DC1830A - Demo Manual

DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
LTC4000
Battery Charger Controller
and PowerPath Manager
DESCRIPTION
Demonstration circuit 1830A is a battery charger controller
and PowerPath™ manager featuring the LTC®4000. This
board should be connected to a front-end DC/DC power
supply for a complete charger solution.
The DC1830A is customizable to handle a wide variety
of applications with output voltages from 3V to 30V and
output currents up to 6.5A with the PFETs supplied, and up
to 60V and/or 13A with higher voltage rating and/or added
PFETs. The reference design provided with DC1830A is
targeted at 4-cell LiFePO4 (14.6V/5A) applications.
The DC1830A loop compensation values were proven with
the LTC3845A buck power converter shown and are typical for other applications. The output of this demo board
was specifically tailored for a Tenergy 10A-hour battery,
P/N 30207. Other voltages can be set by changing ROFB2
and RBFB2. The desired nominal voltage can be accurately
trimmed by using trim resistors ROFBX and RBFBX. For
example, for 14.4V battery float voltage, change ROFB2
and RBFB2 to 86.6k, and add 7.5M at ROFBX and RBFBX
for greater setpoint accuracy. Other parameters can be adjusted to suit specific applications with guidance provided
in the LTC4000 data sheet. Table 1 provides a summary
of parameter adjustments.
This circuit was designed to demonstrate the high levels
of performance and small solution size attainable using
PERFORMANCE SUMMARY
SYMBOL
VIN
IIN
VFLOAT
VFLOAT
IBAT
tT
VOUT-SYS
IOUT-SYS
PARAMETER
Input Supply Range
Input Current Limit
Battery Float Voltage
Output Regulation
Battery Charge Current
Battery Charge Current—Trickle
Charge Termination Time
System Output Voltage
System Output Current Range
this IC to control a switch mode power converter to form
a battery charger, intelligent PowerPath manager, and
power supply system. It produces a regulated 5.0A/14.6V
battery charger output as well as a system output of up to
5.5A: suitable for a wide variety of portable applications
including instruments, industrial equipment, power tools
and computers.
The DC1830A-A provides a solution complete with both
battery charger control and PowerPath managment. It
includes a second PFET (Q2) between VOUT-SYS and
BAT to provide Instant-On functionality which keeps
VOUT-SYS within a narrow range regardless of battery
voltage, and disconnects the battery when it is fully charged
and power is available from the front-end DC/DC converter.
Thermal regulation circuitry is also provided to limit the
temperature of both PFETs. The DC1830A-B provides a
simple battery-charger-controller only solution without
the PowerPath manager. It deletes the second PFET and
thermal regulation circuitry. In this case, the battery is
always “online” and VOUT-SYS tracks the BAT Voltage.
Design files for this circuit board are available at
http://www.linear.com/demo
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered trademarks and
PowerPath is a trademark of Linear Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the
property of their respective owners.
Specifications are at TA = 25°C
CONDITIONS/COMMENTS
This Is the Input Voltage of the Front-End DC/DC Supply
This Is the Input Current Limit Set by the LTC4000
MIN
20
14.4
Line and Load (20V to 60V, 0A to 4.5A)
VBAT = VFLOAT
*Input Current Limited Below 35VIN
12.3
0
TYP
3.0
14.6
±0.005
5.0
0.6
2.9
14.6
MAX
60
14.8
15.5
5.5*
UNITS
V
A
V
%
A
A
Hours
V
A
dc1830af
1
DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
QUICK START PROCEDURE
Demonstration circuit 1830 is offered for use in combination with a front-end DC/DC converter, and will need
to be customized to suit the intended application. It has
been supplied with components for a design as outlined
in the performance summary, and tested in conjunction
with the LTC3845A buck converter that it was tailored
to. A separate demonstration board is available for the
LTC4000/LTC3789 buck-boost combination, the DC1721A.
