AN-822: Synchronization of Multiple AD9779 TxDACs (Rev. A) PDF

AN-822
APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com
Synchronization of Multiple AD9779 TxDAC®s
by Steve Reine and Gina Colangelo
INTRODUCTION
SYNCHRONIZATION OPTIONS
The AD9779 TxDAC has the capability for DAC output sample
rates of up to 1 GSPS. In some applications, such as those requiring
beam steering, the user can synchronize multiple AD9779s.
Therefore, the TxDAC timing specifications become critical when
running the AD9779 near top speed.
There are two options for synchronizing multiple AD9779
DACs. For the first option, one device is used as a master and
the rest of the devices are used as slaves. For the second option,
all devices operate as slaves. Both options have the same timing
restrictions and there are no performance trade-offs. Block
diagrams of the master/slave and slave modes are shown in
Figure 1 and Figure 2.
This application note describes, in detail, methods for synchronizing the digital data inputs on multiple AD9779 devices. Phase
alignment of the DAC output is guaranteed by design to be less
than one DACCLK output cycle. However, due to unmatched
delays on the outputs (at ambient temperature and at hot/cold
temperatures), there can be a slight mismatch of phase alignment
at multiple DAC outputs. This issue is not covered in this
application note.
CLOCK
SOURCE
EQUALIZATION
SYNC_O
SYNC_I
REFCLK
MASTER
DAC
SYNC_I
REFCLK
SLAVE
DAC
SYNC_I
REFCLK
SLAVE
DAC
Figure 1. Master/Slave SYNC_I/O Distribution
EQUALIZATION/FREQUENCY DIVISION
CLOCK
SOURCE
EQUALIZATION
SYNC_I
REFCLK
SLAVE
DAC
SYNC_I
REFCLK
SLAVE
DAC
SYNC_I
REFCLK
SLAVE
DAC
Figure 2. Slave SYNC_I Distribution
Rev. A | Page 1 of 8
05755-001
In traditional interpolating TxDACs, two problems arise
when the DAC is driven from the DAC output sample rate
clock. First, it can be difficult to determine which of the
DACCLK edges the input data is being latched on. Most
DACs solve this problem by providing a DATACLK signal
out that indicates the location of the input register latching
edge. The second problem arises when the user tries to
synchronize multiple TxDACs. This is the main topic of this
application note. There is no guarantee that the DATACLK
outputs from the multiple devices are synchronized; it is
unlikely that they would be synchronized by themselves on
power up. The AD9779 solves this problem by providing a
second clock for data synchronization. This clock, called
SYNC_I, is an input to the AD9779 and can be used to synchronize the latching of input data across multiple AD9779s.
LVDS DRIVER AND DELAY
EQUALIZATION
05755-002
This application note does not cover all of the details involved
in the operation of the AD9779. The user should read the
AD9779 data sheet for a complete understanding of the internal
digital engine. This application note extends the use of SYNC_I
to achieve the same REFCLK/DATACLK synchronization to
multiple AD9779 devices.
AN-822
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................... 1
Synchronization Details ...............................................................3
Synchronization Options................................................................. 1
Timing Specifications ...................................................................7
Revision History ............................................................................... 2
REVISION HISTORY
9/06—Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Replaced Introduction Section ....................................................... 1
Replaced Synchronization Details Section.................................... 3
Replaced Timing Specifications Section........................................ 7
2/06—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. A | Page 2 of 8
AN-822
SYNCHRONIZATION DETAILS
In operation, a differential clock signal drives the AD9779
REFCLK inputs on all master and slave devices. The REFCLK
input receiver is a high gain differential amplifier that requires a
common-mode input level near 400 mV and a swing of at least
400 mV p-p on each differential input.
If a master device is chosen, a differential LVDS output signal
can be enabled on the master device. This signal is referred to
as SYNC_O+ and SYNC_O−. SYNC_O can be set to trigger on
the rising or falling edge of DACCLK via Register 0x07, Bit 5.
There is also a programmable delay to SYNC_O that can be
set via Register 0x04, Bit 0 (MSB), and Register 0x05, Bits[7:4]
(LSBs). SYNC_O is enabled by setting the sync driver enable
bit (Register 0x07, Bit 6). The SYNC_O signal speed can be an
integer divisor of the REFCLK speed, according to Register 0x04,
Bits[3:1]. The possible timing scenarios of the REFCLK input
and the SYNC_O signals on the master device are shown in
Figure 3.
