Application Note TLE7251V

Z8F54978225
Application Note
TLE7251V
About this document
Scope and purpose
This document provides application information for the transceiver TLE7251V from Infineon Technologies AG
as Physical Medium Attachment within a Controller Area Network (CAN).
This document contains information about:
•
set-ups for CAN application
•
mode control
•
fail safe behavior
•
power supply concepts
•
power consumption aspects
This document refers to the data sheet of the Infineon Technologies AG CAN Transceiver TLE7251V.
Note:
The following information is given as a hint for the implementation of our devices only and shall not
be regarded as a description or warranty of a certain functionality, condition or quality of the device.
Intended audience
This document is intended for engineers who develop applications.
Application Note
www.infineon.com
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Application Note
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Table of Contents
About this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1
CAN Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2
2.1
2.2
TLE7251V Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Mode Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3
3.1
3.2
In Vehicle Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Clamp 30 and Clamp 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Baud Rate versus Bus Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4
CAN FD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
Pin Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
VIO Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
VCC Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
STB Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
TxD Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
RxD Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
CANH and CANL Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
GND Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
Transceiver Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Voltage Regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
External Circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
VIO Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
VIO 3.3 V - 5.5 V Power Supply Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
VIO 3.3 V Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
VIO 5 V Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Dual 5 V Supply Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Current Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Loss of Battery (Unsupplied Transceiver) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Loss of Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Ground Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
Transceiver Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Mode Change by STB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Mode Change Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Mode Change due to VCC Undervoltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Remote Wake-up Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Advantage of VIO-supplied Wake Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Transition from Stand-by Mode to Forced-Stand-by Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
Failure Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
TxD Dominant Time-out Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Minimum Baud Rate and Maximum TxD Dominant Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Short Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
TLE7251V Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Terms and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
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Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
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CAN Application
1
CAN Application
With the growing number of electronic modules in cars the amount of communication between modules
increases. In order to reduce wires between the modules CAN was developed. CAN is a Class-C, multi master
serial bus system. All nodes on the bus system are connected via a two wire bus. A termination of RT = 120 Ω or
a split termination (RT/2 = 60 Ω and CT = 4.7 nF) on two nodes within the bus system is recommended.
Typically an ECU consists of:
•
power supply
•
microcontroller with integrated CAN protocol controller
•
CAN transceiver
The CAN protocol uses a lossless bit-wise arbitration method of conflict resolution. This requires all CAN nodes
to be synchronized. The complexity of the network can range from a point-to-point connection up to hundreds
of nodes. A simple network concept using CAN is shown in Figure 1.
VBAT
Power
Supply
VIO/VCC
Transceiver
CANH
CANL
Mode-Pin
CANH
TxD
CANL
RxD
μC
GND
ECU
CT
Figure 1
ECU
ECU
ECU
ECU
RT/2
RT/2
RT/2
RT/2
CT
CAN Example with Typical ECU Using TLE7251V
The CAN bus physical layer has two defined states: dominant and recessive. In recessive state CANH and CANL
are biased to VCC/2 (typ. 2.5 V) and the differential output voltage VDiff is below 0.5 V.
A “low” signal applied to TxD pin generates a dominant state on CANH and CANL. The voltage on CANH
changes towards VCC and CANL goes towards GND. The differential voltage VDiff is higher than 0.9 V.
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CAN Application
CANH
CANL
5V
“recessive”
“dominant”
“recessive”
2,5V
t
VDiff
5V
“dominant”
0,9V
0,5V
“recessive”
t
-1V
Figure 2
Voltage Levels according to ISO 11898-2
Table 1
Voltage Levels according to ISO 11898-2
Parameter
Symbol
Values
Unit
Note or Test Condition
Min.
Typ.
Max.
2.0
2.5
3.0
V
No load
Differential Output Bus Voltage VDiff_R_NM
-500
–
50
mV
No load
Differential Input Bus Voltage
VDiff_R_Range
-1.0
–
0.5
V
–
VCANH
2.75
3.5
4.5
V
50 Ω < RL < 65 Ω
VCANL
0.5
1.5
2.25
V
50 Ω < RL < 65 Ω
Differential Output Bus Voltage VDiff_D_NM
1.5
2.0
3.0
V
50 Ω < RL < 65 Ω
Differential Input Voltage
0.9
–
5.0
V
–
Recessive State
Output Bus Voltage
VCANL,H
Dominant State
Output Bus Voltage
VDiff_D_Range
The CAN physical layer is described in ISO 11898-2. The CAN transceiver TLE7251V fulfills all parameters
defined in ISO 11898-2. This document describes CAN applications with the TLE7251V. It provides application
hints and recommendations for the design of CAN electronic control units (ECUs) using the CAN transceiver
TLE7251V from Infineon Technologies AG.
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TLE7251V Description
2
TLE7251V Description
The transceiver TLE7251V represents the physical medium attachment, interfacing the CAN protocol
controller to the CAN transmission medium. The transmit data stream of the protocol controller at the TxD
input is converted by the CAN transceiver into a bus signal. The receiver of the TLE7251V detects the data
stream on the CAN bus and transmits it via the RxD pin to the protocol controller.