The LTC4000 data sheet should be used for guidance in
determining circuit values for the application at hand. You
may follow the design example on page 26 of the data sheet.
Table 1 provides a summary of parameter adjustments.
NOTE: The PFETs supplied on this board are rated at 30V.
Once the circuit has been customized to suit the application
at hand, it is easy to set up to evaluate the performance
of the LTC4000 when combined with a suitable switching
power converter, such as the LTC3845A. See page 9 for
the modified DC1619A/LTC3845A schematic.Voltages
and currents cited in this procedure are for the design as
delivered; if the design has been customized, substitute the
appropriate values. Refer to Figure 1 for proper measurement equipment setup and follow the procedure below:
Warning: Batteries Are Potentially Dangerous High Energy
Sources. Improper Connection, Overcharge, or Rapid
Discharge Could Result in Explosion and/or Fire.
1. Set an input power supply that is capable of 60V and
3A, to 24V. Then turn off the supply.
2. With power off, connect the supply to the input terminals VIN and GND.
NOTE:
a. Input voltages lower than 20V can keep the converter
from turning on due to the undervoltage lockout
feature of the LTC4000.
b. If efficiency measurements are desired, refer to
Figure 1 for the test setup.
3. Set CHARGE jumper to ENABLE.
4. Turn on the power at the input.
NOTE: Make sure that the input voltage never exceeds
60V.
5. Check for the proper BAT output voltage of 14.6V.
Turn off the power at the input.
6. Now that the proper output voltage is established,
connect a variable load capable of sinking 6A at 16V
to the output terminals BAT and GND. Set the current
for 0A.
7. Turn on the power at the input.
NOTE: If there is no output, temporarily disconnect
the load to make sure that the load is not set too high.
8. Once the proper BAT output voltage is again established, adjust the load and/or source within the operating range and observe the battery float voltage regulation, charge current, and other desired parameters.
9. Set the load to constant voltage mode to more easily
observe charge current and trickle charge current.
NOTE: The following applies to the DC1830A-A.
NOTE: Operation in the Instant-On region (VOUT <
12.5V) may engage thermal limit circuit to protect Q2
in the linear region.
NOTE: The optional thermal limit circuit for Q1 (Q5,
RNTC3, R8-12 and U2) is included to protect Q1 in
case of an extended short circuit on VOUT-SYS under
adverse thermal conditions (TA > 40°C). It may not
be needed in applications with less severe thermal
conditions, lower current available to VOUT-SYS, or
where continuous short-circuit protection on VOUTSYS is not required.
10. Turn off the power at the input.
11. Connect the output load and meters to the VOUT-SYS
output.
12. Set CHARGE jumper to DISABLE.
13. Turn on the power at the input.
14. Once the proper VOUT-SYS is again established, adjust
the load and/or source within the operating range and
observe the output voltage regulation, ripple voltage,
efficiency, input and output current limit, and other
desired parameters.
