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ST7580
FSK, PSK multi-mode power line networking
system-on-chip
Features
■
Fully integrated narrow-band power line
networking system-on-chip
■
High-performing PHY processor with
embedded turnkey firmware featuring:
– B-FSK modulation up to 9.6 kbps
– B-PSK, Q-PSK, 8-PSK modulations up to
28.8 kbps
– Dual channel operation mode
– Convolutional error correction coding
– Signal-to-noise ratio estimation
– B-PSK with PNA mode against impulsive
noise
■
■
Host controller UART interface up to 57.6 kbps
■
AES-128 based authentication and
confidentiality services
■
Fully integrated analog front end:
– ADC and DAC
– Digital transmission level control
– PGA with automatic gain control
– High sensitivity receiver
■
Fully integrated single-ended power amplifier
for line driving
– Up to 1 A RMS, 14 V p-p output
– Configurable active filtering topology
– Very high linearity
– Embedded temperature sensor
– Current control feature
8 to 18 V power amplifier supply
■
3.3 V or 5 V digital I/O supply
■
Zero crossing detection
January 2012
■
Suitable for EN50065, FCC part 15 and ARIB
compliant applications
■
Communication carrier frequency
programmable up to 250 kHz
■
VFQFPN48 7x7x1.0 48L exposed pad
package
■
-40 °C to +85 °C temperature range
Applications
Protocol engine embedding turnkey
communication protocol
– Framing service
– Error detection
– Sniffer functionality
■
VFQFPN 7x7x1.0 48L
(pitch 0.50)
■
Smart metering applications
■
Street lighting control
■
Command and control networking
Description
The ST7580 is a flexible power line networking
system-on-chip combining a high performing PHY
processor core and a protocol controller with a
fully integrated analog front end (AFE) and line
driver for a scalable future-proof, cost effective,
single chip, narrow-band power line
communication solution.
Table 1.
Device summary
Order codes
Package
ST7580
Packaging
Tube
VFQFPN48
ST7580TR
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
Tape and reel
1/33
www.st.com
33
Contents
ST7580
Contents
1
Device overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2
Pin connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1
3
Pin description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Maximum ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1
Absolute maximum ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2
Thermal data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4
Electrical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5
Analog front end (AFE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6
5.1
Reception path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2
Transmission path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.3
Power amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.4
Current and voltage control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.5
Thermal shutdown and temperature control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.6
Zero crossing comparator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Power management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.1
Ground connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7
Clock management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8
Functional overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8.1
9
Physical layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9.1
9.2
2/33
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
PSK modulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9.1.1
PSK modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9.1.2
PSK physical frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
FSK modulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
9.2.1
FSK options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
9.2.2
FSK physical frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
Contents
9.2.3
9.3
10
FSK settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Channel and modulation selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Data link layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
10.1
Data link frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
10.2
Error detection and sniffer mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
10.3
Security services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
11
Package mechanical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
12
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
3/33
Device overview
1
ST7580
Device overview
Made using multi-power technology with state-of-the-art VLSI CMOS lithography, the
ST7580 is based on dual digital core architecture (a PHY processor engine and a protocol
controller core) to guarantee outstanding communication performance with a high level of
flexibility for either open standards or customized implementations.
A HW 128-bit AES encryption block with customizable key management is available on chip
when secure communication is requested.
The on-chip analog front end featuring analog to digital and digital to analog conversion,
automatic gain control, plus the integrated power amplifier delivering up to 1 A RMS output
current makes the ST7580 a unique system-on-chip for power line communication.
Line coupling network design is also simplified, leading to a very low cost BOM.
Robust and performing operations are guaranteed while keeping power consumption and
signal distortion levels very low; this makes the ST7580 an ideal platform for the most
stringent application requirements and regulatory standards compliance.
Figure 1.
Block diagram
PA_IN-
PA_IN+
PA_OUT
CL
ON-CHIP
Memories
Thermal
Management
+
-
Output Current
Control
T_REQ
Line Driver
SPI0/UART
ON-CHIP
Memories
RXD
TXD
128bit
AES
TX_OUT
GAIN
CTRL
DAC
BPF
Protocol
Controller
TX AFE
DDS
WATCHDOG
TIMERS
PHY processor
BR1
BR0
RX_IN
RX AFE
VCC
(8-18V)
PL_RX_ON
ADC
PGA
BPF
PL_TX_ON
Power Management
Zero Crossing
Detection
VDDIO
(5 / 3.3V)
VCCA
(5V)
Clock Management
ZC_IN
VDD
(1.8V)
VDD_PLL
(1.8V)
XIN
XOUT
AM02502v1
4/33
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
Pin connection
PL_RX_ON
T_REQ
BR1
BR0
PL_TX_ON
RESERVED1
RESERVED2
RESERVED3
GND
VDD
RESERVED4
RESERVED5
Pinout top view
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37
TXD
1
36
CL_SEL
RXD
2
35
VSSA
VDDIO
3
34
VDDIO
TRSTN
4
33
GND
TMS
5
32
NC
GND
6
31
RESERVED0
TCK
7
30
NC
TDO
8
29
NC
TDI
9
28
VDDIO
RESETN 10
27
VDD_REG_1V8
VDD 11
26
PA_OUT
XIN 12
25
VSS
VCC
CL
PA_IN-
PA_IN+
RX_IN
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
TX_OUT
ZC_IN
VCCA
VSSA
VDD_PLL
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
GND
Figure 2.