2.1
Features
The main features of the TLE7251V are:
•
Baud rate up to 2 Mbit/s
•
Very low Electromagnetic Emission (EME) and high Electromagnetic Immunity (EMI)
•
Excellent ESD performance according to HBM (+/-9 kV) and IEC (+/-8 kV)
•
Very low current consumption in Stand-by mode
•
Transmit data (TxD) dominant time-out function
•
Supply voltage range 4.5 V to 5.5 V
•
Control input levels compatible with 3.3 V and 5 V devices
•
Remote wake-up in Stand-by mode
•
Thermal shutdown protection
2.2
Mode Description
The TLE7251V supports three different modes of operation. The mode of operation depends on the status of
the reference power supply and the status of the mode selection pin STB:
•
Normal-operating mode: Used for communication on the HS CAN bus. Transmit and receive data on the
bus.
•
Stand-by mode: This mode is used in order to set the ECU in low-power mode in permanently supplied
networks. Current consumption is reduced to a minimum, while the TLE7251V can still detect a bus wakeup and to wake up the ECU.
•
Forced-stand-by mode: Same behavior as Stand-by mode. Forced-stand-by mode is a fail safe mode. The
transmitter is disabled. The bus wake-up feature for VCC undervoltage condition is enabled.
TxD
1
8
STB
GND
2
7
CANH
VCC
3
6
CANL
RxD
4
5
TxD
1
8
STB
GND
2
7
CANH
VCC
3
6
CANL
RxD
4
5
PAD
VIO
(Top-side x-ray view)
Figure 3
VIO
Pin Configuration of the TLE7251V
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In Vehicle Network Applications
3
In Vehicle Network Applications
The TLE7250/51-Family offers a perfect match for various ECU requirements. For permanently supplied ECUs
(Clamp 30) as well as for partially supplied ECUs (Clamp 15) the TLE7251V is suitable. According to the
requirements of automobile manufacturers, the modules can either be permanently supplied or unsupplied
during the car is parked. The main reason for unsupplied modules is saving battery energy. Permanently
supplied modules can wake up quickly via CAN message.
3.1
Clamp 30 and Clamp 15
Clamp 30:
Permanently supplied modules, even when the car is parked are required by body applications such as door
modules, RF keyless entry receivers, etc. Modules are directly connected to the battery. This supply line is
called clamp 30. As battery voltage is present permanently, the voltage regulator, transceiver and
microcontroller are always supplied. Therefore voltage regulator, transceiver and microcontroller need to be
set to low-power mode in order to reduce current consumption to a minimum.
Clamp 15:
Partially supplied modules are typically used in under hood applications such as ECUs. When the car is parked
a main switch or ignition key switches off the battery supply. This supply line is called clamp 15. When the
battery voltage is not present, the voltage regulator and transceiver are switched off.
Clamp 30
Clamp 15
VBAT
ECU with
TLE7251
CT
Figure 4
ECU with
ECU with
ECU with
ECU with
TLE7251
TLE7251
TLE7250/51
TLE7250/51
RT/2
RT/2
RT/2
RT/2
CT
CAN with ECUs Using TLE7251V
In Clamp 30 applications the most important feature is very low current consumption in order to prevent the
battery from discharging. Therefore the low-power mode of an ECU can be used. TLE7251V offers the Standby mode with optimized very low current consumption. In Stand-by mode the TLE7251V can still detect a bus
wake-up . If bus communication is monitored on the HS CAN bus, then the TLE7251V indicates this wake-up
event on the RxD output pin. This wakes up the microcontroller and the ECU starts working normally.
TLE7251V can also be used in clamp 15 applications. The modes of operation are described in Chapter 2.2.
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In Vehicle Network Applications
VBAT
Power VCC
Supply
VIO
Mode
μC
RxD
TxD
TLE7251V
(CAN bus
wake-up)
CANH
CANL
Figure 5
Example ECU with TLE7251V
3.2
Baud Rate versus Bus Length
Table 2
Recommended Baud Rate versus Bus Length
Baud Rate
(kbit/s)
Bus Length (m)
Maximum Distance between two Nodes
1000
10
500
40
250
120
125
500
50
1000
Baud rate is limited by:
•
bus length
•
ringing
•
propagation delay of cables
•
propagation delay of the CAN controller of the transceiver
The two most distant nodes (A and B) in a CAN network are the limiting factor in transmission speed. The
propagation delays must be considered because a round trip has to be made from the two most distant CAN
controllers on the bus.
Worst case scenario: When node A starts transmitting a dominant signal, it takes a certain period of time
(t = tCANcontroller + tTransceiver + tCable) until the signal arrives at node B.
The propagation delay is estimated by: CAN controller delay, transceiver delay, bus length delay. Assumption:
70 ns for CAN controller, 255 ns for transceiver, 5 ns per meter of cable. Example with 50 m cable length:
tprop = tCANcontroller + tTransceiver + tCable + tCANcontroller + tTransceiver + tCable =
70 ns + 255 ns + 50 m × 5 ns/m + 70 ns + 255 ns + 50 m × 5 ns/m = 1150 ns
Some other factors of great influence on the maximum baud rate are cable capacitance, oscillator tolerance,
ringing and reflection effects depending on the network topology. In addition to theoretical maximum
propagation delay all other effects must be taken into account and an additional margin of safety must be
added. Wire resistance increases with bus length and therefore the bus signal amplitude may be degraded.