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2
DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
QUICK START PROCEDURE
Table 1. LTC4000 Charger Setup Parameters and Reference Values
REFERENCE
DESCRIPTION
NOMINAL VALUE (V)*
MIN/MAX
CONDITIONS
IIL
Input Current Regulation/Limit
(50μA • RIL)/20
45μA/55μA
50mV Max
ICL
Charge Current Regulation/Limit
(50μA • RCL)/20
45μA/55μA
50mV Max
Trickle Charge Current Regulation/Limit
(5μA • RCL)/20
4.5μA/5.5μA
50mV Max
VBAT-FLOAT
Battery Float Voltage
1.136V
1.125V/1.147V
VOUT
System Voltage
1.193V
1.181V/1.204V
Charger Off
(Follows VBAT)
Charger Float
(Follows VBAT)
Charging at ICL, 0.86 • VBAT-FLOAT
< VBAT < VBAT-FLOAT
0.86 • 1.136V
0.82/0.90
Instant-On, 0.68 • VBAT-FLOAT <
VBAT < 0.86 • VBAT-FLOAT
0.86 • 1.136V
0.82/0.90
Instant-On, Trickle, VBAT < 0.68 •
VBAT-FLOAT
VM
Input Voltage Monitor/UVLO
1.193V
1.181V/1.204V
Falling, (40mV Hysteresis)
CX
C/X Monitor/Charge Termination
(5μA • RCX – 10mV)/20
4.5μA/5.5μA
Short TMR to BIAS for C/X
Termination
TMR
Charge Termination Timer
104s/nF
83s/nF/126s/nF
*Normalized to sense point
OR
–
–
DC
SOURCE
+
+
+
+
V
A
+
V
SCOPE
–
–
A
–
+
LOAD
–
Figure 1. Fixture Connections and Measurement Equipment Setup
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3
DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
QUICK START PROCEDURE
Figure 2. Block Diagram with Typical DC/DC Converter
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4
DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
PARTS LIST
ITEM
QTY
REFERENCE
PART DESCRIPTION
MANUFACTURER/PART NUMBER
DC1380A-A Required Circuit Components
1
1
C1
CAP., X5R, 4.7μF, 10V, 20% 0603
AVX, 0603ZD475MAT2A
2
1
CBAT
CAP., SMT ALUMINUM, 150μF, 35V
SUNCON, 35HVH150M
3
1
CBIAS
CAP., X7R, 1μF, 16V, 10% 0603
AVX, 0603YC105KAT2A
4
1
CBGATE
CAP., X7R, 10nF, 25V, 5% 0603
AVX, 06033C103JAT2A
5
2
CC2, CTMR
CAP., X7R, 0.1μF, 50V, 10% 0603
AVX, 06035C104KAT2A
6
2
CIIMON, CIBMON
CAP., C0G, 1000pF, 25V, 5% 0603
AVX, 06033A102JAT2A
7
1
CIN
CAP., X7R, 1μF, 50V, 10% 1210
AVX, 12105C105KAT2A
8
1
CL
CAP., X7R, 2.2μF, 50V, 10% 1206
MURATA, GRM31CR71H225KA88L
9
1
D1
DIODE ZENER 3.0V 350MW SOT23-3
DIODE INC., BZX84C3V0-7-F
10
2
D3, D5
LED, RED HI BRT SS TYPE LO CUR SMT, 0603
PANASONIC, LNJ208R8ARA
11
1
D4
LED, GREEN, SMT, 0603
LITE-ON, LTST-C190KGKT
12
1
F2
FUSE 12A 32V T-LAG 1206 SMD
COOPER BUSSMAN, 3216TD12-R
13
2
Q1, Q2
MOSFET P-CHAN., 30V, POWERPAK-8
VISHAY, SI7135DP-T1-GE3
14
2
Q5, Q6
SMALL-SIGNAL MOSFET
ON SEMI., 2N7002LT1G
15
1
R5
RES., CHIP., 2.2k, 0.1W, 5% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW06032K2JKEA
16
2
R6, R18
RES., CHIP., 4.7k, 0.1W, 5% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW06034K7JKEA
17
4
R8, R13, RCX, RVM2
RES., CHIP., 10k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
YAGEO, RC0603FR-0710KL
18
1
R9
RES., CHIP., 46.4k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060346K4FKEA
19
2
R10, R15
RES., CHIP., 20k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060320K0FKEA
20
2
R11, R16
RES., CHIP., 38.3k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060338K3FKEA