XOUT
2
Pin connection
AM02503v1
5/33
Pin connection
ST7580
2.1
Pin description
Table 2.
Pin description
Pin
Name
Type
Reset state
Internal
Pull-up
1
TXD
Digital output
High Z
Disabled
2
RXD
Digital input
High Z
Disabled UART data in
3
VDDIO
Power
-
4
TRSTN
Digital input
Input
Enabled System JTAG interface reset (active low)
5
TMS
Digital input
Input
Enabled System JTAG interface mode select
6
GND
Power
-
-
7
TCK
Digital input
High Z
Disabled
8
TDO
Digital output
High Z
Disabled System JTAG interface data out
9
TDI
Digital input
Input
Enabled System JTAG interface data in
10
RESETN
Digital input
Input
Disabled System reset (active low)
11
VDD
Power
-
-
1.8 V digital supply
12
XIN
Analog
-
-
Crystal oscillator input / external clock input
13
XOUT
Analog
-
-
Crystal oscillator output
(if external clock is supplied on XIN, XOUT must be
left floating)
14
GND
Power
-
-
Digital ground
15
VSSA
Power
-
-
Analog ground
16
VDD_PLL
Power
-
-
1.8 V PLL supply voltage (connect to VDD)
17
VCCA
Power
-
-
5 V analog supply / internal regulator output.
Externally accessible for filtering purposes only.
18
ZC_IN
Analog input
-
-
Zero crossing input
If not used connect to VSSA
19
RX_IN
Analog input
-
-
Reception analog input
20
TX_OUT
Analog output
-
-
Transmission analog output
21
PA_IN+
Analog input
-
-
Power amplifier
Non-inverting input
22
PA_IN-
Analog input
-
-
Power amplifier
Inverting input
23
CL
Analog input
-
-
Current limit sense input
24
VCC
Power
-
-
Power supply
25
VSS
Power
-
-
Power ground
26
PA_OUT
Analog output
-
-
Power amplifier output
6/33
-
Description
UART data out.
External pull-up to VDDIO required
3.3 V – 5 V I/O supply
Digital ground
System JTAG interface clock.
External pull-up to VDDIO required
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
Pin connection
Table 2.
Pin description (continued)
Pin
Name
Type
Reset state
Internal
Pull-up
27
VDD_REG_1V8
Power
-
-
1.8 V digital supply / internal regulator output.
Externally accessible for filtering purposes only
28
VDDIO
Power
-
-
3.3 V - 5 V I/O supply
29
NC
-
-
-
Not used, leave floating
30
NC
-
-
-
Not used, leave floating
31
RESERVED0
Power
-
-
Pull-up to VDDIO.
32
NC
-
-
-
Not used, leave floating
33
GND
Power
-
-
Digital ground
34
VDDIO
Power
-
-
3.3 V – 5 V I/O supply
35
VSSA
Power
-
-
Analog ground
36
CL_SEL
Digital output
High Z
Disabled Current limit resistor selection output
37
PL_RX_ON
Digital output
High Z
Disabled Reception in progress output
38
T_REQ
Digital input
High Z
Disabled UART communication control line
39
BR1
Digital input
High Z
40
BR0
Digital Input
High Z
Disabled UART baud rate selection (sampled after each reset
Disabled event) see Table 3.
41
PL_TX_ON
Digital output
High Z
Disabled Transmission in progress output
42
RESERVED1
-
-
-
Pull up to VDDIO
43
RESERVED2
-
-
-
Pull up to VDDIO
44
RESERVED3
-
-
-
Pull up to VDDIO
45
GND
Power
-
-
Digital ground
46
VDD
Power
-
-
1.8 V digital supply
47
RESERVED4
-
-
-
Connect to VDDIO
48
RESERVED5
-
-
-
Pull up to VDDIO
-
Electrically connected to VSSA. It is recommended
that the exposed pad be thermally connected to a
copper ground plane for enhanced electrical and
thermal performance.
-
Exposed pad
Table 3.
-
-
Description
UART baud rate selection
BR0
BR1
Baud rate
0
0
9600
0
1
19200
1
0
38400
1
1
57600
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
7/33
Maximum ratings
ST7580
3
Maximum ratings
3.1
Absolute maximum ratings
Figure 3.
Absolute maximum ratings
Value
Symbol
Parameter
VCC
VSSA-GND
VDDIO
Max.
