AN99218 Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU.pdf

AN99218
Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
Author: Edison Zhang
Associated Part Family: FM0+, FM3, FM4
Associated Code Examples: None
Related Application Notes: None
AN99218 explains the various modes of the multifunction serial (MFS) interface. The information presented is
intended to help you get the MFS module up and running quickly for any FM MCU.
Contents
1
2
Introduction ...............................................................1
UART ........................................................................2
2.1
Features...........................................................2
2.2
Data Format .....................................................3
2.3
Interrupt Factor and Timing..............................4
2.4
Low-Level API..................................................7
2.5
Example Code .................................................8
3
CSIO (SPI).............................................................. 10
3.1
Features......................................................... 10
3.2
Transfer Mode ............................................... 11
3.3
Serial Timer ................................................... 11
3.4
Chip Selection Function ................................. 12
3.5
Interrupt Factor and Timing............................ 13
3.6
Low-Level API................................................ 16
3.7
Example Code ............................................... 17
1
4
2
I C .......................................................................... 19
4.1
Features ........................................................ 19
4.2
Protocol ......................................................... 20
4.3
Data Transfer Timing ..................................... 23
4.4
Low-Level API ............................................... 24
4.5
Example Code ............................................... 25
5
LIN .......................................................................... 29
5.1
Features ........................................................ 29
5.2
Data Format................................................... 30
5.3
Communication System ................................. 31
5.4
Operation Timing ........................................... 31
5.5
Low-Level API ............................................... 33
5.6
Example Code ............................................... 34
6
Summary ................................................................ 36
Worldwide Sales and Design Support ............................. 38
Introduction
The serial communication interface (SCI) is the most common communication interface. It includes the universal
2
asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART), Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), inter-integrated circuit (I C), and local
interconnect network (LIN). Most microcontroller manufacturers offer independent built-in peripherals for these
interfaces. The FM family microcontroller includes a built-in MFS interface, which can be configured to UART, Clock
2
Synchronous Serial Interface—CSIO (SPI), I C, and LIN with user settings, providing flexibility and convenience in
the application.
This application note introduces the MFS modes and shows how to use MFS with the Peripheral Driver Library (PDL).
It also shows the data format of each communication protocol and then explains interrupt timing. This basic
information can help you gain a better understanding of how each MFS mode works. Finally, some examples that use
the PDL are given to show how to implement the data transmission and reception of each mode.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
2
UART
The UART is a general-purpose serial data communications interface for asynchronous communications (start/stop
synchronization) with external devices.
When the MD bits’ SMR register is set to b’000, the UART mode is configured.
bit7
bit6
bit5
Description
0
0
0
Operation mode 0 (asynchronous normal mode)
0
0
1
Operation mode 1 (asynchronous multiprocessor mode)
0
1
0
Operation mode 2 (clock sync mode)
0
1
1
Operation mode 3 (LIN communication mode)
1
0
0
Operation mode 4 (I2C mode)
Other than the above
2.1
Setting is prohibited.
Features




Full-duplex operation



Support for MSB/LSB transfer direction
15-bit baud rate selection

1
Interrupt requests

Received interrupt request by factor of
reception completion, framing error,
overrun error, or parity error

Transmit interrupt request by factor of
transmit data empty, transmit bus idle

Transmit FIFO interrupt request by factor
of transmit FIFO empty
5- to 9-bit data length selection
Support for non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and
inverted NRZ data format
Support for hardware flow control