21
2
R12, R17
RES., CHIP., 1M, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW06031M00FKEA
22
1
R14
RES., CHIP., 78.7k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060378K7FKEA
23
2
RBFB1, ROFB1
RES., CHIP., 1M, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW06031M00FKEA
24
2
RBFB2, ROFB2
RES., CHIP., 84.5k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060384K5FKEA
25
1
RC1
RES., CHIP., 4.22k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
YAGEO, RC0603FR-07422KL
26
1
RCL
RES., CHIP., 24.3k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060324K3FKEA
27
1
RIL
RES., CHIP., 18.2K, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060318K2FKEA
28
1
RCS
SENSOR RES., 0.01Ω 1W 2% 1508 SMD
SUSUMU, RL3720WT-R010-G
29
1
RIS1
SENSOR RES., 0.015Ω 1W 2% 1508 SMD
SUSUMU, RL3720WT-R015-G
30
2
RNTC2, RNTC3
THERMISTOR NTC 10k 5% 0603
VISHAY, NTHS0603N02N1002J
31
1
RVM1
RES., CHIP., 143k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW0603143KFKEA
32
3
R4, R7, R19
RES., CHIP., 100k, 0.1W, 5% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW0603100KJKEA
33
1
U1
I.C., LTC4000EUFD, 28-PIN QFN
LINEAR TECH., LTC4000EUFD#PBF
34
2
U2, U3
NANOPWR COMPARATOR, MSOP8
LINEAR TECH., LTC1540CMS8#PBF
dc1830af
5
DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
PARTS LIST
ITEM
QTY
REFERENCE
PART DESCRIPTION
MANUFACTURER/PART NUMBER
DC1380A-A Additional Demo Board Circuit Components
1
0
CC1, CIGATE, CNTC, CCX, CCL, CIL, CVM CAP.,0603
OPT
2
0
CL1, CL2, CL3, CL4, CL5
CAP.,1206
OPT
3
0
D2
DIODE ZENER, SOT23-3
OPT
4
0
F1, F3
FUSE 12A 32V T-LAG 1206 SMD
OPT
5
0
JUMPER
JUMPER WIRE (NO INSTALL)
6
0
Q3
MOSFET P-CHAN., 30V, POWERPAK-8
7
0
Q4
OPT
8
0
R1, R2, R3, R20, RCL, RIG, RBG, RBFBX, RES., 0603
ROFBX, ROFB2
OPT
OPT
DC1380A-A Hardware—For Demo Board Only
1
14
E1-E6, E9-E14, E18, E19
TESTPOINT, TURRET, 0.061" PBF
MILL-MAX, 2308-2-00-80-00-00-07-0
2
5
E7, E8, E15, E16, E17
TESTPOINT, TURRET, 0.094" PBF
MILL-MAX, 2501-2-00-80-00-00-07-0
3
4
JP1, JP2, JP3, JP4
HEADER, 3-PIN 0.079 SINGLE ROW
SAMTEC, TMM-103-02-L-S
4
4
XJP1, XJP2, XJP3, XJP4
SHUNT, 0.079" CENTER
SAMTEC, 2SN-BK-G
5
9
J1, J2, J3, J4, J5, J6, J7, J8, J9
CONNECTOR, BANANA JACK
KEYSTONE, 575-4
6
4
MTG1, MTG2, MTG3, MTG4
STAND-OFF, NYLON (SNAP ON), 0.50" TALL
KEYSTONE, 8833(SNAP ON)
DC1380A-B Required Circuit Components
1
1
C1
CAP., X5R, 4.7μF, 10V, 20% 0603
AVX, 0603ZD475MAT2A
2
1
CBAT
CAP., SMT ALUMINUM, 150μF, 35V
SUNCON, 35HVH150M
3
1
CBIAS
CAP., X7R, 1μF, 16V, 10% 0603
AVX, 0603YC105KAT2A
4
2
CC2, CTMR
CAP., X7R, 0.1μF, 50V, 10% 0603
AVX, 06035C104KAT2A
5
2
CIIMON, CIBMON
CAP., C0G, 1000pF, 25V, 5% 0603
AVX, 06033A102JAT2A
6
1
CIN
CAP., X7R, 1μF, 50V, 10% 1210
AVX, 12105C105KAT2A
7
1
D1
DIODE ZENER 3.0V 350MW SOT23-3
DIODE INC., BZX84C3V0-7-F
8
2
D3, D5
LED, RED HI BRT SS TYPE LO CUR SMT, 0603
PANASONIC, LNJ208R8ARA
9
1
D4
LED, GREEN, SMT, 0603
LITE-ON, LTST-C190KGKT
10
1
F2
FUSE 12A 32V T-LAG 1206 SMD
COOPER BUSSMAN, 3216TD12-R
11
1
JUMPER
JUMPER WIRE (INSTALLED)
12
1
Q1
MOSFET P-CHAN., 30V, POWERPAK-8
