AN89659 Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC 4.pdf

AN89659
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Author: Shivendra Singh
Associated Project: Yes
Associated Part Family: SPI F-RAM – FM25XXX
Software Version: 3.0 Component Pack 7 and Above
Related Application Notes: AN304, AN79953, AN87352
®
AN89659 shows how to interface Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) F-RAM with Cypress’s PSoC 4 (Programmable
System-on-Chip) device with the help of example circuits, timing diagrams, and pseudocode. You can also use this
application note as a reference design guide to interface SPI F-RAM with other standard SPI master controllers. This
application note includes an associated PSoC 4 example project.
Contents
Introduction
®
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC 4 ................................1
Contents ............................................................................1
Introduction .......................................................................1
SPI F-RAM Interface .........................................................2
SPI Operating Modes ........................................................3
SPI Master Implementation with PSoC 4 ..........................3
SPI Master Implementation Using UDB........................3
SPI Master Implementation Using SCB ........................3
SPI Master Configuration Using Bit Banging ................5
SPI F-RAM Input Pin Configuration ..............................5
SPI F-RAM Operating Voltage .....................................6
SPI F-RAM Opcodes .........................................................6
Addressing in SPI F-RAM .................................................8
Memory Density Upgrade .............................................8
SPI F-RAM Operations Example .......................................8
Status Register Operation ............................................8
F-RAM Write and Read Operations ............................ 10
Summary ......................................................................... 13
Appendix A: PSoC 4 Example Project............................. 14
Example Project Pin Assignments .............................. 14
Integrating the SPI F-RAM Component into a Project 14
Document History ............................................................ 19
Worldwide Sales and Design Support ............................. 20
Products .......................................................................... 20
®
PSoC Solutions ............................................................. 20
www.cypress.com
The SPI F-RAM is a serial nonvolatile memory employing
an advanced ferroelectric process. A ferroelectric random
access memory (F-RAM) is a nonvolatile RAM that
eliminates the complexities, overhead, and system-level
reliability problems caused by serial EEPROM and other
nonvolatile memories. Unlike serial EEPROM and flash
memories, the F-RAM performs write operations at bus
™
speed without incurring any write delays (NoDelay ). Data
is directly written into the memory array, and the next bus
cycle can begin immediately without the need for data
polling. The F-RAM products offer a very high endurance
14
of 10 , orders of magnitude higher than serial EEPROM
and flash memories. Also, the F-RAM exhibits lower power
consumption than a serial EEPROM or flash memory. For
more details on the benefits of serial F-RAM over serial
EEPROM, refer to the application note AN87352 – F-RAM
for Smart E-Meters.
Cypress’s PSoC is a true programmable embedded
system-on-chip, integrating configurable analog and
programmable digital peripheral functions, memory, and a
microcontroller on a single chip. The PSoC 4 is an ARM
Cortex-M0 based PSoC family device. You can obtain
details on PSoC 4 from AN79953 – Getting Started with
®
PSoC 4.
This application note elaborates on the SPI F-RAM
connections and functionalities within PSoC 4. The
hardware recommendations made here are not
mandatory; however, their adoption will lead to a more
robust overall design.
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
1
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
To describe the SPI F-RAM behavior at the system level,
this application note explains a few opcodes with the help
of timing diagrams and PSoC 4-based pseudocode.
SPI F-RAM Interface
The hardware connection between a SPI host controller
(master) and SPI F-RAM (slave) remains identical across
all densities. However, the firmware has some differences
depending upon the density options and features that SPI
devices offer. For example, 1 Mb and higher density SPI
F-RAMs require 3-byte addressing, while 512 Kb and
lower densities require only 2-byte addressing. In this
case, the firmware change between the two density
options is to incorporate either 3-byte or 2-byte
addressing, while the hardware connections do not
change. Similarly, the Serial Number Read (SNR) feature
is not available across all SPI F-RAM devices.
This application note includes an associated project as
PSoC 4 SPI F-RAM Component created in PSoC
Creator™. Appendix A describes integrating the SPI
F-RAM component into a new project in PSoC Creator.
The PSoC Creator is a powerful integrated development
environment (IDE) from Cypress for PSoC 3, PSoC 4, and
PSoC 5LP.
All connection details and recommendations with respect
to SPI F-RAM are applicable to other standard SPI master
controllers interfacing with a SPI F-RAM memory.
Figure 1 illustrates a typical system-level configuration of
the SPI F-RAM device.
This application note covers the following topics:






SPI F-RAM interface
SPI operating modes
SPI master implementation with PSoC 4
SPI F-RAM opcodes
Addressing in SPI F-RAM
SPI F-RAM operations example
Figure 1. A Typical SPI F-RAM Interface with a Controller
Memory
Blocks
Analog
Blocks
GPIOs
Controller
Core
SPI Master Block
Controller or SOC
Digital
Blocks
SCK
SCK
MISO
SO
MOSI
SI
CS
CS
GPIO1
WP
GPIO2
HOLD
SPI F-RAM
Power and
Clocks
These two control pins should
be pulled to VDD if not used
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
2
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
The SPI F-RAM always uses the rising edge of the input
clock (SCK) to latch data bits in the SI line, and the falling
edge of the input clock to send data bits out on the SO
line. This makes SPI F-RAM compatible with SPI Mode 0
and Mode 3 without any configuration or setting in the SPI
F-RAM.
