DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Neutron Irradiation Test Results of the RH1009MW 2.5V Reference 19 March 2015 Duc Nguyen, Sana Rezgui Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Signal Conditioning Product and Test Engineering Group from Linear Technology for the data collection pre- and post-irradiations. Special thanks are also for Thomas Regan from University of Massachusetts, Lowell (UMASS) for the help with the neutrons irradiation tests. P a g e 1 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Neutron Radiation Test Results of the RH1009MW 2.5V Reference Part Type Tested: RH1009MW 2.5V Reference Traceability Information: Fab Lot# WP1399.1; Wafer # 5; Assembly Lot # 601397.1, Date Code 1047A. See photograph of unit under test in Appendix A. Quantity of Units: 7 units received, 2 units for control, and 5 units for unbiased irradiation. Serial numbers 335-339 were placed in an anti-static foam during irradiation. Serial numbers 345 and 346 were used as control. See Appendix B for the radiation bias connection tables. Radiation Dose: Total fluence of 1E12 neutron/cm2. Radiation Test Standard: MIL-STD-883 TM1017 and Linear Technology RH1009 I.D. No. 6610-0174 Rev. C 0607. Test Hardware and Software: LTX test program EQ1CR136.00 Facility and Radiation Source: University of Massachusetts, Lowell and Reactor Facility-FNI. Irradiation and Test Temperature: Room temperature controlled to 24°C±6°C per MIL-STD-883 and MIL-STD-750. SUMMARY ALL FIVE PARTS PASSED THE ELECTRICAL TEST LIMITS AS SPECIFIED IN THE DATASHEET AFTER IRRADIATION TO 1E12 N/cm2. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CAN BE PROVIDED PER REQUEST. P a g e 2 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 1.0 Overview and Background Neutron particles incident on semiconductor materials lose energy along their paths. The energy loss produces electron-hole pairs (ionization) and displaces atoms in the material lattice (displacement damage defects or DDD). DDD induces a mixture of isolated and clustered defects or broken bonds. Such defects elevate the energy level of the material and consequently change material and electrical properties. The altering energy level creates the combination of any of the following processes, thermal generation of electron-hole pairs, recombination, trapping, compensation, tunneling, affecting hence the devices’ basic features. Bipolar technology is susceptible to neutron displacement damage around a fluence level of 1E12 neutron/cm2. The neutron radiation test for the RH1009MW determines the change in device performance as a function of neutrons’ fluence. 2.0 Radiation Facility: Five samples were irradiated unbiased at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell, using the Reactor Facility-FNI. The neutron flux was determined by system S/P-32, method ASTM E-265, to be 4.05E9 N/cm2-s (1MeV equivalent) for each irradiation step. Refer to Appendix C for the certificate of dosimetry. 3.0 Test Conditions Five samples and two control units were electrically tested at 25°C prior to irradiation. The testing was performed on the two control units to confirm the operation of the test system prior to the electrical testing of the 7 units (5 irradiated and 2 control). During irradiation, devices were placed into an anti-static bag. Devices were then vertically aligned with the radiation source. The criteria to pass the neutron displacement damage test is that five irradiated samples must pass the datasheet limits. If any of the tested parameters of these five units do not meet the required limits then a failure-analysis of the part should be conducted in accordance with method 5004, MIL-STD-883, and if valid the lot will be scrapped. P a g e 3 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 4.0 Tested Parameters The following parameters were measured pre- and post-irradiations: - Reverse Breakdown Voltage Vz (V) Reverse Breakdown Voltage Change with Current ∆Vz/∆Iz (mV) Reverse Dynamic Impedance rz (Ω) Appendix D details the test conditions, minimum and maximum values at different accumulated doses. P a g e 4 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 5.0 Test Results All five samples passed the post-irradiation electrical tests. All measurements of the three listed parameters in section 4.0 are within the specification limits. The used statistics in this report are based on the tolerance limits, which are bounds to gage the quality of the manufactured products. It assumes that if the quality of the items is normally distributed with known mean and known standard deviation, the two-sided tolerance limits can be calculated as follows: +KTL = mean + (KTL) (standard deviation) -KTL = mean - (KTL) (standard deviation) Where +KTL is the upper tolerance limit and -KTL is the lower tolerance limit. These tolerance limits are defined in a table of inverse normal probability distribution. However, in most cases, mean and standard deviations are unknown and therefore it is practical to estimate both of them from a sample. Hence the tolerance limit depends greatly on the sample size. The Ps90%/90% KTL factor for a lot quality P of 0.9, confidence C of 0.9 with a sample size of 5, can be found from the tabulated table (MIL-HDBK-814, page 94, table IX-B). The KTL factor in this report is 2.742. In the plots, the dashed lines with X-markers are the measured data points of five post-irradiated samples. The solid lines with square symbols