DC2077A - Demo Manual

DEMO MANUAL DC2077A
LTC6431-20
50Ω 20dB Gain Block
IF Amplifier
DESCRIPTION
Demonstration circuit 2077A features the LTC®6431-20
50Ω gain block IF amplifier. The LTC6431-20 has a power
gain of 20.8dB and it is part of the LTC6431-YY amplifier
series.
The DC2077A demo board supports the LTC6431-YY amplifier family. The DC2077A demo board is optimized for
a frequency range from 100MHz to 1200MHz. It incorporates a minimum of passive components to configure the
amplifier for various applications. The LTC6431-20 provides 50Ω single-ended input and output impedances so
that it can be easily evaluated with most RF test equipment.
Design files for this circuit board are available at
http://www.linear.com/demo
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered trademarks of Linear
Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
VCC
9, 22
BIAS AND
TEMPERATURE
COMPENSATION
24
IN
OUT
20dB
GAIN
T_DIODE
GND
8, 17, 23,
25 (EXPOSED PAD)
18
16
643122 BD
Figure 1. LTC6431-20 Device Block Diagram
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DEMO MANUAL DC2077A
PERFORMANCE SUMMARY
TA = 25°C, VCC = 5V
Table 1. Typical Demo Board Performance Summary
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
VALUE / UNIT
VCC
Operating Supply Range
All VCC Pins Plus OUT
4.75V to 5.25V
ICC
Current Consumption
Total Current
Power Supply
FREQUENCY POWER GAIN
(MHZ)
|S21|
OUTPUT
THIRD-ORDER
INTERCEPT
POINT1
OIP3
OUTPUT
THIRD-ORDER
INTERMODULATION1
OIM3
SECOND
HARMONIC
DISTORTION2
HD2
95mA
THIRD HARMONIC
DISTORTION2
HD3
OUTPUT 1DB
COMPRESSION
POINT
P1DB
NOISE FIGURE3
NF
100
20.2
47.2
–90.4
–56.8
–96.7
23.2
3.2
200
20.6
48.0
–91.9
–55.6
–92.9
22.4
2.7
240
20.6
47.9
–91.9
–52.5
–106.1
22.0
2.7
300
20.7
47.9
–91.9
–50.5
–83.1
21.8
2.8
400
20.6
46.9
–89.9
–50.4
–77.4
21.7
2.8
500
20.6
45.0
–86.0
–47.8
–72.6
21.8
2.9
600
20.6
42.5
–81.0
–43.7
–64.0
21.7
3.1
700
20.5
39.7
–75.5
–42.1
–60.7
21.4
3.3
800
20.5
38.6
–73.1
–40.6
–63.1
21.4
3.4
900
20.5
37.1
–70.3
–37.1
–60.4
21.1
3.7
1000
20.4
36.0
–68.0
–36.9
–55.1
20.8
3.8
1100
20.3
35.1
–66.2
–35.7
–54.5
20.4
3.9
1200
20.2
34.4
–64.8
–34.4
–53.6
20.3
4.1
Units
dB
dBm
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBm
dB
Notes: All figures are referenced to J1 (Input Port) and J2 (Output Port).
1. Two-tone test conditions: Output power level = +2dBm/tone, tone spacing = 1MHz.
2. Single-tone test conditions: Output power level = +6dBm.
3. Small-signal noise figure.
OPERATION
The demo circuit 2077A is a high linearity, fixed gain
amplifier. It is designed for ease of use. Both the input
and output are internally matched to 50Ω single-ended
source and load impedance. Figure 2 shows the DC2077A’s
S-parameters.
Figure 4 shows the demo circuit’s schematic. The input and
output DC blocking capacitors (C1 and C7) are required
because this device is internally DC biased for optimal
operation. The frequency appropriate choke (L1) and the
decoupling capacitors (C3 and C4) provide the proper
DC bias to the RF output node. Only a single 5V supply is
necessary for the VCC pins on the device.
L2 and C6 are optional parts. These additional components
allow for further optimization to lower or wider frequency
range applications.
A parallel 62pF (C2) and 348Ω (R1) input network has
been added to ensure low frequency stability. Note that the
input stability network does degrade performance below
150MHz. Low frequency performance can be improved
by increasing the value of capacitor C2.
