)
(998.1)
1,044.6
542.6
525.1
502.0
-
63.1
56.3
-
6.8
149.2
-
149.2
-
230.0
149.2
91.9
-
91.9
-
94.9
91.9
219.4
-
-
219.4
94.9
-
-
-
Compliance
Total
2,860.2
-
2,425.3
-
2,644.7
2,673.5
186.7
(28.8)
Interior
Equipment
9,516.6
-
9,516.6
-
9,516.6
9,516.6
-
-
12,376.8
4,414,000
12,161.3
3,083,000
12,161.3
12,190.1
186.7
(28.8)
Space
Cooling
1,359.2
-
1,055.0
-
1,055.0
2,231.7
(872.5)
(1,176.7)
Fans
540.5
3,369,349
1,158.3
-
1,087.1
-
1,087.1
546.6
611.7
Lighting
55.6
-
63.3
-
63.3
55.6
-
7.7
Pumps
195.8
-
136.8
-
136.8
-
195.8
136.8
Heat
Rejection
63.2
-
82.7
-
82.7
-
63.2
82.7
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
338.0
-
-
338.0
Compliance
Total
2,832.1
-
2,424.9
-
2,762.9
2,834.0
(1.8)
(71.1)
Interior
Equipment
9,598.6
-
9,598.6
-
9,598.6
9,598.6
-
-
12,430.7
3,664,000
12,361.4
3,176,000
12,361.4
12,432.5
(1.8)
(71.1)
Space
Cooling
1,526.7
-
1,004.3
-
1,004.3
2,332.6
(806.0)
(1,328.3)
Fans
597.9
Total
Climate Zone 11
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
Add for Low
DP Control
Total
3,630,568
1,308.7
-
1,139.2
-
1,139.2
541.3
767.4
Lighting
56.5
-
62.8
-
62.8
56.5
-
6.3
Pumps
218.7
-
120.6
-
120.6
-
218.7
120.6
Heat
Rejection
79.2
-
76.1
-
76.1
-
79.2
76.1
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
648.7
-
-
648.7
Compliance
Total
3,189.7
-
3,051.8
2,930.4
259.3
121.4
Interior
Equipment
Climate Zone 12
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
2,403.1
-
9,884.7
-
9,884.7
-
9,884.7
Total
13,074.4
4,755,000
12,936.5
3,062,000
12,936.5
Space
Cooling
1,454.8
-
923.1
-
Fans
1,163.7
-
1,106.0
-
Lighting
56.2
-
62.8
-
Pumps
230.1
-
116.1
Heat
Rejection
78.7
-
71.8
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
Compliance
Total
2,983.5
-
2,279.7
Interior
Equipment
9,785.6
-
12,769.2
4,541,000
Total
9,884.7
-
-
12,815.1
259.3
121.4
923.1
2,170.3
(715.6)
(1,247.2)
1,106.0
537.8
625.9
568.2
62.8
56.2
-
6.5
-
116.1
-
230.1
116.1
-
71.8
-
78.7
71.8
430.0
-
-
430.0
-
2,709.7
2,764.4
219.2
(54.6)
9,785.6
-
9,785.6
9,785.6
-
-
12,495.4
2,587,000
12,495.4
12,550.0
219.2
(54.6)
3,910,750
3,088,774
9 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Appendix A (cont.) - Exceptional Design Compliance Calculations for all 16 Climate Zones
Baseline Waterside
Economizer
Baseline Airside
Economizer
(Current Model)
Baseline Airside
Economizer
(Modified DP control)
Liebert®
DSETM System
Proposed
Design Custom Curves
Liebert DSE System Comparison
(positive - favorable)
Climate Zone 14
Climate Zone 13
End Use
TDV Btuh /ft 2
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
Space
Cooling
1,464.9
-
1,029.7
-
Fans
1,122.1
-
1,120.6
-
Lighting
56.3
-
63.1
Pumps
229.5
-
Heat
Rejection
Climate Zone 15
TDV kBtuh/ft 2
TDV Margin vs.
Water Econ.
TDV Margin
vs. Air Econ.
(modified)
1,029.7
2,299.9
(835.0)
(1,270.3)
1,120.6
539.8
582.2
580.8
-
63.1
56.3
-
6.8
126.3
-
126.3
-
229.5
126.3
81.5
-
81.5
-
83.7
81.5
223.7
-
-
223.7
83.7
-
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
Compliance
Total
2,956.5
-
2,421.1
-
2,644.8
2,896.0
60.4
(251.2)
Interior
Equipment
9,781.4
-
9,781.4
-
9,781.4
9,781.4
-
-
Total
12,737.8
4,822,000
12,426.2
3,152,000
12,426.2
12,677.4
60.4
(251.2)
Space
Cooling
1,457.3
-
1,073.3
-
1,073.3
2,404.3
(947.0)
1,331.0)
Fans
811.7
3,451,024
1,269.5
-
1,374.6
-
1,374.6
562.9
706.6
Lighting
55.8
-
63.0
-
63.0
55.8
-
7.2
Pumps
220.7
-
133.5
-
133.5
-
220.7
133.5
Heat
Rejection
57.3
-
58.5
-
58.5
-
57.3
58.5
Add for Low
DP control
-
-
565.5
-
-
565.5
Compliance
Total
3,060.6
-
2,702.9
-
3,268.4
3,023.0
37.6
245.4
Interior
Equipment
9,774.9
-
9,774.9
-
9,774.9
9,774.9
-
-
12,835.5
5,061,000
13,043.3
3,689,000
13,043.3
12,797.9
37.6
245.4
Space
Cooling
1,575.5
-
1,398.3
-
1,398.3
2,671.7
(1,096.1)
(1,273.4)
Fans
533.5
Total
4,479,234
1,003.9
-
1,060.6
-
1,060.6
527.1
476.8
Lighting
55.8
-
62.9
-
62.9
55.8
-
7.0
Pumps
219.5
-
167.5
-
167.5
-
219.5
167.5
Heat
Rejection
107.9
-
111.5
-
111.5
-
107.9
111.5
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
395.6
-
-
395.6
Compliance
Total
2,962.7
-
3,196.4
3,254.6
(291.9)
(58.2)
Interior
Equipment
Climate Zone 16
Est. Water
Usage
Gal/Yr
2,800.8
-
9,702.3
-
9,702.3
-
9,702.3
Total
12,665.0
5,551,000
12,898.7
4,779,000
12,898.7
Space
Cooling
1,438.3
-
864.9
-
Fans
1,311.4
-
1,272.0
-
Lighting
56.3
-
63.1
-
Pumps
223.4
-
111.8
Heat
Rejection
52.5
-
50.1
Add for Low
DP Control
-
-
Compliance
Total
3,081.9
-
2,361.9
Interior
Equipment
9,749.2
-
12,831.0
4,154,000
Total
9,702.3
(0.0)
(0.0)
12,956.9
(291.9)
(58.2)
864.9
1,824.4
(386.1)
(959.6)
1,272.0
591.1
720.3
680.9
63.1
56.3
-
6.9
-
111.8
-
223.4
111.8
-
50.1
-
52.5
50.1
866.9
-
-
866.9
-
3,228.8
2,471.7
610.1
757.0
9,749.2
-
9,749.2
9,749.2
(0.0)
(0.0)
12,978.0
2,188,000
12,978.0
12,221.0
610.1
757.0
5,469,519
3,013,134
10 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Appendix B
11 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Appendix C
12 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
Appendix C (continued)
13 Analysis of Refrigerant Economizers in The California Energy Commission
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