Obsolete Device TC815 3-1/2 Digit Auto-Ranging A/D Converter with Triplex LCD Drive and Display Hold Function Features General Description • Auto-Range Operation for AC and DC Voltage and Resistance Measurements - Two User Selected AC/DC Current Ranges 20mA and 200mA • 22 Operating Ranges - 9 DC/AC Voltage - 4 AC/DC Current - 9 Resistance and Low Power Ohms • Display HOLD Function • 3-1/2 Digit Resolution in Auto-Range Mode: - 1/2000 • Extended Resolution in Manual Mode: 1/3000 • Memory Mode for Relative Measurements: - ±5% F.S. • Internal AC to DC Conversion Op Amp • Triplex LCD Drive for Decimal Points, Digits and Annunciators • Continuity Detection and Piezoelectric Transducer Driver • Compact Surface Mounted 64-pin Plastic Flat Package • Low Drift Internal Reference: 75ppm/°C • 9V Battery Operation: 10mW • Low Battery Detection and LCD Annunciator The TC815 is a 3-1/2 digit integrating analog-to-digital converter with triplex LCD display drive and automatic ranging. A display hold function is on-chip. Input voltage/ohm attenuators ranging from 1 to 1/10,000 are automatically selected. Five full scale ranges are provided. The CMOS TC815 contains all the logic and analog switches needed to manufacture an autoranging instrument for ohms and voltage measurements. User selected 20mA and 200mA current ranges are available. Full scale range and decimal point LCD annunciators are automatically set in auto-range operation. Auto-range operation is available during ohms (high and low power ohms) and voltage (AC and DC) measurements, eliminating expensive range switches in hand-held DMM designs. The auto-range feature may be bypassed allowing decimal point selection and input attenuator selection control through a single line input. Expensive rotary switches are not required. Device Selection Table Part Number Package Operating Temperature Range TC815CBU 64-Pin PQFP 0°C to +70°C During Manual mode operation, resolution is extended to 3000 counts full scale. The extended range operation is indicated by a flashing 1 MSD. The extended resolution is also available during 200kΩ and 2000V full scale auto-range operation. The Memory mode subtracts a reading, up to ±5% of full scale from subsequent measurements. Typical applications involve probe resistance compensation for resistance measurements, tolerance measurements, and tare weight measurements. The TC815 includes an AC to DC converter for AC measurements. Only external diodes/resistors/ capacitors are required. A complete LCD annunciator set describes the TC815 meter function and measurement range during ohms, voltage and current operation. AC measurements are indicated as well as auto-range operation. A low battery detection circuit also sets the low battery display annunciator. The triplex LCD display drive levels may be set and temperature compensation applied via the VDISP pin. With HOLD low, the display is not updated. A HOLD mode LCD annunciator is activated. The “low ohms” measurement option allows in-circuit resistance measurements by preventing semiconductor junctions from being forward biased. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21474C-page 1 TC815 A continuity buzzer output is activated with inputs less than 1% of full scale. An overrange input signal also enables the buzzer, except during resistance measurements, and flashes the MSD display. Featuring single 9V battery operation, 10mW power consumption, a precision internal voltage reference (75ppm/°C max TC) and a compact surface mounted 64-pin quad flat package, the TC815 is ideal for portable instruments. Package Type DS21474C-page 2 RVIBUF RΩBUF AD0 AD1 CFI 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 CAZ ACVH 60 RX VSSA 61 DGND 62 RANGE 63 HOLD 64 I DC/AC Ω/LOWΩ -MEM NC 64-Pin PQFP 49 NC 1 48 NC OHM 2 47 CI 20mA 3 46 ACVL BUZ 4 45 II XTAL1 5 44 VI XTAL2 6 43 VR4 VDISP 7 42 VR5 BP1 8 41 VR2 BP2 9 TC815 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 CREFL 18 RMREFL CREFH 17 RMREFH 33 ANALOG COM REFHI FE0 16 VCC 34 VSSD ΩR1 AGD0 15 -MEM/BATT 35 BCP3 ΩR2 BCP0 14 AC/–/AUTO ΩR3 36 FE2 ΩR4 37 AGD2 38 Ω/V 12 k/m/ HOLD 13 FE1 LOΩ/A 11 BCP2 ΩR5 AGD1 39 NC VR3 BP3 10 BCP1 40 © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. Common Voltage Input Current Input Ohms Input R14/9.9MΩ 200mA 20mA Z1 6.2V 31 ΩR3 (÷ 100) ΩR4 (÷ 1,000) R13 500kΩ 44 – + HOLD TC815 3-1/2 Digit Auto-Ranging DMM with HOLD Function Ohms Range Attenuator C5/1µf – + *Not Required when Resistor Network is used. D1 R24/10kΩ kΩ mVA LO R27/2kΩ R26/3kΩ RΩBUF RVIBUF 0.1µF 0.1µF CAZ CINT 0.1µF CREF C6 0.01µF R20 100 kΩ + R19/5kΩ R18/24kΩ 200mA 20mA – SIA 9V 32.768kHz ( 33kHz) Enable Ω 20mA 200mA V Ω V 153.850mV RMREFH 30 ANALOG CAZ INT HOLD CIF CREFL CREFH COM REFHI 49 47 60 51 32 33 29 34 -MEM 61 DC/AC or Ω/LOWΩ 62 Manual RANGE Change 59 I 63 OHMS 2 20mA 3 Digital GND 58 VSSD 27 SIB Audio Transducer SSA Tri-Plex LCD Display 11 12 13 25 26 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 16 15 14 4 5 LOΩ/AΩV K/m -MEM/ BCP3 FE2 AGD2 BCP2 FE1 AGD1 BCP1 FE0 AGD0 BCP0 BUZXTAL1 6 HOLD BATT XTAL2 AC/–/AUTO 100's 10's 1's Display VCC 28 1000's Annunciators 57 V Segment & Decimal Point Drive AUTO AC -MEM VI (÷1) R12/1.11MΩ 41 VR2 (÷10) Voltage Range Attenuator R11/101kΩ 40 VR3 (÷100) R10/10kΩ 43 VR4 (÷1,000) ADO VR5 (÷10,000) ADI ACVH ACVL RΩBUF RVIBUF 42 53 52 56 46 54 55 R21/2.2MΩ R9/1kΩ C1/1µF 200 150 R22/470kΩ kΩ kΩ C4/µf C2/0.22µF 4.7µf – + D2 R23/10kΩ R16 1Ω D4 45 I I R2/1638.5Ω 36 ΩR2 (÷ 10) R1/163.85 35 R1 (÷ 1) R3/16.385kΩ 37 R4/163.85kΩ 38 ΩR5 (÷ 10,000) Backplane Drivers 50 7 8 9 10 RX VDISP BP1 BP2 BP3 RMREFL 0.1µF R5/1.6385MΩ 39 R6/100kΩ R15 D3 9Ω R8/220Ω (PTC) Positive Temperature Coefficient Resistor 0.01 µF R7/100kΩ If LCD Bias is Connected to DIG GND, Peak Drive Signal ≈ 5V. LCD Bias To VCC 39pf TC815 Typical Application and Test Circuit DS21474C-page 3 TC815 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS *Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Absolute Maximum Ratings* Supply Voltage (V+ to V–) .....................................15V Analog Input Voltage (Either Input) ................ V+ to VReference Input Voltage.................................. V+ to VVoltage at Pin 45 ........................................GND ±0.7V Power Dissipation (TA ≤ 70°C) 64-Pin Plastic Flat Package ...........................1.14W Operating Temperature Range: Commercial Package (C) .................... 