Power supply voltage
-0.3
20
V
Voltage between VSSA and GND
-0.3
0.3
V
I/O supply voltage
-0.3
5.5
V
VI
Digital input voltage
GND-0.3
VDDIO+0.3
V
VO
Digital output voltage
GND-0.3
VDDIO+0.3
V
V(PA_IN)
PA inputs voltage range
VSS-0.3
VCC+0.3
V
V(PA_OUT)
PA_OUT voltage range
VSS-0.3
VCC+0.3
V
VCC+0.3
V
V(RX_IN)
RX_IN voltage range
-(VCCA+0.3)
V(ZC_IN)
ZC_IN voltage range
-(VCCA+0.3) VCCA+0.3
V(TX_OUT, CL) TX_OUT, CL voltage range
V(XIN)
VSSA-0.3
VCCA+0.3
V
GND-0.3
VDDIO+0.3
V
Power amplifier output non-repetitive pulse
current
5
A peak
I(PA_OUT)
Power amplifier output non-repetitive RMS
current
1.4
A
RMS
Tamb
Operating ambient temperature
-40
85
ºC
Tstg
Storage temperature
-50
150
ºC
Maximum withstanding voltage range
Test condition: CDF-AEC-Q100-002 “human
body model” acceptance criteria: “normal
performance”
-2
+2
kV
Value
Unit
Thermal data
Table 4.
Symbol
8/33
XIN voltage range
V
I(PA_OUT)
V(ESD)
3.2
Unit
Min.
Thermal characteristics
Parameter
RthJA1
Maximum thermal resistance junction-ambient steady-state (1)
50
°C/W
RthJA2
(2)
42
°C/W
Maximum thermal resistance junction-ambient steady-state
1.
Mounted on a 2-side + vias PCB with a ground dissipating area on the bottom side.
2.
Same conditions as in Note 1, with maximum transmission duration limited to 100 s.
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
Electrical characteristics
TA = -40 to +85 °C, TJ < 125 °C, VCC = 18 V unless otherwise specified.
Table 5.
Electrical characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Note
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
8
13
18
V
Power supply
VCC
Power supply voltage
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
I(VCC) RX
Power supply current - Rx mode
VCCA externally supplied
0.35
0.5
mA
I(VCC) TX
Power supply current - Tx mode, no load
VCCA externally supplied
22
30
mA
VCC UVLO_TL
VCC undervoltage lockout low threshold
6.1
6.5
6.95
V
VCC UVLO_TH
VCC undervoltage lockout high threshold
6.8
7.2
7.5
V
VCC UVLO_HYST
VCC undervoltage lockout hysteresis
250
I(VCCA) RX
Analog supply current - Rx mode
I(VCCA) TX
Analog supply current - Tx mode
V(TX_OUT) =5 V p-p, no load
VDD
Digital core supply voltage
Externally supplied
I(VDD)
I(VDD) RESET
(1)
700
mV
5
6
mA
8
10
mA
1.8
+10%
V
Digital core supply current
35
41
mA
Digital core supply current in RESET state
8
mA
V
-10%
VDD_PLL
PLL supply voltage
VDD
I(VDD_PLL)
PLL supply current
0.4
0.5
mA
-10%
3.3 or 5
+10%
V
VDDIO
Digital I/O supply voltage
Externally supplied
VDDIO undervoltage lockout low threshold
2.2
2.4
2.6
V
VDDIO
UVLO_TH
VDDIO undervoltage lockout high threshold
2.45
2.65
2.85
V
VDDIO undervoltage lockout hysteresis
180
240
mV
ST7580
VDDIO
UVLO_TL
VDDIO
UVLO_HYST
Electrical characteristics
9/33
4
Electrical characteristics (continued)
Symbol
Parameter
Note
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
ST7580
Table 5.
