AN-834: AD9786/AD9726 Calibration Engine (Rev. 0) PDF

AN-834
APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com
AD9786/AD9726 Calibration Engine
by Justin Munson
INTRODUCTION
The AD9786 is a 16-bit, 500 MSPS CMOS DAC with selectable
interpolation filters and a wide variety of signal processing
features, making it ideal for many communications applications.
The AD9786 calibration engine gives the user the flexibility to
modify the factory calibration coefficients and to maintain the
precise 16-bit linearity of the part in the presence of temperature
fluctuations or other extraneous environmental conditions. The
identical DAC core, calibration engine, and SPI® interface are also
used in the AD9726, which is a 16-bit, 400 MSPS LVDS DAC, so
this application note is applicable to both parts.
The AD9786 consists of a PMOS current source array capable
of providing up to 20 mA of full-scale output current. This
array is divided as follows:
•
•
•
127 equal current sources make up the 7 most significant
bits (MSBs).
The next 4 bits, or intermediate significant bits (ISBs),
consist of 15 equal current sources which equal 1/16th of
an MSB current
The bottom 5 bits, or least significant bits (LSBs), consist of
5 binary weighted current sources that are fractions of the
ISB current sources.
A factory calibration of the AD9786 improves the matching
between the MSB segments along with the carry error between
the sum of the ISBs and LSBs to one MSB segment. This
procedure optimizes the linearity to achieve true 16-bit linear
DC performance using internal calibration DACs. These
calibration DACs utilize a volatile static memory word (SMEM)
to determine how much current is added or subtracted from
each segment. A factory calibration is stored in factory memory
(FMEM) and on power up this memory is transferred to a static
memory (SMEM) array. The SMEM can be modified via the
serial port interface (SPI) through an internal self calibration,
through a process that sets the static memory for each segment
back to the default value (UNCAL), or by accessing and
modifying the static memory of the individual segments. This
application note explains how to perform these procedures,
emphasizing the need for this capability in maintaining true
16-bit linearity over the entire operating temperature range.
Rev. 0 | Page 1 of 8
AN-834
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................... 1
Accessing the Memory......................................................................4
Calibration DACs ............................................................................. 3
Self-Calibration..................................................................................5
CALMEMCK Register ..................................................................... 3
Using the AD9786 in an Uncalibrated State ..................................6
Power-Up Sequence ......................................................................... 3
Conclusion..........................................................................................6
REVISION HISTORY
2/06—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 8
AN-834
CALIBRATION DACS
The AD9786 has 128, 6-bit, calibration DACs used to calibrate
the linearity performance. The DACs match the 127 MSB
segments and match the sum of the ISB and LSB segments to
that of an MSB segment. Each calibration DAC has a full scale
of approximately 16 LSBs of the main DAC; thus 1 LSB of a
calibration DAC equals 1/4th of an LSB of the main DAC. Figure 1
shows the typical gain curves for all 128 calibration DACs.
530
MSB SEGMENT WEIGHTING (LSBs)
528
526
Via the SPI, the user can modify the SMEM by accessing an
individual calibration DAC to check the value currently in the
SMEM, to modify the current value, or to uncalibrate the part.
The next sections detail how to perform each of these functions.
CALMEMCK REGISTER
524
As shown in Table 1, the CALMEM bits in Register x0E indicate
the state of the calibration memory at any time.
522
520
Table 1. CALMEM Bits in Register 0x0E
518
516
514
510
0 2
6
10 14 18
22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50 54 58 62
CAL DAC CODE
05896-001
512
CALMEM [1]
0
0
1
1
CALMEM [0]
0
1
0
1
Calibration Memory State
Uncalibrated
Self-Calibrated
Factory-Calibrated
User Input
After performing a calibration, check the state of the CALMEM
bits to ensure the operation was successful.
Figure 1. Typical Gain Curves for all 128 Linearity Calibration DACs
In addition to the 128 calibration DACs used to calibrate the
linearity performance, there are another 4 calibration DACs used
to calibrate the full-scale gain. During the factory calibration, the
measured full-scale gain is adjusted to match the ideal full-scale
gain more closely. Each gain calibration DAC has a full scale of
approximately 520 LSBs of gain trim range, making 1 LSB of a
calibration DAC equal to 8 LSBs of the main DAC. The measured
coefficient for calibrating the gain either can be evenly distributed
among the four gain calibration DACs or applied to one gain
DAC, as the overall adjustment is through the sum of the four
gain calibration DACs. Figure 2 shows the typical gain curves for
the four gain calibration DACs.
