AN5066, Repetitive Short-circuit Performances - Application Note

Freescale Semiconductor
Application Note
Document Number: AN5066
Rev. 1.0, 1/2015
Repetitive Short-circuit Performances
Featuring the MC12XS6 IC's family
1
Introduction
This application note relates to the robustness of devices of the eXtreme
Switch MC12XS6 device family in cases of various repetitive short-circuit
conditions.
The MC12XS6 family is the latest achievement in term of low-voltage
lighting applications. It is an evolution of the successful generation of
MC12XS3 eXtreme Switches. This family is composed of nine different
devices. Those dual, triple, quad, and penta outputs devices are footprint
and software compatible, with a wide panel of low RDS(on) MOSFETs
fitting the various types of automotive and industrial bulbs.
Programming, control, and diagnostics are accomplished using a 16-bit
SPI interface, which provides a large panel of configurations, analog and
digital information related to the device in its application, and a full set of
protection features to ensure its safety. All information provided by this
SMARTMOS device through the SPI gives the MCU all the key
information to reflect device and output status. This device also provides
a wide flexibility of configurations in addition to highly sophisticated fault
and failure mode handling.
For feature information, refer to the individual device data sheets.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2015. All rights reserved.
Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Short-circuit Protection Strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3 Repetitive Short-circuit Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Repetitive Short-circuit Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5 Engineering Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7 Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Short-circuit Protection Strategy
2
Short-circuit Protection Strategy
The MC12XS6 devices include up to five self-protected high-side switches, with its extended protection and diagnostics, to detect bulb
outage and short-circuit fault conditions. Additionally, this device incorporates a pulse width modulation control module, to improve lamp
lifetime with bulb power regulation at no less than 25 Hz, and address the dimming application (daytime running light).
The MC12XS6 family proposes different load protection features:
•
latched overcurrent protection,
•
severe short-circuit protection.
•
overcurrent in the On state
Those protections are preferred to conventional current limitations, to minimize the thermal overstress within the device in cases of
overload conditions. The delta (T) is drastically reduced to a value which does not affect the device's reliability.
2.1
Transient Overcurrent Protection
MC12XS6 includes a transient overcurrent protection at each Turn On command. This profile, represented in Figure 1, is configurable
through the SPI:
•
OCHI1 can be decreased by 15% or 50%, depending on the dynamic output voltage at Turn On or ambient temperature
•
OCHI1…3 can be adjusted from 37 ms (Short OCHI feature) to 130 ms (NO HID feature)
•
OCLO threshold has three selectable values and a range from 2.0 A to 22 A over the family
•
OCHI1/2/3 profile could also be disabled during turn On, in case of a resistive load (NO OCHI feature)
•
MC12XS6 offers the possibility to start another transient overcurrent profile in the On state when the output current exceeds
OCLO (OCHI OD feature)
Figure 1. Multi-step Transient Overcurrent Protection
2.2
Severe Short-circuit Protection
In addition to latched overcurrent protection, a severe short-circuit detection is available during lamp switching to immediately turn off the
output in cases of an extremely low short-circuit event. This feature lowers the junction temperature in this extreme condition where the
high-side MOSFET is not yet in the RDS(on) state.
2.3
Short-circuit in the On State
The configurable OCLO threshold is triggered once the OCHI1/2/3 profile is passed and available for as long as the output stays on. It
acts as a fuse with configurable values and protects the output once the transient trip is gone. However, the device could allow transient
events while in the On state during user demands, with the OCHI OD feature.
AN5066 Application Note Rev. 1.0 1/2015
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Short-circuit Protection Strategy
2.4
Digital Diagnostics
For each of those previous listed undesirable events, the type of fault can be distinguished through a specific SPI register, dedicated per
output.
Table 1. Output Channel Status
Register
SO Address
#
Ch 1…5 status 2…0
SO Data
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
0
x
x
x
Fm
DSF
OVLF
OLF
res
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
OTSx OTWx OC2x OC1x OC0x OLONx OLOFFx
The SO output register provides a detailed diagnostic for each channel where Open Load or Thermal diagnostics are listed, alongside the
type of overcurrent event (bits OC[0…2]x). Figure 2 shows the various type of event that are reported into the channel status SPI register.