2
Received error detection



Support for DMA transferring
Transmit/receive FIFO installed
3
Framing error
Overrun error
Parity error
1
The baud rate generator can also be sourced by an external clock.
2
Only some MFS channels have a hardware flow control function; see the datasheet of the product used.
3
The FIFO capacity varies depending on the product type; see the datasheet of the product used.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
2.2
Data Format
The UART frame starts with a start bit, followed by data bits, and ends with a stop bit, as shown in Figure 1. The data
length can be selected from 5 bits to 9 bits by setting the L2, L1, L0 bits of the ESCR register. Parity Check is
optional, depending on the setting of the PEN bit. If Parity Check is enabled, Even-Number Parity check or OddNumber Selection parity can be selected by the P bit of the ESCR register. The Stop bit length can be selected by the
SBL bit of the SMR register and the ESBL bit of the ESCR register.
Figure 1. UART Data Format
NRZ levels:
recessive level
D0
D1
Dn-1 Dn
P
dominant level
Start Bit
(always
dominant
level)
5-9 Data Bits
Parity Bit
(optional)
1-4 Stop
Bits
(always
recessive
level)
The ESCR register configures most data format settings. Figure 2 describes the bits of the ESCR register.
Figure 2. ESCR Register Description
bit
Field
Attribute
Initial value
15
...
(SSR)
8
7
FLWEN
R/W
0
6
ESBL
R/W
0
5
INV
R/W
0
4
PEN
R/W
0
3
P
R/W
0
2
L2
R/W
0
1
L1
R/W
0
0
L0
R/W
0
[bit2:0] L2, L1, L0: Data length select bit
bit2
0
0
0
0
1
[bit6] ESBL: Extension stop bit length
select bit
Bit
0
1
Description
SMR:SBL=0
SMR:SBL=1
SMR:SBL=0
SMR:SBL=1
1 bit
2 bits
3 bits
4 bits
bit1
0
0
1
1
0
bit0
0
1
0
1
0
Description
8-bit length
5-bit length
6-bit length
7-bit length
9-bit length
[bit3] P: Parity select bit
Bit
0
1
Description
Even-number parity
Odd-number parity
[bit4] PEN: Parity enable bit
Bit
0
1
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Description
Disables parity.
Enables parity.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
2.3
Interrupt Factor and Timing
The timing diagrams in this section refer to the following bits and registers:

TDRE (Transmit Data Register Empty) bit indicates whether the data in the Transmit Data Register is empty or
not.







TBI (Transmit Bus Idle) bit indicates whether the SOT line is idle or not.



REC (Received Error Clear) bit is used to clear received errors.
TIE (Transmit Interrupt Enable) bit is used to enable or disable transmit interrupt.
TBIE (Transmit Bus Interrupt Enable) bit is used to enable or disable transmit interrupt.
TDR (Transmit Data Register) is a buffer register for serial data transmission.
RDRF (Received Data Register Full) bit is used to indicate whether the Received Data Register is full or not.
FRE (Frame Error) bit is used to indicate a frame error, which occurs when the stop bit of the received data is 0.
ORE (Overrun Error) bit is used to indicate an overrun error, which occurs when the next data is received before
the received data is read.
RIE (Receive Interrupt Enable) bit is used to enable or disable transmit interrupt.
RDR (Received Data Register) is a buffer register for serial data reception.
Figure 3 is the UART data transmit timing diagram when FIFO is not used.

When the TDR is empty (TDRE = 1), if Transmit Interrupt is enabled (TIE = 1), a Transmit Interrupt Request will
be issued. Then transfer data can be written into the TDR, and the TDRE bit turns to 0.

The TDR will be loaded into the transmit shift register first, and then data will be shifted out bit by bit to the SOT
pin. After the first bit of transfer data shifts out to the SOT pin, the TDRE bit turns to 1. If TIE = 1, a Transmit
Interrupt Request will be issued. Then the following data can be written into the TDR again.

After all bits of the first data are shifted out to the SOT pin and the first bit of second data is shifted out to the SOT
pin, the TDRE bit turns to 1 to indicate that the transmit shift register is empty.