The T_DIODE Pin (Turret E1) can be forward biased to
ground with 1mA of current. The measured voltage will
be an indicator of the chip junction temperature (TJ).
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DEMO MANUAL DC2077A
OPERATION
Please note that a number of DNC pins are connected on
the demo board. These connections are not necessary for
normal operation. Failure to float these pins may impair
the operation of the device. Table 2 shows the function of
each input and output on the board.
FUNCTION
J1 (IN)
Single-ended input. Impedance matched to 50Ω. Drive
from a 50Ω network analyzer or signal source.
The measured voltage will be an indicator of the chip
junction temperature.
E2 (VCC)
Positive supply voltage source.
E3 (GND)
Supply ground.
0
|S21|
20
–4
18
–8
|S22|
16
14
–12
|S11|
12
10
|S12|
8
Single-ended output. Impedance matched to 50Ω.
Drives a 50Ω network analyzer or spectrum analyzer.
E1 (T_DIODE)
4
22
|S21| (dB)
CONNECTOR
J2 (OUT)
24
6
4
–16
–20
–24
|S11|, |S12|, |S22| (dB)
Table 2. DC2077A Board I/O Descriptons
NOMINAL WORKING
FREQUENCY RANGE
–28
–32
0
400
1200
1600
800
FREQUENCY (MHz)
–36
2000
Figure 2. Demo Board S-Parameters
Additional Information
As with any RF device, minimizing ground inductance is
critical. Care should be taken during the board layout when
using these exposed pad packages. The maximum number
of small-diameter vias should be placed underneath the
exposed pad. This will ensure a good RF ground and low
thermal impedance. Maximizing the copper ground plane
will also improve heat spreading and lower the inductance
to ground. It is a good idea to cover the via holes with
solder mask on the back side of the PCB to prevent solder
from wicking away from the critical PCB to exposed pad
interface.
The DC2077A is a wide bandwidth demo board, but it is not
intended for operation down to DC. The lower frequency
cutoff is limited by on-chip matching elements.
Table 3 shows the LTC643X-YY amplifier series and its
associated demo boards. Each demo board lists the typical
working frequency range and the input and output impedance of the amplifiers.
Setup Signal Sources and Spectrum Analyzer
The LTC6431-20 is an amplifier with high linearity performance. Therefore, the output intermodulation products are
very low. Even using high dynamic range test equipment,
third-order intercept (IP3) measurements can drive test
setups to their limits. Consequently, accurate measurement of IP3 for a low distortion IC such as the LTC6431-20
requires certain precautions to be observed in the test
setup as well as the testing procedure.
Table 3. The LTC643X-YY Amplifier Family and Corresponding Application Demo Boards
FREQUENCY RANGE
(MHz)
NOTES/APPLICATIONS
BOARD’S IN/OUT
IMPEDANCE
AMPLIFIER
AMPLIFIER’S
IMPEDANCE
DC1774A-A
50 to 350
Low Frequency
50Ω
LTC6430-15
Differential 100Ω
DC1774A-B
400 to 1000
Mid Frequency
50Ω
LTC6430-15
Differential 100Ω
DC1774A-C
100 to 1200
Wide Frequency
50Ω
LTC6431-15
Single-Ended 50Ω
DC2032A
50 to 1000
Cable Infrastructure
75Ω
LTC6430-15
Differential 100Ω
DC2077A
100 to 1200
Wide Frequency
50Ω
LTC6431-20
Single-Ended 50Ω
DC2153A
700 to 1700
High Frequency
50Ω
LTC6430-15
Differential 100Ω
DEMO BOARD NUMBER
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DEMO MANUAL DC2077A
OPERATION
Setup Signal Sources
Setup the Spectrum Analyzer
Figure 4 shows a proposed IP3 test setup. This setup has
low phase noise, good reverse isolation, high dynamic
range, sufficient harmonic filtering and wideband impedance matching. The setup is outlined below:
a. Adjust the spectrum analyzer for maximum possible
resolution of the intermodulation products’ amplitude
in dBc. A narrower resolution bandwidth will take a
longer time to sweep.
a. High performance signal generators 1 and 2 ( HP8644A)
are used. These suggested generators have low harmonic distortion and very low phase noise.
b.Optimize the dynamic range of the spectrum analyzer
by adjusting the input attenuation. First increase the
spectrum analyzer’s input attenuation (normally in
steps of 5dB or 10dB). If the IM product levels decrease
when the input attenuation is increased, then the input
power level is too high for the spectrum analyzer to
make a valid measurement. Most likely, the spectrum
analyzer’s 1st mixer was overloaded and producing its
own IM products. If the IM reading holds constant with
increased input attenuation, then a sufficient amount
of attenuation was present. Adding too much attenuation will bury the intended IM signal in the noise floor.