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CAN FD
4
CAN FD
CAN FD (Flexible Data Rate) is the advanced version of classical CAN. Classical CAN is specified by ISO 11898-2
for data transmission rate up to 1 Mbit/s. For CAN FD with higher data transmission rate (2 Mbit/s) ISO 118982 specifies additional timing parameters. CAN FD uses the same physical layer as classical CAN does, but
allows higher data transmission rate and increased payload per message. During the arbitration phase and
checksum the data transmission rate is the same as for classical CAN (1 Mbit/s). As soon as one node in the CAN
FD network starts transmitting the payload, the data rate increases (2 Mbit/s). The increase in baud rate is
possible as only one node transmits during the data transmission phase. All other nodes listen to the data on
the CAN bus. Instead of 8 bytes per message (classical CAN) payload is increased up to maximum 64 byte per
message. Using CAN FD saves transmission time and allows increased data payload. In order to ensure reliable
data transmission, CAN FD requires a CAN transceiver with full ISO 11898-2 specification for Flexible Data rate
up to 2 Mbit/s.
The TLE7251V from Infineon Technologies AG is the perfect match for CAN FD networks. TLE7251V fulfills or
exceeds all classical CAN and CAN FD parameters of ISO 11898-2 in order to enable smooth and safe usage
within applications.
Classical CAN:
8 Byte Message
SOF
Arbitration
CTR
Payload (Data)
CRC
ACK
EOF
1 Mbit/s
CAN FD:
8 Byte Message
CAN FD:
Increased Payload
SOF
Arbitration
CTR
1 Mbit/s
Payload (Data)
CRC
ACK
EOF
2 Mbit/s
1 Mbit/s
SOF
Arbitration
CTR
1 Mbit/s
Payload (Data)
CRC
2 Mbit/s
ACK
EOF
1 Mbit/s
t
Figure 6
Classical CAN Data Rate and CAN FD Data Rate
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Pin Description
5
Pin Description
5.1
VIO Pin
The VIO pin is needed for the operation with a microcontroller that is supplied by VIO < VCC, to get the correct
level between microcontroller and transceiver. It can also be used to decouple microcontroller and
transmitter supply. This concept improves EMC performance and the transmitter supply VCC can be switched
off separately.
The digital reference supply voltage VIO has two functions:
•
supply of the internal logic of the transceiver (state machine)
•
voltage adaption for external microcontroller (3.0 V < VIO < 5.5 V)
As long as VIO is supplied (VIO > 3.0 V) the state machine of the transceiver works and mode changes can be
performed. If a microcontroller uses low VIO < VCC = 5 V, then the VIO pin must be connected to the power supply
of the microcontroller. Due to this feature, the TLE7251V can work with various microcontroller supplies. If VIO
is available, then both transceiver and microcontroller are fully functional. Below VIO < 3.0 V the TLE7251V is in
Power On Reset state. To enter Normal-operating mode VIO > 3.0 V is required.
5.2
VCC Pin
The VCC pin supplies the transmitter output stage. The transmitter operates according to data sheet
specifications in the voltage range of 4.5 V < VCC < 5.5 V. Voltage VCC > 6 V can damage the device. If VCC < VCC_UV,
then the transmitter is disabled. The undervoltage threshold VCC_UV is in the range from 3.65 V to 4.3 V. If
VCC_UV < VCC < 4.5 V, then the transmitter is enabled and can then send data to the bus, but parameters may be
outside the specified range.
5.3
STB Pin
The STB pin sets the mode of TLE7251V and is usually directly connected to an output port of a
microcontroller. If the mode pin is unconnected and TLE7251V is supplied by VIO, then the device enters Standby mode due to the internal pull-up resistor to VIO. The purpose of the Stand-by mode is to reduce current
consumption, while the TLE7251V can still detect a bus wake-up. To put the device into Normal-operating
mode for transmitting and receiving data, the STB pin must be set to “low”. The user can deactivate
transmitter and receiver of TLE7251V either by setting the STB pin to “high” or by switching off VCC. This can
be used to implement two different fail safe paths in case a failure is detected in the ECU. Table 3 shows mode
changes by the STB pin, assuming VIO > VIO_UV. Features and modes of operation are described in Chapter 2.
Table 3
Mode Selection by STB
Mode of operation
STB
VCC
Comment
Stand-by mode
“high”
“X”
TLE7251V monitors the bus for a valid wake-up pattern
and indicates wake-up detection on the RxD output pin. In
this mode VCC is not required
Forced-stand-by mode
“low”
< VCC_UV Same as Stand-by mode
Normal-operating mode
“low”
> VCC_UV If VCC > VCC_UV, then the transmitter is enabled.
5.4
TxD Pin
TxD is an input pin. TxD pin is used to receive the data stream from the microcontroller. If VIO > VIO_UV, then the
data stream is transmitted to the HS CAN bus. A “low” signal causes a dominant state on the bus and a “high”
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Pin Description
signal causes a recessive state on the bus. The “high” signal must be adapted according to the voltage on the
VIO pin. This means the “high” level must not exceed VIO voltage. The TxD input pin has an integrated pull-up
resistor to VIO. If TxD is permanently “low”, for example due to a short circuit to GND, then the TxD time-out
feature will block the signal on the TxD input pin (see Chapter 8.1). It is not recommended to use a series
resistor within the TxD line between transceiver and microcontroller. A series resistor may add delay, which
degrades the performance of the transceiver, especially in high data rate applications. The data stream sent
from the microcontroller to the TxD pin of the transceiver is only transmitted to the HS CAN bus in Normaloperating mode. In all other modes the TxD input pin is blocked.