Analog front end
Power amplifier
V(PA_OUT) BIAS
Power amplifier output bias voltage - Rx mode
GBWP
Power amplifier gain-bandwidth product
I(PA_OUT) MAX
Power amplifier maximum output current
(2)
V(PA_OUT) TOL
Power amplifier output tolerance
V(PA_OUT) HD2
Power amplifier output 2nd harmonic distortion
3rd
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
V(PA_OUT) HD3
Power amplifier output
harmonic distortion
V(PA_OUT) THD
Power amplifier output total harmonic distortion
VCC/2
100
VCC=18 V,
V(PA_OUT)
= 14 V p-p (typ.),
V(PA_OUT) BIAS = VCC/2,
RLOAD=50 Ω
- See Figure 4
-3%
CL_TH
CL_RATIO
Power supply rejection ratio
mA rms
+3%
-70
-63
dBc
-66
-63
dBc
0.1
0.15
%
10
pF
10
pF
50 Hz
100
dB
1 kHz
93
dB
100 kHz
70
dB
Power amplifier input capacitance
PA_IN- vs. VSS
PSRR
MHz
1000
PA_IN+ vs. VSS (3)
C(PA_IN)
V
(3)
Current sense high threshold on CL pin
2.25
Ratio between PA_OUT and CL output current
2.35
2.4
V
80
Transmitter
Transmitter output bias voltage - Rx mode
V(TX_OUT) MAX
Transmitter output maximum voltage swing
TX_GAIN
TX_GAIN TOL
R(TX_OUT)
10/33
V(TX_OUT) HD2
VCCA/2
TX_GAIN = 31, no load
Transmitter output digital gain range
Transmitter output digital gain tolerance
Transmitter output resistance
Transmitter output 2nd harmonic distortion
4.8
4.95
V
VCCA
0
31
-0.35
0.35
1
V(TX_OUT) = V(TX_OUT)
Max. no load, T = 25 °C
-72
V p-p
dB
kΩ
-67
dBc
Electrical characteristics
V(TX_OUT) BIAS
Electrical characteristics (continued)
Symbol
Parameter
Note
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
V(TX_OUT) HD3
Transmitter output 3rd harmonic distortion
-70
-55
dBc
V(TX_OUT) THD
Transmitter output total harmonic distortion
0.1
0.2
%
15
V p-p
Receiver
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
V(RX_IN) MAX
Receiver input maximum voltage
V(RX_IN) BIAS
Receiver input bias voltage
VCCA/2
V
Z(RX_IN)
Receiver input Impedance
10
kΩ
B-PSK coded mode,
fC = 86 kHz,
BER = 10-3,
SNR ≥ 20 db (3)
36
dBµV
RMS
FSK mode,
Symbol rate = 2400,
Deviation = 1,
fC = 86 kHz,
BER = 10-3,
SNR ≥ 20 dB
39
dBµV
RMS
V(RX_IN) MIN
Receiver input sensitivity
VCC = 18 V
PGA_MIN
PGA minimum gain
-18
dB
PGA_MAX
PGA maximum gain
30
dB
Electrical characteristics
11/33
Table 5.
Oscillator
V(XIN)
V(XIN) TH
f(XIN)
f(XIN) TOL
ESR
Oscillator input voltage threshold
Clock frequency supplied
externally
0.8
Crystal oscillator frequency
External quartz crystal frequency tolerance
1.8
VDDIO
V p-p
0.9
1
V
8
-150
External quartz crystal ESR value
External quartz crystal load capacitance
16
MHz
+150
ppm
100
Ω
20
pF
ST7580
CL
Oscillator input voltage swing
Electrical characteristics (continued)
Symbol
fCLK_AFE
fCLK_PROTOCOL
fCLK_PHY
Parameter
Note
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Internal frequency of the analog front end
8
MHz
Internal frequency of the protocol controller core
28
MHz
Internal frequency of the PHY processor
56
MHz
ST7580
Table 5.
Temperature sensor
T_TH1
Temperature threshold 1
63
70
77
°C
T_TH2
Temperature threshold 2
90
100
110
°C
T_TH3
Temperature threshold 3
112
125
138
°C
T_TH4
Temperature threshold 4
153
170
187
°C
10
V p-p
(3)
Zero crossing comparator
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
V(ZC_IN) MAX
Zero crossing detection input voltage range
V(ZC_IN) TL
Zero crossing detection input low threshold
-40
-30
-20
mV
V(ZC_IN) TH
Zero crossing detection input high threshold
30
40
50
mV
Zero crossing detection input hysteresis
62
70
78
mV
V(ZC_IN) HYST
ZC_IN d.c.
Zero crossing input duty cycle
50
%
VDDIO = 3.3 V
66
kΩ
VDDIO = 5 V
41
kΩ
Digital Section
Digital I/O
Internal pull-up resistors
VIH
High logic level input voltage
0.65*VDDIO
VDDIO+0.3
V
VIL
Low logic level input voltage
-0.3
0.35*VDDIO
V
VOH
High logic level output voltage
IOH= -4 mA
VOL
Low logic level output voltage
IOL= 4 mA
VDDIO-0.4
V
0.4
V
12/33
Electrical characteristics
RPULL-UP
Electrical characteristics (continued)
Symbol
Parameter
Note
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
-1.5%
57600
+1.5%
BAUD
-1.5%
38400
+1.5%
BAUD
-1.5%
19200
+1.5%
BAUD
-1.5%
9600
+1.5%
BAUD
UART interface
Baud rate
Electrical characteristics
13/33
Table 5.
Reset and power on
tRESETN
tstartup
Minimum valid reset pulse duration
1
µs
Startup time at power-on or after a reset event
60
ms
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
1.
Referred to Tamb = -40 °C.
2.
This parameter does not include the tolerance of external components.
3.
Guaranteed by design.
ST7580
Electrical characteristics
ST7580
Figure 4.
Power amplifier test circuit
Figure 5.
I(VCC) vs. I(PA_OUT) curve - typical values
550
500
450
400
I(VCC) [mA]
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
I(PA_OUT) [mA]
AM11730v1
14/33
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
Analog front end (AFE)
5
Analog front end (AFE)
5.1
Reception path
Figure 6 shows the block diagram of the ST7580 input receiving path. The main blocks are a
wide input range analog programmable gain amplifier (PGA) and the analog to digital
converter (ADC).