Therefore, select just enough attenuation to achieve a
stable and valid measurement.
b.High linearity amplifiers are used to improve the reverse
isolation. This prevents crosstalk between the two signal
generators and provides higher output power.
c. A lowpass filter is used to suppress the harmonic content
from interfering with the test signal. Note that second
order inputs can “mix” with the fundamental frequency
to form intermodulation (IM) products of their own. We
suggest filtering the harmonics to -50dBc or better.
d.The signal combiner from Mini-Circuits (ADP-2-9)
combines the two isolated input signals. This combiner
has a typical isolation of 27dB. For improved VSWR and
isolation, the H-9 signal combiner from MA/COM is an
alternative which features >40dB isolation and a wider
frequency range. Passive devices (e.g. combiners) with
magnetic elements can contribute nonlinearity to the
signal chain and should be used cautiously.
e. The attenuator pads on all three ports of the signal
combiner will further support isolation of the two input
signal sources. They also reduce reflections and promote
maximum power transfer with wideband impedance
matching.
c. In order to achieve this valid measurement result, the
test system must have lower total distortion than the
DUT’s intermodulation. For example, to measure a
48dBm OIP3, the measured intermodulation products
will be –92dBc below the –18dBm per tone input level
and the test system must have intermodulation products
approximately –98dBc or better. For best results, the
IM products and noise floor should measure at least
–102dBc before connecting the DUT.
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DEMO MANUAL DC2077A
QUICK START PROCEDURE
Demo circuit 2077A can be set up to evaluate the performance of the LTC6431-20. Refer to Figure 3 for proper
equipment connections and follow the procedure below:
Two-Tone Measurement
Connect all test equipment as suggested in Figure 3.
1.The power labels of VCC 4.75V-5.25V and GND directly
correspond to the power supply. Typical current consumption of the LTC6431-20 is about 95mA.
2.Apply two independent signals f1 and f2 from signal
generator 1 and signal generator 2 at 240MHz and
241MHz, while setting the amplitude to –18dBm/tone
at the demo board input (J1).
3.Monitor the output tone level on the spectrum analyzer.
Adjust the signal generator levels such that the output
power measures +2dBm/tone at the amplifier output J2,
after correcting for external cable losses and attenuations.
4.Change the spectrum analyzer’s center frequency and
observe the two IM3 tones at 1 MHz below and above
the input frequencies. The frequencies of IM3_LOW and
IM3_HIGH are 239 MHz and 242 MHz, respectively. The
measurement levels should be approximately –92dBc;
+48dBm is typical OIP3 performance for the LTC6431‑20
at 240MHz.
The OIP3 calculation is:
OIP3 = POUT + ∆IMD3/2
where:
POUT is the lower output signal power of the fundamental products.
∆IMD3 = POUT – PIM3; PIM3 is the higher third-order
intermodulation product.
Single-Tone Measurement
5.Continue with Step 4 above, turn off one signal source
to measure gain and harmonic distortions.