0°C to +70°C Storage Temperature Range ..............-65°C to +150°C TC815 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: VA = 9V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise specified (see Typical Application and Test Circuit Figure). Symbol RE Parameter Min Typ Max Zero Input Reading Input Resistor -0000 0000 +0000 Digital Reading 200mV Range w/o 10MΩ Input -0001 — +0001 Digital Reading 200mV Range w/10MΩ Input -0000 0000 +0000 Digital Reading 20mA and 200mA Range — — ±1 Count — — ±3 — — ±1 Rollover Error Unit Test Conditions 200mV Range w/o 10MΩ Input Resistor 200mV Range w/10MΩ Input 20mA and 200mA Range NL Linearity Error — — ±1 Count IIN Input Leakage Current — — 10 pA EN Input Noise — 20 — μVp-p AC Frequency Error — ±1 — % 40Hz to 500Hz — ±5 — % 40Hz to 200Hz Open Circuit Voltage — 570 660 mV Excludes 200Ω Range for OHM Measurements Open Circuit Voltage — 285 350 mV Excludes 200Ω Range for LO OHM Measurement VCOM Analog Common Voltage 2.5 2.6 3.3 V VCTC Common Voltage Temperature Coefficient — — 50 ppm/°C Display Multiplex Rate — 100 — Hz Low Logic Input — — 1 V 20mA, AC, I, LOW Ω, HOLD Range, -MEM, OHMs (Relative to DGND Pin 58) Logic 1 Pull-up Current — 25 — μA 20mA, AC, I, LOW Ω, HOLD Range, -MEM, OHMs (Relative to DGND Pin 58) kHz VIL Buzzer Drive Frequency — 4 — Low Battery Flag Voltage 6.3 6.6 7.0 V Operating Supply Current — 0.8 1.5 mA DS21474C-page 4 Best Case Straight Line BW = 0.1 to 10Hz (V+ - VCOM) VCC to VSSA © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 2.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 2-1. TABLE 2-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE Pin Number (64-Pin Plastic) Quad Flat Package Symbol Description 1 NC 2 OHM Logic Input. “0” (Digital Ground) for resistance measurement. Logic Input. “0” (Digital Ground) for 20mA full scale current measurement. 3 20mA Audio frequency, 4kHz, output for continuity indication during resistance measurement. 4 BUZ 5 XTAL1 32.768kHz Crystal Connection. 6 XTAL2 32.768kHz Crystal Connection. 7 VDISP Sets peak LCD drive signal: VP - VDD - VDISP. VDISP may also be used to compensate for temperature variation of LCD crystal threshold voltage. 8 BP1 LCD Backplane #1. 9 BP2 LCD Backplane #2. 10 BP3 LCD Backplane #3. 11 LOΩ/A Audio frequency, 4kHz, output for continuity indication during resistance measurement. A non-continuous 4kHz signal is output to indicate an input overrange during voltage or current measurements. LCD Annunciator segment drive for low ohms resistance measurement and current measurement. 12 Ω/V 13 k/m/HOLD 14 BCP0 (One’s digit) 15 ADG0 LCD segment drive for “a,” “g,” “d” segments of LSD. 16 FE0 LCD segment drive for “f” and “e” segments of LSD. 17 NC No connection. 18 BCP1 LCD segment drive for “b,” “c” segments and decimal point of 2nd LSD. 19 AGD1 LCD segment drive for “a,” “g,” “d” segments of 2nd LSD (Ten’s digit). LCD Annunciator segment drive for resistance measurement and voltage measurement. LCD Annunciator segment drive for k (“kilo-ohms”), m (“milliamps” and “millivolts”) and HOLD mode. LCD segment drive for “b,” “c” segments and decimal point of least significant digit (LSD). 20 FE1 21 BCP2 LCD segment drive for “f” and “e” segments of 2nd LSD. LCD segment drive for “b,” “c” segments and decimal point of 3rd LSD (Hundred’s digit). 22 AGD2 LCD segment drive for “a,” “g,” “d” segments of 3rd LSD. 23 FE2 24 BCP3 LCD segment drive for “b,” “c” segments and decimal point of 3rd LSD. LCD segment drive for “b,” “c” segments and decimal point of MSD (Thousand’s digit). 25 AC/-/AUTO LCD annunciator drive signal for AC measurements, polarity, and auto-range operation. 26 -MEM/BATT LCD annunciator drive signal for low battery indication and Memory (Relative Measurement) mode. 27 VSSD Negative battery supply connection for internal digital circuits. Connect to negative terminal of battery. 28 VCC Positive battery supply connection. 29 ANALOG COM Analog circuit ground reference point. Nominally 2.6V below VCC. 30 RMREFH Ratiometric (Resistance measurement) reference high voltage. 31 RMREFL Ratiometric (Resistance measurement) reference low voltage. 32 CREFL Reference capacitor negative terminal CREF 0.1µf. 33 CREFH Reference capacitor positive terminal CREF 0.1µf. 34 REFHI Reference voltage for voltage and current measurement; nominally 163.85mV. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21474C-page 5 TC815 TABLE 2-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE (CONTINUED) Pin Number (64-Pin Plastic) Quad Flat Package Symbol Description 35 ΩR1 Standard resistor connection for 200Ω full scale. 36 ΩR2 Standard resistor connection for 2000Ω full scale. 37 ΩR3 Standard resistor connection for 20kΩ full scale range. 38 ΩR4 Standard resistor connection for 200kΩ full scale range. 39 ΩR5 Standard resistor connection for 2000kΩ full scale range. 40 VR3 Voltage measurement ÷ 100 attenuator. 41 VR2 Voltage measurement ÷ 10 attenuator. 42 VR5 Voltage measurement ÷ 10,000 attenuator. 43 VR4 Voltage measurement ÷ 1000 attenuator. 44 VI Unknown voltage input ÷ 1 attenuator. 45 II Unknown current input. 46 ACVL 47 CI Integrator capacitor connection. Nominally 0.1µf. (Low dielectric absorption. Polypropylene dielectrics suggested.) 48 NC No connection. 49 CAZ Auto-zero capacitor connection; nominally 0.1µf. 50 RX Unknown resistance input. 51 CFI Input filter connection. 52 AD1 Negative input of internal AC to DC operational amplifier. 53 AD0 Output of internal AC to DC operational amplifier. 54 RΩBUF Active buffer output for resistance measurement. Integration resistor connection. Integrator resistor nominally 220kΩ. 55 RVIBUF Active buffer output for voltage and current measurement. Integration resistor connection. Integration resistor nominally 150kΩ. 56 ACVH Positive output of AC to DC converter. 57 VSSA Negative supply connection for analog circuits. Connect to negative terminal of 9V battery. 58 DGND 59 RANGE 60 HOLD Input to hold display. Connect to DIG GND. 61 -MEM Input to enter Memory Measurement mode for relative measurements. The two LSD’s are stored and subtracted from future measurements. 62 DS/AC Ω/LOWΩ Input that selects AC or DC option during voltage/current measurements. For resistance measurements, Ω/LOWΩ, the ohms or low power (voltage) ohms option can be selected. 