Figure 6.
Reception path block diagram
RX AFE
RX_IN
PGA
ADC
BPF
AM02505v1
The PGA is controlled by an embedded loop algorithm, adapting the PGA gain to amplify or
attenuate the input signal according to the input voltage range for the ADC.
The PGA gain ranges from -18 dB up to 30 dB, with steps of 6 dB (typ.), as described in
Table 6.
Table 6.
PGA gain table
PGA code
PGA gain (typ.) [dB]
RX_IN max. range [V p-p]
0
-18
V(RX_IN) MAX
1
-12
8
2
-6
4
3
0
2
4
6
1
5
12
0.500
6
18
0.250
7
24
0.125
8
30
0.0625
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
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Analog front end (AFE)
5.2
ST7580
Transmission path
Figure 7 shows the transmission path block diagram. It is mainly based on a digital to analog
converter (DAC), capable of generating a linear signal up to its full scale output. A gain
control block before the DAC gives the possibility to scale down the output signal to match
the desired transmission level.
Figure 7.
Transmission path block diagram
TX AFE
TX_OUT
DAC
Gain
Control
BPF
TX_GAIN
AM02506v1
The amplitude of the transmitted signal can be set on a 32-step logarithmic scale via the
TX_GAIN parameter, introducing an attenuation ranging from 0 dB (typ.), corresponding to
the TX_OUT full range, down to -31 dB (typ.).
The signal level set by the TX_GAIN parameter can be calculated using the following
formula:
Equation 1 output attenuation A [dB] vs. TX GAIN
A[dB] = (TX _ GAIN − 31) + TX _ GAIN TOL
5.3
Power amplifier
The integrated power amplifier is characterized by very high linearity, required to comply
with the different international regulations (CENELEC, FCC, etc.) limiting the spurious
conducted emissions on the mains, and a current capability of I(PA_OUT) MAX that allows
the amplifier to drive even very low impedance points of the network.
All pins of the power amplifier are accessible, making it possible to build an active filter
network to increase the linearity of the output signal.
16/33
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ST7580
5.4
Analog front end (AFE)
Current and voltage control
The power amplifier output current sensing is performed by mirroring a fraction of the output
current and making it flow through a resistor RCL connected between the CL pin and VSS.
The following relationship can be established between V(CL) and I(PA_OUT):
Equation 2 V(CL) vs. I(PA_OUT)
V (CL ) =
R CL ⋅ I(PA _ OUT )
CL _ RATIO
The voltage level V(CL) is compared with the internal threshold CL_TH. When the V(CL)
exceeds the CL_TH level, the V(TX_OUT) voltage is decreased by one TX_GAIN step at a
time until V(CL) goes below the CL_TH threshold.
The current sense circuit is depicted in Figure 8.
Figure 8.
PA_OUT current sense circuit
VCC
I(PA_OUT)
PA
I(CL) = I(PA_OUT)/CL_RATIO
CL
RCL
AM02507v1
The RCL value to get the desired output current limit I(PA_OUT)LIM can be calculated as
follows:
Equation 3 RCL calculation
R CL =
CL _ TH
I(PA _ OUT )LIM / CL _ RATIO
Note that I(PA_OUT)LIM is expressed as peak current, so the corresponding RMS current is
calculated according to the transmitted signal waveform. As FSK and PSK modulations
have different crest factor values, different RCL values are required for the two modulations.
The RCL values, to get 1 A RMS output current limit, calculated with typical values for
CL_TH and CL_RATIO parameters, are indicated in Table 7.
Table 7.
Parameter
RCL
CL resistor typical values
Description
Value
Resistor value for I(PA_OUT) max. = 1 A RMS = 1.41 A pk (FSK mode)
133
Resistor value for I(PA_OUT) max. = 1 A RMS = 2 A pk (PSK mode)
94
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
Unit
Ω
17/33
Analog front end (AFE)
ST7580
The CL_SEL pin can be used to switch automatically the RCL resistor value according to
the used modulation. If FSK modulation is selected, CL_SEL is forced to GND, while if PSK
modulation is selected, CL_SEL is in high impedance state.
5.5
Thermal shutdown and temperature control
The ST7580 performs an automatic shutdown of the power amplifier circuitry when the
internal temperature exceeds T_TH4. After a thermal shutdown event, the temperature must
go below T_TH3 before the ST7580 power amplifier comes back into operation.
Moreover, a digital thermometer is embedded to identify the internal temperature in four
zones, as indicated in Table 8.
Table 8.
5.6
Temperature zones
Temperature zone
Temperature value
1
T < T_TH1
2
T_TH1 < T < T_TH2
3
T_TH2 < T < T_TH3
4
T > T_TH3
Zero crossing comparator
The ST7580 embeds an analog comparator with hysteresis, used for optional zero crossing
detection and synchronization. It requires a bipolar (ac) analog input signal, synchronous to
the mains voltage.