After all bits of the second data are shifted out to the SOT pin, a 2-byte transmission is completed, and the TBI bit
turns to 1. If Transmit Bus Interrupt is enabled (TBIE = 1), a Transmit Bus Interrupt Request will be issued.
Figure 3. UART Transmission Timing Diagram
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
Figure 4 is the UART data receive timing diagram when FIFO is not used. When received data is stored in the RDR,
the RDRF bit will be set to 1, and if Receive Interrupt is enabled (RIE = 1), a Receive Interrupt Request will be issued.
After the data is read from the RDR, the RDRF bit will be cleared automatically. However, when the RDRF bit is set, if
the frame error occurs (FRE = 1) or the overrun error occurs (ORE = 1), the received data is invalid and errors should
be cleared by setting the REC bit to 1.
Figure 4. UART Receive Timing Diagram
Received
data
ST
D0
D1
D2
D5
D6
D7
SP
ST
RDRF
A received interrupt occurred.
Figure 5 is the data transmit timing diagram when FIFO is enabled. It intends to transmit 5 bytes of data using
transmit FIFO.
1.
When the FIFO Transmit Data Request bit is set to 1 (FDRQ = 1), if FIFO transmit interrupts are enabled (FTIE =
1), a transmit interrupt occurs.
2.
Three bytes are written into the transmit FIFO, as the TDR is empty, so the first byte is transferred to the TDR.
After that, the FDRQ bit should be cleared to 0 manually. At this time, the data count in the FIFO is 2, as
displayed by the FBYTE register.
3.
After the FIFO is empty and the first bit of data is shifted out from the shift register, the FDRQ bit turns to 1,
which indicates the FIFO is empty. If FIFO transmit interrupts are enabled (FTIE = 1), a transmit interrupt occurs.
4.
Two bytes are written into the transmit FIFO. After that, the FDRQ bit should be cleared to 0 manually. At this
time, the data count in the FIFO is 2 again, as displayed by the FBYTE register.
5.
After the FIFO is empty and the first bit of data is shifted out from the shift register, the FDRQ bit turns to 1,
which indicates the FIFO is empty. If FIFO transmit interrupts are enabled (FTIE = 1), a transmit interrupt occurs.
6.
After the TDR is empty and the first bit of data in the shift register is shifted out, the TDRE bit turns to 1.
When the data bits in the shift register are all shifted out, the TBI bit is set to 1, which indicates all data
transmission is completed.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
Figure 5. UART Transmission Timing Diagram with FIFO Enabled
ST 1st byte SP
Transmit data
FBYTE
0
1
2
ST 2nd byte SP
1
0
FDRQ
1
ST 3rd byte SP
2
1
Cleared if
set to "0".
ST 5th byte
0
⑤
③
TDRE
ST 4th byte SP
A transmit interrupt
occurred.
Cleared if
set to "0".
Data writing in transmit
FIFO (TDR)
A transmit interrupt
occurred.
⑥
The transmit Data Register is empty.
②
①
④
FIFO
Data5
Data4
Data3
Data2
TDR
Data1
Data3
Data3
Data5
Data2
Shift Register
Data4
Data5
Figure 6 is the data receive timing diagram when FIFO is enabled.
1.
The FIFO match count should be set in the FBYTE.
2.
After data receive starts, the received data will be stored in the FIFO in sequence. When the data count in the
FIFO matches FBYTE, the RDRF bit will be set to 1. If the RIE bit is set to 1, a receive interrupt will occur.
3.
When only 1 byte is received with no following data, if Received FIFO idle detection is enabled (FRIIE = 1), and if
the received idle state continues for more than 8 baud rate clocks, the RDRF bit will be set to 1.
4.
When the data in the FIFO is all read out, then the RDRF bit will be cleared to 0 automatically.
If the received data count exceeds the maximum capacity of the receive FIFO, an overrun error will occur.
Figure 6. UART Receive Timing Diagram with FIFO Enabled
Received data
ST 1st byte SP
ST 2nd byte SP
FBYTE setting
(with the transfer count)
Reading of FBYTE
(Effective byte count display)
ST 3rd byte SP
ST 4th byte SP
ST 5th byte SP
3
0
1
2
3 2 1
0
1
2
RDRF
Data reading from RDR
An interrupt occurs when the FBYTE (transmit data)
count matches the received data count.
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A ll re c e iv e d d a ta a re re a d.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
2.4
Low-Level API
Following is the UART driver API of the PDL, which is placed in the mfs.c/h files.