63 I 64 NC DS21474C-page 6 Low output of AC to DC converter. Internal logic digital ground. The logic “0” level. Nominally 4.7V below VCC. Input to set manual operation and change ranges. Input to select current measurement. Set to logic “0” (Digital ground) for current measurement No connection. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 3.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 3.1 Resistance, Voltage, Current Measurement Selection The TC815 is designed to measure voltage, current, and resistance. Auto-ranging is available for resistance and voltage measurements. The OHMS (Pin 2) and I (Pin 63) input controls are normally pulled internally to VCC. By tying these pins to Digital Ground (Pin 58), the TC815 is configured internally to measure resistance, voltage, or current. The required signal combinations are shown in Table 3-1. TABLE 3-1: R8, a positive temperature coefficient resistor, and the 6.2V zener Z1 in Figure 3-1, provide input voltage protection during ohms measurements. TABLE 3-2: OHM (Pin 2) I (Pin 63) Selected Measurement 0 0 Voltage 0 1 Resistance 1 0 Current 1 1 Voltage Note 1: 0 = Digital Ground 2: 1 = Floating or Tied to VCC 3: OHM and I are normally pulled internally high to VCC (Pin 28). This is considered a logic “1.” 4: Logic “0” is the potential at digital ground (Pin 58). Resistance Measurements (Ohms and Low Power Ohms) The TC815 can be configured to reliably measure incircuit resistances shunted by semiconductor junctions. The TC815 Low Power Ohms Measurement mode limits the probe open circuit voltage. This prevents semiconductor junctions in the measured system from turning on. In the Resistance Measurement mode, the Ω/LOWΩ (Pin 62) input selects the Low Power Ohms Measurement mode. For low power ohms measurements, Ω/LOWΩ (Pin 62) is momentarily brought low to digital ground potential. The TC815 sets up for a low power ohms measurement with a maximum open circuit probe voltage of 0.35V above analog common. In the Low Power Ohms mode, an LCD display annunciator, LOWΩ, will be activated. On power-up, the Low Power Ohms mode is not active. If the Manual mode has been selected, toggling Ω/LOWΩ will reset the TC815 back to the Auto-Range mode. In Manual mode, the decision to make a normal or low power ohms measurement should be made before selecting the desired range. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. OHMS RANGE LADDER NETWORK Full Scale Range Standard Resistance Low Power Ohms Mode 200Ω 163.85 Ω (R1) NO 2000Ω 1638.5 kΩ (R2) YES MEASUREMENT SELECTION LOGIC Function Select Pin 3.2 The low power ohms measurement is not available on the 100Ω full scale range. Open circuit voltage on this range is below 2.8V. The standard resistance values are listed in Table 3-2. 20kΩ 16,385Ω (R3) YES 200kΩ 16385Ω (R4) YES 2,000kΩ 1,638,500Ω (R5) YES 3.3 Ratiometric Resistance Measurements The TC815 measures resistance ratiometrically. Accuracy is set by the external standard resistors connected to Pin 35 through 39. A Low Power Ohms mode may be selected on all but the 200Ω full scale range. The Low Power Ohms mode limits the voltage applied to the measured system. This allows accurate “in-circuit” measurements when a resistor is shunted by semiconductor junctions. Full auto-ranging is provided. External precision standard resistors are automatically switched to provide the proper range. Figure 3-1 shows a detailed block diagram of the TC815 configured for ratiometric resistance measurements. During the signal integrate phase, the reference capacitor charges to a voltage inversely proportional to the measured resistance, RX. Figure 3-2 shows the conversion accuracy relies on the accuracy of the external standard resistors only. Normally the required accuracy of the standard resistances will be dictated by the accuracy specifications of the users end product. Table 3-3 gives the equivalent ohms per count for various full scale ranges to allow users to judge the required resistor for accuracy. TABLE 3-3: REFERENCE RESISTORS Full Scale Range Reference Resistor Ω/Count 200k 163.85 0.1 2k 1638.5 1 20k 16385 10 200k 163850 100 2M 1638500 1000 DS21474C-page 7 TC815 FIGURE 3-1: RATIOMETRIC RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM 9V VSSD 57 VSSA 30 R5/1638500Ω 39 S29 38 S30 37 S31 R2/1638.5Ω 36 S32 R4/163850Ω R3/16385Ω ÷10k ÷1k ÷100 ÷10 ÷1 R1/163.85Ω VCC DE • Ω S23 33 S20 30 ~1.5kΩ Low Ohms Ω • LO VCC ÷100 ÷10 ÷1 S24 S25 S26 S27 S28 R8 220Ω 28 Ω • HIΩ VA S33 ÷10k ÷1k 35 10kΩ Ohms REFHI 34 ~1.5kV Voltage Reference + DE + Ω – Analog Common VCC - 2.6V CREF 0.1µF 32 31 50 S18 DE S21 DE • Ω R6/100kΩ RX S13 S12 INT • (Ω + DC) 1 V• 1 Unknown TC815 Buffer DE R7/100k Ω 50 S37 S36 Ω S34 Ω Ω S35 Ω Integrator 49 RΩBUF 54 55 RVIBUF 150kΩ 220kΩ FIGURE 3-2: Comparator 47 CAZ 0.1µF CINT 0.1µF RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY SET BY EXTERNAL STANDARD RESISTOR 0.64V for Ohms 0.32V for LO Ohms VA + RS 16.385k CREF 100 kΩ VR Example: 200kΩ Full Scale Measurement 163.85kΩ (a ) V R = ⎛ ------------------------------------------------⎞ x0.64 ⎝ 163.85 + 220 + R X⎠ (b) VR RX ⎞ x0.64 V X = ⎛ -------------------------------------------------------------⎝ 163.85kΩ + 220Ω + R X⎠ (c) “Ramp Up Voltage” = “Ramp Down Voltage” . VX VX = ----------------T . . ----------------xT ( RI CI ) I ( R I C I ) DE 220Ω VX Unknown 5kΩ 29 ≈ VCC - 2.8V DE S19 R18 24kΩ RX To Analog Buffer Where: RI = Integrating Resistor, TI = Integrate Time CI = Integrating Capacitor, TDE = Deintegrate Time (TDE) (d) RX = 163.85 TI Independent of RI, CI or Internal Voltage Reference DS21474C-page 8 © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 3.4 Voltage Measurement The divider leg resistors give a 200mV signal VI (Pin 44) for full scale voltages from 200mV to 2000V. Resistive dividers are automatically changed to provide in range readings for 200mV to 2000V full scale readings (Figure 3-3). The input resistance is set by external resistors R14/R13. The divider leg resistors are R9-R12. FIGURE 3-3: TC815 ANALOG SECTION 0.1µF R7/100kΩ Ohms Input For applications which do not require a 10mΩ input impedance, the divider network impedances may be lowered. This will reduce voltage offset errors induced by switch leakage currents. R8/220 Ω ΩRX 50 S12 V • 1/1 RMREFL 31 S21 DE • Ω R5/1.638MΩ ΩR 5 39 