Application Report SBAA094 – June 2003 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications Miroslav Oljaca, Tom Hendrick Data Acquisition Products ABSTRACT The ADS1202 is a precision, 80dB dynamic range, delta-sigma (∆Σ) modulator operating from a single +5V supply. The differential inputs are ideal for direct connections to transducers or low-level signals, such as shunt resistors. With the appropriate digital filter and modulator rate, the device can be used to achieve 15-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion with no missing codes. This application report describes how to combine the ADS1202 with appropriate filtering techniques for current measurement in motor control. Contents 1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................................2 1.2 ADS1202 Description ................................................................................................................2 2 ∆Σ Modulator Characteristics ........................................................................................................4 3 Digital Filter Design ........................................................................................................................7 4 SincK Filter .......................................................................................................................................9 5 Sinc3 Filter Implementation ..........................................................................................................11 6 Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................16 Appendix A. ...........................................................................................................................................17 Appendix B. ...........................................................................................................................................18 Appendix C. ...........................................................................................................................................19 Figures Figure 1. ADS1202 Block Diagram ........................................................................................................2 Figure 2. ADS1202 Output Read Operation ..........................................................................................3 Figure 3. Analog Input versus Modulator Output of the ADS1202 .....................................................3 Figure 4. Block Diagram of the 2nd-Order Modulator .........................................................................4 Figure 5. 1st and 2nd Order ∆Σ Modulator Modulation Noise ............................................................5 Figure 6. Basic Block Diagram of Decimation for ∆Σ Converter ........................................................7 Figure 7. Simple Example of a Two-Stage Network for Decimation by a Factor of N1N2 .................7 Figure 8. Multistage Decimator Incorporating Programmable DSP with FIFO Between Stages .....8 Figure 9. Sinc3 Digital Filter Topology ..................................................................................................9 Figure 10. Frequency Response of the Sinc3 Filter with M = 16 .......................................................10 Figure 11. Xilinx Integrator Implementation .......................................................................................13 Figure 12. Xilinx Differentiator Implementation .................................................................................13 Figure 13. Xilinx Sinc3 Filter Implementation .....................................................................................14 Figure 14. Clock Divider Inputs ...........................................................................................................15 1 SBAA094 Introduction This document provides information on the operation and use of the ADS1202 ∆Σ (delta-sigma) modulator and a detailed description of the digital filter design implemented in the Xilinx field programmable gate array (FPGA). The latest information, along with the FPGA files and software, can be found on the Texas Instruments web site at www.ti.com. For this specific application, the ADS1202 and FPGA communicate with a DSP board via two SPI™ ports. The user-interface software controls graphical display and analysis. The filter configuration and data retrieval are set up by switches directly on the board. A complete description of the hardware and software features of the digital filter implemented in the FPGA for the ADS1202 is given in this application report. 