SPI Operating Modes
The SPI standard supports four different modes of
operation, which is determined by the SPI clock (SCK)
polarity (CPOL) and clock phase (CPHA). The SPI clock
(SCK) polarity (CPOL) is the base value of the SPI clock
(LOW or HIGH), and the clock phase (CPHA) is the SPI
clock edge, either rising or falling. The SPI master sets the
SPI mode before starting the SPI communication. Table 1
summarizes all four SPI modes with respect to the SPI
clocking and data driving and capture edges on the master
out, slave in (MOSI) and master in, slave out (MISO) lines.
Table 1. SPI Operating Modes
Mode 0
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
(CPOL=0; CPHA=0)
(CPOL=0; CPHA=1)
(CPOL=1; CPHA=0)
(CPOL=1; CPHA=1)
SPI Clock (SCK) Start
Logic Level
LOW
LOW
HIGH
HIGH
Data Latched In by F-RAM
on MOSI
SCK Rising Edge (↑)
SCK Falling Edge (↓)
SCK Falling Edge (↓)
SCK Rising Edge (↑)
Data Driven Out by F-RAM
on MISO
SCK Falling Edge (↓)
SCK Rising Edge (↑)
SCK Rising Edge (↑)
SCK Falling Edge (↓)
SPI F-RAM Support
Yes
No
No
Yes
SPI Master Implementation with
PSoC 4
The programmable and reconfigurable digital blocks of
PSoC 4 with flexible automatic routing allow you to select
any four general-purpose I/Os (GPIOs) to be used as a
SPI interface. The PSoC 4 can implement the SPI master
by using one of the following methods:
SPI Master Implementation Using UDB
The universal digital blocks (UDBs) of PSoC 4 can be
configured as the SPI master. Since UDBs are accessible
by all GPIOs, they allow the use of any four GPIOs of the
PSoC 4 as the SPI master control pins. Refer to the
PSoC 4 Architecture TRM and device datasheet for more
details on I/O pin configuration and UDB details. Figure 2
illustrates the SPI F-RAM interface with a PSoC 4 SPI
master implemented using UDBs.
The attached example project uses UDBs to implement
the SPI master in PSoC 4.
www.cypress.com
Figure 2. SPI Master Implementation in PSoC 4 UDB
PSoC 4
Universal Digital Block
(UDB)
SPI Data Driving and
Capture Edges
SCK
SCK
MISO
SO
MOSI
SI
CS
CS
SPI F-RAM
SPI Master Implementation Using SCB
The PSoC 4 has two dedicated serial communication
blocks (SCBs) that can be configured as SPI masters.
However, each SCB assigns a set of fixed GPIOs for
specific control pins, and only those pins can be used to
set up a serial communication link between the PSoC 4
and a peripheral device. Table 2 shows the dedicated
PSoC 4 SPI control pins available for each SCB.
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
3
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Table 2. SPI Pin Configuration in PSoC 4 SCBs
PSoC 4 Pins
SCB Block
Pin Functions
GPIO
SCB0
MOSI
Master output slave input of SCB0
P4.1
GPIO
SCB0
MISO
Master input slave output of SCB0
P4.2
GPIO
SCB0
SCK
SPI clock of SCB0
P4.3
GPIO
SCB0
CS0
SPI slave select 0 of SCB0
P0.0
GPIO
SCB0
CS1
SPI slave select 1 of SCB0
P0.1
GPIO
SCB0
CS2
SPI slave select 2 of SCB0
P0.2
GPIO
SCB0
CS3
SPI slave select 3 of SCB0
P0.4 / P3.0
GPIO
SCB1
MOSI
Master output slave input of SCB1
P0.5 / P3.1
GPIO
SCB1
MISO
Master input slave output of SCB1
P0.6 / P3.2
GPIO
SCB1
SCK
SPI clock of SCB1
P0.7 / P3.3
GPIO
SCB1
CS0
SPI slave select 0 of SCB1
P3.4
GPIO
SCB1
CS1
SPI slave select 1 of SCB1
P3.5
GPIO
SCB1
CS2
SPI slave select 2 of SCB1
P3.6
GPIO
SCB1
CS3
SPI slave select 3 of SCB1
Name
Type
P4.0
Pin Description
Each SCB can implement one SPI master block. The SPI master can communicate with up to four slave SPI devices
connected to the same SPI bus. The slave select (CS) pin selects the individual SPI slave connected to the SPI bus. Figure 3
illustrates the SPI F-RAM interface with the PSoC 4 SPI configured using an SCB. The figure also shows how to interface
more than one SPI slave on the same SPI bus.