The SYNC_O driver and SYNC_I receivers are specified for
LVDS levels (see the AD9779 data sheet).
The parallel digital input buses driving the CMOS digital data
inputs on multiple AD9779 devices should be time equalized. If
the multiple data buses are not equalized, the AD9779 has the
programmability, via DATA_CLOCK_DELAY (Register 0x04,
Bits[7:4]), to offset the latching instant of each AD9779 in
increments of roughly 180 ps. The AD9779 has no capability to
compensate for bit skews contained within a single data bus.
SYNC_O_DELAY
REG 0x04, [0]; REG0x05, [7:4]
(~180ps/INCREMENT)
On all AD9779 devices, there is a setup-and-hold relationship
between SYNC_I, the REFCLK input, and the CMOS digital
input data. These timing relationships are given in the Timing
Information section of the AD9779 data sheet.
The recommended application of SYNC_O and SYNC_O_DELAY
is to use SYNC_O_DELAY to equalize the timing of SYNC_I and
REFCLK to ensure their timing relationship is valid.
SYNC_I has its own programmable delay that can be set via
Register 0x05, Bit 0 (MSB) and Register 0x06, Bits[7:4] (LSBs).
SYNC_I_DELAY can be used in applications where the equalization is not perfect, or where the circuitry of Figure 2 is chosen.
SYNC_I is enabled by setting the sync receiver enable bit
(Register 0x07, Bit 7).
Table 1 shows the incremental SYNC_O_DELAY and
SYNC_I_DELAY, which can be set via the SPI registers.
Table 1.
Temperature
−40°C
+25°C
+85°C
SYNC_I/O_DELAY
(Approximate Delay per Increment)
72 ps
78 ps
83 ps
SYNC TRIGGERING EDGE
REG 0x07, [5]
1–RISING EDGE
0–FALLING EDGE
DACCLK
LVDS DAC
SYNC_O (/1)
LVDS DAC
SYNC_O (/4)
LVDS DAC
SYNC_O (/16)
05755-003
SYNC_O DIVISOR IS CONTROLLED BY:
REG 0x04, [3:1]
000 fDAC /32
001 fDAC /16
010 fDAC /8
011 fDAC/4
100 fDAC /2
101 fDAC /1
110 UNDEFINED
111 UNDEFINED
Figure 3. DACCLK SYNC_O Timing
Rev. A | Page 3 of 8
AN-822
Figure 4 shows a block diagram of the internal circuitry used to
synchronize multiple AD9779s. The SYNC_I signal, after the
programmable delay, is processed so that only one pulse of length
DACCLK period remains for every rising edge of SYNC_I. Note
that in this case, DACCLK represents the internal sample rate
clock of the AD9779 DAC; this can be the same as REFCLK,
depending on how the AD9779 is programmed. This single pulse
of length DACCLK period drives the load signal on the 5-bit
divider in Figure 4. The five signals output from the divider
delay logic represent the possible DATACLK signals for all of
the interpolation rates, including the possibility that zero stuffing
is enabled. By programming the DACCLK offset register, Bit 1
through Bit 4 in Figure 4 can be delayed in increments of
DACCLK cycles. The internal timing of the 5-bit divider, the
effect of the load signal, and the DACCLK offset value are given
in Figure 6.
The edge detector also drives the error detect circuitry shown in
more detail in Figure 5. The programmable error detect circuitry
can be used to measure the timing margin, generating an
interrupt if a timing margin is exceeded.
The circuitry represented within the dotted line in Figure 4 is
shown in more detail in Figure 5. Internally, the signals at the
input to FF5 must meet setup-and-hold requirements with
respect to each other. Invalid timing at the inputs to FF5 can
cause loss of synchronization between REFCLK and the digital
input data. Timing failure at this point is typically indicated by
an increase in the DAC output noise floor. Extracting the timing
requirements at the input to FF5 to the DACCLK and SYNC_I
inputs, they become the setup-and-hold requirement for these
two inputs.