1.2 ADS1202 Description The ADS1202 is a single-channel, second-order, delta-sigma modulator operating from a single +5V supply, as shown in Figure 1. VIN + VIN - MDAT Second-Order LS-Modulator MCLK RC Oscillator 200MHz VDD GND Buffer Interface Circuit Reference Voltage 2.5V M0 M1 Figure 1. ADS1202 Block Diagram The delta-sigma modulator converts an analog signal into a digital data stream of 1s and 0s. The 1s density of the output data stream is proportional to the input analog signal. Oversampling and noise shaping are used to reduce the quantization noise in the frequency band of interest. This delta-sigma modulator, with 16-bit performance, can be used with a digital filter for wide dynamic range A/D conversion of up to its full resolution. The primary purpose of the digital filter is to filter the noise in the signal. The secondary purpose is to convert the 1-bit data stream at high sampling rates into a higher resolution data stream at a lower rate (decimation). 2 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications SBAA094 For evaluation purposes, the ASD1202 operates in mode 3. In this mode, input control signals M0 and M1 are HIGH; this disables the internal RC oscillator. Input signal MCLK provides a conversion clock to the modulator. The source for output signal MDAT is the signal arriving directly from the delta-sigma modulator. The MCLK input can have a frequency from 500kHz to 20MHz with a fixed duty cycle around 50%. In this mode, output MDAT is read on every second falling edge of the MCLK input, as shown in Figure 2. tC4 MCLK tw4 tD4 MDAT Figure 2. ADS1202 Output Read Operation The collected output of the modulator is then passed through a digital low-pass filter. The resulting output word is decimated and truncated to the desired data rate and effective resolution, respectively. The combination of the delta-sigma modulator and the digital decimation filter forms a delta-sigma A/D converter. For more detailed information and specifications concerning the ADS1202 modulator, refer to the ADS1202 data sheet (located at www.ti.com). The MDAT signal is a digitized representation of the analog input. Unlike the MCLK signal, it does not have a fixed frequency or duty cycle. The duty cycle is a function of the input analog signal, as shown in Figure 3. Modulator Output +FS (Analog Input) ÐFS (Analog Input) Analog Input Figure 3. Analog Input versus Modulator Output of the ADS1202 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications 3 SBAA094 2 ∆Σ Modulator Characteristics The modulator sampling frequency fS can operate over a range of a few MHz to 12MHz, when the ADS1202 is in mode 3. The input frequency of MCLK can be adjusted with the clock requirements of the application. The MCLK input must have the double modulator frequency, 2fS. When ADS1202 operates in other modes, the modulator sampling frequency fS has a nominal value of 10MHz and is determined by the internal oscillator. The modulator topology is a second-order, charge-balancing A/D converter, such as the one conceptualized in Figure 4. The analog input voltage and the output of the 1-bit Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) are subtracted, providing an analog voltage at X2 and X3. The voltages at X2 and X3 are then presented to their individual integrators. The output of these integrators progresses in either a negative or a positive direction. When the value of the signal at X4 equals the comparator reference voltage, the output of the comparator switches from negative to positive or positive to negative, depending on its original state. When the output value of the comparator switches from HIGH to LOW or vice-versa, the 1-bit DAC responds on the next clock pulse by changing its analog output voltage at X6, causing the integrators to progress in the opposite direction. The feedback of the modulator to the front end of the integrators forces the value of the integrator output to track the average of the input. fCLK X(t) fS X2 + X4 X3 Integrator 1 + - Integrator 2 - DATA VREF X6 D/A Converter Figure 4. Block Diagram of the 2nd-Order Modulator The process of converting an analog signal, which has infinite resolution, into a finite range number system introduces an error signal that depends on how the signal is being approximated. The noise transfer function of the delta-sigma modulator can be described by following equation: K f Q( f ) = ⋅ 2 ⋅ sin π fS 12 ⋅ fS VLSB (1) K represents the implemented order of the delta-sigma modulator. fS is the sampling frequency, and VLSB is the value of the least significant bit of the converter. Figure 5 presents quantization noise for first- and second-order delta-sigma modulators up to the Nyquist frequency of the modulator. 