Figure 3. SPI Master Implementation in PSoC 4 Using an SCB
PSOC 4
SPI Master Block
(SCB)
SCK
MOSI
MISO
CS0
CS0
CS1
CS1
CS2
CS2
CS3
SO SI SCK
CS3
CS0
www.cypress.com
SO
SI SCK
SO
SI SCK
SO
SI SCK
SPI F-RAM
SPI F-RAM
SPI F-RAM
SPI F-RAM
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS1
CS2
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
CS3
4
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
SPI Master Configuration Using Bit Banging
SPI F-RAM Input Pin Configuration
The third and the least preferred method is to use I/O bitbanging to implement the SPI master controller in PSoC 4.
In a bit-banging implementation, the SPI protocol is
generated by driving I/O pins through the firmware. The
firmware implementation adds a significant amount of
code overhead in comparison with the hardware
implementations that use either UDBs or SCBs. The bitbanging method of the SPI interface also reduces the total
data throughput and consumes more CPU resources,
which makes the CPU less available for other functions.
The SPI F-RAM has control input pins that should be
properly biased to a fixed logic state (HIGH or LOW) for
proper device operation. If an input pin is not properly
biased and is left floating, then it can either assume an
intermediate logic state that can cause high device current
or it can float to a logic level LOW or HIGH, which can
trigger an undesirable action. The direction in which a
floating input signal assumes its logic state to be in
depends upon a number of factors, such as noise in the
system, capacitive coupling, and leakage.
The only advantage of the bit-banging method is that it
can implement the SPI interface using only three GPIOs
instead of four GPIOs pins. This is also called the halfduplex form of a SPI interface. The half- duplex form of the
SPI interface requires the PSoC 4 controller to execute
either a write or a read operation at any given time;
therefore, a single GPIO can be used for either sending or
receiving data, unlike in case of a standard SPI interface
where data can be transmitted and received
simultaneously.
Therefore, the logic level seen by a floating input’s circuitry
is relatively random and can change during operation.
Such unpredictable input levels can severely impact
device operation. Therefore, any unused input pin should
always be tied to a proper logic level, such as HIGH for an
active LOW input. A 10-kΩ resistor can be used to pull up
or pull down an unused input pin.
Figure 5. SPI F-RAM Interface with a Standard SPI Master
V
V
Figure 4 illustrates the SPI F-RAM interface with PSoC 4
using its GPIOs. This application note does not cover the
implementation of a SPI master controller in PSoC 4 using
a bit-banging method.
Figure 4. Half-Duplex SPI Master Implementation Using
PSoC 4 Bit Banging
DD
DD
. µF
0.1
V
DD
10 K
V
DD
FROM SPI MASTER
10 K
CS
1
8
VDD
SO
2
7
HOLD
WP
3
6
SCK
VSS
4
5
SI
10 K
TO SPI MASTER
FROM SPI MASTER
F-RAM
FROM SPI MASTER
PSoC 4
FROM SPI MASTER
FROM SPI MASTER
GPIO1
GPIO2
SO SI SCK
GPIO3
CS
SPI F-RAM
pin: The
pin is an active LOW input and
allows you to suspend the clock midstream to pause an
ongoing communication. If this pin is LOW, the device no
longer reacts to any clock pulse received, communication
is disrupted, and data is potentially lost or corrupted. If not
used, this pin should be connected to a 10-kΩ pull-up
resistor to avoid any undesired event.
pin: The Write Protect (
) pin is an active LOW
input and is used to prevent writing into the Status
Register by pulling this pin LOW externally. The WPEN bit
in the Status Register determines the functionality of the
pin.
If the
EN bit is set to ‘1’, it enables
pin control; if it
is set to ‘0’, then the
pin is disabled. This pin should
be connected to a 10-kΩ pull-up resistor to avoid any
undesired event.
pin: The SPI master drives the chip select (CS) pin
during normal operation. The external pull-up on CS is
optional. However, a 10-kΩ pull-up resistor can be used to
keep the CS pin HIGH when the SPI master is not driving
this line.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
5
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Refer to the device datasheet for details on input control
pin functionalities and their behavior during power-up,
power-down, and normal operation.
SPI F-RAM Operating Voltage
The SPI F-RAM devices offer a wide range of operating
voltage (VDD) from 2.0 V to 5.5 V. However, this wide
operating voltage range is not applicable to all F-RAM
devices. The most typical F-RAM operating voltages are
2.0 V to 3.6 V, 2.7 V to 3.6 V, and 4.5 V to 5.5 V. Refer to
the device datasheet for allowed voltage levels on its V DD
and input pins to ensure that applied voltages on its VDD
pin and its I/Os does not exceed datasheet limits.
SPI F-RAM Opcodes
All SPI opcodes, addresses, and data are 8-bit data
transfers. All transactions occur with CS LOW. The
opcode, address, and data-in are clocked in on the SI pin,
and data-out is clocked out on the SO pin. Opcodes
provide control over the device. The SPI F-RAM supports
industry-standard opcodes for all read and write
operations. A unique opcode is assigned for each specific
operation in the SPI F-RAM. Table 3 provides the opcode
list. Table 4 explains each opcode and the associated data
bytes required for proper operation.