SIGNAL
HP8644A
GENERATOR 1
AMPLIFIER
Mini-Circuits
ZHL-2 OR EQUIVALENT
LOWPASS FILTER
6dB ATTN PAD
(OPTIONAL)
3dB ATTENUATION
PAD
COMBINER
Mini-Circuits
ADP-2-9
20dB ATTENUATION
PAD
SPECTRUM
ANALYZER
COAXIAL
CABLE
6dB ATTN PAD
(OPTIONAL)
Rohde & Schwarz
FSEM30
LOWPASS FILTER
AMPLIFIER
Mini-Circuits
ZHL-2 OR EQUIVALENT
VCC = 4.75V TO 5.25V
DC POWER SUPPLY
GND
V+
SIGNAL
HP8644A
GENERATOR 2
Figure 3. Proper Equipement Setup for IP3 Measurement
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DEMO MANUAL DC2077A
PARTS LIST
ITEM
QTY
REFERENCE
PART DESCRIPTION
MANUFACTURER/PART NUMBER
1
2
3
C1, C3, C7
CAP., X7R, 1000pF, 50V 5%, 0603
AVX, 06035C102JAT2A
1
C2
CAP., NPO, 62pF, 25V, 5%, 0402
AVX, 04023A620JAT
3
1
C4
CAP., X5R, 0.1µF, 10V, 10%, 0603
AVX, 0603ZD104KAT2A
4
2
C5, C8
CAP., X7R, 1000pF, 50V 5%, 0402
AVX, 04025C102JAT2A
5
1
C6
CAP., OPT, 0603
6
3
E1-E3
TESTPOINT, TURRET, 0.093"
MILL-MAX, 2501-2-00-80-00-00-07-0
7
2
J1-J2
CONN., SMA 50Ω EDGE-LAUNCH
E.F.JOHNSON, 142-0701-851
8
1
L1
INDUCTOR, CHIP, 560nH, 5%, 0603LS-1608
COILCRAFT, 0603LS-561XJLB
9
1
L2
RES., CHIP, 0Ω, 0603
VISHAY, CRCW06030000Z0ED
10
1
R1
RES., CHIP, 348Ω, 1%, 1/16W, 0402
VISHAY,CRCW0402348RFKED
11
0
R3
RES., OPT, 0402
12
1
U1
BALANCED AMPLIFIER LTC6431AIUF-20, QFN24UF-4X4 LINEAR TECH., LTC6431AIUF-20
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Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no representation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.
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TECHNOLOGY
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 
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Figure 4. DC2077A Demo Board Schematic
3
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


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4
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D
5
A
B
C
D
DEMO MANUAL DC2077A
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
dc2077af
7
DEMO MANUAL DC2077A
DEMONSTRATION BOARD IMPORTANT NOTICE
Linear Technology Corporation (LTC) provides the enclosed product(s) under the following AS IS conditions:
This demonstration board (DEMO BOARD) kit being sold or provided by Linear Technology is intended for use for ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT
OR EVALUATION PURPOSES ONLY and is not provided by LTC for commercial use. As such, the DEMO BOARD herein may not be complete
in terms of required design-, marketing-, and/or manufacturing-related protective considerations, including but not limited to product safety
measures typically found in finished commercial goods. As a prototype, this product does not fall within the scope of the European Union
directive on electromagnetic compatibility and therefore may or may not meet the technical requirements of the directive, or other regulations.
If this evaluation kit does not meet the specifications recited in the DEMO BOARD manual the kit may be returned within 30 days from the date
of delivery for a full refund. THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS THE EXCLUSIVE WARRANTY MADE BY THE SELLER TO BUYER AND IS IN LIEU
OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT OF THIS INDEMNITY, NEITHER PARTY SHALL BE LIABLE TO THE OTHER FOR
ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
The user assumes all responsibility and liability for proper and safe handling of the goods. Further, the user releases LTC from all claims
arising from the handling or use of the goods. Due to the open construction of the product, it is the user’s responsibility to take any and all
appropriate precautions with regard to electrostatic discharge. Also be aware that the products herein may not be regulatory compliant or
agency certified (FCC, UL, CE, etc.).
No License is granted under any patent right or other intellectual property whatsoever. LTC assumes no liability for applications assistance,
customer product design, software performance, or infringement of patents or any other intellectual property rights of any kind.
LTC currently services a variety of customers for products around the world, and therefore this transaction is not exclusive.
Please read the DEMO BOARD manual prior to handling the product. Persons handling this product must have electronics training and
observe good laboratory practice standards. Common sense is encouraged.
This notice contains important safety information about temperatures and voltages. For further safety concerns, please contact a LTC application engineer.
Mailing Address:
Linear Technology
1630 McCarthy Blvd.
Milpitas, CA 95035
Copyright © 2004, Linear Technology Corporation
dc2077af
8
Linear Technology Corporation
LT 0314 • PRINTED IN USA
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
FAX: (408) 434-0507 ● www.linear.com
 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2014
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