5.5
RxD Pin
RxD is an output pin. The data stream received from the HS CAN bus is displayed on the RxD output pin in
Normal-operating mode. If a bus wake-up is detectedin Stand-by mode or in Forced-stand-by mode, then the
RxD pin is “high” and switches to “low” and follows the bus with the parameters of the low-power receiver
specified in the datasheet. It is not recommended to use a series resistor within the RxD line between
transceiver and microcontroller. A series resistor may add delay, which degrades the performance of the
transceiver, especially in high data rate applications.
5.6
CANH and CANL Pins
CANH and CANL are the CAN bus input and output pins. The TLE7251V is connected to the bus via pin CANH
and CANL. Transmitter output stage and receiver are connected to CANH and CANL. Data on the TxD pin is
transmitted to CANH and CANL and is simultaneously received by the receiver input and signalled on the RxD
output pin. For achieving optimum EME (Electromagnetic Emission) performance, transitions from dominant
to recessive and from recessive to dominant are done as smooth as possible also at high data rate. Output
levels of CANH and CANL in recessive and dominant state are described in Table 1. Due to the excellent ESD
performance on CANH and CANL no external ESD components are necessary to fulfill OEM requirements.
5.7
GND Pin
The GND pin must be connected as close as possible to module ground in order to reduce ground shift. It is not
recommended to place filter elements or an additional resistor between GND pin and module ground. GND
must be the same for transceiver, microcontroller and HS CAN bus system.
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Transceiver Supply
6
Transceiver Supply
The internal logic of TLE7251V is supplied by the VIO pin. The VCC pin 5 V supply is used to create the CANH and
CANL signal. The transmitter output stage as well as the main CAN bus receiver are supplied by the VCC pin. This
chapter describes aspects of power consumption and voltage supply concepts of TLE7251V.
6.1
Voltage Regulator
It is recommended to use one of the following Infineon low drop output (LDO) voltage regulators, depending
on the VIO power supply concept:
•
3.3 V VIO power supply: TLS850D0TAV33 (500mA)1), TLS850F0TAV33 (500mA)1), TLS810B1LDV332) (100mA),
TLE4266-2GS V33 (150mA),
•
5 V VIO and VCC power supply: TLS850D0TAV501) (500mA), TLS850F0TA V50 (500mA), TLS810D1EJV50
(100mA), TLS810B1LDV50 (100mA), TLE4266-2 (150mA)
•
3.3 V and 5 V dual voltage power supply: TLE4476D
•
Dual 5V voltage power supply: TLE4473GV55
Please refer to Infineon Linear Voltage Regulators for the Infineon voltage regulator portfolio, data sheets and
application notes.
6.2
External Circuitry
In order to reduce EME and to improve the stability of input voltage level on VCC and VIO of the transceiver, it is
recommended to place capacitors on the PCB. During sending a dominant bit to the HS CAN bus, current
consumption of TLE7251V is higher than during sending a recessive bit. Data transmission can change the load
profile on VCC. Changes in load profile may reduce the stability of VCC. If several CAN transceivers are connected
in parallel, and if these CAN transceivers are supplied by the same VCC and/or VIO power supply (for example
LDO), then the impact on the stability of VCC is even stronger. It is recommended to place a 100 nF capacitor as
close as possible to VCC and VIO pin. The output of the VCC and VIO power supply (for example LDO) must be
stabilized by a capacitor in the range of 1 to 50 µF, depending on the load profile. Ceramic capacitors are
recommended for low ESR.
6.3
VIO Feature
TLE7251V offers a VIO supply pin, which is a voltage reference input for adjusting the voltage levels on the
digital input and output pins to the voltage supply of the microcontroller. In order to use the VIO feature,
connect the power supply of the microcontroller to the VIO input pin. Depending on the voltage supply of the
microcontroller, TLE7251V can operate with the VIO reference voltage input within the voltage range from 3.0 V
to 5.5 V.
6.3.1
VIO 3.3 V - 5.5 V Power Supply Concept
The VIO pin supplies the internal logic of the TLE7251V. TLE7251V can operate with the VIO reference voltage
input in the range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V. The VCC pin (typ. = 5 V) supplies the transmitter of TLE7251V. Therefore
the VCC supply input pin must be connected to a 5 V voltage regulator. Competitor devices use VCC to supply
the internal logic and the transmitter output stage and VIO as a simple level shifter. Infineon’s HS CAN
transceivers can work in VCC undervoltage condition or even with VCC completely switched off in Forced-standby mode and Stand-by Mode.
1) Planned SOP Q2 2016
2) Planned SOP Q4 2016
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Transceiver Supply
6.3.2
VIO 3.3 V Power Supply
In order to reduce power consumption of ECU, the microcontroller might not be supplied by VCC but by a lower
voltage (for example 3.3 V). Therefore the TLE7251V offers a VIO supply pin, which is a voltage reference input
in order to adjust the voltage levels on the digital input and output pins to the voltage supply of the
microcontroller. The VIO feature enables the TLE7251V to operate with a microcontroller, which is supplied by
a voltage lower than VCC. With the VIO reference voltage input the TLE7251V can operate from 3.0 V to 5.5 V.