18/33
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ST7580
6
Power management
Power management
Figure 9 shows the power supply structure for the ST7580. The ST7580 operates from two
external supply voltages:
●
VCC (8 to 18 V) for the power amplifier and the analog section
●
VDDIO (3.3 or 5 V) for interface lines and digital blocks.
Two internal linear regulators provide the remaining required voltages:
●
5 V analog front end supply: generated from the VCC voltage and connected to the
VCCA pin
●
1.8 V digital core supply: generated from the VDDIO voltage and connected to
VDD_REG_1V8 (direct regulator output) and VDD pins.
The VDD_PLL pin, supplying the internal clock PLL, must be externally connected to VDD
through a ferrite bead for noise filtering purposes.
All supply voltages must be properly filtered to their respective ground, using external
capacitors close to each supply pin, in accordance with the supply scheme depicted in
Figure 9.
Note that the internal regulators connected to VDD_REG_1V8 and to VCCA are not
designed to supply external circuitry; their outputs are externally accessible for filtering
purposes only.
External connections between all VDD pins are not required.
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
19/33
Power management
Figure 9.
ST7580
Power supply internal scheme and external connections
VCC
PA
VSS
LDO
AFE
VCCA
VSSA
VDDIO
DIGITAL INTERFACES
GND
LDO
LDO
DIGITAL CORE
VDD_REG_1V8
GND
VDD
Ferrite Bead
VDD_PLL
INTERNAL PLL
VSSA
AM02509v1
6.1
Ground connections
The ST7580 presents analog and digital ground connections. In particular, VSS is the power
ground, VSSA is the analog ground, while GND pins refer to digital ground.
It is recommended to provide external connections between the ground pins as follows:
20/33
●
GND pins 6, 14, 33, and 45 are connected together;
●
VSSA pins 15 and 35 are connected to the exposed pad;
●
VSS is also connected to the exposed pad;
●
Connection between VSSA and GND is provided through a ferrite bead.
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
Power management
Figure 10. ST7580 ground pins and recommended external connections
([SRVHG3DG
966$
)HUULWH%HDG
966
*1'
67
!-V
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
21/33
Clock management
7
ST7580
Clock management
The main clock source is an 8 MHz crystal connected to the internal oscillator through the
XIN and XOUT pins. Both XIN and XOUT pins have a 32 pF integrated capacitor, in order to
drive a crystal having a load capacitance of 16 pF with no additional components.
Alternatively, an 8 MHz external clock can be directly supplied to the XIN pin, leaving XOUT
floating.
A PLL internally connected to the output of the oscillator generates the fCLK_PHY, required by
the PHY processor block engine. fCLK_PHY is then divided by two to obtain fCLK_PROTOCOL,
required by the protocol controller.
8
Functional overview
The ST7580 provides a complete physical layer (PHY) to the external host and some data
link layer (DL) services for power line communication. It is mainly developed for smart
metering applications in CENELEC A band, but suitable also for other command and control
applications and remote load management in CENELEC B and D band.
A UART host interface is available for communication with an external host, exporting all the
functions and services required to configure and control the device and its protocol stack.
The embedded PHY layer, hosted in the PHY processor, implements two different
modulation schemes: a B-FSK modulation up to 9.6 kbps and a multi-mode PSK modulation
with channel quality estimation, dual channel receiving mode, and convolutional coding,
delivering a throughput up to 28.8 kbps.
The embedded DL layer hosted in the protocol controller offers framing and error correction
services.
22/33
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
Functional overview
Figure 11. Functional overview
ST7580
Protocol
Controller
MIB
DL Layer
PHY
Processor
HOST Interface
MIB
PHY Layer
Analog Front End
Local Port
(UART)
TXD
RXD
T_REQ
External
HOST
BR0
BR1
Powerline Communication
AM02510v1
8.1
References
Additional information regarding the host interface, including a detailed description of all
services and commands can be found in the following document:
●
User manual UM0932
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
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Physical layer
9
ST7580
Physical layer
The physical layer implemented in the ST7580 provides the following services:
9.1
●
Bit modulation and demodulation according to PSK and FSK schemes
●
Carrier selection up to 250 kHz
●
Bit, byte, and frame synchronization with training sequence and physical header
●
Signal to noise ratio (SNR) estimation.
PSK modulations
The ST7580 supports several PSK (phase shift keying) modulations with a symbol rate of
9600 baud. As all PSK modulations share the same physical frame, the receiver is able to
recognize the PSK modulation kind used by the transmitter without further settings.
9.1.1
PSK modes
The ST7580 supports several PSK modes:
●
Uncoded modes: B-PSK, Q-PSK, 8-PSK
●
Coded modes: B-PSK coded, Q-PSK coded
●
B-PSK coded with peak noise avoidance (PNA) algorithm.
PSK coded modes transmit, on the power line, two coded bits for each information bit (code
rate ½), halving the bit rate of the communication, but increasing the communication
robustness through error correction.