4 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications SBAA094 0 0 −20 −20 −40 −40 −60 −60 Magnitude [dB] Magnitude [dB] Digital low-pass filters can remove the high-frequency quantization noise without affecting the input signal characteristics residing in base-band. For both types of modulators, the noise increases with frequency. The greater the order of the modulator, the closer that quantization approaches the Nyquist frequency. −80 −100 −120 −80 −100 −120 −140 −140 −160 −160 780 3125 780 5000 Frequency [kHz] (a) First-Order ∆Σ Modulator 3125 Frequency [kHz] 5000 (b) Second-Order ∆Σ Modulator Figure 5. 1st and 2nd Order ∆Σ Modulator Modulation Noise If we introduce the over-sampling ratio M, or a decimation ratio that will be implemented on the output signal from the delta-sigma modulator, the maximum bandwidth of the input signal can be specified as: B= fS 2⋅M (2) The RMS quantization noise present in a bandwidth of interest B can now be calculated combining equation 1 and 2: B VQe,RMS = 2 ⋅ ∫ 0 2 VLSB 12 ⋅ fS f ⋅ 2 ⋅ sin π fS 2K (3) Solving equation 3, the RMS noise in bandwidth B can be written as: VQe,RMS = VLSB 12 ⋅ πK ⋅ 1 K +1 2 2 ⋅K +1 M (4) The ADS1202 has implemented a second-order modulator; thus, replacing K with 2 in equation 4, we can calculate the RMS noise in bandwidth B as: VQe,RMS = VLSB π 2 1 ⋅ ⋅ 52 12 5 M (5) Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications 5 SBAA094 Finally, we can calculate the theoretical, or ideal, delta-sigma modulator signal to noise ratio using Equation 6. SNRideal = 20 ⋅ log VP 2 πK = 6.02 ⋅ N + 1.76 − 20 ⋅ log + (20 ⋅ K + 10 ) ⋅ log M VQe,RMS 2 ⋅ K + 1 (6) Applying Equation 6 for a different order of modulator and a different decimation ratio (oversampling), it is possible to show that the theoretically achievable SNR is within the function of this parameter. (See Table 1.) Now it is relatively easy to determine the effective number of bits (ENOB) for the same conditions. Table 1. Ideal SNR and ENOB of 2nd Order ∆Σ Modulator for Different Decimation Ratios Decimation Ratio (M) Ideal SNR (dB) Ideal ENOB (bits) 4 24.99 3.9 8 40.04 6.4 16 55.09 8.9 32 70.14 11.4 64 85.19 13.9 128 100.24 16.4 256 115.30 18.9 As previously mentioned, ADS1202 has a second-order modulator. Ideally, for 64-bit oversamples, the SNR is -85dB, and the effective number of bits is 13.9. 6 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications SBAA094 3 Digital Filter Design The total quantization energy is very high for the delta-sigma modulator, because the number of bits per sample is extremely low. It is left to the decimator to filter unwanted noise in the spectrum above the Nyquist band, so that the noise is not aliased into the base-band by the decimation process. Decimation by the integer factor M, in principle, will reduce the sampling frequency by the same number. Figure 6 presents the basic block diagram of the filter. Sampling Rate Decimator LPF Analog ∆Σ Modulator Analog Input x(n) fS 1 w(n) h(n) p fS y(m) M p F = fS/M Figure 6. Basic Block Diagram of Decimation for ∆Σ Converter The signal coming from the delta-sigma modulator x(n) is a bit stream with the frequency fS. The signal x(n) is first digitally filtered by a low-pass filter h(n) with digital cut off frequency of π/M, where π is the normalized (radian) frequency corresponding to the Nyquist frequency, or half of the sampling frequency fS. The filter h(n) removes all energy from signal x(n) above the frequency π/M, and avoids aliasing in the decimation process when the signal w(n) is resampled by the sampling rate decimator. This process is typically performed by using only one out of every M outputs of the digital filter, as shown by Equation 7. ∞ y(m) = ∑ h(k ) ⋅ x(Mm − k ) (7) k = −∞ This equation shows that the input signal x(n) is shifted by M samples for each new computed output. To keep costs low, the most important design criteria