VISHAY, SI7135DP-T1-GE3
13
1
Q2
ZERO OHM THICK FILM JUMPER CHIP, 2010
IRC., LRC-LRZ-2010LF-R000
14
1
R5
RES., CHIP., 2.2k, 0.1W, 5% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW06032K2JKEA
15
2
R6, R18
RES., CHIP., 4.7k, 0.1W, 5% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW06034K7JKEA
16
1
RVM2
RES., CHIP., 10k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
YAGEO, RC0603FR-0710KL
17
2
RBFB1, ROFB1
RES., CHIP., 1M, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW06031M00FKEA
18
1
RBFB2
RES., CHIP., 84.5k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060384K5FKEA
19
1
RC1
RES., CHIP., 4.22k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
YAGEO, RC0603FR-07422KL
dc1830af
6
DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
PARTS LIST
ITEM
QTY
REFERENCE
PART DESCRIPTION
MANUFACTURER/PART NUMBER
20
1
RCL
RES., CHIP., 24.3k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060324K3FKEA
21
1
RIL
RES., CHIP., 18.2k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW060318K2FKEA
22
1
RCS
SENSOR RES., 0.01Ω 1W 2% 1508 SMD
SUSUMU, RL3720WT-R010-G
22
1
RCX
RES., CHIP., 0.0Ω, 0.1W, 0603
VISHAY, CRCW06030000Z0EA
23
1
RIS1
SENSOR RES., 0.015Ω 1W 2% 1508 SMD
SUSUMU, RL3720WT-R015-G
24
1
RVM1
RES., CHIP., 143k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW0603143KFKEA
25
4
R4, R7, R14, R19
RES., CHIP., 100k, 0.1W, 5% 0603
VISHAY, CRCW0603100KJKEA
26
1
U1
I.C., LTC4000EUFD, 28-PIN QFN
LINEAR TECH., LTC4000EUFD#PBF
DC1380A-B Additional Demo Board Circuit Components
1
0
CC1, CIGATE, CNTC, CCX, CCL, CIL, CVM CAP., 0603
2
0
CBGATE
NO INSTALL
OPT
3
0
CL
CAP., 1206, 50V
OPT
4
0
CL1, CL2, CL3, CL4, CL5
CAP., 1206
OPT
5
0
D2
DIODE ZENER, SOT23-3
OPT
6
0
F1,F3
FUSE 12A 32V T-LAG 1206 SMD
OPT
7
0
Q3, Q4
MOSFET P-CHAN., 30V, POWERPAK-8
OPT
8
0
Q5, Q6
SMALL-SIGNAL MOSFET
OPT, ON SEMI., 2N7002LT1G
9
0
R1, R2, R3, R20, RCL, RIG, RBG, RBFBX, RES., 0603
ROFBX, ROFB2
10
0
R8, R13
RES., CHIP., 10k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
OPT, YAGEO, RC0603FR-0710KL
11
0
R9
RES., CHIP., 68.1k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
OPT, VISHAY, CRCW060368K1FKEA
12
0
R10, R15
RES., CHIP., 20k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
OPT, VISHAY, CRCW060320K0FKEA
13
0
R11, R16
RES., CHIP., 38.3k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
OPT, VISHAY, CRCW060338K3FKEA
14
0
R12, R17
RES., CHIP., 1M, 0.1W, 1% 0603
OPT, VISHAY, CRCW06031M00FKEA
15
0
R14
RES., CHIP., 78.7k, 0.1W, 1% 0603
OPT, VISHAY, CRCW060378K7FKEA
16
0
RNTC2, RNTC3
THERMISTOR NTC 10k 5% 0603
OPT, VISHAY, NTHS0603N02N1002J
17
0
U2,U3
NANOPWR COMPARATOR, MSOP8
OPT, LINEAR TECH.,
LTC1540CMS8#PBF
OPT
DC1380A-B Hardware—For Demo Board Only
1
14
E1-E6, E9-E14, E18, E19
TESTPOINT, TURRET, 0.061" PBF
MILL-MAX, 2308-2-00-80-00-00-07-0
2
5
E7, E8, E15, E16, E17
TESTPOINT, TURRET, 0.094" PBF
MILL-MAX, 2501-2-00-80-00-00-07-0
3
4
JP1, JP2, JP3, JP4
HEADER, 3-PIN 0.079 SINGLE ROW
SAMTEC, TMM-103-02-L-S
4
4
XJP1, XJP2, XJP3, XJP4
SHUNT, 0.079" CENTER
SAMTEC, 2SN-BK-G
5
9
J1, J2, J3, J4, J5, J6, J7, J8, J9