65700
POWER-UP SEQUENCE
When the AD9786 is powered up, the factory calibration
coefficients (FMEM) are transferred to the SMEM via an
internal calibration clock (CALCK). The speed of the CALCK is
a factor of the DAC clock rate and is determined by Register 0E
Bits [2:0] as follows:
000: /32
001: /64
:
110: /2048
111: /4096
The default CALCK divider setting is 000, so that at power up the
CALCK runs at FDAC/32. For reliable transfer from the FMEM
to the SMEM, the CALCK should run at 10 MHz or below. So,
for FDAC speeds above 320 MSPS, it is recommended to run a
transfer enable (XFEREN) following a reset of the part with a
larger CALCK divide ratio to ensure that the coefficients have
transferred to the SMEM properly. The XFEREN function
manually transfers the FMEM to the SMEM at the specified
CALCK speed.
65600
65500
65400
65300
65200
65100
65000
0
8
16
24
32
CODE
40
48
56
64
05896-002
DAC OUTPUT (LSBs)
As stated in the introduction, each calibration DAC is
controlled via a volatile SMEM word, which is accessible
through the SPI and is initiated to the factory memory (FMEM)
at power up. The specific SPI registers necessary to access the
SMEM are shown in Table 2.
Note that the default CALCK divider setting for the AD9726 is
/4096, so by default the CALCK is running at the slowest possible
speed. For this reason, it should not be necessary to perform a
transfer enable on the AD9726 at any operating speed.
Figure 2. Typical Gain Curves for all 4 Full-Scale Gain Calibration DACs
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 8
AN-834
Transfer Enable
Read Access
To perform a transfer enable, follow these steps:
1. Reset the part.
To read from the SMEM or FMEM, follow these steps:
2.
Set CALCKDIV to /4096 (Register x0E, Bits [2:0] to x07).
3.
Set XFEREN Bit high (Register x0F, Bit 4).
4.
Perform an SPI write.
5.
Set XFEREN bit low.
6.
Perform an SPI write.
7.
Read back the state of XFERSTAT bit (Register x0F, Bit 5).
If this bit is high, the FMEM transfer to the SMEM is
complete.
1.
Set the address for the SMEM or FMEM location to be
read from (Register x10).
2.
If reading from SMEMEM, set SMEMRD
(Register x0F, Bit 2). If reading from the FMEM set
FMEMRD high (Register x0F, Bit 1).
3.
Read back Register x11. This value corresponds to the
volatile memory word for that specific calibration DAC.
4.
Set SMEMRD low.
5.
Repeat Step 1 to Step 4 to access multiple SMEM locations.
CALMEM should read back 10.
The CALMEM registers should not change state when
performing a read back.
ACCESSING THE MEMORY
Write Access
Each calibration DAC has a specified address assigned to it in
order to access the SMEM or FMEM associated with it. As
stated previously, there are 128 calibration DACs. To access a
DAC, write one of these addresses into SPI Register x10:
To write to a specific calibration DAC, follow these steps:
MSB Segment 1 – MEMADDR 1
MSB Segment 2 – MEMADDR 2
:
MSB Segment 127 – MEMADDR 127
ISB/LSB Sum – MEMADDR 128
FSGAIN DAC 1 – MEMADDR 129
FSGAIN DAC 2 – MEMADDR 130
FSGAIN DAC 3 – MEMADDR 131
FSGAIN DAC 4 – MEMADDR 132
The user has both write and read access to the SMEM, but the
FMEM is read only.
1.
Set address for the SMEM location to be written to
(Register x10).
2.
Set Register x11 to the value for writing to the memory
location (maximum 63)
3.
Set SMEMWR high (Register x0F, Bit 3).
4.
Set SMEMWR low.
5.
Repeat Step 1 to Step 4 to access multiple SMEM locations.
The CALMEM should read back 11.
To access multiple SMEM locations for reading or writing, enter
and exit the read or write functions before applying the address
and data for the next location. Errors can occur if the SMEMRD
or SMEMWR bits are set and all of the registers are read back or
written to at one time. If the user externally modifies any of the
SMEM coefficients, these coefficients are only valid until the part
is reset or powered down, when the SMEM reverts to the factorycalibrated coefficients.
Table 2. SPI Registers to Access Calibration Engine
Address
CALMEMCK
MEMRDWR
MEMADDR
MEMDATA
0E
0F
10
11
Bit 7
Bit 6
CALSTAT
MEMADDR [7]
CALEN
MEMADDR [6]
Bit 5
CALMEM [1]
XFERSTAT
MEMADDR [5]
MEMDATA [5]
Bit 4
CALMEN [0]
XFEREN
MEMADDR [4]
MEMDATA [4]
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 8
Bit 3
SMEMWR
MEMADDR [3]
MEMDATA [3]
Bit 2
CALCKDIV [2]
SMEMRD
MEMADDR [2]
MEMDATA [2]
Bit 1
CALCKDIV [2]
FMEMRD
MEMADDR [1]
MEMDATA [1]
Bit 0
CALCKDIV [2]
UNCAL
MEMADDR [0]
MEMDATA [0]
AN-834
0.4
SELF-CALIBRATION
0.2
25000
35000
45000
55000
65536
0 5000
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
65536
0.2
0.1
0
–0.1
–0.2
–0.3
–0.4
Figure 3. Post-Factory Calibration Linearity at 25°C
(Top = INL, Bottom = DNL)
1.0
–2.0
–3.0
–4.0
–5.0
–6.0
0 5000
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
65536
0 5000
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
65536
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
–0.2
–0.4
–0.6
The CALMEM should now read back 01.