Table 3. SPI F-RAM Opcodes
Instruction
Category
Status Register
Control Instructions
Opcode
Instruction Name
Hexadecimal
Binary
WREN
Set the Write Enable Latch (WEL) bit in the
Status Register.
06H
0000 0110b
WRDI
Clear the WEL bit in the Status Register; this
disables all write operations.
04H
0000 0100b
RDSR
Read Status Register
05H
0000 0101b
WRSR
Write Status Register
01H
0000 0001b
Read Memory Data
03H
0000 0011b
Read Memory Data
03H or 0BH
0000 A011b
Fast Read Memory Data
0BH
0000 1011b
Write Memory Data
02H
0000 0010b
Write Memory Data
02H or 0AH
0000 A010b
Enter Sleep Mode
B9H
1011 1001b
READ (16Kb and above)
READ (4Kb)
F-RAM Read and
Write Instructions
Description
FSTRD
(1)
(2)
WRITE
WRITE (4Kb)
(1)
Sleep Instruction
SLEEP
Device ID and Serial
Number Instructions
RDID
Read Device ID
9FH
1001 1111b
SNR
Read Serial Number
C3H
1100 0011b
Note 1 The 4-Kb SPI F-RAM uses single-byte addressing for writes and reads. The MSB of the address bit is sent through the
opcode byte using the fourth bit from the LSB (bit 3).
Note 2 The SPI FSTRD is similar to the SPI READ command except that the FSTRD command requires an additional dummy
address cycle. The FSTRD command enables the SPI F-RAM as a drop-in replacement for the SPI flash memories that
support the FSTRD command. In SPI F-RAM, the FSTRD and READ commands work at the same frequency. Refer to the SPI
F-RAM datasheet for more details on the FSTRD command.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
6
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Table 4. SPI F-RAM Data Flow
Instruction
Name
Opcode
Master Transmits
on SI
F-RAM Transmits
on SO
Comments
WREN
06H
06H
–
This command sets the WEL bit in the Status Register.
The WEL bit is set on the rising edge of the chip select
(CS) after this instruction.
WRDI
04H
04H
–
The WRDI command clears the WEL bit (if set) in the
Status Register.
RDSR
05H
05H
StatusReg_Data
The RDSR command reads Status Register content.
WRSR
01H
–
The WEL bit must be set prior to write into the Status
Register. WEL is cleared when CS goes HIGH.
READ
FSTRD
03H
0BH
01H ,
StatusReg_Data
03H , Add1, Add2,
Add3
0BH , Add1, Add2,
Add3, Dummy_Byte
Data1, Data2,
Data3,.,., DataN
Data1, Data2,
Data3,.,., DataN
Data length can be set from 1 to N for read operation,
where N can be any integer value. Once the READ
command starts executing, the F-RAM internal address
automatically increments by 1, and the device is ready
to transmit the next data byte from the incremented
memory address.
When the internal counter reaches its maximum
readable address, it rolls over to the start address 00H
and continues reading data from there onwards as long
as the device is in Read mode and the serial (SPI)
clock is available. Read exits when CS toggles HIGH.
The FSTRD command requires an additional dummy
address cycle. This starts driving SO with valid data
after the dummy cycle.
The WEL bit must be set prior to sending the WRITE
opcode. Data length can be set from 1 to N for the
write operation, where N can be any integer value.
Once the WRITE command starts executing, the
F-RAM internal address automatically increments by 1,
and the device is ready to receive the next byte to write
in the incremented memory location.
WRITE
02H
02H , Add1, Add2,
Add3, Data1, Data2,
Data3.,.,., DataN
–
When the internal counter reaches its maximum
writable address, it rolls over to the start address 00H
and continues writing data from there onwards by
overwriting the previously written data. The data write
continues as long as the device is in the Write mode
and the serial (SPI) clock is available.
The controller firmware should take care of data
overwriting due to the memory counter rolling over
during a write operation. The write exits and WEL is
cleared when CS toggles HIGH.
SLEEP
B9H
B9H
–
When CS goes HIGH, the device enters Sleep mode,
and the device consumes Sleep mode current (IZZ).
The WEL bit must be set prior to initiating a SLEEP
command.
WEL is cleared when CS toggles HIGH.
RDID
9FH
9FH
Data1, Data2, Data3,.,
Data9
The RDID command reads the device ID
SNR
C3H
C3H
Data1, Data2, Data3,.,
Data8
The SNR command reads the serial number
(9 bytes).
(8 bytes).
Note The 1-Mb and higher density SPI F-RAMs use 3-byte addressing; the lower density F-RAMs (512 Kb or less, down to 16
Kb) use 2-byte addressing. The 4-Kb F-RAM uses only 1-byte addressing.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
7
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Figure 6 shows an example of address bits being
transmitted over the SPI MOSI line while transmitting three
address bytes by the SPI master.