S24 W• 1/10k R4/163.85kΩ ΩR 4 38 Ω• S25 1/1k R3/16385Ω ΩR 3 37 Ω• S26 1/100 R2/1638.5Ω ΩR 2 36 Ω• S27 1/10 R1/163.85Ω ΩR 1 35 R6/100kΩ (PTC) 0.01µF Z1 6.2V S28 TC815 VCC VCC 10kΩ S44 Ω • HI Ω 1.5k VCC S43 + Ω • LOW 2.8V REF AMP – 1.5k + Ω •1/1 Current Input R15/9 Ω I I 45 200mA R19/5k Ω 29 34 REFHI ≈163.85mV D3 D4 R16/1Ω Voltage Input RMREFH R18/24k Ω ANALOG COM – S33 S32 S31 S30 S29 Ω • Ω • Ω• Ω • Ω• 1/1 1/10 1/100 1/1k 1/10k VCC Ω+1 S10 20mA 30 S22 DE • Ω R14/9.9MΩ VI 44 S1 S22 DE • Ω V•1/1 V• V• V• V• 1/10 1/100 1/1 1/10k k S8 S9 S6 S7 R13/500kΩ* *Not required when Resistor Network is used. R12/1.11M Ω VR2 41 S2 33 CREFH V•1/10 S20 DE R11/101kΩ VR3 40 S3 V•1/100 R10/10kΩ S4 V•1/1k VR4 43 VR2 42 4.7µF D2 D1 R24 C3 10k Ω + 1µF R23 10kΩ 53 R22 470 kW + C4 1µF R26 33kΩ 0.1µF 32 CREFL S18 DE R9/1kΩ Common CREFH S5 AC-to-DC Converter Op Amp ADO V•1/10k S19 DE+ Ω + S11 – Ω +AC S16 DE+ S17 DE51 CIF R21 2.2 MΩ 52 C2 ADI R20/100kΩ 0.01µF C6 S13 0.22 µF ACVH 56 S14 C1/1µF INT• Ω •AC R27/2kΩ INT•(Ω +DC) Buffer + ACVL 46 S40 S38 AZ S15 AZ – INT• Ω •AC S39 INT+Ω +DC – S35 Ω Ω S34 Ω 54 RBUFΩ S37 Ω – + + Comparator To Digital Section Integrator 49 55 R Ω RVI C BUF BUF AZ 220 0.01µF k Ω 150 k Ω CAZ 47 INT 0.01µF CINT RBUFΩ © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21474C-page 9 TC815 3.5 Current Measurement The TC815 measures current only under manual range operation. The two user selectable full scale ranges are: 20mA and 200mA. Select the current Measurement mode by holding the I input (Pin 63) low at digital ground potential. The OHM input (Pin 2) is left floating or tied to the positive supply. Two ranges are possible. The 20mA full scale range is selected by connecting the 20mA input (Pin 3) to digital ground. If left floating the 200mA full scale range is selected. External current to voltage conversion resistors are used at the II input (Pin 45). For 20mA measurements a 10Ω resistor is used. The 200mA range needs a 1Ω resistor; full scale is 200mV. PC board trace resistance between analog common and R16 (see Figure 2-1) must be minimized. In the 200mA range, for example, a 0.05 trace resistance will cause a 5% current to voltage conversion error at II (Pin 45). The extended resolution measurement option operates during current measurements. To minimize rollover error the potential difference between ANALOG COM (Pin 29) and system common must be minimized. DS21474C-page 10 3.6 Measurement Options (AC to DC Measurements) In voltage and current measurements, the TC815 can be configured for AC measurements. An on-chip operational amplifier and external rectifier components perform the AC to DC conversion. When power is first applied, the TC815 enters the DC Measurement mode. For AC measurements (current or voltage), AC/DC (Pin 62) is momentarily brought low to digital ground potential; the TC815 sets-up for AC measurements and the AC liquid crystal display annunciator activates. Toggling AC/DC low again will return the TC815 to DC operation. If the Manual Operating mode has been selected, toggling AC/DC will reset the TC815 back to the AutoRange mode. In Manual mode operation, AC or DC operation should be selected first and then the desired range selected. The minimum AC voltage full scale voltage range is 2V. The DC full scale minimum voltage is 200mV. AC current measurements are available on the 20mA and 100mA full scale current ranges. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 4.0 CONVERSION TIMING The TC815 analog-to-digital converter uses the conventional dual slope integrating conversion technique with an added phase that automatically eliminates zero offset errors. The TC815 gives a zero reading with a zero volt input. The TC815 is designed to operate with a 32.768kHz crystal. The 32kHz crystal is low cost and readily available; it serves as a time-base oscillator crystal in many digital clocks. (See External Crystal Sources.) The external clock is divided by two. The internal clock frequency is 16.348kHz, giving a clock period of 61.04µsec. The total conversion — auto-zero phase, signal integrate and reference deintegrate — requires 8000 clock periods or 488.3msec. There are approximately two complete conversions per second. FIGURE 4-1: BASIC TC815 CONVERSION TIMING Signal Integrate Phase TC815 Reference De-integrate Phase Next Conversion Auto-Zero Cycle Extended Resolution Auto-Zero Phase Zero Crossing Min. Auto-Zero Time Fixed 1638.5 TP 3361.5TP TI TCONV 8000 TP *Max 3000.0 TP TDE To Input Signal *In Auto-Range Operation Maximum is 2000TP and Minimum Auto-Zero time i s 4361.5TP External Crystal = 32.768kHz Internal Clock Period = TP = 2/32.768 = 61.04µsec The integration time is fixed at 1638.5 clock periods or 100msec. This gives rejection of 50/60Hz AC line noise. Total Conversion Time = TCONV = 8000 (TP) = 488.3mec ≈ 2 Conv/Sec. The maximum reference de-integrate time, representing a full scale analog input, is 3000 clock periods or 183.1msec during manual extended resolution operation. The 3000 counts are available in Manual mode, extended resolution operation only. In Auto-Ranging mode, the maximum de-integrate time is 2000 clock periods. The 1000 clock periods are added to the autozero phase. An auto-ranging, or manual conversion takes 8000 clock periods. After a zero crossing is detected in the Reference De-integrate mode, the autozero phase is entered. Figure 4-1 shows the basic TC815 timing relationships. Maximum Reference De-integration Time = TDE = 3000 (TP) = 183.1msec (Manual Extended Resolution) © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. Integration Time = TI = 1638.5 (TP) = 100.0msec. Minimum Auto-Zero Time = (8000-3000-1638.5) (TP) = 205.1msec (Manual, Extended Resolution) = (8000-2000-1638.5) (TP) = 266.2msec (Auto-Range) DS21474C-page 11 TC815 5.0 MANUAL RANGE SELECTION (voltage or resistance), or measurement option (AC/ DC, Ω/LOΩ) changes. This causes the TC815 to return to auto-ranging operation. The TC815 voltage and resistance auto-ranging feature can be disabled by momentarily bringing RANGE (Pin 59) to digital ground potential (Pin 58). When the change from auto-to-manual ranging occurs, the first manual range selected is the last range in the AutoRanging mode. The “Auto” LCD annunciator driver is active only in the Auto-Range mode. Table 5-1 shows typical operation, where the manual range