VBAT
3.3V LDO
VIO
VIO
μC
VIO
VCC
VCC
5V LDO
TLE7251V
Figure 7
3.3 V Power Supply Concept
6.3.3
VIO 5 V Supply
TLE7251V can also operate with a 5 V supply because of the VIO input voltage range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V. If the
microcontroller uses VCC = 5 V supply, then VIO is connected to VCC. The VIO input must be connected to the
supply voltage of the microcontroller.
VBAT
5V LDO
VIO
μC
VIO
VCC
TLE7251V
Figure 8
5 V Power Supply Concept
6.3.4
Dual 5 V Supply Concept
In order to decouple the microcontroller and the HS CAN Bus from each other with respect to noise and
disturbances, it is possible to use a dual 5 V voltage regulator like TLE4473GV55. In this case two independent
5 V LDOs supply VIO and VCC. This power supply concept improves EMC behavior and reduces noise.
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Transceiver Supply
VBAT
VIO
5V LDO
VIO
μC
VCC
5V LDO
VIO
VCC
TLE7251V
Figure 9
Dual 5 V Power Supply Concept
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Transceiver Supply
6.4
Current Consumption
Current consumption depends on the mode of operation:
•
Normal-operating mode:
Maximum current consumption of TLE7251V on the VCC supply is specified as 60 mA in dominant state and
4 mA in recessive state. Maximum current consumption of TLE7251V on the VIO supply is specified as 1 mA.
To estimate theoretical current consumption in Normal-operating mode, a duty cycle of 50% can be
assumed, with fully loaded bus communication of 50% dominant and 50% recessive. In Normal-operating
mode the TLE7251V consumes in worst case maximum:
ICC_AVG = (ICC_REC + ICC_DOM) / 2 + IIO = 32.5 mA
Typically the current consumption is less than 15 mA.
•
Stand-by mode and Forced-Stand-by mode:
Most of the functions are turned off but the TLE7251V monitors the HS CAN bus for a bus wake-up. In Standby mode the maximum current consumption is specified as IIO,max = 14 µA for T < 150 °C.
VBAT
IQ,Total
LDO
IQ,LDO
μC
(Stop Mode)
IQ,μC
TLE7251V
IIO,STB
Figure 10
Quiescent Current Consumption in Stand-by Mode
6.5
Loss of Battery (Unsupplied Transceiver)
When TLE7251V is unsupplied, CANH and CANL act as high impedance. The leakage current ICANH,lk, ICANL,lk at
CANH pin or CANL pin is limited to +/- 5 µA in worst case. When unsupplied, TLE7251V behaves like a 1 MΩ
resistor towards the bus. Therefore the device perfectly fits applications that use both Clamp 15 and Clamp 30.
6.6
Loss of Ground
If loss of ground occurs, then the transceiver is unsupplied and behaves like in unpowered state.
In applications with inductive load connected to the same GND, for example a motor, the transceiver can be
damaged due to loss of ground. Excessive current can flow through the CAN transceiver when the inductor
demagnetizes after loss of ground. The ESD structure of the transceiver cannot withstand that kind of
Electrical Overstress (EOS). In order to protect the transceiver and other components of the module, an
inductive load must be equipped with a free wheeling diode.
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Transceiver Supply
VBAT
VBAT
Voltage
Regulator
Voltage
Regulator
VCC
Inductive
load
VCC
CAN Transceiver
CAN Transceiver
CANH
CANL
GND
Figure 11
GND
Loss of GND with Inductive Load
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Transceiver Supply
6.7
Ground Shift
Due to ground shift the GND levels of CAN transceivers within a network may vary. Ground shift occurs in high
current applications or in modules with long GND wires. The receiver input stage acts like a resistor (Ri) to GND.
Because the transmitting node has its GND shifted to VShift, the recessive voltage level Vrec from the chassis
ground is no longer 2.5 V but Vrec + Vshift. The same ground shift voltage VShift must be taken into account for the
dominant signal. Because CAN uses a differential signal and because of the wide common mode range of +/12 V for Infineon transceivers, any CANH and CANL DC value within absolute maximum ratings works.
The recessive CAN bus level Vrec during a ground shifted node transmitting is equal to the average recessive
voltage level of all transceivers:
Vrec = [(Vrec_1 + VShift_1) + (Vrec_2 + VShift_2) + (Vrec_3 + VShift_3) + ... + (Vrec_n + VShift_n)]/n
n: number of connected CAN nodes
Vrec_1, Vrec_2, .., Vrec_n: specific recessive voltage level of the transceiver at nodes 1, 2, .. n
VShift_1, VShift_2, ..., VShift_n: specific ground shift voltage level of the transceiver at nodes 1, 2, .. n
The supply current of a ground shifted transceiver increases by ICC_Shift = VShift / (Ri_n / n), assuming all input
resistances at CANH and CANL of the transceivers are identical.
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Transceiver Control
7
Transceiver Control
The modes of the TLE7251V are controlled by the pin STB and by transmitter voltage VCC.
7.1
Mode Change by STB
The mode of operation is set by the mode selection pin STB. By default the STB input pin is “high” due to the
internal pull-up resistor to VIO.