B-PSK coded with the peak noise avoidance algorithm allows an even more robust
communication and it is recommended to reject impulsive noise synchronous with the mains
period. PNA modulation requires the transmitter to be synchronized to the mains period: the
ZC_IN pin must be connected to a zero crossing detection circuit.
Table 9 summarizes all the available PSK modulations and their bit rate.
Table 9.
24/33
PSK modes description
Modulation
Symbol rate [baud]
Information bits per symbol
Bit rate [bps]
B-PSK
9600
1
9600
Q-PSK
9600
2
19200
8-PSK
9600
3
28800
B-PSK coded
9600
½
4800
Q-PSK coded
9600
1
9600
B-PSK coded PNA
9600
¼
2400
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
9.1.2
Physical layer
PSK physical frame
Figure 12 shows the physical frame for PSK modulations.
Figure 12. PSK physical frame structure (length in bytes)
ϰďLJƚĞƐ
WƌĞĂŵďůĞ
hŶŝƋƵĞtŽƌĚ
;WZͿ
;htͿ
ϭďLJƚĞ
ĨƌŽŵϭƵƉƚŽϮϱϲďLJƚĞƐ
DŽĚĞ
ĨƌŽŵϮƵƉƚŽϱďLJƚĞƐ
ʹ W^<ŵŽĚƵůĂƚŝŽŶ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂů^h
DŽĚƵůĂƚŝŽŶŝŶĂĐĐŽƌĚĂŶĐĞǁŝƚŚDŽĚĞĨŝ ĞůĚ
The meaning of each field is as follows:
●
Preamble: a sequence of alternating 1 and 0 symbols (AAh bytes) required by the
receiver PLL to achieve bit synchronization. Its length is programmable from 2 to 5
bytes.
●
Unique word: a predefined sequence used to mark the start of a physical frame. The
physical layer also provides SNR estimation on the received unique word.
●
Mode: indicates the PSK mode used for the physical SDU. Thanks to this byte, the
receiver can automatically detect the PSK mode to be used to properly receive the
physical SDU.
●
Physical SDU (service data unit): payload of the physical layer. Its length is specified in
its first byte, which is always present.
Preamble, unique word, and mode fields are always transmitted using the B-PSK
modulation. The physical layer SDU field can be sent according to any PSK modulation (BPSK, Q-PSK, 8-PSK, B-PSK coded, Q-PSK coded, B-PSK coded PNA) expressed in the
mode field.
9.2
FSK modulations
9.2.1
FSK options
The ST7580 supports several FSK (frequency shift keying) modulations with a symbol rate
from 1200 to 9600 baud. Table 10 summarizes all the available FSK modulations and their
bit rate.
Table 10.
FSK modes description
Modulation
Symbol rate [baud]
Information bits per symbol
Bit rate [bps]
FSK @1200
1200
1
1200
FSK @2400
2400
1
2400
FSK @4800
4800
1
4800
FSK @9600
9600
1
9600
The frequency deviation (Δf) is the difference between the carrier frequency and the FSK
tone.
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
25/33
Physical layer
ST7580
Figure 13. Frequency deviation
ǻI
I
I& ǻ I
ǻI
&DUULHU
IUHTXHQF\I&
I
I& ǻ I
I
The following equation shows the frequency deviation formula for ST7580 FSK modulation:
Equation 4 Frequency deviation formula
Δf =
symbol _ rate
* deviation _ factor [Hz]
2
The deviation factor is a configurable parameter: admitted values are 1 or 0.5. Table 11
summarizes the frequency deviation for all symbol rate and deviation factors.
Table 11.
Frequency deviation possible values
Symbol rate [baud]
26/33
Deviation factor
1
0.5
1200
0.6 kHz
0.3 kHz
2400
1.2 kHz
0.6 kHz
4800
2.4 kHz
1.2 kHz
9600
4.8 kHz
2.4 kHz
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
9.2.2
Physical layer
FSK physical frame
Figure 14 shows the physical frame for FSK modulations.
Figure 14. FSK physical frame structure (length in bytes)
ĨƌŽŵϮƵƉƚŽϱďLJƚĞƐ
ϭŽƌϮďLJƚĞƐ
WƌĞĂŵďůĞ
hŶŝƋƵĞtŽƌĚ
;WZͿ
;htͿ
ĨƌŽŵϭƵƉƚŽϮϱϲďLJƚĞƐ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂů^h
DŽĚƵůĂƚŝŽŶŝŶĂĐĐŽƌĚĂŶĐĞǁŝƚŚ&^<ŵŽĚĞ;ďĂƵĚƌĂƚĞ͕ĚĞǀŝĂƚŝ ŽŶͿƐĞůĞĐƚĞĚ
The meaning of each field is as follows:
9.2.3
●
Preamble: a sequence of alternating 1 and 0 symbols (0xAA bytes) required by the
receiver PLL to achieve bit synchronization. Its length is programmable from 2 to 5
bytes.
●
Unique word: a programmable sequence used to mark the start of a physical frame. Its
length and values are programmable.