Mfs_Uart_Init()
Mfs_Uart_DeInit()
Mfs_Uart_EnableIrq()
Mfs_Uart_DisableIrq()
Mfs_Uart_SetBaudRate()
Mfs_Uart_EnableFunc()
Mfs_Uart_DisableFunc()
Mfs_Uart_GetStatus()
Mfs_Uart_ClrStatus()
Mfs_Uart_SendData()
Mfs_Uart_ReceiveData()
Mfs_Uart_ResetFifo()
Mfs_Uart_SetBaudRate()
Mfs_Uart_SetFifoCount()
Mfs_Uart_GetFifoCount()
Mfs_Uart_Init() is used to initialize an MFS instance to UART mode with parameter Mfs_Uart_Init
#pstcConfig of type #stc_mfs_uart_config_t. This function sets only the basic UART configuration.
Mfs_Uart_DeInit() is used to reset all MFS UART-related registers.
Mfs_Uart_EnableIrq() enables UART interrupt sources selected by enumeration type #en_uart_irq_sel_t.
Mfs_Uart_DisableIrq() disables the UART interrupt sources selected by enumeration type
#en_uart_irq_sel_t.
Mfs_Uart_SetBaudRate() provides a possibility to change the UART baud rate after the UART is initialized.
Mfs_Uart_EnableFunc()
enables
the
UART
function
selected
by
the
Mfs_Uart_EnableFunc#enFunc, and Mfs_Uart_DisableFunc() disables the UART function.
parameter
Mfs_Uart_GetStatus()
gets
the
status
selected
by
Mfs_Uart_GetStatus#enStatus,
and
Mfs_Uart_ClrStatus() clears the UART status selected; some statuses can only be cleared by hardware
automatically.
Mfs_Uart_SendData() writes data into the UART transfer buffer, and Mfs_Uart_ReceiveData() reads data
from the UART receive buffer.
Mfs_Uart_ResetFifo() resets the UART hardware FIFO.
Mfs_Uart_SetFifoCount() provides a possibility to change the FIFO size after the UART is initialized.
Mfs_Uart_GetFifoCount() gets the current data count in the FIFO.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
2.5
Example Code
Based on the low-level driver API, an example is given here to show how to transfer data via the UART using the
interrupt flag polling method. It uses UART ch.0 to transfer 10 bytes and then receive 10 bytes.
Before using UART, configure the pin function of the UART as follows:
/* Initialize UART function I/O */
SetPinFunc_SIN0_0();
SetPinFunc_SOT0_0();
Then configure the UART configuration structure and initialize the UART channel.