CONNECTOR, BANANA JACK
KEYSTONE, 575-4
6
4
MTG1, MTG2, MTG3, MTG4
STAND-OFF, NYLON (SNAP ON), 0.50" TALL
KEYSTONE, 8833 (SNAP ON)
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7
DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM–DC1830A
dc1830af
8
DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM–MODIFIED DC1619A AS USED WITH DC1830A
dc1830af
Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no representation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.
9
DEMO MANUAL
DC1830A-A/DC1830A-B
DEMONSTRATION BOARD IMPORTANT NOTICE
Linear Technology Corporation (LTC) provides the enclosed product(s) under the following AS IS conditions:
This demonstration board (DEMO BOARD) kit being sold or provided by Linear Technology is intended for use for ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT
OR EVALUATION PURPOSES ONLY and is not provided by LTC for commercial use. As such, the DEMO BOARD herein may not be complete
in terms of required design-, marketing-, and/or manufacturing-related protective considerations, including but not limited to product safety
measures typically found in finished commercial goods. As a prototype, this product does not fall within the scope of the European Union
directive on electromagnetic compatibility and therefore may or may not meet the technical requirements of the directive, or other regulations.
If this evaluation kit does not meet the specifications recited in the DEMO BOARD manual the kit may be returned within 30 days from the date
of delivery for a full refund. THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS THE EXCLUSIVE WARRANTY MADE BY THE SELLER TO BUYER AND IS IN LIEU
OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT OF THIS INDEMNITY, NEITHER PARTY SHALL BE LIABLE TO THE OTHER FOR
ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
The user assumes all responsibility and liability for proper and safe handling of the goods. Further, the user releases LTC from all claims
arising from the handling or use of the goods. Due to the open construction of the product, it is the user’s responsibility to take any and all
appropriate precautions with regard to electrostatic discharge. Also be aware that the products herein may not be regulatory compliant or
agency certified (FCC, UL, CE, etc.).
No License is granted under any patent right or other intellectual property whatsoever. LTC assumes no liability for applications assistance,
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Please read the DEMO BOARD manual prior to handling the product. Persons handling this product must have electronics training and
observe good laboratory practice standards. Common sense is encouraged.
This notice contains important safety information about temperatures and voltages. For further safety concerns, please contact a LTC application engineer.
Mailing Address:
Linear Technology
1630 McCarthy Blvd.
Milpitas, CA 95035
Copyright © 2004, Linear Technology Corporation
dc1830af
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