–0.8
The following figures show the importance of the selfcalibration function in maintaining 16-bit DNL performance.
Figure 3 shows the factory-calibrated linearity with an INL
spread of 1.6 LSBs and a DNL spread of ±0.4 LSBs. As shown in
Figure 4, after soaking the part for 10 minutes at 85°C, the INL
spread is approximately 6.5 LSBs and the DNL errors are as
much as 1 LSB. In Figure 5, a self-calibration was then
performed on the part at 85°C, which calibrated the INL back
to a spread of approximately 2.5 LSBs with a maximum DNL
error of −0.4 LSBs. The part was then soaked for 10 minutes at
−40°C, as shown in Figure 6, degrading the INL performance to
a spread of approximately 11 LSBs and maximum DNL errors of
approximately 1.75 LSBs. In Figure 7, a self-calibration was once
again performed on the part at −40°C. Again, the maximum
DNL errors are approximately 0.4 LSBs and the INL spread is
approximately 4 LSBs.
As seen in Figure 3 through Figure 7, performing a selfcalibration at the temperature extremes allows the part to
maintain the 16-bit DNL performance over the entire operating
temperature range. There is a slight degradation in the INL
performance because the self-calibration only calibrates out
DNL errors in the part, without applying corrections to improve
the INL performance.
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 8
–1.0
05896-004
Set CALEN Bit high (Register 0F, Bit 6).
Perform a SPI write.
Set CALEN bit low.
Do an SPI write and read at this point CALSTAT should
now be high (Register 0F, Bit 7) meaning that the selfcalibration is finished.
15000
Figure 4. Linearity After 10-Minute Soak at 85°C
(Top = INL, Bottom = DNL)
0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
–1.5
–2.0
–2.5
–3.0
0 5000
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
65536
0 5000
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
65536
0.1
0
–0.1
–0.2
–0.3
–0.4
–0.5
Figure 5. Post-Self-Calibration Linearity at 85°C
(Top = INL, Bottom = DNL)
05896-005
2.
3.
4.
5.
0 5000
0.4
0.3
–1.0
To perform a self-calibration, follow these steps:
Set CALCKDIV to /4096 (Register x0E, Bits [0:2] high).
–1.2
0
Performing a Self-Calibration
1.
0
–0.2
–0.4
–0.6
–0.8
–1.0
05896-003
The factory calibration is performed at room temperature with
an algorithm, optimizing both INL and DNL. To maintain the
true 16-bit performance of the factory calibration, a selfcalibration can be performed to help offset any linearity drift
due to temperature. Note, however, that the self-calibration only
optimizes DNL. The internal calibration engine selects a
reference current, disconnects a segment from the output and
adjusts the calibration DACs until the segment current equals
the reference current; the segment current is then reconnected
to the output and the current of another segment is calibrated.
Because each segment’s current is removed from the output
during calibration, it cannot be used to generate data; the selfcalibration should not be used while processing data. As with
XFEREN, to ensure that the self-calibration is done successfully
at speeds above 320 MSPS, CALCLKDIV must be set to the
highest divider setting.
AN-834
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–1
USING THE AD9786 IN AN UNCALIBRATED STATE
Additionally, users can completely uncalibrate the part and
return the SMEM to its default state with a coefficient of 63 in
all SMEM locations. However, this is not recommended in cases
where the AD9786 must maintain precise linearity.
0 5000
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
Uncalibrating the AD9786
65536
2.0
To uncalibrate the part, follow these steps:
1.5
1.0
1.
Set CALCKDIV to /4096 (Register x0E, Bits [0:2] high).
0.5
2.
Set UNCAL bit high (Register x0F, Bit 0).
0
–1.0
0 5000
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
65536
05896-006
–0.5
Figure 6 .Linearity After 10 Minute Soak at −40°C
(Top = INL, Bottom = DNL)
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
As with the self-calibration, there is a change in state of
Register x0E Bits [5:4]. These bits read back as a 00, indicating
that the part has been uncalibrated. The CALMEM should read
back 00.
CONCLUSION
The AD9786 calibration engine gives the user the flexibility to
modify the factory calibration coefficients, if desired, in order
to maintain the precise 16-bit linearity of the part in the
presence of temperature fluctuations or other extraneous
environmental conditions.
0 5000
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
65536
0 5000
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
65536
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
–1.0
05896-007
0
–0.1
Figure 7. Post Self-Calibration Linearity at −40°C
(Top = INL, Bottom = DNL)
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 8
AN-834
NOTES
Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 8
AN-834
NOTES
©2006 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
AN05896-0-2/06(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 8
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