selection option is used. Also shown is the extended resolution display format. Also see Figure 5-1 through Figure 5-3. The TC815 power-up circuit selects auto-range operation initially. Once the manual range option is entered, range changes are made by momentarily grounding the RANGE control input. The TC815 remains in the Manual Range mode until the measurement function TABLE 5-1: MANUAL RANGE OPERATION DC Volts AC Volts Ohm LO Ohm 23.5V 18.2V 18.2kΩ 2.35MΩ Input Power-on Auto-Range Operation Range Display Range Range Display Range Range Display 200mV “1”00.0V 2V “1”000V 200Ω “1”00.0Ω 2kΩ “1”.000kΩ 2V 1.000V 20V 18.20V 2kΩ “1”.000kΩ 10kΩ “1”.0.00kΩ 20V “1”0.00V — — 20kΩ 18.20Ω 200kΩ “1”.00.0kΩ 200V 23.5V — — — — 2000kΩ “1”350kΩ Manual Operation DC Volts AC Volts Ohm LO Ohm 23.5V 18.2V 18.2kΩ 2.35MΩ Input # of Range Changes (See Note 4) Range Display Range Range Display Range Range Display 1 200V 23.5V 20V 18.20V 20kΩ 18.20V 2000kΩ “1”350kΩ 2 200mV “1”00.0V 2V “1”.000V 200Ω “1”00.0ΩkΩ 2kΩ “1”.000kΩ 3 2V 1.000V 20V 18.20V 2kΩ “1”000kΩ 20kΩ “1”0.00kΩ 4 20V “1”3.50V 20V 18.2V 20kΩ 18.20kΩ 200kΩ “1”00.0kΩ 5 200V 23.5V 600V 19V 200kΩ 18.2kΩ 2000kΩ “1”350kΩ 6 1000V 24V 2V “1”.000V 2000kΩ 19kΩ 2kΩ “1”.000kΩ 7 200mV “1”00.0mV 20V 18.20V 200kΩ “1”00.0Ω 20kΩ “1”0.00kΩ 8 2V “1”.000V 200V 18.2V 2kΩ “1”.000kΩ 200kΩ “1”00.0kΩ Note 1: A flashing MSD is shown as a “1”. A flashing MSD indicates the TC815 is over-ranging if all other digits are zero. 2: The first manual range selected is the last range in the Auto-Ranging mode. 3: A flashing MSD with a non-zero display indicates the TC815 has entered the Extended Resolution Operating mode. An additional 1000 counts of resolution is available. This extended operation is available only in manual operation for voltage, resistance and current measurements. 4: = Momentary ground connection. DS21474C-page 12 © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 FIGURE 5-1: MANUAL RANGE SELECTION: RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS FIGURE 5-3: Manual Range Select MANUAL RANGE SELECTION: VOLTAGE MEASUREMENTS Range Select TC815 Continuity Indicator Output 4kHz Audio Frequency Yes Output Noncontinuous 4kHz Audio Frequency Is RX < 19 ? Continuous 4kHz Buzzer TC815 No Is RX > 3000 ? No Over Range Indicator Over Range Indicator Yes Is VX > 3000 ? Display "1" 000 "1" = > Flashing MSD Yes "1" = > Flashing MSD No Is RX > 2000 ? No Yes* Display Last 3 Digits and Flash MSD Is VX > 2000 ? Extended Resolution Feature Display True Reading No *Mode also operates when Auto-Ranging Operation is selected and 2MΩ < RX < 2.999MΩ For resistance measurements, the buzzer signal does not indicate an overrange condition. The buzzer is used to indicate continuity. Continuity is defined as a resistance reading less than 19 counts. FIGURE 5-2: MANUAL RANGE SELECTION: CURRENT MEASUREMENTS Range Select TC815 Yes Output 4kHz Audio Frequency Over Range Indicator Is IX > 3000 ? Yes Is IX > 2000 ? Display "1" 000 "1" = > Flashing MSD No Yes No Display "1" 000 Yes Display Last 3 Digits and Flash MSD Extended Resolution Feature Display True Reading 5.1 Extended Resolution Manual Operation The TC815 extends resolution by 50% when operated in the Manual Range Select mode for current, voltage, and resistance measurements. Resolution increases to 3000 counts from 2000 counts. The extended resolution feature operates only on the 2000kΩ and 2000V ranges during auto-range operation. In the Extended Resolution Operating mode, readings above 1999 are displayed with a blinking “1” most significant digit. The blinking “1” should be interpreted as the digit 2. The three least significant digits display data normally. An input overrange condition causes the most significant digit to blink and sets the three least significant digits to display “000.” The buzzer output is enabled for input voltage and current signals with readings greater than 2000 counts in both manual and auto-range operation. Display Last 3 Digits and Flash MSD Extended Resolution Feature Display True Reading © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21474C-page 13 TC815 6.0 -MEM OPERATING MODE Bringing -MEM (Pin 61) momentarily low configures the TC815 “-MEM” Operating mode. The -MEM LCD Annunciator becomes active. In this Operating mode, subsequent measurements are made relative to the last two digits (-99) displayed at the time MEM is low. This represents 5% of full scale. The last two significant digits are stored and subtracted from all the following input conversions. The following examples clarify operation: EXAMPLE 6-1: IN AUTO-RANGING RI (N) = 18.21kΩ (20kΩ Range) = > Display 18.21kΩ MEM = > Store 0.21kΩ RI (N+1) = 19.87kΩ (20kΩ Range) = > Display 19.87 - 0.21 = 19.66kΩ RI (N+2) = 22.65kΩ (200kΩ Range) = > Display 22.7kΩ and MEM disappears EXAMPLE 6-2: IN FIXED RANGE (200.0Ω FULL SCALE) RI (N) = 18.21kΩ = > Display 18.2kΩ = > Store 8.2Ω MEM RI (N+1) = 36.7Ω = > Display 36.7 - 8.2 = 28.5Ω RI (N+2) = 5.8Ω = > Display 5.8 = 2.4Ω* *Will display minus resistance if following input is less than offset stored at fixed range. EXAMPLE 6-3: IN FIXED RANGE VI (N) = 0.51V = > Display 0.51V = > Store 0.51V MEM VI (N+1) = 3.68V = > Display 3.68 - 0.51 = 3.17V VI (N+2) = 0.23V = > Display 0.23 - 0.51 = -0.28V VI (N+3) = -5.21V = > Display - 5.21 - 0.51 = -5.72V On power-up, the TC815 “-MEM” mode is not active. Once the “-MEM” is entered, bringing MEM low again, it returns the TC815 to normal operation. The “-MEM” mode is also cancelled whenever the measurement type (resistance, voltage, current AC/DC, Ω/LOΩ) or range is changed. The LCD -MEM annunciator will be off in normal operation. 