Baud rate: 115200
Data length: 8 bits
Parity check: No
Stop bit length: 1 bit
H/W flow control: No
stc_mfs_uart_config_t stcUartConfig;
/* Initialize UART TX and RX channel */
stcUartConfig.enMode = UartNormal;
stcUartConfig.u32BaudRate = 115200;
stcUartConfig.enDataLength = UartEightBits;
stcUartConfig.enParity = UartParityNone;
stcUartConfig.enStopBit = UartOneStopBit;
stcUartConfig.enBitDirection = UartDataLsbFirst;
stcUartConfig.bInvertData = FALSE;
stcUartConfig.bHwFlow = FALSE;
stcUartConfig.bUseExtClk = FALSE;
stcUartConfig.pstcFifoConfig = NULL;
if (Ok != Mfs_Uart_Init(&UART0, &stcUartConfig))
{
while(1); // Initialization error
}
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
The following code will send 10 bytes via SOT0_0.
uint8_t u8Cnt = 0;
uint8_t au8UartTxBuf[10] = {0x01,0x23,0x45,0x67,0x89,0xAB,0xCD,0xEF};
/* Enable TX function of UART0
*/
Mfs_Uart_EnableFunc(&UART0, UartTx);
while(u8Cnt < 10)
{
/* wait until TX buffer empty */
while (TRUE != Mfs_Uart_GetStatus((&UART0, UartTxEmpty));
/* Write data to transmit data register */
Mfs_Uart_SendData(UartCh0, au8UartTxBuf[u8Cnt]);
u8Cnt++;
}
/* wait until TX idle */
while (TRUE != Mfs_Uart_GetStatus((&UART0, UartTxIdle));
/* Disable TX function of UART0
*/
Mfs_Uart_DisableFunc(&UART0, UartTx);
The following code will receive 10 bytes from SIN0_0.
uint8_t u8Cnt = 0;
uint8_t au8UartRxBuf[10] = {0};
/* Enable RX function of UART0
*/
Mfs_Uart_EnableFunc(&UART0, UartRx);
while(u8Cnt < 10)
{
/* wait until RX buffer full */
while(TRUE != Mfs_Uart_GetStatus(&UART0, UartRxFull));
/* Read data from receive data register */
au8UartRxBuf[u8Cnt] = Mfs_Uart_ReceiveData(&UART0);
u8Cnt++;
}
/* Disable TX function of UART0
*/
Mfs_Uart_DisableFunc(&UART0, UartRx);
Note: In the PDL project, make sure that the definition of “PDL_PERIPHERAL_ENABLE_MFSx” is enabled before
using an MFS channel.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
3
CSIO (SPI)
CSIO is a general-purpose serial data communication interface (supporting the SPI) to allow synchronous
communication with an external device. It also has the transmit/receive FIFO installed.
When the MD bits’ SMR register is set to b’010, the CSIO mode is configured.
bit7
bit6
bit5
0
0
0
Operation mode 0 (asynchronous normal mode)
0
0
1
Operation mode 1 (asynchronous multiprocessor mode)
0
1
0
Operation mode 2 (clock sync mode)
0
1
1
Operation mode 3 (LIN communication mode)
1
0
0
Operation mode 4 (I2C mode)
Other than the above
3.1
Description
Setting is prohibited.
Features








Full-duplex operation
Clock synchronization (without start/stop bit)
Master/slave function
SPI supported (for both master and slave modes)
15-bit baud rate selection
5- to 16-bit data length selection
Support for MSB/LSB transfer direction
Support for chip selection function





4-channel control (single control, round-robin control)
Setup/hold/deselect time can be set to be changeable
Active level can be set for each channel
2
Received error detection
Overrun error
Interrupt requests