INTERNAL
PLL
PLL BYPASS
REFCLK
DACCLK
5-BIT DIVIDER
BIT 0 (1× INTERPOLATION)
BIT 1 (2×)
BIT 2 (4×)
BIT 3 (8×)
BIT 4 (8× WITH ZERO STUFFING)
MUX
DATACLK OUT
LOAD DACCLK OFFSET VALUE (REG 0x07), [4:0], ONE DACCLK CYCLE/INCREMENT
SYNC
DELAY
SYNC_I
FREQUENCY
MAX fDATA /2
NO MINIMUM FREQUENCY
EDGE DETECT
ERROR DETECT
CIRCUITRY
SYNC IRQ
DELAY REGISTER
(REG 0x06), [7:4]
05755-004
DUTY CYCLE
MAX 50%
MIN 1 DACCLK CYCLE
Figure 4. Block Diagram of AD9779 Multiple DAC Sync Circuitry
Rev. A | Page 4 of 8
AN-822
INTERNAL DAC
SAMPLE RATE CLOCK
Q1
SYNC_I
SYNC DELAY
FF1
D
Q2
FF2
D
OUTPUT OF RISING
EDGE DETECT
INTERNAL DAC SAMPLE
RATE CLOCK
D
Q
FF3
PROGRAMMABLE
DELAY
SYNC IRQ
PROGRAMMABLE
DELAY
D
Q
FF4
D
Q
REGISTERED INTERNAL
SYNC SIGNAL
FF5
05755-005
OUTPUT OF RISING EDGE DETECT
Figure 5. Detail of Programmable Timing Margin and Load Signal Generation
Varying the sync input delay can effectively shift the valid
timing window of REFCLK/SYNC_I. In an actual application,
with a given sync input delay, the result is a valid REFCLK/
SYNC_I timing window with a given width. The timing margin
values can be set to a value that the SYNC IRQ is set, if the
timing margin is incremented by 1. Setting the timing margin
to this value, in effect, sets the SYNC IRQ to 0 margin. The
SYNC IRQ does not distinguish between timing errors caused
by setup-and-hold violations. However, the SYNC IRQ, by
design, is set when the programmable timing margin exceeds
the smaller of the setup or hold margins. The user can increase
the timing margin by increasing the value in Register 0x06,
Bits[3:0]. With 0 margin, the SYNC IRQ is set if there is any
drift toward the sensitive (setup or hold) specification.
In effect, the DACCLK is sampling the output of the edge
detector. The output of the edge detector is a single pulse with a
logic high width equal to one DACCLK cycle. For the load
signal to be valid, the output of the edge detector must remain
constant (high or low) during a given timing window around
the rising edge of the internal DACCLK signal.
Assuming the programmable timing margin is set to 0 and the
timing at the inputs to FF5 is valid, the Q outputs of FF3 and
FF4 are the same and SYNC IRQ remains reset. Under these
same conditions, if the timing at the inputs to FF5 is invalid,
the outputs of FF3 and FF4 are different and the SYNC IRQ is
set. If valid timing conditions exist at the inputs to FF5, the
programmable timing margin has to be set to something
greater than 0 to determine the timing margin.
In designing a system that uses the AD9779 in a master/slave
synchronization configuration, the recommended course is to
find the value of SYNC_O_DELAY (at which the programmable timing margin can be set to the largest value possible) before
SYNC IRQ is set. This represents optimal timing, with the greatest
timing margins. The user can then lower the value of the
programmable timing margin. The amount by which the
programmable timing margin is lowered represents the
sensitivity of the SYNC IRQ to drift.
At the high DACCLK frequencies the AD9779 can receive, the
valid timing window for DACCLK and SYNC_I can be a significant part of the DACCLK cycle. However, at slower DACCLK
frequencies, it is likely that the range of the programmable
timing margin does not allow the user to find an invalid timing
window. In this situation, the user can be confident that under
normal drift characteristics, the AD9779 does not drift over
temperature into an invalid timing condition.
To ensure synchronization, SYNC_I has a maximum rate of
DATACLK/2, where DATACLK is the input data rate (not
DACCLK) to the AD9779. In Figure 6, two possible examples of
applying SYNC_I are shown. In both examples, the AD9779 is
in 4× interpolation mode, so that SYNC_I is running at a speed
of DACCLK/8. Therefore, the 4× line is also the DATACLK out
signal. In Figure 6 (a), the DACCLK offset value is set to 00000.