Addressing in SPI F-RAM
The SPI host controller communicates with the SPI F-RAM
on a byte-by-byte basis and always transmits the mostsignificant bit (MSb) in the first clock cycle and the leastsignificant bit (LSb) in the eighth clock cycle during a byte
transmission. This is valid for all SPI communication
including command, address, and data bytes.
The unused bits of the most-significant byte (MSB) are
“don’t care” bits, which F-RAM ignores. However, it is a
good practice to set unused address bits to ‘0’ in the
firmware. This approach makes it easy to upgrade the
firmware when moving to a higher density device in the
same socket.
Similarly, when an SPI F-RAM transmits a data byte
during a read operation, it always transmits the most
significant bit first and the least significant bit last during
data byte transmission.
Figure 7 represents the addressing scheme for different
F-RAM densities. A0 is the LSb in an address.
Figure 6. Address Bit Transmission in SPI F-RAM
CS
7
SCK
6
5
SI
4
3
2
1
0
7
Opcode
5
4
3
2
1
0
A21
A20
A19
A18
A17
A16
6
A23 A22
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
Address Byte3
0
A0
Address Byte1
SO
Figure 7. SPI F-RAM Opcode and Addressing
Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
op
op
op
op
A
op
op
op Not Applicable (1 Byte Addressing Only)
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
16 Kbit
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op Not Applicable (2 Byte Addressing Only)
0
0
0
0
0
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
64 Kbit
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op Not Applicable (2 Byte Addressing Only)
0
0
0
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
128 Kbit
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
0
0
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
256 Kbit
512 Kbit
1 Mbit
2 Mbit
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
op Not Applicable (2 Byte Addressing Only)
op Not Applicable (2 Byte Addressing Only)
op Not Applicable (2 Byte Addressing Only)
A14
A14
A14
A14
A13
A13
A13
A13
A12
A12
A12
A12
A11
A11
A11
A11
A10
A10
A10
A10
A9
A9
A9
A9
A8
A8
A8
A8
A7
A7
A7
A7
A6
A6
A6
A6
A5
A5
A5
A5
A4
A4
A4
A4
A3
A3
A3
A3
A2
A2
A2
A2
A1
A1
A1
A1
A0
A0
A0
A0
4 Mbit
op
op
op
op
op
op
op
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
4 Kbit
[Note 3]
op
op
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
A17
A16
A16
0
A15
A15
A15
op
0
0
0
0
0
A18
A17
A16
A15
Note The 4-Kb SPI F-RAM uses only 1-byte addressing. The most significant address bit A8 (ninth bit) is the part of the READ
and WRITE opcodes. Bit 3 of the READ opcode and WRITE opcode is used as the MSb of the memory address.
SPI F-RAM Operations Example
Memory Density Upgrade
The SPI standard supports single-master multi-slave
topology. This allows connecting more than one SPI slave
device to the same SPI bus. To communicate with a SPI
slave, the SPI master first selects the SPI slave by pulling
its slave select (CS) pin to LOW, followed by sending SPI
commands. To support more than one SPI slave, the
master should have one slave select control pin dedicated
to each SPI slave. Figure 3 illustrates multiple SPI slaves
connected to the same SPI master. This topology is used
to control more than one SPI slave, for example, to
expand system memory density by using multiple SPI
memory devices.
This section describes the F-RAM operations with the help
of timing diagrams and PSoC 4 specific pseudocode. All
functions starting with the prefix NVRAM_SPI_1 are
PSoC 4 specific functions. NVRAM_SPI_1 is the name of
an instantiated SPI F-RAM component in the attached
PSoC Creator example project.
This section covers only a few opcodes as an example to
show the SPI F-RAM data flow during SPI communication
between a SPI master and the SPI F-RAM. Refer to the
SPI F-RAM datasheet for detailed descriptions of
opcodes.
Status Register Operation
This section describes the F-RAM Status Register write
and read operations with the help of a timing diagram and
PSoC 4 code as an example.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
8
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Write Status Register
The WRSR command is used to set the user-writable bits
in the Status Register. The other nonwritable bits are
either set by the device internally or they are reserved and
return fix values (‘0’ or ‘1’). Refer to the device datasheet
for the Status Register details.
The following sequence is required to initiate a write in the
F-RAM Status Register:

Send the WREN opcode to set the Write Enable Latch
(WEL) bit.

Send the write status register opcode (WRSR)
followed by a data byte to be written into the Status
Register. Note that read-only bits in the Status
Register are unaffected by WRSR operation. See the
device datasheet for Status Register details.

Figure 8 shows a timing diagram for writing into the
Status Register.