2
Support for serial data transfer triggered by a serial timer


1
Received interrupt request by factor of reception completion, overrun error
Transmit interrupt request by factor of transmit data empty, transmit bus idle
Transmit FIFO interrupt request by factor of transmit FIFO empty
Status interrupt request by factor of value of the Serial Timer Register (STMR) and the Serial Timer
Serial Timer Comparison Register (STMCR) match
Transmit/receive FIFO installed
3
1
The baud rate generator can also be sourced by an external clock.
2
Only some FM products have the chip selection and serial timer function; see the datasheet of the product used.
3
The FIFO capacity varies depending on the product type; see the datasheet of the product used.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
3.2
Transfer Mode
Four transfer modes are available for CSIO communication, which can be configured as SCINV and SPI bits. These
modes cover all synchronization communication timing in the application.
Item
Mode 0
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
(SCINV = 0, SPI = 0)
(SCINV = 1, SPI = 0)
(SCINV = 0, SPI = 1)
(SCINV = 1, SPI = 1)
Serial clock (SCK)
signal mark level
"HIGH"
"LOW"
"HIGH"
"LOW"
Transmit data output
timing
SCK signal falling edge
SCK signal rising edge
SCK signal rising edge
SCK signal falling edge
Received data
sampling
SCK signal rising edge
SCK signal falling edge
SCK signal falling edge
SCK signal rising edge
Data length
5 to 16 bits
5 to 16 bits
5 to 16 bits
5 to 16 bits
Modes 0 and 1 are called “CSIO mode,” and modes 2 and 3 are called “SPI mode.” Figure 7 shows the timing
diagram of these transfer modes.
Figure 7. CSIO and SPI Transfer Modes
SCINV = 0
SPI = 0
SCINV = 1
SPI = 0
SCINV = 0
SPI = 1
SCINV = 1
SPI = 1
SOT
3.3
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Serial Timer
The CSIO module integrates a serial timer that can trigger the CSIO data transfer according to a certain interval.
Figure 8 shows an example of using a serial timer to trigger the CSIO data transfer.
1.
Before using the serial timer, set the count comparison value in the STMCR and transfer byte count in the
FBYTE0 register. Then start the serial timer.
2.
Four bytes of data are written into the transmit FIFO, but data is not transferred immediately.
3.
The timer counts from 0 according to the timer clock. When the current timer count (reflected by the STMR)
matches the value of the STMCR, 2 bytes are transferred (because TBYTE = 2), and the count of the timer
resets to 0.
4.
The timer counts from 0 according to the timer clock. Again, when the current timer count (reflected by the
STMR) matches the value of the STMCR, 2 bytes are transferred (because TBYTE = 2), and the count of the
timer resets to 0.
5.
After all four data transmissions are completed, the TBI bit is set to 1.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
6.
When the current timer count (reflected by the STMR) matches the value of the STMCR again, no data will be
transferred because there is no data in the TDR or transmit FIFO.
Figure 8. Serial Timer Operation Timing
Transmission
Data
STMR
1st Byte
2nd Byte
3rd Byte
1
・・・
9
10
⑥
4th Byte
④
③
0
Does not transmit data
Because no data exists.(TDRE=0)
Transmit data is output
When STMR and STMCR meet.
Transmit data is output
when STMR and STMCR meet.
0
1
2
3
TBYTE0
4
・・・ 10
0
1
2
・・・ 10
0
1
2
Load
Transmission
counter*A
2
1
0
Load
2
1
0
2
10
STMCR
TDRE
TBI
⑤
TDR RW
②
TINT
Timer
Start-up
*A:
L
①
Internal Counter counting Transmitted bytes.
Notes:
3.4
1.
Only some FM products have the serial timer function; see the datasheet of the product used.
2.
For a product with the CSIO serial timer, the CSIO serial timer can work only in CSIO master mode.
Chip Selection Function
The CSIO module has the chip selection pin (SCS pin) to control whether the data transfer is available or not. Both
master mode and slave mode support the chip selection function, but only the SCS0 pin can be used as a chip
selection pin in slave mode.
Figure 9 is the timing diagram to transfer N bytes using the chip selection pin in master transfer mode 0 (MS = 0, SPI
= 0, SCINV = 0).
1.
Before starting data transmission, the data transfer count should be specified in TBYTE. Then select the chip
selection pin by setting the SST and SED bits in the Serial Chip Select Control Status Register (SCSCR). Enable
the chip selection function by setting the corresponding CSEN bit to 1, and enable data transmission by setting
the TEX bit to 1. Finally, N bytes can be written into the transmit FIFO, and data starts transmitting after the
elapse of the Set-Up Delay time.
2.
When N bytes of transmission are completed, SCK turns to high and SCS turns to high after a Hold Delay time.
The inactive level of the SCS pin can be set by the CSLVL bit in the SCSCR, but only SCS0 has this function.
The Set-Up Delay and Hold Delay time can be set by the Serial Chip Select Timing Register (SCSTR)
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
Figure 9. CSIO Data Transfer Using Chip Selection Function
Set-up
Delay
②
Hold Delay
SCS Output
・・・
SCK
D0
Transmit Data
D1
D2
・・・
D5
D6
D7
N
TBYTE
Transmit
Counter*1
N
...
TDR RW
N-1
Write N bytes
・・・
0
N
・・・
①
*1:Internal Counter counting transmit bytes.
Note: Only some FM products have the chip selection function; see the datasheet of the product used.
3.5
Interrupt Factor and Timing
The timing diagrams in this section refer to the following bits and registers:

TDRE (Transmit Data Register Empty) bit indicates whether the data in the Transmit Data Register is empty or
not.