is the efficiency with which the decimator operation can be implemented. This is directly related to the type, order and architecture of the digital filter used in the implementation. The order of the low-pass filter, in turn, is directly related to a function of the required characteristics of ripple in the pass-band and stop-band as the ratio of the cut-off frequency to the stop band frequency. Sampling Rate Decimator LPF1 Analog Input Analog ∆Σ modulator x(n) 1 fS h1(n) w(n) p fS x1(n) N1 p Sampling Rate Decimator LPF2 fS/N 1 h2(n) w1(n) p1 fS /N1 y(m) N2 p1 F= Figure 7. Simple Example of a Two-Stage Network for Decimation by a Factor of N1N2 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications 7 SBAA094 The combined filter order of the two-stage decimation network from Figure 7 is several times smaller than the one-stage decimation network from Figure 6. Practical considerations of implementing more than two stages, however, may lead to the conclusion that a two-stage design is best. The most popular filter architecture for delta-sigma conversion entails the combination of a SincK filter at the high sampling rate and a finite-impulse response (FIR) or infinite-impulse response (IIR) filter operating at intermediate and low sampling rates (see Figure 8). The suggested design will break the decimation process into a SincK filter stage that decimates by a large factor N1 (typically 64), followed by an FIR (or IIR) narrow-band filtering stage that decimates by a small factor N2 (for example, 2-8). FPGA Programmable Digital Signal Processor (DSP) SincK Decimation Filter Sampling Rate Decimator LPF1 Analog Input Analog ∆Σ Modulator x(n) 1 fhS 1 (n) w(n) p fS Sampling Rate Decimator LPF2 x1(n) N1 p fS/N1 FIFO x1(n) p fS/N1 h2(n) w1(n) p1 fS/N1 y(m) N2 p1 F = fS/N1N2 Figure 8. Multistage Decimator Incorporating Programmable DSP with FIFO Between Stages The hardware structure that implements a SincK filter can be a very simple architecture composed of adders and registers. Such structures consume relatively little chip area. This design will be discussed in Section 4. 8 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications SBAA094 4 SincK Filter One of the most effective illustrations of matching design simplicity with the previously specified criteria is given by the use of a SincK filter for high rate stage of decimation. These filters are very attractive for hardware implementation because they do not require the use of digital multipliers. They are more efficiently implemented by cascading K stages of accumulators operating at the high sample rate (sampling frequency fS), followed by K stages of cascaded differentiators operating at the lower sample rate, fS/N1. This architecture utilizes wrap-around arithmetic and is inherently stable. The block diagram of the third-order Sinc filter (a Sinc3) is presented in Figure 9. M x(n) 1 fS Integrator -1 1/(1- z ) Integrator -1 1/(1- z ) Integrator -1 1/(1-z ) Differentiator -1 1- z Differentiator -1 1- z Differentiator -1 1- z y(m) p F = fS/M Figure 9. Sinc3 Digital Filter Topology Equation 8 describes the transfer function of a SincK filter, where M is the decimation ratio of the sampling rate compressor. K 1 1 − z −M H( z ) = ⋅ M 1 − z −1 (8) Substituting Z by e-j, the frequency response obtained is: K 1 sin(ωM / 2 H(e jω ) = ⋅ M sin(ω / 2 (9) where: ω = 2π f fS (10) Figure 10 illustrates an example of the frequency response of a Sinc3 filter, from Figure 9, having a decimation factor of M = 16. The spectral zeroes are at frequencies that are multiples of the decimated sampling frequency. Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications 9 SBAA094 0 -40 H [dB] -80 -120 0 1 2 3 4 5 f [MHz] Figure 10. Frequency Response of the Sinc3 Filter with M = 16 The relationship between the modulator clock (or sampling frequency fS), output data rate (or first notch frequency), and the decimation ratio M is given by: DataRate = fS M (11) Therefore, data rate can be used to place a specific notch frequency in the digital filter response. In the choice of the order of the Sinc filter, it is necessary to know the order of the delta-sigma modulator that will provide data. The order K of the SincK filter should be at least 1 plus the order of the delta-sigma modulator in order to prevent excessive aliasing of out-of-band noise from the modulator from entering the base-band. K ≥ 1 + (order _ ∆Σ ) (12) The output word size from the SincK filter is larger than the input by a factor p, which is a function of decimation factor M and filter order K. p = K ⋅ log2 M (13) Using Equation 9, it is possible to find the –3dB SincK filter response point. This point is more dependent upon the filter order K and less dependent on the decimation ratio M. A Sinc3 filter response point is 0.262 times the data rate. 10 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications SBAA094 For a sampling frequency of the delta-sigma modulator fS = 10MHz, applying Equations 7 through 13, it is possible to summarize the results for a Sinc3 filter and decimation ratio from 4 to 256, as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Summary of the Sinc3 Filter Applied to the ADS1202 Decimation 4 Data Rate (kHz) 2,500.0 Output Word Size (bits) 6 Filter Response f-3dB (kHz) 655 8 1,250.0 9 327.5 16 625.0 12 163.7 32 312.5 15 81.8 64 156.2 18 40.9 128 78.1 21 20.4 256 39.1 24 10.2 5 Sinc3 Filter Implementation The digital filter structure chosen to decode the output of the ADS1202 second-order deltasigma modulator is a Sinc3 digital filter. The function of the Sinc3 digital filter is to output M word samples after each input, which represents a weighted average of the last 3(M-1)+1 input samples. This filter can also be implemented in software using a straight linear convolution from Equation 14: 3⋅M−1 y(k ) = ∑ h(n) ⋅ x(k − n) (14) n =0 where x(i) denotes the input data stream made up of ones and zeros, h(n) are the filter coefficients, y(k) represents the decimated output data words and M is the decimation ratio. The coefficients of the digital filter, h(n), are calculated based on the desired decimation ratio as follows: h(n) = n ⋅ (n + 1) 2 0 ≤ n ≤ M −1 (15) h(n) = M ⋅ (M + 1) + (n + M) ⋅ (2 ⋅ M − 1 − n) 2 M ≤ n ≤ 2⋅M −1 (16) h(n) = (3 ⋅ M − n − 1) ⋅ (3 ⋅ M − n) 2 2 ⋅M ≤ n ≤ 3 ⋅M −1 (17) The filter transfer function in Equation 8 can be implemented using a cascading series of three integrators and three differentiators, as shown in Figure 10. The three integrators operate at the high modulator clock frequency fS. The output from the third integrator is decimated down by M and fed to the input of the first differentiator. The three differentiators operate at the low clock frequency of fS /M, where M is the decimation ratio. Figure 11 and Figure 12 show the detailed schematic of the Sinc3 digital filter, as implemented in the Xilinx FPGA. Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications 11 SBAA094 The gain of the Sinc3 filter at dc is described by Equation 18. This means, for example, that for third order filter and decimation 64, the input will be multiplied by 262,144. In this case, the result from the filter, prior to scaling, is 18 bit. GainDC = MK (18) In each added filter order, the output word size is increased by log2M. If the input is 1 bit, the output from the first-order filter (for decimation 64) will be a 6-bit word. A second-order filter will add another 6 bits; its output will be 13-bit, and so on. The internal bus of the Sinc filter, integrators and differentiators, needs to have a bus width that is one bit wider than the filter’s dc gain (see Equation 19). The results for a Sinc3 filter and a decimation ratio from 4 up to 256 are presented in Table 3. Bus _ Width = 1 + K ⋅ log2 M (19) Table 3. Output Word Size from Different Integrators in Sinc3 Filter for 1-Bit Input Word Sinc3 Decimation Ratio (M) GainDC GainDC Bus Width (bits) 6 (bits) 7 4 64 8 512 9 10 16 4,096 12 13 32 32,768 15 16 64 262,144 18 19 128 2,097,152 21 22 256 16,777,216 24 25 The evaluation board has the capacity to implement up to 256 decimations on the output signal coming from ADS1202. The 25-bit word on the filter output is latched into the output data register and transferred to a FIFO buffer. Eight words at a time will be later transferred to the DSP via the SPI port. 12 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications SBAA094 Figure 11 shows the implementation of a single integrator in the Xilinx FPGA. The 25-bit wide incoming data is continuously added to the previously accumulated result. 25 D Q Data Out Data In CLK MCLK Figure 11. Xilinx Integrator Implementation Figure 12 shows the implementation of a single differentiator. The 25-bit wide incoming data is latched onto the D flip-flop array while being subtracted from the previously latched result. 