The TLE7251V is in Stand-by mode independent of the status of VCC. In order to change the mode to Normaloperating mode, STB must be switched to “low” and VCC must be available.
7.2
Mode Change Delay
The HS CAN transceiver TLE7251V changes the mode of operation within the transition time period tMode. The
transition time period tMode must be considered in developing software for the application. During the mode
change from Stand-by mode to a non-low power mode the receiver and/or transmitter is enabled. During the
period tMode the RxD output pin is permanently set to “high” and does not reflect the status on the CANH and
CANL input pins. In addition, during tMode, the TxD path is blocked as well. When the mode change is
completed, the TLE7251V releases the RxD output pin. Figure 12 shows this scenario.
CANH
CANL
t
tFilter +
tWU_Rec
RxD blocked
RxD released
RxD
tRxD_Rec
t
STB
t
Stand-by mode
Figure 12
Mode change
tMode
Normal-operating Mode
RxD Behavior during Mode Change
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Transceiver Control
tMode
tRXD_REC
Figure 13
Communication on the CAN Bus: RxD Behavior during Mode Change (Stand-by Mode to NormalOperating Mode)
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Transceiver Control
7.3
Mode Change due to VCC Undervoltage
A mode change due to VCC undervoltage is only possible in Normal-operating mode. If VCC undervoltage
persists longer than tDelay(UV), then the TLE7251V changes from Normal-operating mode to Forced-stand-by
mode. As soon as TLE7251V detects an undervoltage, it disables the transmitter output stage so that no faulty
data is sent to the HS CAN bus.
In order to reduce current consumption during VCC < VCC(UV) fault condition, the TLE7251V has a optimized
current consumption in Forced-stand-by mode. In Forced-stand-by mode the TLE7251V detects a wake-up on
the HS CAN bus and indicates the wake-up at RxD output pin.
If VCC recovers, then VCC > VCC_UV triggers a mode change back to Normal-operating mode.
VCC
VCC_UV
tDelay(UV)
tDelay(UV)
tDelay(UV)
t
Mode
Figure 14
Normal-operating mode
Forced stand-by mode
Normal-operating
mode
VCC Undervoltage and Recovery
tDelay_(UV)
Figure 15
Recovery of VCC in Forced Stand-by Mode
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Transceiver Control
7.4
Remote Wake-up Detection
In order to reduce current consumption of permanently supplied applications (Clamp 30), ECUs are set to a
low power mode. Low-power mode reduces quiescent current. Usually the microcontroller is in stop mode
and the transceiver is Stand-by mode. In Stand-by mode the transceiver can wake up the microcontroller in
order to set the ECU back to normal operation.
The TLE7251V has a remote wake-up feature. In Stand-by mode TLE7251V monitors activity on the CAN bus. If
TLE7251V detects a wake-up pattern, then it indicates the wake-up signal on the RxD output pin. In Stand-by
mode the transmitter supply VCC can be turned off.
In Stand-by mode a wake-up event on the HS CAN is indicated on the RxD output pin. The transceiver remains
in the current mode of operation.
VDIFF
tFIlter + tWU_Rec
RxD
Figure 16
Remote Wake-up Detection
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Transceiver Control
7.5
Advantage of VIO-supplied Wake Receiver
Infineon’s HS CAN transceivers use the VIO pin to supply the low-power-receiver. For transceivers with bus
wake-up TLE7251V, only VIO must be supplied in Stand-by mode. The application saves current with the ECU
in Stand-by mode while waiting for a bus wake-up.
In Stand-by mode VCC can be switched off, while the receiver can still wake up the microcontroller via a bus
wake-up. Common CAN transceivers use VCC to supply both the receiver and the logic, thus requiring two
voltage regulators in operation for VCC and VIO for detecting bus wake-up. This increases current consumption
in Stand-by mode. With Infineon’s TLE7251V the user can switch off the VCC voltage regulator, so no permanent
current IBAT,LDO flows to the 5 V LDO. A permanently flowing current through the VCC-LDO might be an issue for
the ECU’s efficiency.
In order to take advantage of the bus wake-up feature, the microcontroller must set the TLE7251V to Standby mode by setting the STB pin to “high” and needs to switch off the VCC LDO by a Control Output, before the
microcontroller itself changes to low-power mode.
VBAT
VIO
VIO LDO
Transceiver in
Forced Standby mode
TLE7251V
VIO
VIO
μC in lowpower mode
STB
4
Host RxD
2 μC Control
Output
STB
CANH
CANL
RxD
VCC
1
Bus wake-up
5
VBAT
IBAT,LDO
VCC LDO can be
switched off in
Stand-by mode in
order to reduce
current
consumption
Figure 17
VCC LDO
(5V)
3
VCC
EN
Advantage of VIO-supplied Wake Receiver
Procedure for bus wake-up:
1) Bus-wake up is signaled by TLE7251V on the RxD output pin to the microcontroller
2) Microcontroller wakes up
3) Microcontroller must switch on the VCC LDO by the Control Output
4) Then the STB input pin of TLE7251V must be changes to “low” in order to trigger a mode change to “Normaloperating mode
5)After the mode change time tMode TLE7251V can send and receive data to the HS CAN Bus as soon as
VCC > VCC_UV
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Transceiver Control
7.6
Transition from Stand-by Mode to Forced-Stand-by Mode
From Normal-operating mode the TLE7251V enters Forced-stand-by mode on detecting VCC undervoltage.