7.0 AUTOMATIC RANGE SELECTION OPERATION When power is first applied, the TC815 enters the autorange operating state. The Auto-Range mode may be entered from Manual mode by changing the measurement function (resistance or voltage), or by changing the measurement option (AD/DC, Ω/LOΩ). The automatic voltage range selection begins on the most sensitive scale first: 200mV for DC or 2.000V for AC measurements. The voltage range selection flow chart is given in Figure 7-1. Internal input protection diodes to VDD (Pin 28) and VSSA (Pin 57) clamp the input voltage. The external 10MΩ input resistance (see Figure 7-1, R14 and R13) limits current safely in an overrange condition. The voltage range selection is designed to maximize resolution. For input signals less than 9% of full scale (count reading <180), the next most sensitive range is selected. An over range voltage input condition is flagged whenever the internal count exceeds 2000, by activating the buzzer output (Pin 4). This 4kHz signal can directly drive a piezo electric acoustic transducer. An out of range input signal causes the 4kHz signal to be on 122msec, off for 122 msec, on for 122msec and off for 610msec (see Figure 11-1). During voltage auto-range operation, the extended resolution feature operates on the 2000V range only. (See Extended Resolution Operating mode discussion.) The resistance automatic range selection procedure is shown in Figure 7-2. The 200Ω range is the first range selected unless the TC815 low ohms resistance measurement option is selected. In low ohms operation, the first full scale range tried is 2kΩ. The resistance range selected maximizes sensitivity. If the conversion results in a reading less than 180, the next most sensitive full scale range is tried. If the conversion is less than 19 in auto-range operation, a continuous 4kHz signal is output at BUZ (Pin 4). An over range input does not activate the buzzer. Out of range input conditions are displayed by a blinking most significant digit with the three least significant digits set to “000.” The extended resolution feature operates only on the 2000kΩ and 2000V full scale range during auto-range operation. A blinking “1” most significant digit is interpreted as the digit 2. The three least significant digits display data normally. In the auto-range operation, if the following input signal cannot be converted on the same range as the stored value, the “-MEM” mode is cancelled. The LCD annunciator is turned off. The “-MEM” Operating mode can be very useful in resistance measurements when lead length resistance would cause measurement errors. DS21474C-page 14 © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 FIGURE 7-1: AUTO-RANGE OPERATION: VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT TC815 N = 0 if DC N = 1 if AC N = 0: 200.0mV Full Scale Range N = 1: 2,000V Full Scale Range N = NK Remaining in Range Selected during the Kth Conversion Kth Conversion VX - (1/10N) VIN VX < 180 ? N=N–1 Yes No VX > 2000 ? N = 0 if DC N = 1 if AC Yes No Display Voltae (VX) K=K+1 Yes N=N+1 No N=4 ? Yes VX > 3000 ? Yes No Display "1" XXX Flash MSD Activate Buzzer Over Range Display "1" 000 Flash MSD Start: Power-on, Function or Measurement Option Change © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21474C-page 15 TC815 FIGURE 7-2: AUTO-RANGE OPERATION: RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT N = 0 if Ω N = 1 if LOΩ TC815 N = 0: 200.0Ω Full Scale Range N = 1: 2,000kΩ Full Scale Range Remaining in Range Selected during the Kth Conversion Kth Conversion RX = (1/10N) RIN Continuity Indicator Activate Buzzer Yes RX < 19 ? N=N–1 No Continuous 4kHz Signal No RX < 180 ? Yes N = 0 if Ω N =1 if LOWΩ No Yes RX >2000 ? Display Resistance K=K+1 Yes No N=N+1 N=4 ? Yes RX >3000 ? Over Range No Display "1" XXX Flash MSD Display "1" 000 Flash MSD Extended Resolution Yes Start: Power-on, Function or Measurement Option Change DS21474C-page 16 © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 8.0 LOW BATTERY DETECTION CIRCUIT The TC815 contains a low battery detector. When the 9V battery supply has been depleted to a 7V nominal value, the LCD display low battery annunciator is activated. The low battery detector is shown in Figure 8-1. The low battery annunciator remains OFF with the battery supply greater than 0.7V. The annunciator is ON before the supply battery has reached 6.3V. FIGURE 8-1: The TC815 internally generates two intermediate LCD drive potentials (VH and VL) from a resistive divider (Figure 9-1), between VCC (Pin 28) and VDISP (Pin 7). The ladder impedance is approximately 150kΩ. This drive method is commonly known as 1/3 bias. With VDISP connected to digital ground VP ≈ 5.0V. The intermediate levels are needed so that drive signals giving RMS “ON” and “OFF” levels can be generated. Figure 9-2 shows a typical drive signal and the resulting wave forms for “ON” and “OFF.” RMS voltage levels across a selected LCD element. Also, see Figure 9-3 and Table 9-1. LOW BATTERY DETECTOR VCC “OFF” segments may become visible at high LCD operating temperatures. A voltage with a -5 to -20mV/°C temperature coefficient can be applied to VDISP to accommodate the liquid crystal temperature operating characteristics, if necessary. Low Battery Detector TC815 R1 VT FIGURE 9-1: + R3 – R2 1/3 BIAS LCD DRIVE Comparator VCC To LCD Annunciator Selection Logic 28 TC815 50k VZ 6.2V VH R2 VT ≈ 7 X R1 + R2 = 6.2V To Triplex Segment Drive Logic VSSA 50k VL Set VDISP For Proper VP with Resistive Divider 50k 9.0 TRIPLEX LIQUID CRYSTAL DRIVE The TC815 directly drives a triplexed liquid crystal display (LCD) using 1/3 bias drive (see Figure 9-1). All data, decimal point, polarity and function annunciator drive signals are developed by the TC815. A direct connection to a triplex LCD display is possible without external drive electronics. Standard and custom LCD displays are readily available from LCD manufacturers. The LCDs must be driven with an AC signal having zero DC component for long display life. The liquid crystal polarization is a function of the RMS voltage appearing across the backplane and segment driver. The peak drive signal applied to the LCD is: VCC VDISP. If VDISP, for example, is set at a potential 3V below VCC, the peak drive signal is: VP = VCC – VDISP = 3V An “OFF” LCD segment has an RMS voltage of Vp/3 across it or 1 volt. An “ON” segment has a 0.63Vp signal across it or 1.92V for VCC –VDISP = 3V. Since the VDISP pin is available, the user may adjust the “ON” and “OFF” LCD levels for various manufacturer’s displays by changing Vp. The liquid crystal threshold voltage moves down with temperature. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. 6 VDISP VSSA VP = VCC – VDISP "OFF" = VP/3 RMS 11 "ON" = VP RMS 3 3 9.1 LCD Displays Although most users will design their own custom LCD display, several manufacturers offer standard displays for the TC815. Figure 9-3 shows a typical display available from Varitronix. 