Figure 8. Write into the Status Register (WRSR Opcode)
WEL bit
is cleared on
rising edge of CS
WEL bit
is set on rising
edge of CS
CS
SCK
SI
WREN (06H) Op-Code
WRSR (01H) Op-Code
Data - In
SO
/*******************PSoC 4 pseudocode for Status Register write***************/
void NVRAM_SPI_1_Status_Reg_Write ( uint8 data_byte )
{
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(0); // Enable the SPI slave by toggling chip select LOW
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearTxBuffer(); //Clear SPI transmit buffer before sending command
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData(NVRAM_WREN); // Set the write enable (WEL) bit prior to write
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE) // Wait till SPI_DONE flag is
!= NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE); // cleared
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(1); // WEL is set high when CS is switched high
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(0); // Re-enable the SPI slave
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearTxBuffer();
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData(NVRAM_WRSR_CMD); //Send Write Status Register instruction
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData(data_byte); //Send data
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE)
!= NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE);
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(1); // Terminate the write operation by toggling chip select HIGH
}
Read Status Register
The RDSR command reads the current value of the Status
Register. For example, executing the RDSR command
following the WREN command returns the Status Register
value with the Write Enable Latch (WEL) bit set to ‘1’.
The following sequence is required to initiate a read from
the F-RAM Status Register:
www.cypress.com



Send the RDSR opcode.
Read the Status Register value on the SO line.
The host can terminate the Status Register command
by toggling the chip select to HIGH. Figure 9 shows a
timing diagram for reading the SPI F-RAM Status
Register.
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
9
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Figure 9. Read from the Status Register (RDSR Opcode)
CS
SCK
SI
RDSR (05H)
SO
Status Reg Data Out
/************************** PSoC 4 pseudocode for Status Register read*********************/
uint8 NVRAM_SPI_1_Status_Reg_Read ( void )
{
uint8 data_byte;
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(0); // Enable the SPI slave by toggling chip select LOW
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearTxBuffer(); //Clear SPI transmit buffer before sending command
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData(NVRAM_RDSR_CMD); //Send read status register command
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE) // Wait till SPI_DONE flag is
!= NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE); // cleared
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearRxBuffer();
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData(0x00); //Dummy write for reading the status register data byte
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE)
!= NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE);
while(!NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_GetRxBufferSize()); //Wait until there is data in the read buffer
data_byte = NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadRxData();
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(1); // Terminate the read operation by toggling chip select HIGH
return(data_byte);
}
F-RAM Write and Read Operations
This section describes the F-RAM write and read
operations with the help of a timing diagram and PSoC 4
code as an example.
F - R AM W r i t e O p e r a t i o n
The following sequence is required to initiate a write to the
F-RAM:

Send the WREN opcode to set the Write Enable Latch
(WEL) bit.



Send the WRITE opcode.


Send the least significant address byte.
Send the most significant address byte.
Send the intermediate address byte (in 3-byte
addressing).
Any write command to the F-RAM should be preceded by
a Write Enable (WREN) instruction. If the device is not
write enabled (WEL = ‘0’), it ignores the write instructions.
A new CS falling edge is required to reinitiate the SPI
communication.
After the completion of a write instruction (WRSR or
WRITE), the WEL bit of the Status Register is cleared to
‘0’ on the rising edge of the chip select (CS). This ensures
that the SPI F-RAM has come out of the Write mode and
thus prevents any inadvertent writes.
Note that reading the Status Register (RDSR opcode)
does not clear the WEL bit. Some users read the Status
Register immediately after executing the WREN to confirm
that the WEL bit is set or not set prior to initiating a write
operation. Figure 10 shows a timing diagram for writing
into the F-RAM.
Send data byte/bytes.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
10
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Figure 10. Write into the F-RAM (WRITE Opcode)
WEL bit
is set on rising
edge of CS
WEL bit
is cleared on
rising edge of CS
CS
SCK
SI
WREN (06H)
WRITE (02H)
ADDR3 (MSB)
ADDR2
ADDR1 (LSB)
Data Byte1
Data ByteN
SO
/* PSoC 4 pseudocode for 1 Mb (128kx8) F-RAM write in burst mode. By passing in total_data_count =1, the user can
write 1 byte at a given address location*/
void NVRAM_SPI_1_Write ( uint32 addr, uint8 *data_write_ptr, uint32 total_data_count )
{
uint32 i;
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(0);
// Enable the SPI slave by toggling chip select LOW
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearTxBuffer(); // Clear SPI transmit buffer
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData(NVRAM_WREN); // Set the write enable (WEN) bit prior to write
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE) // Wait till SPI_DONE flag is
!= NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE); // cleared
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(1);
// WEL is set here
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(0);
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearTxBuffer();
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData(NVRAM_SRAM_WRITE_CMD); //Send memory write command
if(NVRAM_SPI_1_spi_density >= SPI_1MBit)
{
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr>>16)); //Transmits most significant address byte (1 Mb and above)
}
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr>>8)); // Transmits intermediate address byte in 3 byte addressing,
//or, Transmits most significant address byte in 2 byte addressing
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr)); // Transmits least significant address byte in 2/3 byte addressing,
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE)
!=NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE);
for(i = 0; i < total_data_count; i++ )
{
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData ((uint8) (data_write_ptr[i]));
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE)
!= NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE);
}
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(1); // Terminate the write operation by toggling chip select HIGH
}
F - R AM R e a d O p e r a t i o n
The following sequence is required to initiate a read from
the F-RAM:


Send the READ opcode.