TBI (Transmit Bus Idle) bit indicates whether the SOT line is idle or not.



REC (Received Error Clear) bit is used to clear received errors.
TIE (Transmit Interrupt Enable) bit is used to enable or disable transmit interrupt.
TBIE (Transmit Bus Interrupt Enable) bit is used to enable or disable transmit interrupt.
TDR (Transmit Data Register) is a buffer register for serial data transmission.
RDRF (Received Data Register Full) bit is used to indicate whether the Received Data Register is full or not.
ORE (Overrun Error) bit is used to indicate an overrun error, which occurs when the next data is received before
the received data is read.
RIE (Receive Interrupt Enable) bit is used to enable or disable transmit interrupt.
RDR (Received Data Register) is a buffer register for serial data reception.
Figure 10 is the CSIO data transmit timing diagram when the FIFO is not used.
1.
When the TDR is empty (TDRE = 1), if a Transmit Interrupt is enabled (TIE = 1), a Transmit Interrupt Request
will be issued. Then transfer data can be written into the TDR, and the TDRE bit turns to 0.
2.
The TDR will be loaded into the transmit shift register first, and then data will be shifted out bit by bit to the SOT
pin. After the data in the TDR loads into the transmit shift register, the TDRE bit turns to 1. If TIE = 1, a Transmit
Interrupt Request will be issued. Then the following data can be written into the TDR again.
3.
All bits of the first data are shifted out to the SOT pin, and the next data loads into the transmit shift register from
the TDR again. Then the TDRE bit turns to 1 to indicate that the transmit shift register is empty.
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4.
After all bits of the second data are shifted out to the SOT pin, 2 bytes of transmission are completed, and the
TBI bit turns to 1. If Transmit Bus Interrupt is enabled (TBIE = 1), a Transmit Bus Interrupt Request will be
issued.
Figure 10. CSIO Data Transmission Timing Diagram
SCK
Transmit data
D0
D1 D2
D3 D4 D5
D6
D7
D0 D1 D2
D3
D4
D5 D6
D7
④
TBI
TDRE
③
Data writing
in TDR
①
②
Figure 11 is the CSIO data receive timing diagram when FIFO is not used. When received data is stored in the RDR,
the RDRF bit will be set to 1, and if Receive Interrupt is enabled (RIE = 1), a Receive Interrupt Request will be issued.
After data is read from the RDR, the RDRF bit will be cleared automatically. However, when the RDRF bit is set, if the
overrun error occurs (ORE = 1), the received data is invalid, and errors should be cleared by setting REC to 1.
Figure 11. CSIO Data Receive Timing Diagram
SCK
D0
SIN
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Received data
sampling
RDRF
Note:
This figure shows the signal timing under the
following conditions.
SCR: MS=1, SPI=0
ESCR: L2 to L0=0b000
SMR:SCINV=0, BDS=0, SCKE=0, SOE=0
A received interrupt occurred.
Figure 12 is a timing diagram of data transmission when FIFO is enabled. It intends to transmit 4 bytes of data using
transmit FIFO.
1.
When FDRQ = 1, if FIFO transmit interrupts are enabled (FTIE = 1), a transmit interrupt occurs.
2.
Three bytes are written into transmit FIFO, as the TDR is empty, so the first byte is transferred to the TDR. After
that, FDRQ should be cleared to 0 manually. At this time, the data count in the FIFO is 2, as displayed by the
FBYTE register.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
3.
After the FIFO is empty, the FDRQ bit turns to 1, which indicates the FIFO is empty. If FIFO transmit interrupts
are enabled (FTIE = 1), a transmit interrupt occurs.
4.
One byte is written into transmit FIFO. After that, FDRQ should be cleared to 0 manually. At this time, the data
count in the FIFO is 1, as displayed by FBYTE register.
5.
After the FIFO is empty, the FDRQ bit turns to 1, which indicates the FIFO is empty. If FIFO transmit interrupts
are enabled (FTIE = 1), a transmit interrupt occurs.
6.
After the TDR is empty, the TDRE bit turns to 1.
When the data bits in the shift register are all shifted out, the TBI bit is set to 1, which indicates all data transmission
is completed.
Figure 12. CSIO Data Transmission Timing Diagram with FIFO Enabled
③
⑤
①
②
⑥
④
FIFO
Data3
Data2
TDR
Shift Register
Data1
Data4
Data3
Data3
Data4
Data2
Data2
Data3
Data4
Figure 13 is the timing diagram of data receive when FIFO is enabled.
1.
The FIFO match count should be set in the FBYTE.
2.
After data receive starts, the received data will be stored in the FIFO in sequence. When the data count in the
FIFO matches FBYTE, the RDRF bit will be set to 1. If RIE is set to 1, a receive interrupt will occur.
3.
When only 1 byte is received, with no following data, if Received FIFO idle detection is enabled (FRIIE = 1), and
if the received idle state continues for more than 8 baud rate clocks, the RDRF bit will be set to 1.
4.
When the reads in the FIFO are all read out, then the RDRF bit will be cleared to 0 automatically.
If the received data count exceeds the maximum capacity of the receive FIFO, an overrun error will occur.
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Figure 13. CSIO Data Receive Timing Diagram with FIFO Enabled
SCK
Received data
1st byte
2nd byte
3rd byte
4th byte
FBYTE
(Received)
5th byte
6th byte
1
2
7th byte
3
0
Valid byte display
1
2
3
2
1 0
3
2
1
0
1
RDRF
Data reading
from RDR
An interrupt occurs when the FBYTE setting (transfer count)
matches the received data count.
3.6
All recevied data are read.
Low-Level API
Following is the CSIO driver API of the PDL, which is placed in the mfs.c/h files.


