●
Physical SDU (service data unit): payload of the physical layer. Its length is specified in
its first byte, which is always present.
FSK settings
In the FSK physical frame there is no automatic modulation recognition. In order to
communicate using FSK modulation, the transmitter and the receiver must use the same
settings in terms of baud rate, deviation and unique word. ST7580 uses a single set of FSK
settings at a time, both for transmitting and receiving.
9.3
Channel and modulation selection
The ST7580 supports a range of carrier frequencies for modulation, offering a dual channel
configuration for both transmission and reception. The two frequency channels f1, f2 have to
be set with the following constraints:
●
Minimum frequency carrier value: 9 kHz
●
Maximum frequency carrier for transmission: 250 kHz
●
Maximum central frequency (f1 + f2) /2: 249.999 kHz
●
Maximum frequency difference (f1 - f2): 38.461 kHz.
The transmission is always performed on one channel at a time, modulating the output
signal around either the high channel or the low channel. Any modulation type can be used.
The reception can be configured in single channel mode or in dual channel mode.
●
In single channel mode the receiver listens to the high channel (the carrier with a higher
frequency value) only, while it neglects any communication on the low channel (the
carrier with a lower frequency value).
●
In dual channel mode the receiver always listens to both channels. As soon as it
detects a valid frame on a channel, it stops listening to the other channel.
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
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Physical layer
ST7580
In addition, during reception, each channel supports only a single modulation at a time,
which can be one of the two listed below:
1.
Any of the PSK modulations (specified by the mode field in PSK physical frame,
Section 9.1.2)
2.
FSK modulation, using the current FSK settings.
Table 12 shows the allowed combinations for single channel and dual channel reception
mode. Note that in case of FSK modulation on one channel and PSK on the other, the
maximum FSK symbol rate is limited to 2400 baud.
Table 12.
ST7580 allowed settings combination for reception
Reception mode
High channel
Low channel
Any PSK
-
Selected FSK
-
Any PSK
Any PSK
Selected FSK (≤2400 baud)
Any PSK
Any PSK
Selected FSK (≤2400 baud)
Single channel receiver
Dual channel receiver
28/33
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ST7580
10
Data link layer
Data link layer
The data link layer implemented in the ST7580 provides some basic services:
10.1
●
Encapsulation of user payloads into frames and frame delimitation
●
Error detection and cancelling of corrupted frames
●
Sniffer functionality for corrupted frames
●
Encryption and authentication based on AES 128-bit algorithm
●
Traffic statistics.
Data link frame
Figure 15 shows the data link frame structure:
Figure 15. Data link frame structure (length in bytes)
E\WH
/HQJWK
IURPXSWRE\WHV
3D\ORDG
RUE\WH
&5&
3+<6'8
'/6'8
The meaning of each field is as follows:
10.2
●
Length: length in bytes of the payload and CRC fields
●
Payload: information bytes
●
CRC: CRC check. Its length, endianness and the fields involved in the calculation
(length and payload, or payload only) can be chosen by the external host.
Error detection and sniffer mode
The ST7580 data link layer uses a CRC code for error detection. The data link layer
computes the CRC field and builds the frames for transmitting frames.
When receiving, it computes a CRC on the received data and compares it against the
received CRC: it accepts the incoming frame only if the two values are equal. A further
feature of reception configuration is the sniffer flag: if activated, the ST7580 notifies the host
about frames received with wrong CRC also.
10.3
Security services
The ST7580 is able to encrypt / decrypt frames (on DL payload) through algorithms based
on AES with 128-bit keys. A dedicated key that can be read and written by the external host
is used for both transmitting and receiving frames.
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
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Package mechanical data
11
ST7580
Package mechanical data
In order to meet environmental requirements, ST offers these devices in different grades of
ECOPACK® packages, depending on their level of environmental compliance. ECOPACK
specifications, grade definitions and product status are available at: www.st.com. ECOPACK
is an ST trademark.
The ST7580 is hosted in a 48-pin thermally enhanced, very thin, fine pitch quad flat package
no lead (VFQFPN) with exposed pad, which allows the device to dissipate the heat that is
generated by the operation of the two linear regulators and the power amplifier.
Table 13.
VFQFPN48 (7 x 7 x 1.0 mm) package mechanical data
(mm)
Dim.
Min.
Typ.
Max.
0.80
0.90
1.00
A1
0.02
0.05
A2
0.65
1.00
A3
0.25
A
b
0.18
0.23
0.30
D
6.85
7.00
7.15
D2
4.95
5.10
5.25
E
6.85
7.00
7.15
E2
4.95
5.10
5.25
e
0.45
0.50
0.55
L
0.30
0.40
0.50
ddd
30/33
0.08
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
Package mechanical data
Figure 16. VFQFPN48 (7 x 7 x 1.0 mm) package outline
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
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Revision history
12
ST7580
Revision history
Table 14.
32/33
Document revision history
Date
Revision
26-Jan-2012
1
Changes
Initial release.
Doc ID 022644 Rev 1
ST7580
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