25 Data Out Data In MCLK/M D Q CLK Figure 12. Xilinx Differentiator Implementation Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications 13 SBAA094 Integrating Figure 11 and Figure 12 into Figure 9, we can present the implemented block diagram of the sinc3 filter into the Xilinx FPGA. Figure 13 presents the final implementation of the filter as described by VHDL code shown in Appendix A. MOUT CN1 Q D Q D CN2 Q DELTA1 CLK CLK CLK MCLK CN3 DN0 CN4 CN5 D Q CLK D Q CLK DN1 D Q DN3 CLK D Q DN5 CLK CNR Figure 13. Xilinx Sinc3 Filter Implementation The Sinc3 filter circuit from Figure 13 was simulated in an Excel spreadsheet. Appendix B presents results for a decimation ratio of 4. Appendix C presents results for a decimation ratio of 16. 14 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications SBAA094 The decimation ratio of the implemented Sinc3 is set up by a switch on the evaluation board. The 3-bit input data is passed to a configuration register inside the FPGA and used to program the modulator clock frequency divider (MCLK), as shown in Figure 14. The divided clock, CNR, will be use to update differentiators in the Sinc3 filter as well as moving this result into the FIFO buffer. After this, the output data rate is calculated and the appropriate values are programmed into the configuration and decimation registers inside the FPGA. For the third-order Sinc filter, the step function response will require three clock periods. Table 4 presents the input code of the clock divider, decimation ratio, data rate and filter response. +5V +5V +5V M2 MCLK M1 M0 Decimation Ratio or Clock Divider CNR = MCLK M Figure 14. Clock Divider Inputs Table 4. Decimation Ratio and Filter Response for Different Clock Divider Inputs M2 0 M1 0 M0 0 Decimation Ratio (M) 4 0 0 1 8 1,250.0 2.4 0 1 0 16 625.0 4.8 0 1 1 32 312.5 9.6 1 0 0 64 156.2 19.2 1 0 1 128 78.1 38.4 1 1 0 256 39.1 76.7 Clock Divider Inputs Data Rate (kHz) 2,500.0 Filter Response (µs) 1.2 Appendix D presents the filter response on the input step function for decimation ratios of 4, 8, 16, and 32. Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications 15 SBAA094 6 Conclusion The ADS1202 is designed for current measurement in motor control applications. The current loop regulator typically works between 1 and 4 kHz. The signal used for this control loop must contain information from 10 up to 40kHz, with a required resolution from 12- to 16-bits. This application note provides designers of motor control systems with a solution for the easy implementation of the third-order Sinc filter. Table 5 presents an overview of the different parameters in the function of over-sampling or decimation ratio. Table 5. Third-Order Sinc Filter Characteristics 16 Decimation Ratio (M) 4 Ideal SNR (dB) 24.99 Ideal ENOB (Bits) 3.9 Data Rate (kHz) 2,500.0 Filter Response f-3dB (kHz) 655 Filter Response (µs) 1.2 gainDC (Bits) 6 8 40.04 6.4 1,250.0 327.5 2.4 9 16 55.09 8.9 625.0 163.7 4.8 12 32 70.14 11.4 312.5 81.8 9.6 15 64 85.19 13.9 156.2 40.9 19.2 18 128 100.24 16.4 78.1 20.4 38.4 21 256 115.30 18.9 39.1 10.2 76.7 24 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications SBAA094 Appendix A. VHDL code of implemented Sinc3 filter from Figure 13. library IEEE; use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all; use IEEE.std_logic_unsigned.all; entity FLT is port(RESN, MOUT, MCLK, CNR : in std_logic; CN5 : out std_logic_vector(24 downto 0)); end FLT; architecture RTL of FLT is signal DN0, DN1, DN3, DN5 : std_logic_vector(24 downto 0); signal CN1, CN2, CN3, CN4 : std_logic_vector(24 downto 0); signal DELTA1 : std_logic_vector(24 downto 0); begin process(MCLK, RESn) begin if RESn = '0' then DELTA1 <= (others => '0'); elsif MCLK'event and MCLK = '1' then if MOUT = '1' then DELTA1 <= DELTA1 + 1; end if; end if; end process; process(RESN, MCLK) begin if RESN = '0' then CN1 <= (others => '0'); CN2 <= (others => '0'); elsif MCLK'event and MCLK = '1' then CN1 <= CN1 + DELTA1; CN2 <= CN2 + CN1; end if; end process; process(RESN, CNR) begin if RESN = '0' then DN0 <= (others => '0'); DN1 <= (others => '0'); DN3 <= (others => '0'); DN5 <= (others => '0'); elsif CNR'event and CNR = '1' then DN0 <= CN2; DN1 <= DN0; DN3 <= CN3; DN5 <= CN4; end if; end process; CN3 <= DN0 - DN1; CN4 <= CN3 - DN3; CN5 <= CN4 - DN5; end RTL; Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications 17 SBAA094 