On the rising edge of the internal SYNC_I delayed (a) signal,
the rising edge of DACCLK causes all of the DATACLK output
bits to reset to 0. Note that SYNC_I delayed has to occur in the
window (Y) with respect to DACCLK in order for the 4× line to
be set at time (X). If SYNC_I delayed (a) occurs slightly before
Rev. A | Page 5 of 8
AN-822
During initial synchronization, there can be discontinuity of
the 2×, 4×, and 8× counter bits. That is, on initial application
of the SYNC_I rising edge, the counter can be in such a state
that synchronization causes it to change by multiple values.
After the initial synchronization, however, as long as the
speed of SYNC_I is kept to DATACLK/2 or slower, synchronization pulses occur only at times where the 2×, 4×, and 8×
bits are reset to 0. (Although this seems redundant, it is true
that after synchronization is achieved, the SYNC_I pulse
actually does not have to be applied). The main purpose for
periodic SYNC_I pulses after the initial pulse is in the rare
event of the AD9779 devices becoming unsynchronized.
This can occur due to a power supply glitch or possibly a
runt clock pulse that triggers some, but not all, of the
AD9779 devices in the system.
or after this window, the rising edge of the 4× line is advanced
or delayed in time by one DACCLK cycle.
Note that with a DACCLK offset value of 00000, there is a delay
of one DACCLK cycle between the application of SYNC_I
delayed (a) and the rising edge of the 4× line.
In Figure 6 (b), the DACCLK offset value is set to 00010 at
time (Z). Bits 8×, 4×, and 2× are thus set to 010 (which match
the DACCLK offset bits). The next rising edge of the 4× line
(DATACLK out) occurs three DACCLK cycles later.
If multiple DACs receive SYNC_I pulses within a certain time
window and if they all have identical values of DACCLK offset,
their DATACLK signals are synchronized. Therefore, data
latching in multiple AD9779 devices occurs concurrently.
Z
Y
X
DACCLK
1×
2×
4×
8×
8× WITH ZERO STUFFING
05755-006
SYNC_I EXTERNAL
SYNC_I DELAYED (a)
SYNC_I DELAYED (b)
SYNC_I_DELAY
REGISTER 0x05, BIT 0 (MSB) AND REGISTER 0x06, BITS [7:4] (LSBs)
Figure 6. Internal Timing of SYNC_I, DACCLK, and DATACLK
Rev. A | Page 6 of 8
AN-822
TIMING SPECIFICATIONS
The first timing specification to note is the required relationship
between SYNC_I and REFCLK, as shown in Figure 7. From the
AD9779 data sheet, the required timing specifications are
tS = −0.2 ns and tH = 1.0 ns.
tS = –0.2ns
tH = 1.0ns
REFCLK
tH
SYNC_I1
1ASSUMING
SYNC_I_DELAY = 0ns
05755-007
tS
data. This timing information is given in Figure 8. These
values are valid for DATACLK_DELAY_ENABLE reset. If
DATACLK_DELAY_ENABLE is set, then DATACLK is
delayed (moved to the right in Figure 8) while the sampling
point for the digital input data remains stationary. The keep
out window of tS and tH therefore moves to the left with
respect to DATACLK. The average delay per increment with
DATACLK_DELAY_ENABLE set and for the incremental
value of DATACLK_DELAY is given in the AD9779 data sheet.
See the AD9779 datasheet for setup-and-hold data vs. REFCLK,
because this data can also be necessary in some applications.
Figure 7. Timing Relationship of REFCLK and SYNC_I
The second important timing specification is the timing
relationship between DATACLK out and the digital input
Rev. A | Page 7 of 8
DATACLK
tS
tH
DIGITAL INPUT DATA
TEMPERATURE(°C)
–40
+25
+85
MIN tS (ns)
1.8
2.1
2.5
MAX tH (ns)
–1.4
–0.7
–0.9
Figure 8. Setup-and-Hold, DATACLK to Input Data
05755-008
If the DACCLK OFFSET value is programmed to a value other
than 0, the DACCLK signal shown in Figure 7 effectively slides to
the left by one DACCLK cycle. Likewise, if SYNC_I_DELAY is set
to a value other than 0, with every increment of SYNC_I_DELAY,
the SYNC_I signal in Figure 7 slides to the left by the incremental
SYNC_I_DELAY given in the AD9779 data sheet.
AN-822
NOTES
©2006 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
AN05755-0-9/06(A)
T
T
Rev. A | Page 8 of 8
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