ADI Gas Detector Solution Based on NDIR and PID

Project Code: APM-Gas-Detection (EC)-2012
ADI Gas Detector Solution
Based on NDIR and PID
Application Introduction
This is the second article on gas detectors from ADI, which contains the NDIR (non-dispersive infrared) gas detector solution and the PID (photoionization) gas
detector solution. The first article describes a micro-power toxic gas detector based on an electrochemical sensor (see Design Resources at end of this article
for additional information).
The NDIR sensor is based on absorption spectroscopy theory—a specific gas absorbs a specific wavelength in the infrared (IR) spectrum, and the gas
concentration is proportional to the amount of IR light absorbed. The advantages of an NDIR detector are high sensitivity, long operating life, reduced
maintenance, safety, and reliability. The main disadvantage of NDIR is its high price. NDIR gas detectors are commonly employed in the detection of methane
and carbon dioxide, which can be used in applications for the mining, agriculture, oil, and chemical industries.
The PID sensor is mainly made up of ultraviolet (UV) light and an ion chamber. UV light excites gas molecules resulting in electrons and ions that produce current
relating to the gas concentration in the ion chamber. The advantages of PID gas detectors are high sensitivity, fast response, high accuracy, safety, and reliability.
However, the cost of PID detectors is also high and the selectivity of PID detectors is not good. Thus, PID gas detectors are commonly employed in the detection
of volatile organic compounds (VOC) like aromatics, ketones, and aldehydes. These applications are suitable in the chemical industry, oil and gas, and airlines.
System Design Considerations
Reliability
Accuracy, interference immunity, and good long-term stability are important factors during NDIR and PID detector design. To achieve this object, low drift and
an accurate signal chain are needed for a reliable gas detector.
Resolution
To take full advantage of sensor dynamic range, the low noise and high resolution should be taken into consideration during signal chain and power design both
for NDIR and PID detectors.
NDIR Solution from ADI
Below is the system block diagram of an NDIR gas detector, including NDIR sensor, band-pass filter, microcontroller (ADC integrated), power management,
and communication interface.
5. POWER MANAGEMENT
Hz LEVEL
DC-TO-DC
ACTIVE
PYRO
6. INTERFACE
1. AMP
NDIR SENSOR
LAMP
DRIVE
4. REF
LDO
2. ADC
BAND-PASS
FILTER
REF
PYRO
1. AMP
3. MICROCONTROLLER
BATTERY
BAND-PASS
FILTER
4mA-TO-20mA
RS-485
ALARM UNIT
LCD/KEY
T
Note: The signal chains above are representative of the system block diagram of a toxic gas detector design. The technical requirements of the blocks vary, but the products listed in
the table below are representative of ADI's solutions that meet some of those requirements.
instrumentation.analog.com
1. Amplifier
2. ADC
3. Microcontroller
4. Reference
5. Power Management
6. Interface
AD8629/
ADA4528-1
AD7798
ADuCM361
ADR423/
ADR4533
ADP2503/
ADP2370/
ADP160
AD5420/
ADM2483/
AD5749
The NDIR gas sensor contains a lamp, which is driven at low frequency by a lamp drive circuit. The small pyro (pyroelectric sensor) output signals are
approximately sawtooth in shape and must be amplified and filtered. A band-pass amplifier is applied to pass only the fundamental frequency and reduce noise
at other frequencies. The amplifier outputs are roughly sinusoidal in shape. The ADC gets the amplitude of active and reference channels whose ratio is related
to the gas concentration.
Reliability: ADI is committed to providing accurate and low drift signal chain products like zero-drift amplifiers, low noise and drift references, and highly
accurate ADCs, all of which help designers build an accurate and stable system. The ADC could be independent or integrated with the MCU depending on the
detailed application.
Resolution: Since the output voltage of an NDIR sensor is a level of mV, the noise at the input stage of signal condition should be around 1 µV to achieve
0.1% resolution. The common bandwidth of the signal chain is less than 10 Hz, so the 1/f noise (0.1 Hz to 10 Hz) from the amplifier dominates. The ADI zerodrift amplifier with ultralow 1/f noise can help the designer achieve high resolution.
PID Solution from ADI
Below is the system block diagram of the PID gas detector, including PID sensor, transimpedance amplifier (TIA), low-pass filter, microcontroller (with
integrated ADC), power management, and communication interface.
TRANSIMPEDANCE
AMPLIFIER
6. POWER MANAGEMENT
DC-TO-DC
7. INTERFACE
LDO
PID SENSOR
1. TIA
3. ADC
2. AMP
LAMP
DRIVE
~100 KHz/1000 V
4. MICROCONTROLLER
BATTERY
LOW-PASS AND GAIN
4mA-TO-20mA
RS-485
ALARM UNIT
LCD/KEY
HIGH DC > 200 V
5. REF
1.TIA
2. Amplifier
3. ADC
4. Microcontroller
5. Reference
6. Power
Management
7. Interface
AD549/
AD8605
ADA4528-1/
AD8629
AD7190
ADuCM361
ADR423/
ADR4533
ADP2503/
ADP160/
ADP2370
AD5420/
ADM2483/
AD5749
The PID gas sensor contains an ultraviolet (UV) lamp, which is pulsed at about 100 kHz frequency by a lamp drive circuit. Ionization occurs when a
molecule absorbs high energy UV light and ionizes in electrons and ions. The high voltage across the ionization chamber forces a weak current flowing
through the transimpedance amplifier to transfer to voltage. After going through the low-pass filter with gain, the voltage signal goes to the 24-bit
sigma-delta ADC.