1. Varitronix Ltd. 4/F Liven House, 61-63, King Yip Street Kwun Tong, Hong Kong Tel: (852)2389-4317 Part No.: VIM 310-1 Pin Connector VIM 310-2 Elastomer Connector USA OFFICE: VL Electronics/Varitronix 3250 Wilshire Blvd. Suite 1901 Los Angeles, CA 90010 Tel: (213) 738-8700 2. Adamant Kogyo Co., LTD 16-7, Shinden, 1-Chome, Adachi-Ku, Tokyo, 123, Japan Tel: Tokyo 919-1171 DS21474C-page 17 TC815 FIGURE 9-2: TRIPLEX LCD DRIVE WAVEFORMS Backplanes 1 2 3 4 5 6 Segments a (FE – BP1) "On" b (BCP – BP1) "On" Backplanes 1 a 2 3 4 5 c (BCP – BP2) "On" 6 BP1 b d (AGD – BP3) "On" VP (3V) lanes f g e Backp BP2 c d BP1 e (FE – BP2) "Off" VP VH VL BP20 BP3 FE AGD VP VH VL BP30 BCP 11 VRMS = 3 3 3 3 VRMS = g (AGD – "On" VRMS = VP 3 11 VRMS = –VL –VH –VP VP VH VL BP2) 0 –VL –VH –VP VP 3 11 VRMS = VRMS = VP 3 11 VRMS = f (FE – BP1) "Off" Waveforms to Generate FIGURE 9-3: Applied RMS Voltage VP VH 0 –VL –VH –VP VP VH VL 0 –VL –VH –VP VP VH VL 0 –VL –VH –VP VP VH VL 0 –VL –VH –VP VP VH VL 0 –VL –VH –VP VP VH VL VP 3 VP 3 VP 3 11 3 VP 3 TYPICAL LCD DISPLAY CONFIGURATION TC815 TRIPLEX 50.8 (+0.3–0.1) 2.9 45.0 Viewing Area Min. 1.27 1.27 3.81 CL Between Pads 2.54 X 17 - 43.18 36 3 3 HOLD LOΩ 10 6 5.5 a 1.4 AC 4 AUTO 0.5 Max. 3 1 b f 10 2.4 P2 1 3.81 6.24 18 P3 mVA c d P4 3 g e 2 kΩ 30.48 (+0.3–0.1) – + 22.86 (+0.3–0.1) - MEM 10.0 Max. 18.0 Viewing Area Min. 19 0.2 0.2 Dimensions in mm (Not to Scale) 1.1 DS21474C-page 18 1.1 © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 TABLE 9-1: PAD BP1 BP2 BP3 PAD COM1 COM2 COM3 1 2 BP1 / / 19 / / / / BP2 / 20 / / / 3 / / BP3 21 / / / 4 / LOΩ A 22 / / / 5 / W V 23 / / / 6 HOLD k m 24 / / / 7 b1 c1 / 25 / / / 8 a1 g1 d1 26 / / / 9 f1 e1 / 27 / / / 10 b2 c2 P2 28 / / / 11 a2 g2 d2 29 / / / 12 f2 e2 / 30 / / / 13 b3 c3 P3 31 / / / 14 a3 g3 d3 32 / / / 15 f3 e3 / 33 / / / 16 b4 c4 P4 34 / / / 17 AC Auto 35 / / / / 36 / / / 18 10.0 –MEM EXTERNAL CRYSTAL The TC815 is designed to operate with a 32,768Hz crystal. This frequency is internally divided by two to give a 61.04µsec clock period. One conversion takes 8000 clock periods or 488.3 msec ( ≈ 2 conversions/ second). Integration time is 1638.5 clock periods or 100msec. The 32kHz quartz crystal is readily available and inexpensive. The 32kHz crystal is commonly used in digital clocks and counters. Several crystal sources exist. A partial listing is: • Statek Corporation 512 N. Main Orange, CA 92668 (714) 639-7810 TWX: 910-593-1355 TELEX: 67-8394 • Fox Electronics 5570 Enterprise Parkway Fort Myers, FL 33905 (941) 693-0099 Contact manufacturer for full specifications. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21474C-page 19 TC815 11.0 “BUZZER” DRIVE SIGNAL The buzzer drive signal for over range is shown in Figure 11-1 The buzzer output is active for any reading over 2000 counts in both manual and auto-range operation. The buzzer is activated during an extended resolution measurement. The BUZ signal swings from VCC (Pin 28) to Digital Ground (Pin 58). The signal is at VCC when not active. The TC815 BUZ output (Pin 4) will drive a piezo electric audio transducer. The signal is activated to indicate an input overrange condition for current and voltage measurements, or continuity during resistance measurements. During a resistance measurement, a reading less than 19 on any full scale range, causes a continuous 4kHz signal to be output. This is used as a continuity indication. The BUZ output is also activated for 15msec whenever a range change is made in auto-range or manual operation. Changing the type of measurement (voltage, current, or resistance) or measurement option (AC/DC, Ω/LOΩ) will also activate the buzzer output for 15msec. A range change during a current measurement will not activate the buzzer output. A voltage or current input measurement overrange is indicated by a noncontinuous 4kHz signal at the BUZ output. The LCD display MSD also flashes and the three least significant digits are set to display zero. FIGURE 11-1: TC815 WAVEFORM FOR BUZZER OUTPUT 122ms 122ms 122ms 122ms 610ms 122ms Digital Ground 1 Conversion Noncontinuous Buzzer Signal Indicates Input Overrange Power-up VIN = 250mV 4000 4kHz Signal 8000 Change Range 12000 Change Range Change Input VIN = 3.2V Change Range 1000 Clock Pulses Integrate Internal TC815 Signals 100ms 1638.5CP De-integrate 250CP 250CP 2,000V Range In Range 2,000V Range In Range 2500CP 250CP 3000CP 122ms 2000CP Auto-Zero Auto-Ranging 200mV Range Over Range Manual Range 200mV Range Extended Range 2,000V Range In Range 2,000V Range Out of Range BUZ (Pin 4) 4kHz 4kHz One Cycle of Over Range Buzzer Buzzer activated due to Power-up DS21474C-page 20 15ms 15ms Due to Manual Due to Range Change Range Change 15ms Due to Range Change 4kHz 4kHz 122ms 122ms122ms Buzzer activated due to Previous Conversion Over Range 610ms Buzzer activated due to Previous Over Range © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 11.3 Vendors for piezo electric audio transducers are: • Gulton Industries Piezo Products Division 212 Durham Avenue Metuchen, New Jersey 08840 (201) 548-2800 Typical P/Ns: 102-95NS, 101-FB-00 11.3.1 11.3.2 Display Decimal Point Selection The TC815 provides a decimal point LCD drive signal. The decimal point position is a function of the selected full scale range, as shown in Table 11-1. TABLE 11-1: DECIMAL POINT SELECTION 1 * 9 * 9 INTEGRATION RESISTOR SELECTION The TC815 automatically selects one of two external integration resistors. RVBUF (pin 55) is selected for voltage and current measurement. RΩBUF (Pin 54) is selected for resistance measurements. • Taiyo Yuden (USA) Inc. Arlington Center 714 West Algonquin Road Arlington Heights, Illinois 60005 Typical P/Ns: CB27BB, CB20BB, CB355BB 11.1 Component Selection * 9 RVIBUF SELECTION (PIN 55) In auto-range operation, the TC815 operates with a 200mV maximum full scale potential at VI (Pin 44). Resistive dividers at VR2 (Pin 41), VR3 (Pin 40), VR4 (Pin 43), and VR5 (Pin 42) are automatically switched to maintain the 200V full scale potential. In Manual mode, the Extended Operating mode is activated, giving a 300mV full scale potential at VI (Pin 44). The integrator output swing should be maximized, but saturations must be avoided. The integrator will swing within 0.45V of VCC (Pin 28) and 0.5V of VSS (Pin 57) without saturating. A ±2V swing is suggested. The value of RVIBUF is easily calculated, assuming a worst case extended resolution input signal: Full Scale Range DP3 