#2~#6
OC2x
OC1x
OC0x over current status
0
0
0
no overcurrent
0
0
1
OC HI1
0
1
0
OC HI2
0
1
1
OC HI3
1
0
0
OC LO
1
0
1
OC HIOD
1
1
0
SSC
1
1
1
not used
Figure 2. Overcurrent Status Flags
AN5066 Application Note Rev. 1.0 1/2015
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3
Repetitive Short-circuit Test Setup
3
Repetitive Short-circuit Test Setup
The repetitive short-circuit tests were performed in accordance with Chapter 12 of AEC-Q100 specification, published by the Automotive
Electronics Council (last revision September14, 2006). The goal is to force the device to switch “On” and “Off” cyclically in a short-circuit
condition to accelerate silicon device fatigue. In addition, Freescale performed its own tests adapted to the device's protections, to fulfill
the different use cases in an application.
3.1
Short-circuit Conditions
Some test cases are defined in the AEC specification:
•
Hot Repetitive Short-circuit Test: an infinite “on” command where the temperature does NOT return to operating temperature
(TAMB) between each pulse
•
Cold Repetitive Short-circuit Test - Short Pulse: a repetitive turn-on command of 10 ms periods where the temperature returns
to operating temperature (TAMB) between each pulse
•
Cold Repetitive Short-circuit Test - Long Pulse: a repetitive turn-on command of 300 ms periods where the temperature returns
to operating temperature (TAMB) between each pulse
The short-circuit case applied to the Smart Power Switch is dependent of its failure handling during short-circuit events.
Figure 3. AECQ100-12 Decision Tree
Based on the decision tree, Freescale performs its robustness assessment in cold repetitive short-circuit short pulse conditions. Figure 4
illustrates the typical hardware used for the assessment.
Figure 4. AECQ100-12 Short-circuit Test Setup
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Repetitive Short-circuit Test Setup
Tests applied for the MC12XS6 devices were based on specific short-circuit conditions, activating each overload protection feature, as
described in Table 2. and Figure 5.
Table 2. Short-circuit Test Types
Test # (2)
Description
1
Terminal short-circuit of 20 m (RSHORT)
AECQ100-12 and Freescale Test
2
Load short-circuit of 50 m or 100 m (RSHORT) (1)
AECQ100-12 and Freescale Test
3
Overload condition exceeding the nominal current
Freescale Test
4
Overcurrent in the On-state (applied after Transient overcurrent profile)
Freescale Test
Notes
1.RSHORT is choosen depending on ISHORT (RSHORT = 50 m if ISHORT > 100 A)
2.These test numbers refers to those identified in Figure 5.
Figure 5. Repetitive Short-circuit Tests Modes
3.2
Hardware environment for short-circuit tests
According to the conditions outlined in the previous section, the available hardware fulfills the following requirements:
•
Fixed input and output inductance value
•
Variable input and output resistance values
•
Configurable ambient temperature
•
High sample quantity capability
•
Continuous individual SPI monitoring to record the exact number of cycles to failure
Devices are mounted on 4 layer PCBs, with layout and construction reflecting the application conditions. Each PCB is inserted into sockets
that are on a common Burn-in-board (10 PCBs per Burn-in-board). The line impedance represents the wire harness put on each
Input/output of each PCB. Burn-in-boards are loaded in a thermally controlled oven with outside connections for power and logic.
Permanent monitoring performed by the supervision can digitally trace the different failures reported by each device.
AN5066 Application Note Rev. 1.0 1/2015
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5
Repetitive Short-circuit Test Results
4
Repetitive Short-circuit Test Results
Table 3. presents the summary of repetitive test results for all devices from the MC12XS6 family in AECQ100-12 test conditions. Tests
have been performed for load short-circuit condition, and for each device:
Table 3. AECQ100-12 Reliability Test Results at TAMB = 85 °C and Voltage = 14 V
Short-circuit Case (3)
Supply Line
Terminal short-circuit on 7.0 m, 8.0 m, and 10 m
outputs (test 1)
Load Line
AECQ100-12 Grade
A
5.0 H/20 m
Terminal short-circuit on 17 m, 21 m, 25 m, and
40 moutputs (test 1)
A
5.0 H/10 m
Load short-circuit on 7.0 m, 8.0 m, and 10 m
outputs (test 2)
5.0 H/100 m
D
Load short-circuit on 17 m, 21 m, 25 m, and40 m
outputs (test 2)
5.0 H/50 m
D
Notes
3.These test numbers refers to those identified in Figure 5.