Appendix B. The responses of the Sinc3 filter circuit from Figure 13 for decimation ratio 4. Data In K MOUT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 18 MCLK/M Delta1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 CN1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 6 10 15 21 28 36 45 55 66 78 91 105 120 8 25 43 62 82 103 125 20 44 69 95 122 22 51 81 112 16 49 83 118 CN2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 10 20 35 56 84 120 37 92 30 108 71 48 40 48 73 116 50 4 107 104 124 40 109 76 70 92 15 96 80 96 17 100 CNR Data Out DN0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 56 56 56 56 92 92 92 92 48 48 48 48 116 116 116 116 104 104 104 104 76 76 76 76 96 96 96 96 DN1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 56 56 56 56 92 92 92 92 48 48 48 48 116 116 116 116 104 104 104 104 76 76 76 76 CN3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 52 52 52 52 36 36 36 36 84 84 84 84 68 68 68 68 116 116 116 116 100 100 100 100 20 20 20 20 DN3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 52 52 52 52 36 36 36 36 84 84 84 84 68 68 68 68 116 116 116 116 100 100 100 100 CN4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 48 48 48 48 112 112 112 112 48 48 48 48 112 112 112 112 48 48 48 48 112 112 112 112 48 48 48 48 DN5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 48 48 48 48 112 112 112 112 48 48 48 48 112 112 112 112 48 48 48 48 112 112 112 112 CN5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 44 44 44 44 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications SBAA094 Appendix C. The responses of the Sinc3 filter circuit from Figure 13 for decimation ratio 8. Data In K MOUT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 MCLK/M Delta1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 CN1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 6 10 15 21 28 36 45 55 66 78 91 105 120 136 153 171 190 210 231 253 276 300 325 351 378 406 435 465 496 528 561 595 630 CN2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 10 20 35 56 84 120 165 220 286 364 455 560 680 816 969 116 306 516 747 1000 252 552 877 204 582 988 399 864 336 864 401 996 CNR Data Out DN0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 DN1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 CN3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 216 216 216 216 216 216 216 216 920 920 920 920 920 920 920 920 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 DN3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 216 216 216 216 216 216 216 216 920 920 920 920 920 920 920 920 CN4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 212 212 212 212 212 212 212 212 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 192 192 192 192 192 192 192 192 DN5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 212 212 212 212 212 212 212 212 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 CN5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 208 208 208 208 208 208 208 208 492 492 492 492 492 492 492 492 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 Combining the ADS1202 with an FPGA Digital Filter for Current Measurement in Motor Control Applications 19 Application Report SBAA094 – June 2003 Appendix D. Third-order Sinc filter response on the step function for different decimation ratios. Output of the third order Sinc filter with decimation ratio 16 120% 120% 100% 100% Filter Output Filter Output Output of the third order Sinc filter with decimation ratio 4 80% 80% 60% 60% 40% 40% 20% 20% 0% 0% 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120 0 128 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 Output of the third order Sinc filter with decimation ratio 8 72 80 88 96 104 112 120 128 112 120 128 Output of the third order Sinc filter with decimation ratio 32 120% 120% 100% 100% 80% Filter Output Filter Output 64 Sample Sample 60% 40% 80% 60% 40% 20% 20% 0% 0% 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 Sample 72 80 88 96 104 112 120 128 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 Sample 20 Application Report SBAA094 – June 2003 References ADS1202 Product Data Sheet (SBAS275A) 21 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, modifications, enhancements, improvements, and other changes to its products and services at any time and to discontinue any product or service without notice. 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