However, in Stand-by mode VCC undervoltage detection is disabled. With VCC below the undervoltage
threshold VCC_UV in Stand-by mode, when STB is switched from "high" to "low" the TLE7251V changes to
Normal-operating mode. In Normal-operating mode VCC undervoltage detection is enabled, and thus the
undervoltage event is detected. This in turn triggers a mode change to Forced-stand-by mode. The overall
transition time period from Stand-by mode to Forced-stand-by mode is t < tMode. During the mode change from
Power-save mode to Forced-receive-only mode the RxD output pin is permanently set to “high” and does not
reflect the status of the CANH and CANL input pins. After mode change to Forced-stand-by mode is completed,
the TLE7251V releases the RxD output pin.
Normal-operating
mode
STB
VCC
VIO
0
“on”
“on”
VCC “off”
ForcedStand-by
mode
Power-down
state
STB
VCC
VIO
“X”
“X”
“off”
STB “0”
STB
VCC
VIO
0
“off”
“on”
Stand-by
mode
Figure 18
STB
VCC
VIO
1
“X”
“on”
Stand-by Mode to Forced-Stand-by Mode
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Failure Management
8
Failure Management
This chapter describes typical bus communication failures.
8.1
TxD Dominant Time-out Detection
The TxD dominant time-out detection of TLE7251V protects the CAN bus from being permanently driven to
dominant level. When detecting a TxD dominant time-out, the TLE7251V disables the transmitter in order to
release the CAN bus. Without the TxD dominant time-out detection, a CAN bus would be clamped to the
dominant level and therefore would block any data transmission on the CAN bus. This failure may occur for
example due to TxD pin shorted to ground.
The TxD dominant time-out detection can be reset after a dominant to recessive transition at the TxD pin. A
“high” signal must be applied to the TxD input for at least tTXD_release = 200 ns to reset the TxD dominant timer.
TxD
t
t > tTxD_release
t > tTxD
t < tTxD_release
CANH
CANL
t
RxD
t
TxD time-out
Figure 19
TxD time–out released
Resetting TxD Dominant Time-out Detection
If a TxD Dominant Time-out is present, then a mode change to Stand-by mode clears the TxD dominant timer
state.
8.2
Minimum Baud Rate and Maximum TxD Dominant Phase
Due to the TxD dominant time-out detection of the TLE7251V the maximum TxD dominant phase is limited by
the minimum TxD dominant time-out time tTxD = 4.5ms. The CAN protocol allows a maximum of 11 subsequent
dominant bits at TxD pin (worst case dominant bits followed immediately by an error frame). With a minimum
value of 4.5 ms given in the datasheet and maximum possible 11 dominant bits, the minimum baud rate of the
application must be higher than 2.44 kbit/s.
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Failure Management
8.3
Short Circuit
Figure 20 shows short circuit types on the HS CAN bus. The CANH and CANL pins are short circuit proof to GND
and to supply voltage. A current limiting circuit protects the transceiver from damage. If the device heats up
due to a permanent short at CANH or CANL, then the overtemperature protection switches off the transmitter.
Depending on the type of short circuit on CANH and CANL, communication might be still possible. If only CANL
is shorted to GND or only CANH is shorted to VBAT, then dominant and recessive states may be recognized by
the receiver. Timings and/or differential output voltages might be not valid according to ISO11898 but still in
the range for the receiver working properly.
Case 1
VBAT Case 3
VCC
CANH
Case 5
Case 2
VBAT Case 4
Case 7
VCC
CANL
Case 6
Figure 20
HS CAN Bus Short Circuit Types
Communication on the HS CAN bus is blocked in the following cases:
•
CANH and CANL shorted (Case7)
•
CANH shorted to GND (Case 5)
•
CANL shorted to VBAT (Case 2) or VCC (Case 4)
If a short circuit occurs, then the VCC supply current for the transceiver can increase significantly. It is
recommended to dimension the voltage regulator for the worst case, especially when VCC also supplies the
microcontroller. VCC supply current only increases in dominant state. The recessive current remains almost
unchanged.
CANH shorted to GND
The datasheet specifies a maximum short circuit current of 100mA. When transmitting a dominant state to the
bus, 5V is shorted to GND through the transmitter output stage. Power dissipation with 10% duty cycle (DCD)
is:
P = DCD x U x I = 0.1 x 5V x 100mA = 0.05W.
The average fault current with worst case parameters and assuming a realistic duty cycle of 10% is:
ICC,Fault = ICC,rec x 0.9 + I CANH,SC x 0.1 = 13.6mA.
CANL shorted to VBAT
If CANL is shorted to VBAT, then the current through the CANL output stage is even higher and the device heats
up faster. The datasheet specifies a maximum short circuit current of 100mA. When transmitting a dominant
state to the bus, VBAT is shorted to GND through the transmitter output stage. Assuming a realistic duty cycle
of 10% for this case and the power dissipation is:
P = DCD x U x I = 0.1 x VBAT x 100mA = 0.1 x 18V x 100mA = 0.18W.
CANH shorted to VBAT
Short circuit of CANH to VBAT can result in a permanent dominant state on the HS CAN bus, due to the voltage
drop at the termination resistor. Therefore the termination resistor has to be chosen accordingly. If a short
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Failure Management
circuit of CANH to VBAT occurs, then the power loss in the termination resistor must be taken into account.
