dm00290866

UM2066
User manual
Getting started with the STPM3x
Introduction
This user manual describes guidelines to quickly set up a metrology application using the STPM3x
devices (STPM32, STPM33 and STPM34) and to access measurement data from the device.
Further details on each step of the application design process (schematics, layout, calibration etc.) can
be found in the reference documents listed below:
STPM32, STPM33, STPM34 datasheet
AN4470 (application note about the STPM3x application calibration)
UM1748 (user manual of the EVALSTPM34, EVALSTPM33, EVALSTPM32 evaluation board)
UM1719 (user manual of the STPM3x evaluation software)
June 2016
DocID029283 Rev 1
1/20
www.st.com
Contents
UM2066
Contents
1
Application block diagram .............................................................. 3
1.1
1.2
2
3
Monophase system ........................................................................... 3
1.1.1
UART interface ................................................................................... 3
1.1.2
SPI interface ....................................................................................... 4
1.1.3
Power-on timing.................................................................................. 4
Poly phase systems .......................................................................... 5
1.2.1
Current transformer Rogowski coil sensors ....................................... 5
1.2.2
SYN synchronous data latch .............................................................. 5
1.2.3
Shunt sensors (adding isolation) ........................................................ 6
1.3
Schematics........................................................................................ 6
1.4
Register conversion to real value ...................................................... 7
1.4.1
Circuit parameters .............................................................................. 7
1.4.2
Conversion formula examples ............................................................ 8
UART SPI communication protocol ............................................. 10
2.1
Data communication protocol .......................................................... 10
2.2
Bit flow on physical links ................................................................. 10
2.3
CRC calculation .............................................................................. 11
2.3.1
CRC calculation for SPI .................................................................... 12
2.3.2
CRC calculation for UART ................................................................ 13
Using the evaluation board........................................................... 14
3.1
SPI interface: the EVALSTPM3x with USB board STEVALIPE023V1 ..................................................................................................... 14
3.1.1
3.2
UART interface................................................................................ 15
3.2.1
3.3
4
Electrical connection......................................................................... 14
UART electrical connection .............................................................. 15
Evaluation software ......................................................................... 15
Power measurements ................................................................... 16
4.1
Instantaneous power values............................................................ 16
4.2
Filtered power values ...................................................................... 16
4.3
Power factors .................................................................................. 17
5
Calibration...................................................................................... 18
6
Revision history ............................................................................ 19
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Application block diagram
1
Application block diagram
1.1
Monophase system
The STPM32 (single phase device) has been used in the application block diagram below.
The STPM33/34 can be used in a mono phase system with CT sensors, but also with
shunt, if there is a common electrical node between both channels.
1.1.1
UART interface
To select UART peripheral at startup, SCS signal must be set high before VCC and EN rise.
SCS must be maintained high until a couple of clock period (16 MHz) reaches the device.
Then, the device is locked in UART mode until a reset by EN pulse or a new power-on
sequence is performed. UART connections between host and the STPM3x are described
below.
Figure 1: Connection through UART peripheral
16 MHz clock signal can be replaced by an external crystal with the same
frequency between XTAL1 and XTAL2 pins. Please refer to the datasheet for
connection details.
SCS signal is used to reset communication peripheral and SYN signal is used to reset the
DSP. These reset pulses must be generated once, just after the power-on sequence.
Figure 2: Timing example
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Application block diagram
1.1.2
UM2066
SPI interface
To select SPI peripheral at startup, SCS signal must be set held low before VCC and EN
rise. SCS must be kept low until a couple of clock period (16 MHz) reaches the device. The
device is locked in SPI mode until a reset by EN pulse or a new power-on sequence is
performed. Then, SCS must be driven low during each data exchange according to usual
SPI protocol. SPI connections between host and the STPM3x are described below.
Figure 3: : Connection through SPI peripheral
16 MHz clock out signal can be replaced by an external crystal with the same
frequency between XTAL1 and XTAL2 pins. Please refer to the datasheet for
connection details.
SYN signal is used to reset the DSP. Three reset pulses must be generated once, just after
the power-on sequence.
1.1.3
Power-on timing
Recommendations for the power-on timing including reset pulses are provided below.
Table 1: Power-on procedure
Symbol
t_if
t_startup
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Parameter
Time for interface choice locking
Time between power-on and reset
Min.
Typ.
4 μs
10 ms
35 ms
35 ms
t_rpw
Reset pulse width
4 μs
1 ms
t_scs
Delay from SYN to SCS
4 μs
1 ms
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Application block diagram
1.2
Poly phase systems
1.2.1
Current transformer Rogowski coil sensors
When CT or Rogowski coil transducers are used for the current sensing, since they isolate
each line connected to the STPM3x, an additional isolation is not needed.
A connection example in UART mode in the figure below:
Figure 4: Polyphase system with CTs
As for monophase systems, SCS signal is used to reset UART block. If a single UART is
used on host side, SCS is also the chip select signal when high (1 SCS per chipset should
be connected).
Three pulses of SYN signal are used to reset the DSP at first power-on. After the power-on
sequence, SYN signal can be used to synchronize the measurements among all phases
(see section below).
1.2.2
SYN synchronous data latch
SYN latching can be used to synchronously sample all data results (for all phases) into
transmission latches. The transmission latches are flip-flops holding the data in the
communication interface, so the host can then read the register values without time
constraint, while DSP registers of the device are continuously updated. Note that SCS must
be high during the pulses.
As SYN pin is also used to reset data registers and the DSP, a state machine counts the
number of pulses in order to correctly interpret the command.
Figure 5: SYN functionality
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Application block diagram
After each data latch, the pulse counter must be reset by a pulse on SCS.
1.2.3
UM2066
Shunt sensors (adding isolation)
If the shunt resistor is used for current sensing, the STPM3x is connected to different
phases, so they must be isolated one from the others.
Figure 6: Polyphase system with shunt
To limit the number of lines to isolate, SCS pulse can be generated from TXD +
SYN, only by adding the NOR gate or two diodes.
1.3
Schematics
Some filtering components must be added to final schematics. Evaluation board
schematics could be some examples:
On st.com website, refer to:




EVALSTPM33/34_schematics
EVALSTPM33/34_schematics
EVALSTPM32_schematics
Evaluation board layout
EN pin should be filtered to pass EMC surge tests as shown in evaluation board
schematics.
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Application block diagram
Figure 7: Filter on EN pin
1.4
Register conversion to real value
1.4.1
Circuit parameters
In the metrology section of the application only analog front end parameters can be
changed. Their values are needed to adapt signal dynamic to the device input range, and
therefore are important to convert register values to “real” values:




Resistors R1 and R2 used to divide input voltage (Ω)
Sensor sensitivity KS used to measure the current (mV/A)
Current sensor gain AI to be set in the register DFE_CR1 and DFE_CR2 (2, 4, 8 or 16)
LED division factor (LPW) to be set in the register DSP_CR1 and DSP_CR2 (LPW=4
by default)
The STPM3x evaluation software provides a “Design Wizard” tool which can be used to
correctly select these parameters according to the input signal range.
1.4.1.1
R1 and R2 choice
R1 and R2 are voltage divider resistors, used to reduce the magnitude of the line voltage so
it can fit the STPM3x ADC input level dynamic.
The values of R1, R2 must be chosen according to the expected voltage range (maximum
value expected on input circuit), to keep the peak input voltage lower than the STPM3x
input range so to avoid the STPM3x ADC saturation.
The input range for ADCs with amplification stage of gain AV is normally ±VREF/AV, but for
second order sigma-delta ADC only half of this range is linear, then the valid input range to
be considered is ±VREF/2AV. For the STPM3x, this range, as specified in the datasheet, is
±300 mV.
This means:
VMAX_RMS ∙ √2 ∙
R2
VREF
<
R1 + R2 2AV
Then R1 and R2 should be chosen as follows:
VREF ∙ (R1 + R2)
2 ∙ √2 ∙ R2 ∙ AV
> VMAX_RMS
Example:
In ST's evaluation boards, R1 = 810 kΩ and R2 = 470 Ω