DP2 DP1 2000V, 2000kΩ OFF OFF OFF 200V, 200.0kΩ OFF OFF ON VINT = Integrator swing = ±2V = Integration time = 100msec = Integration capacitor = 0.1µF OFF ON OFF tI 2V, 2.000kΩ ON OFF OFF CI 200V, 200.0Ω OFF OFF OFF VMAX = Maximum input at VI = 300mV 200mV, 200.0Ω OFF OFF ON 20mA OFF ON OFF 200mA OFF OFF ON 20V, 20.00kΩ EQUATION 11-1: RVIBUF = 11.2 AC-to-DC Converter Operational Amplifier The TC815 contains an on-chip operational amplifier that may be connected as a rectifier for AC-to-DC voltage and current measurements. Typical operational amplifier characteristics are: • Slew Rate: 1 V/µsec • Unity-Gain Bandwidth: 0.4MHz • Open Loop Gain: 44dB 11.3.3 VMAX(TI) VINT(CI) = 150kΩ RΩBUF SELECTION (PIN 54) In ratiometric resistance measurements, the signal at RX (pin 50) is always positive, with respect to analog common. The integrator swings negative. The worst case integrator swing is for the 200Ω range with the manual, extended resolution option. The input voltage, VX (Pin 50) is easily calculated (see Figure 11-2): • Output Voltage Swing (Load = 10kΩ) ± 1.5V (Referenced to Analog Common) VANCOM = Potential at Analog Common ≈ 2.7V R8 = 220Ω When the AC measurement option is selected, the input buffer receives an input signal through switch S14, rather than switch S11. With external circuits, the AC Operating mode can be used to perform other types of functions within the constraints of the internal operational amplifier. External circuits that perform true RMS conversion, or a peak hold function are typical examples. RI = 163.85Ω RX = 300Ω RS = Internal switch 33 resistance ≈ 600Ω © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. EQUATION 11-2: VCC - (VANCOM)RX RΩBUF = (R + R + R + R ) = 0.63V X S 1 8 DS21474C-page 21 TC815 For a 3.1V integrator swing, the value of RΩBUF is easily calculated: VINT = Integrator swing = 3.1V tI = Integration time = 100msec CI = Integration capacitor = 0.1µF RXMAX = 300Ω VX MAX = 700mV EQUATION 11-3: RΩBUF = FIGURE 11-2: VXMAX(TI) = 200kΩ CI(VINT) RΩ CALCULATION (200Ω MANUAL OPERATION) VCC = 9V SW33 RS ≈ 600Ω 11.5 Reference Voltage Adjustment The TC815 contains a low temperature drift internal voltage reference. The analog common potential (Pin 29) is established by this reference. Maximum drift is a low 75ppm/°C. Analog common is designed to be approximately 2.6V below VCC (Pin 28). A resistive divider (R18/R19, Functional Diagram) sets the TC815 reference input voltage (REFHI, Pin 34) to approximately 163.85mV. With an input voltage near full scale on the 200mV range, R19 is adjusted for the proper reading. 11.6 Display Hold Feature The LCD will not be updated when HOLD (Pin 60) is connected to GND (Pin 58). Conversions are made, but the display is not updated. A HOLD mode LCD annunciator is activated when HOLD is low. The LCD HOLD annunciator is activated through the triplex LCD driver signal at Pin 13. 11.7 Flat Package Socket Sockets suitable for prototype work are available. A USA source is: R1 163.85Ω R2 220Ω VX R3 Resistive Ladder Networks Resistor attenuator networks for voltage and resistance measurements are available from: Analog Common = VCC – 3V • Caddock Electronics 1717 Chicago Avenue Riverside, CA 92507 Tel: (714) 788-1700 TWX: 910-332-6108 Capacitors - CINT, CAZ and CREF The integration capacitor, CINT, must have low dielectric absorption. A 0.1µF polypropylene capacitor is suggested. The auto-zero capacitor, CAZ, and reference capacitor, CREF, should be selected for low leakage and dielectric absorption. Polystyrene capacitors are good choices. DS21474C-page 22 11.8 300Ω With a low battery voltage of 6.6V, analog common will be approximately 3.6V above the negative supply terminal. With the integrator swinging down from analog common toward the negative supply, a 3.1V swing will set the integrator output to 0.5V above the negative supply. 11.4 • Nepenthe Distribution 2471 East Bayshore, Suite 520 Palo Alto, CA 94303 (415) 856-9332 TWX: 910-373-2060 “CBQ” Socket, Part No. IC51-064-042 TABLE 11-2: RESISTIVE LADDER NETWORKS Attenuator Accuracy Attenuator Type Caddock Part Number 0.1% Voltage 1776-C441 0.25% Voltage 1776-C44 0.25% Resistance T1794-204-1 © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. TC815 12.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 12.1 Package Marking Information Package marking data not available at this time. 12.2 Taping Form Component Taping Orientation for 64-Pin PQFP Devices User Direction of Feed PIN 1 W P Standard Reel Component Orientation for TR Suffix Device Carrier Tape, Number of Components Per Reel and Reel Size Package 64-Pin PQFP Carrier Width (W) Pitch (P) Part Per Full Reel Reel Size 32 mm 24 mm 250 13 in Note: Drawing does not represent total number of pins. 12.3 Package Dimensions 64-Pin PQFP 7° MAX. .009 (0.23) .005 (0.13) PIN 1 .018 (0.45) .012 (0.30) .041 (1.03) .031 (0.78) .555 (14.10) .547 (13.90) .687 (17.45) .667 (16.95) .031 (0.80) TYP. .555 (14.10) .547 (13.90) .687 (17.45) .667 (16.95) .010 (0.25) TYP. .120 (3.05) .100 (2.55) .130 (3.30) MAX. Dimensions: mm (inches) © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21474C-page 23 TC815 SALES AND SUPPORT Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. 3. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 792-7277 The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. DS21474C-page 24 © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron, dsPIC, KEELOQ, microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PRO MATE, PowerSmart, rfPIC, and SmartShunt are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. AmpLab, FilterLab, Migratable Memory, MXDEV, MXLAB, PICMASTER, SEEVAL, SmartSensor and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Linear Active Thermistor, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICLAB, PICtail, PowerCal, PowerInfo, PowerMate, PowerTool, rfLAB, rfPICDEM, Select Mode, Smart Serial, SmartTel, Total Endurance and WiperLock are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2005, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 quality system certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona and Mountain View, California in October 2003. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PICmicro® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. 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