Once the SPI F-RAM device receives the READ
command, it starts sending data bytes out on the SO
line. The host controller can initiate either a singlebyte read or a burst read (more than one byte).
Send the most significant address byte first and the
least significant address byte last during the address
cycle.
www.cypress.com
The burst read allows reading successive memory location
by initiating a single read command. In burst read, the
F-RAM device increments the internal address counter
automatically and continues sending data bytes out on the
SO line. This continues as long as the chip select CS
remains asserted LOW and the SPI clock is present. The
burst read continues to cycle through the memory in a
circular fashion.
When the chip select CS is de-asserted, the data output
stops and SO goes to a high impedance (HI-Z) state.
Figure 11 shows a timing diagram for reading from the
F-RAM.
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
11
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Figure 11. Read from the F-RAM (READ Opcode)
CS
SCK
SI
READ (03H)
ADDR3 (MSB)
ADDR2
ADDR1 (LSB)
Data Byte1
SO
Data Byte2
Data ByteN
/* PSoC 4 pseudocode for 1 Mb (128kx8) F-RAM Read in burst mode. By passing in total_data_count =1, user can read
only 1 byte from a given address location*/
void NVRAM_SPI_1_Read ( uint32 addr, uint8 *data_read_ptr, uint32 total_data_count )
{
uint32 i;
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(0); // Enable the SPI slave by toggling chip select LOW
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearTxBuffer();// Clear SPI transmit buffer
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData(NVRAM_SRAM_READ_CMD); // Send memory read command
if(NVRAM_SPI_1_spi_density >= SPI_1MBit)
{
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr>>16)); //Transmits most significant address byte (1 Mb and above)
}
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr>>8)); // Transmits intermediate address byte in 3 byte addressing,
//or, Transmits most significant address byte in 2 byte addressing
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr)); // Transmits least significant address byte in 2/3 byte addressing,
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE)
!=NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE);
for(i = 0; i < total_data_count; i++ )
{
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearRxBuffer();
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8) 0x00); //dummy write for reading the F-RAM memory data byte
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE)
!=NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE);
while(!NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_GetRxBufferSize());
data_read_ptr[i] = NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadRxData();
}
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(1); // Terminate the read operation by toggling chip select HIGH
}
F - R AM F a s t R e a d O p e r a t i o n
The following sequence is required to initiate a fast read
from the F-RAM:


Send the FSTRD opcode.


Send a dummy address byte.
Send the most significant address byte first and the
least significant address byte last during the address
cycle.
Once the SPI F-RAM device receives the FSTRD
command, it starts sending data bytes out on the SO
line. The host controller can initiate either a singlebyte read or a burst read (more than one byte).
www.cypress.com
The burst read allows reading successive memory
locations by initiating a single read command. In burst
read, the F-RAM device increments the internal address
counter automatically and continues sending data bytes
out on the SO line. This continues as long as the chip
select CS remains asserted LOW and the SPI clock is
present. The burst read continues to cycle through the
memory in a circular fashion.
When the chip select CS is de-asserted, the data output
stops and SO goes to a high impedance (HI-Z) state.
Figure 12 shows a timing diagram for reading from the
F-RAM using the fast read (FSTRD) command.
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
12
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Figure 12. Fast Read from the F-RAM (FSTRD Opcode)
CS
SCK
SI
READ (0BH)
ADDR3 (MSB)
ADDR2
ADDR1 (LSB)
Dummy Byte
Data Byte1
SO
Data ByteN
/* PSoC 4 pseudocode for 1 Mb (128kx8) F-RAM fast read in burst mode. By passing in total_data_count =1, the user
can read only 1 byte from a given address location*/
void NVRAM_SPI_1_FastRead ( uint32 addr, uint8 *data_read_ptr, uint32 total_data_count )
{
uint32 i;
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(0); // Enable the SPI slave by toggling chip select LOW
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearTxBuffer();// Clear SPI transmit buffer
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData(NVRAM_SRAM_READ_CMD); // Send memory read command
if(NVRAM_SPI_1_spi_density >= SPI_1MBit)
{
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr>>16)); //Transmits most significant address byte (1 Mb and above)
}
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr>>8)); // Transmits intermediate address byte in 3 byte addressing,
//or, Transmits most significant address byte in 2 byte addressing
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr)); // Transmits least significant address byte in 2/3 byte addressing,
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8)(addr)); // Transmits least significant address byte as dummy byte for fast
// read operation
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE)
!=NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE);
for(i = 0; i < total_data_count; i++ )
{
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ClearRxBuffer();
NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_WriteTxData((uint8) 0x00); //dummy write for reading the F-RAM memory data byte
while((NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadTxStatus() & NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE)
!=NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_STS_SPI_DONE);
while(!NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_GetRxBufferSize());
data_read_ptr[i] = NVRAM_SPI_1_SPIM_ReadRxData();
}
NVRAM_SPI_1_CS_Reg_Write(1); // Terminate the read operation by toggling chip select HIGH
}
Summary
Cypress’s SPI F-RAM supports industry-standard SPI access protocols similar to other nonvolatile SPI memory products, such
as SPI EEPROM, flash, and MRAM. This makes F-RAM compatible with all standard SPI master controllers. The SPI F-RAM
opcodes are matched with the standard SPI memory products, which makes SPI F-RAM an easy drop-in replacement. This
application note demonstrated how to interface SPI F-RAM with Cypress’s PSoC 4 controller using schematics, timing
diagrams, and example code.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
13
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Appendix A: PSoC 4 Example Project
The project accompanying this application note is an example project that demonstrates the SPI F-RAM interface with a
PSoC 4 device. You can download the project file from the application note link with the file name AN89659.zip. The
programmability and flexibility of PSoC 4 enables you to add more functionality and modify the project according to a target
application. To execute the example project on a hardware setup, you should have a PSoC 4 connected to the SPI F-RAM.