are the computed KTL values of five post-irradiated samples with the application of the KTL statistics. The orange solid lines with circle markers are the datasheet specification limits. The post-irradiation test limits are using Linear Technology datasheets 100 Krads(Si) specification limits. P a g e 5 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 2.506 Reverse Breakdown Voltage (V) @ 1mA Specification MAX 2.504 Ps90%/90% (+KTL) Unbias 2.502 2.5 Average Unbias 2.498 Ps90%/90% (-KTL) Unbias 2.496 Specification MIN 2.494 0 5E+11 Total Fluence 1E+12 1.5E+12 (neutrons/cm2) Figure 5.1 Plot of Reverse Breakdown Voltage Vref versus Total Fluence P a g e 6 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Table 5.1: Raw data table for Reverse Breakdown Voltage of pre- and post-irradiation (1E12 N/cm2) including the statistical calculations, maximum specification, and the status of the test (PASS/FAIL). Parameter Reverse Breakdown Voltage @1mA Total Fluences (N/cm 2 ) Units (V) 0 1E+12 335 Unbias Irradiation 2.49930 2.4994 336 Unbias Irradiation 2.49987 2.5011 337 Unbias Irradiation 2.49917 2.5010 338 Unbias Irradiation 2.49714 2.4990 339 Unbias Irradiation 2.50158 2.5028 345 Control Unit 2.50212 2.5021 346 Control Unit 2.50222 2.5022 Unbias Irradiation Statistics Average Unbias 2.49941 2.50064 Std Dev Unbias 0.00159 0.00151 Ps90%/90% (+KTL) Unbias 2.50378 2.50477 Ps90%/90% (-KTL) Unbias 2.49504 2.49651 Specification MIN 2.495 2.495 Status (Measurements) PASS PASS Specification MAX 2.505 2.505 Status (Measurements) PASS PASS Status (-KTL) Unbias Status (+KTL) Unbias PASS PASS PASS PASS P a g e 7 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 ∆VZ/IZ (mV) @ 400uA ≤ IR ≤ 10mA (mV) -2.00 -3.00 Ps90%/90% (+KTL) Unbias -4.00 -5.00 Average Unbias -6.00 -7.00 Ps90%/90% (-KTL) Unbias -8.00 -9.00 Specification MIN -10.00 -11.00 0 5E+11 Total Fluence 1E+12 1.5E+12 (neutrons/cm2) Figure 5.2: Plot of Delta VZ/Iz versus Total Fluence P a g e 8 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Table 5.2: Raw data table for Delta VZ/IZ of pre- and post-irradiation (1E12 N/cm2) including the statistical calculations, maximum specification, and the status of the test (PASS/FAIL). Parameter Units 335 336 337 338 339 345 346 Delta VZ/IZ @ IR=400uA TO 10mA Total Fluence (N/cm 2) (mV) 0 1E+12 Unbias Irradiation -3.90911 -4.22287 Unbias Irradiation -3.47710 -4.35066 Unbias Irradiation -4.03786 -4.80652 Unbias Irradiation -3.35693 -4.14276 Unbias Irradiation -3.49522 -4.56238 Control Unit -3.47233 -3.55148 Control Unit -3.53909 -3.57533 Unbias Irradiation Statistics Average Unbias -3.65524 -4.41704 Std Dev Unbias 0.29882 0.26933 Ps90%/90% (+KTL) Unbias -2.83588 -3.67854 Ps90%/90% (-KTL) Unbias -4.47461 -5.15554 Specification MIN -6 -10 Status (Measurements) PASS PASS Specification MAX Status (Measurements) Status (-KTL) Unbias Status (+KTL) Unbias PASS PASS P a g e 9 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Reverse Dynamic Impedance (Ohm) 1.100 1.000 Specification MAX 0.900 0.800 Ps90%/90% (+KTL) Unbiased 0.700 0.600 Average Unbiased 0.500 0.400 Ps90%/90% (-KTL) Unbiased 0.300 0.200 0 5E+11 1E+12 Total Fluences (neutrons/cm2) 1.5E+12 Figure 5.3: Plot of Reverse Dynamic Impedance RZ versus Total Fluence P a g e 10 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Table 5.3: Raw data table for Reverse Dynamic Impedance of pre- and post-irradiation (1E12 N/cm2) including the statistical calculations, minimum specification, maximum specification, and the status of the test (PASS/FAIL). Reverse Dynamic Impedance Parameter Total Fluences (N/cm2) Units (Ohms) 0 1E+12 335 Unbiased Irradiation 0.39091 0.42229 336 Unbiased Irradiation 0.34771 0.43507 337 Unbiased Irradiation 0.40379 0.48065 338 Unbiased Irradiation 0.33569 0.41428 339 Unbiased Irradiation 0.34952 0.45624 345 Control Unit 0.34723 0.35515 346 Control Unit 0.35391 0.35753 Unbiased Irradiation Statistics Average Unbiased 0.36552 0.44170 Std Dev Unbiased 0.02988 0.02693 Ps90%/90% (+KTL) Unbiased 0.44746 0.51555 Ps90%/90% (-KTL) Unbiased 0.28359 0.36785 Specification MIN Status (Measurements) Unbiased Specification MAX 0.6 1 Status (Measurements) Unbiased PASS PASS Status (+KTL) Unbiased Status (-KTL) Unbiased PASS PASS P a g e 11 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Appendix A Pictures of one among five samples used in the test. Figure A1: Top View showing part number and date code Figure A2: Bottom View showing serial number P a g e 12 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Appendix B Radiation Bias Connection Table Table B1: Unbiased condition Pin Function Connection 1 2 3 NC NC NC VNC NC ADJ V+ NC NC Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 P a g e 13 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Figure B1: Pin-Out P a g e 14 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Appendix C P a g e 15 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION DDD RH1009MW WP1399.1 W5 Appendix D Table D1: Electrical Characteristics of Device-Under-Test Parameter Vz Delta Vz/I z rz Pre-irradiation MIN MAX 10 Krad(Si) MIN MAX 20 Krad(Si) MIN MAX 50 Krad(Si) MIN MAX 100 Krad(Si) MIN MAX 200 Krad(Si) MIN MAX Units 2.495 2.505 2.495 2.505 2.495 2.505 2.495 2.505 2.495 2.505 2.495 2.505 V 6 6 6 8 10 12 mV 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.4 ohm P a g e 16 | 16 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

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