Table 4. shows the summary of repetitive short-circuit tests in custom conditions. Those results are extracted from performances of three
devices over the family: MC07XS6517, MC17XS6500, and MC17XS6400, and done on all output types. Tests were voluntary stopped at
500 k cycles.
Table 4. Freescale Repetitive Short-circuit Test Results at TAMB = 70 °C
Battery
Voltage
Short-circuit case
Supply Line
0.3 m/2.5 mm2
Turn On into short-circuit condition (tests 1 and 2)
16 V
5.0 m/2.5
mm2
0.3 m/2.5 mm2
Short-circuit in On state (test 4)
14 V
5.0 m/2.5 mm2
On state overload 95% of OCHI1/2/3 level (test 3)
16 V
0.3 m/6.0
mm2
Load Line
Fault Triggered
Output Cycle
Without Failure
5.0 m/1.0 mm2
OCHI1 (test 2) (4)
> 500 k
SSC (test 1) (4)
> 500 k
Undervoltage
> 500 k
0.3 m/1.0 mm2
5.0 m/1.0 mm2
0.3 m/1.0 mm2
> 500 k
OCLO
> 500 k
> 500 k
0.3 m/6.0
mm2
OCHI1/2/3
> 1.0 M
Notes
4.These test numbers refers to those identified in Figure 5.
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Engineering Evaluations
5
Engineering Evaluations
The device's level of robustness is a function of ambient temperature. With the default device's configuration, the number of cycles to
failure decreases above 50 °C. Several features embedded in the device help maximize the device robustness in different application
cases.
•
Feature OCHI-15%: once the embedded thermal sensor detects an ambient temperature above 63 °C, the robustness of the
device is improved, thanks to a lower power dissipation during short-circuit conditions
•
Overtemperature shutdown (OTS): With a high ambient temperature (> 110 °C) the device may shutdown with the OTS feature,
at a lower current peak, resulting in a lower power dissipation during a short-circuit
•
NO OCHI: Depending on the application and ambient temperature, which eliminates the lamp inrush, the OCHI window can be
disabled during turn on, significantly minimizing the thermal increase during a short-circuit
•
When a PWM is applied to the lamps by the SPI, the OCHI window is disabled for each commutation except the 1st one
Based on these statements and engineering studies done internally, Figure 6 shows the derating results over the ambient temperature in
the AECQ100-12 conditions.
Figure 6. AECQ100-12 Results Over Ambient Temperature
Grades mentioned on Table 3. and Figure 6 pertain to Table 5. which are extractions from the AECQ100-12 reliability standard.
Table 5. AECQ100-12 Reliability Standards
Grade
# Cycles
Lots/Samples per Lot
# Fails
A
> 1,000,000
3/10
0
B
> 300,000 — 1,000,000
3/10
0
C
> 100,000 — 300,000
3/10
0
D
> 30,000 — 100,000
3/10
0
E
> 10,000 — 30,000
3/10
0
F
> 3000 — 10,000
3/10
0
G
> 1000 — 3000
3/10
0
H
300 — 1000
3/10
0
O
< 300
3/10
0
AN5066 Application Note Rev. 1.0 1/2015
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7
References
6
References
Document Number and Description
MC12XS6D3
MC12XS6D3
URL
http://cache.freescale.com/files/analog/doc/data_sheet/MC12XS6D1.pdf
Data Sheet
MC12XS6D4
http://cache.freescale.com/files/analog/doc/data_sheet/MC12XS6D3.pdf
http://cache.freescale.com/files/analog/doc/data_sheet/MC12XS6D4.pdf
Freescale.com Support Pages
MC12XS6 Product Summary Page
Power Management Home Page
Analog Home Page
URL
http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/prod_summary.jsp
http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/homepage.jsp?code=POWERMGTHOME
http://www.freescale.com/analog
AN5066 Application Note Rev. 1.0 1/2015
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Revision History
7
Revision History
Revision
Date
1.0
1/2015
Description of Changes
Initial release
AN5066 Application Note Rev. 1.0 1/2015
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9
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Document Number: AN5066
Rev. 1.0
1/2015
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