Figure 21 shows the current in case CANH is shorted to VBAT. When transmitting a dominant state to the bus,
the current flows through the termination resistor an CANL to GND. Power loss in the termination resistor and
CANL assuming a battery voltage of 18 V and a duty cycle of 10% is:
PLoss_Termination = 0.1 x (RTermination x ICANL,SC)x ICANL,SC= (60Ω x 100mA) x 100mA = 0.6W
PLoss_CANL = 0.1 x (VBAT - (RTermination x ICANL,SC)) x ICANL,SC)= 0.1 x (18V-6V) x 100mA = 0.1 x 12V x 100mA = 0.12W
CANH shorted to VBAT
CANH
CANH
ICANL_SC
CAN
Transceiver
CAN
Transceiver
60Ω
CANL
CANL
Figure 21
Current Flowing in Case of a Short Circuit CANH to VBAT
8.4
TLE7251V Junction Temperature
In Normal-operating mode highest power dissipation occurs with 50% duty cycle (D) at an ambient
temperature of 150 °C:
PNM,MAX = D × (ICC_R × VCC,max) + D × (ICC_D x VCC,max) + (IO × VIO,max) =
= 0.5 × (4 mA × 5.5 V) + 0.5 x (60 mA × 5.5 V) + (1.5 mA × 5.5 V) = 184.25 mW.
Junction temperature increases due to power dissipation and depending on the package.
However, typical conditions are more like this: ambient temperature is below 150 °C, overall duty cycle is less
than 50%, and supply voltages VCC and VIO have their typical values instead of maximum values.
Power dissipation is much lower for such typical conditions:
PNM,AVG = D × (ICC_R,Typ × VCC,AVG) + D × (ICC_D,Typ x VCC,AVG) + (IO,Typ × VIO,AVG) =
= 0.9 × (2 mA × 5 V) + 0.1 x (38 mA × 5 V) + (1 mA × 3.3 V) = 23.3 mW.
Table 4
Increase of Junction Temperature ∆Tj
Package
Rthja
∆Tj
Conditions
PG-DSO-8
120 K/W
22.1 K
PG-TSON-8
65 K/W
12 K
PNM,MAX = 184.25 mW;
Tamb = 150 °C;
50% duty cycle;
VCC = VCC,max; VIO = VIO,max
PG-DSO-8
120 K/W
2.8 K
PG-TSON-8
65 K/W
1.5 K
PG-DSO-8
120 K/W
6K
PG-TSON-8
65 K/W
3.25K
PG-DSO-8
120 K/W
21.62K
PG-TSON-8
65 K/W
11.72K
Application Note
26
PNM,AVG = 23.3 mW;
Tamb = 80 °C;
10% duty cycle;
VCC = VCC,typ; VIO = VIO,typ
Short Circuit CANH to GND
10% duty cycle;
Short Circuit CANL to VBAT
10% duty cycle;
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Failure Management
If a short circuit occurs, then the TLE7251V heats up. The higher the duty cycle, the higher the power
dissipation and thermal shutdown can occur due to high temperature. The receiver is still enabled with only
the transmitter disabled. The behavior is identical to Receive-only mode.
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Terms and Abbreviations
Table 5
Terms and Abbreviations
CMC
Common mode choke
EMC
Electromagnetic compatibility
EME
Electromagnetic emission
EMI
Electromagnetic interference
EOS
Electrical overstress
ESD
Electrostatic discharge
ESR
Equivalent Series Resistance
“high” logical high
“low” logical low
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Revision History
9
Revision History
Revision
Date
Changes
1.1
2016-05-03
TxD Dominant time-out detection updated Figure 19;
1.0
2016-01-25
Application Note created
Application Note
29
Rev. 1.1
2016-05-03
Please read the Important Notice and Warnings at the end of this document
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µHVIC™, µIPM™, µPFC™, AU-ConvertIR™, AURIX™, C166™, CanPAK™, CIPOS™, CIPURSE™, CoolDP™, CoolGaN™, COOLiR™, CoolMOS™, CoolSET™, CoolSiC™,
DAVE™, DI-POL™, DirectFET™, DrBlade™, EasyPIM™, EconoBRIDGE™, EconoDUAL™, EconoPACK™, EconoPIM™, EiceDRIVER™, eupec™, FCOS™, GaNpowIR™,
HEXFET™, HITFET™, HybridPACK™, iMOTION™, IRAM™, ISOFACE™, IsoPACK™, LEDrivIR™, LITIX™, MIPAQ™, ModSTACK™, my-d™, NovalithIC™, OPTIGA™,
OptiMOS™, ORIGA™, PowIRaudio™, PowIRStage™, PrimePACK™, PrimeSTACK™, PROFET™, PRO-SIL™, RASIC™, REAL3™, SmartLEWIS™, SOLID FLASH™,
SPOC™, StrongIRFET™, SupIRBuck™, TEMPFET™, TRENCHSTOP™, TriCore™, UHVIC™, XHP™, XMC™.
Trademarks updated November 2015
Other Trademarks
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Edition 2016-05-03
Published by
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© 2006 Infineon Technologies AG.
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Z8F54978225
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