Reliability: Similar to NDIR system, the ultralow bias current of the TIA, low drift of the zero-drift amplifier, and the high performance ADC can benefit the
designer with an accurate and stable signal chain.
Resolution: The ADI TIA not only offers ultralow bias current but also ultralow current noise. With a 24-bit sigma-delta ADC integrated with MCU, the designer
can implement a PID system with very high resolution. An independent ADC should be considered if the designer needs more resolution.
2 | ADI Gas Detector Solution based on NDIR and PID
Main Products
Part Number
Description
Benefits
Amplifier
ADA4528-1
Zero drift 15 nV/°C @ max, ultralow noise 97 nV p-p @ 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
Zero drift and low noise contribute to a very accurate system
AD8629
Zero drift 20 nV/°C @ max, very low noise 0.5 µV p-p @ 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz, dual in one package
Zero drift and low noise contribute to a very accurate system,
dual in one package helps channel consistency
AD549
Ultralow bias current 60 fA @ max, ultralow current noise 0.16 fA/√Hz
High reputation in precision TIA measurement
AD8605
Low bias current 1 pA @ max, low current noise 10 fA/√Hz
Low cost for TIA measurement
AD7798
140 µA @ max quiescent current, up to 470 Hz output update rate, 3-channel 16-bit peakto-peak resolution at any output data rate
Low power Σ-Δ ADC, high resolution and high accuracy
AD7190
24-bit Σ-Δ ADC, 23-bit peak-to-peak resolution @ max, programmable output data rate
from 4.7 Hz to 4.8 kHz, 2 differential inputs or 4 pseudo-differential inputs
Very high resolution and very high accuracy
ADR423
3 V reference, very low drift: 3 ppm/°C (max), low noise: 2 µV p-p @ 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz, long
time stability: 50 ppm/√1000 hr
Low drift, good stability and low noise reference, many other
choices for output voltage in ADR42x family
ADR4533
3.3 V reference, very low drift: 2 ppm/°C (max), low noise: 2.1 µV p-p @ 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz,
long time stability: 25 ppm/√1000 hr
Low drift, very good stability and low noise reference, many
other choices for output voltage in ADR45xx family
TIA
ADC
Reference
Microcontroller
ADuCM361
Precision analog microcontrollers, ARM Cortex™-M3 32-bit processor, 6 differential channels,
single (24-bit) ADCs, single 12-bit DAC, power consumption 1.0 mA, 290 µA/MHz, 19-pin
Low power consumption, ultrahigh precision 24-bit Σ-Δ ADC
GPIO, 128 kbytes Flash/EE memory, 8 kbytes SRAM
Power Management
ADP2503
38 µA quiescent current; 2.5 MHz buck-boost dc-to-dc converters, has ability to operate at Low power consumption to achieve long battery life, small
package and few external parts reduce PCB space.
input voltages greater than, less than, or equal to the regulated output voltage
ADP2370
3.0 V to 15 V input , 800 mA, 1.2 MHz or 600 K PWM frequency, low quiescent current
14 µA, high efficiency larger than 90%, current-mode control architecture
Small 3 mm × 3 mm LFCSP package, few peripheral
components, and small solution size
ADP160
2.2 V to 5.5 V input, 150 mA maximum output current, 1% initial accuracy, up to 15 fixedoutput voltage options available from 1.2 V to 4.2 V; low quiescent current: 42 µA
Low power consumption, integrated output discharge resistor,
small package with only two 1 µF external capacitor
AD5420
16-bit resolution; current output ranges: 0 mA to 24 mA, 0.01% FSR typical total
unadjusted error; 3 ppm/°C typical output drift; on-chip reference (10 ppm/°C maximum)
16-bit resolution and monotonicity, supports HART
communication
ADM2483
Half-duplex, 500 Kbps data rate, 5 V or 3 V operations, low power operation: 2.5 mA max,
2.5 kV isolation
Low power operation and competitive price
AD5749
4 mA to 20 mA driver, current output ranges: 0 mA to 24 mA or 4 mA to 20 mA, 0.03% FSR
Low cost, precision 4 mA to 20 mA driver
typical total unadjusted error (TUE), 5 ppm/°C typical output drift
Interface
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| 3
Design Resources
Design Tools/Forums
• ADuCM361 Design Tools: —ftp.analog.com/pub/MicroConverter
• Analog Filter Wizard™: ADI Active Filter Design Tool —www.analog.com/AnalogFilterWizard
• ADIsimPower™: ADI Voltage Regulator Design Tool—www.analog.com/adisimpower
• ADIsimOpAmp™: ADI OpAmp Design Tool—www.analog.com/adisimopamp
• EngineerZone®: Online Technical Support Community—ez.analog.com
Reference
• ADI Micropower Toxic Gas Detector Solutions Based on Electrochemical Sensors—
www.analog.com/ECGasDetector
To View Additional Signal Generator Resources, Tools, and Product Information,
Please Visit instrumentation.analog.com
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