Max. input voltage = 366 VRMS
Register LSB value = 36 mVRMS
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Application block diagram
1.4.1.2
UM2066
Ks and Ai choice
KS, the current sensor sensitivity, and AI, the current channel gain, have an impact on
range and resolution of current to be measured by the STPM3x ADC. Their values must be
chosen according to the desired current range (maximum value expected on the input
circuit). The higher the sensitivity and the channel gain are, the higher the resolution of the
current measurement is and therefore the accuracy at low currents, but the maximum
measurable current is lower.
The input range of the ADC with amplification stage with gain AI is ±VREF/2AI. This range,
as specified in the datasheet, is either ±300 mV, ±150 mV, ±75 mV or ±37.5 mV
(respectively, for gain x2, x4, x8, x16).
This means:
IMAX_RMS ∙ √2 ∙ Ks <
VREF
2AI
Then KS should be chosen as follows:
VREF
2 ∙ √2 ∙ Ks ∙ A
> IMAX_RMS
The minimum current is usually an important application parameter, it is calculated four
times the current RMS register LSB:
IMIN_RMS =
4VREF
0.875 ∙ Kint ∙ Ks ∙ A ∙ 217
RMS register resolution is reported above. Power and energy have higher resolution and
accuracy at low currents, because they are calculated directly from raw voltage and current
ADC data, which have 28 bit resolution.
Example:
In ST's evaluation boards, KS = 2.4 mV/A and AI = 16



1.4.1.3
Max. input current = 11 ARMS (88 ARMS with AI = 2)
Register LSB value = 0.27 mARMS (2.2 mARMS with AI = 2)
Minimum input current = 1.09 mARMS (8.72 mARMS with AI = 2)
LPW choice
The LED output can be used for calibration and/or for energy-reading. LPW bits divide LED
output pulse frequency. A lower LPW value increases the number of pulses per kWh (C p).
If the application needs a fixed Cp (e.g. 64000 pulses/kWh), please refer to datasheet
section “Application design” and to “Design Wizard” tool provided by the evaluation
software. If LED output is not used, the default register value of LPW can be left.
All analog front end parameters (R1, R2, KS, AI) have also an impact on the final
Cp.
1.4.2
Conversion formula examples
All formulas reported below are present in the datasheet.
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1.4.2.1
Application block diagram
Voltage and current measurements
Measured values can easily be calculated by multiplying the decimal values contained in
the register by the LSB value. For IRMS and VRMS for instance:
Figure 8: RMS register
Note that VRMS[14:0] is 15 bit long and CRMS[16:0] is 17 bit long.
LSB values are provided by formulas below:
Voltage RMS LSB value:
LSBVRMS
R1
)
R2
=
[]
calv ∙ Av ∙ 215
Vref ∙ (1 +
Current RMS LSB value
LSBIRMS =
Vref
[]
calI ∙ AI ∙ 217 ∙ K s ∙ K int
For example, if DSP_REG14 = 0x00F4 1652, converted values are:

V1RMS = Dec [0x1652] * Vref * (1+R1/R2) / (calV * AV* 215)
V1RMS = 5714 * 1.2 * (1+810000/470) / (0.875 * 2 * 215) = 206.2 V

I1RMS = Dec [0x01E8] * Vref / (calI * AI * 217 * KS * kint)
I1RMS = 488 * 1.2 / (0.875 * 2 * 217 * 2.4 * 10-3 * 1) = 1.06 A
1.4.2.2
Other measurements
For each register, its LSB value is reported in the datasheet. If the register is unsigned, the
calculation is the same as for RMS values.
If the register is signed, it has to be binary complemented to get the value, then this signed
value can be multiplied by register LSB. For example, if the value of DSP_REG3=
0x0002B99B, converted value of current is:

I1MOM = SignedDec[0x0002B99B] * Vref / (calI * AI * 223 * KS * kint)
I1MOM = 178587 * 1.2 / (0.875 * 2 * 223 * 2.4 * 10-3 * 1) = 6.08 A
If the value of DSP_REG3 = 0xFFFFF414, converted value of current is:



I1MOM = SignedDec[0xFFFFF414] * Vref / (calI * AI * 223 * KS * Kint)
SignedDec [0xFFFFF414] = -1*(224- Dec [0xFFF414]) = -1 * (16777216-16774164) = 3052
I1MOM = -3052 * 1.2 / (0.875 * 2 * 223 * 2.4 * 10-3 * 1) = -0,104 A
In this case, the most significant byte is just padding.
An excel file is available on demand, contact: [email protected] to assist you about
other value calculations (power, energy, LED frequency, register overflow).
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UART SPI communication protocol
UM2066
2
UART SPI communication protocol
2.1
Data communication protocol
In this section UART and SPI protocol are described as per default configuration of the
STPM3x.
Default configuration for SPI is as follows:





Polarity = 1
Phase = 1
CRC enabled = true (can be disabled)
CRC poly = 0x07 (can be changed)
MSB first (can be changed)
Default configuration for UART is as follows:






Baud rate = 9600 (can be changed)
Parity: none
Stop: 1 bit
CRC enabled = true (can be disabled)
CRC poly = 0x07 (can be changed)
LSB first
Please refer to datasheet for details about different settings.
At startup, the memory reading pointer is set to row at address 0.
Communication example in the default configuration, at startup:



Default value of first register = 0x040000A0
Default value of dsp_cr3 (address=0x04) = 0x000004E0
To write 0xABCD to MSB bytes and read back register value, the frames in the picture
below have to be sent
Figure 9: Frame sent and received from the device
2.2
Bit flow on physical links
SPI: if the first 4 bytes of previous example are probed, at a bit level, the following
happens.
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UART SPI communication protocol
Figure 10: SPI bit flow
UART: for the same example, at a bit level the following happens.
Figure 11: UART bit flow
2.3
CRC calculation
CRC is calculated on the bit train (so from left to right) using a default polynomial 0x07
(x8+x2+x1+1 = 100000111) with 0 as initial value.
As an example, given the following four bytes to send: 0xFF08FAF7 (which means writing
to address 0x08 data value of 0xF7FA) the frame buffer is built as follows:
TX_Frame_buff[0] = 0xFF;
TX_Frame_buff[1] = 0x08;
TX_Frame_buff[2] = 0xFA;
TX_Frame_buff[3] = 0xF7;
TX_Frame_buff[4] = 0xXX; //CRC.
Data to write is sent least significant byte first.
Note that even if CRC received from the host is wrong, the answer of the STMP3x is in any
case the default value of the 1st register (0x040000A0). Then, an interruption can be
enabled to activate a wrong CRC detection (see datasheet for details).
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UART SPI communication protocol
2.3.1
UM2066
CRC calculation for SPI
Here is the code of ‘C’ functions, they can be copied as they are in the application
firmware:
TX_Frame_buff[4] = CalcCRC8(TX_Frame_buff);
#define CRC_8 (0x07)
#define STPM3x_FRAME_LEN (5)
static u8 CalcCRC8(u8 *pBuf)
{
u8 i;
CRC_u8Checksum = 0x00;
for (i=0; i<STPM3x_FRAME_LEN-1; i++)
{
Crc8Calc(pBuf[i]);
}
return CRC_u8Checksum
}
static void Crc8Calc (u8 u8Data)
{
u8 loc_u8Idx;
u8 loc_u8Temp;
loc_u8Idx=0;
while(loc_u8Idx<8)
{
loc_u8Temp = u8Data^CRC_u8Checksum;
CRC_u8Checksum<<=1;
if(loc_u8Temp&0x80)
{
CRC_u8Checksum^=CRC_8;
}
u8Data<<=1;
loc_u8Idx++;
}
}
The CRC result for our frame example is: 0xDD.
SPI frame with CRC: 0xFF08FAF7DD.
Figure 12: SPI frame with CRC: 0xFF08FAF7DD
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2.3.2
UART SPI communication protocol
CRC calculation for UART
Due to the UART peripheral architecture, we must compute the CRC on reversed bits of
the frame and reverse the CRC computed afterwards.
Here is the code of ‘C’ functions, they can be copied as they are in the application
firmware.
The purpose is to reverse the bits of frame bytes, store them into a temp frame, compute
the CRC of the temp frame, and finally reverse the bit of the CRC.
void FRAME_for_UART_mode(u8 *pBuf)
{
u8 temp[4],x,CRC_on_reversed_buf;
for (x=0;x<(STPM3x_FRAME_LEN-1);x++)
{
temp[x] = byteReverse(pBuf[x]);
}
CRC_on_reversed_buf = CalcCRC8(temp);
pBuf[4] = byteReverse(CRC_on_reversed_buf);
}
static u8 byteReverse(u8 n)
{
n = ((n >> 1) & 0x55) | ((n << 1) & 0xaa);
n = ((n >> 2) & 0x33) | ((n << 2) & 0xcc);
n = ((n >> 4) & 0x0F) | ((n << 4) & 0xF0);
return n;
}
Applied to our example, UART CRC is 0xFC (0x3F bit reversed calculated on
0xFF105FEF).
Figure 13: UART frame with CRC: 0xFF08FAF7FC
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Using the evaluation board
UM2066
3
Using the evaluation board
3.1
SPI interface: the EVALSTPM3x with USB board STEVALIPE023V1
The USB board includes a galvanic isolation between the metrology board and the
embedded microcontroller, making safe the connection to a PC.
It also provides a 3.3 V, enough to supply the board.
The embedded microcontroller implements the bridge function from SPI (STPM3x side) to
USB interface (PC side).
3.1.1
Electrical connection
The STPM34 evaluation board can be connected as below:
Figure 14: Connection to the STEVAL-IPE023V1
See user manual UM1748 for connection details.
USB board must be connected first to the PC through USB cable, then to the
STPM3x evaluation board through flat cable. SWC1 must be in “off” position.
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3.2
Using the evaluation board
UART interface
RS232 port is insulated from the board through Si8621 transceiver to safely connect the
board to a PC.
Note that a 3.3 V must be provided to UART section in addition to the one to be provided to
the rest of the board. In case of a shunt sensor, the last one must be insulated. In case the
current sensor is CT or Rogowski coil, it can have the same power supply.
3.2.1
UART electrical connection
The STPM34 evaluation board can be connected as below:
Figure 15: Connection to UART interface
See user manual UM1748 for connection details.
SWC1 must be in “on” position; if DB9 cable is used, enable RS232 port by
inserting J3 jumper.
3.3
Evaluation software
For both SPI and UART mode, see GUI user manual UM1719 on www.st.com.
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Power measurements
4
UM2066
Power measurements
Power data registers inside the STPM3x can be:


4.1
Instantaneous measurements for active power only (ph1_reg10 to ph1_reg11)
Filtered measurements (ph1_reg5 to ph1_reg9) for active, reactive and apparent
power
Instantaneous power values
Power is defined as:
() = () ∙ () =  () ∙  ( + ) =  √2() ∙  √2( + ) =
=  ∙  ∙ (cos  + cos(2 + ))
where:
VP is the peak voltage in volts
IP is the peak current in amperes
VRMS is the root-mean-square voltage in volts
IRMS is the root-mean-square current in amperes
ω is the angular frequency
φ is the phase angle between the current and voltage sine waves
These values can be used to perform calculation on power harmonic content.
The bandwidth of wide band waveforms and measurements is 3.6 kHz, which means up to
72th harmonics of a 50 Hz network. The bandwidth for the fundamental harmonic
measurement is 80 Hz.
4.2
Filtered power values
Removing the ripple at 2ωt through a low-pass filter, the DC component of power is
obtained:
 =  ∙  ∙ cos 
Note that a residual ripple due to the cos(2wt+φ) component may still be present in power.
It generates a 100 Hz oscillation around the real average value.
This oscillation has no impact on energy, as it is a pure sinusoidal power component which
is integrated over time.
If a very accurate average power measurement is needed, it can be calculated as:
=
1 − 0
1 − 0
where:
Et1 – Et0 are energy values taken in time instants t0 and t1
t1– t0 time interval is a multiple of a line half-period (10 ms for 50 Hz)
In case the host does not have an accurate base of time, it can use ZC outputs from the
STPM3x as an interruption to ensure that energy is always divided by a whole number of
line periods. See plot below.
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Power measurements
Figure 16: Power waveform
4.3
Power factors
Power factor is calculated as cosφ, where φ is the phase angle between voltage and
current.
Phase angle value φ (in register Cx_PHA[11:0] ) is calculated from zero-crossing
information; it measures the delay between voltage and current for the fundamental
harmonic. So this information of power factor is valid only for sinusoidal waveforms.
For non-sinusoidal waveforms, since power values may be affected by residual oscillation,
an accurate power factor can be calculated as follows:
=
∆_
∆
where
Et1 – Et0 are energy values taken in time instants t0 and t1, and t1– t0 time interval is a
multiple of a line half-period (10 ms for 50 Hz).
Apparent energy must be calculated from the RMS apparent power calculated as
SRMS* = VRMS* IRMS. It can be selected by AEM bit in register DSP_CR1 and
DSP_CR2.
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Calibration
5
UM2066
Calibration
See AN4470 for details about calibration procedure.
The procedure is automatically implemented in the STPM3x evaluation software available
online.
An excel file is also available on demand, contact: [email protected], with
automatic calculations of calibration values (CHV, CHI, PHV, PHC) based on your design
parameters.
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6
Revision history
Revision history
Table 2: Document revision history
Date
Revision
01-Jun-2016
1
Changes
Initial release.
DocID029283 Rev 1
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UM2066
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