Example Project Pin Assignments
Table 5 shows the connection details in the attached example project. The following software and hardware components are
used for the example:




PSoC Creator 3.0 Component Pack 7.
Hardware kit – CY8CKIT-042.
PSoC 4 part number CY8C4245AXI-483 is selected to build the project.
VDD supply to PSoC 4 controller via USB.
Table 5. PSoC 4 Port Configuration in Example Project
F-RAM Signal
Name
PSoC (Master)
Signal Name
PSoC 4 I/O
Assignment
Signal Direction
CS
CS
P2[0]
PSoC 4 Output
SI
MOSI
P2[3]
PSoC 4 Output
SO
MISO
P1[4]
PSoC 4 Input
SCK
SCK
P2[2]
PSoC 4 Output
HOLD
P2[1]
PSoC 4 Output
The example project executes the following:
1.
Write 4 bytes of data into memory and read back 4 bytes of written data. Data is stored in an internal register.
2.
Write 1 byte of data into the Status Register and read it back. The read data byte is stored in an internal register.
Integrating the SPI F-RAM Component into a Project
This section demonstrates integrating the F-RAM component into a new PSoC 4 project. The archived AN89659.zip file
creates a folder name, “PSoC4_NVRAM_SPI,” when unarchived. This folder contains both the example project and the
NVRAM_SPI component. The following steps explain how to integrate and use the NVRAM_SPI component in a new PSoC 4
design.
1.
Open PSoC Creator and choose File > New > Project to create a new project. Select the Empty Template and select
Empty PSoC 4 design. Enter a name for the project in the Name field. A new project, “Design01” (workspace), is created
as shown in Figure 13.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
14
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Figure 13. Create Project “Design01”
2.
Right-click on the project and select the Dependencies tab in the Workspace Explorer. Bring the NVRAM_SPI
component into your design as shown in Figure 14.
Figure 14. Open Dependencies
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
15
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
3.
Click on New Entry (User Dependencies) and select
PSoC4_NVRAM_SPI.cydsn folder, as shown in Figure 15.
PSoC4_NVRAM_SPI.cyprj
from
the
Figure 15. Add Dependencies
New Entry Folder
4.
The NVRAM_SPI component appears under the NVRAM tab and under NVRAM_Component Catalog, as
shown in Figure 16.
Figure 16. NVRAM_SPI Component in Catalog
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
16
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
5.
Drag and drop the NVRAM_SPI component onto the TopDesign.cysch and assign digital I/Os. Connect the
component input/output pins to the appropriate port pins of PSoC 4. Table 5 identifies the pin assignments
in the example project.
Figure 17. Creating Design Schematic Using NVRAM_SPI Component
6.
Double-click the NVRAM_SPI component and configure the component parameters as follows. Select the
NVRAM_Part as F-RAM, the RTC as NO, and the SPI density per the F-RAM density used in the
application. Then set the SPI frequency and mode (Mode 0 or Mode 3) per the application requirements as
shown in Figure 18.
Figure 18. Configure NVRAM_SPI Component Parameters
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
17
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
7.
Assign appropriate input/output pins per your design, as shown in Figure 19, and build the project.
Figure 19. Assign PSoC 4 Pins
Develop your code in the main.c file. You can call APIs directly into your program and execute
F-RAM functionality.
Figure 20. Project main.c File
®
For more details on PSoC 4 and PSoC Creator, refer to AN79953 – Getting Started with PSoC 4 and the associated links.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
18
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
Document History
®
Document Title: Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC 4 – AN89659
Document Number: 001-89659
Revision
**
ECN
4222006
www.cypress.com
Orig. of
Change
ZSK
Submission
Date
12/16/2013
Description of Change
New Specification.
Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
19
Interfacing SPI F-RAM with PSoC® 4
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use of any product or circuit described herein. Cypress does not authorize its products for use as critical components in life-support systems where a
malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress’s product in a life-support systems
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Document No. 001-89659 Rev. **
20
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