Mfs_Csio_Init()
Mfs_Csio_DeInit()
Mfs_Csio_EnableIrq()
Mfs_Csio_DisableIrq()
Mfs_Csio_SetBaudRate()
Mfs_Csio_SetTimerCompareValue()
Mfs_Csio_SetCsTransferByteCount()
Mfs_Csio_SetCsHoldStatus()
Mfs_Csio_SetTimerTransferByteCount()
Mfs_Csio_EnableFunc()
Mfs_Csio_DisableFunc()
Mfs_Csio_GetStatus()
Mfs_Csio_ClrStatus()
Mfs_Csio_SendData()
Mfs_Csio_ReceiveData()
Mfs_Csio_ResetFifo()
Mfs_Csio_SetFifoCount()
Mfs_Csio_GetFifoCount()
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Mfs_Csio_Init() is used to initialize an MFS instance to CSIO mode with parameter pstcConfig of type
#stc_mfs_csio_config_t. Mfs_Csio_DeInit() is used to reset all MFS CSIO-related registers.
Mfs_Csio_EnableIrq() enables CSIO interrupt sources selected by enumeration type #en_csio_irq_sel_t.
Mfs_Csio_DisableIrq() disables the CSIO interrupt sources selected by enumeration type
#en_csio_irq_sel_t.
Mfs_Csio_SetBaudRate() provides a possibility to change the CSIO baud rate after CSIO is initialized.
Mfs_Csio_SetTimerCompareValue() can change the compare value of the CSIO serial timer.
Mfs_Csio_SetCsTransferByteCount() can change the transfer byte count of the Chip Selection pin selected.
Mfs_Csio_SetTimerTransferByteCount() sets the transfer byte count of the transfer process triggered by the
serial timer.
Mfs_Csio_SetCsHoldStatus() sets the hold status of the CS pin after one transfer is finished.
Mfs_Csio_EnableFunc()
enables
the
CSIO
function
selected
by
the
Mfs_Csio_EnableFunc#enFunc, and Mfs_Csio_DisableFunc() disables the CSIO function.
parameter
Mfs_Csio_GetStatus()
gets
the
status
selected
by
Mfs_Csio_GetStatus#enStatus,
and
Mfs_Csio_ClrStatus() clears the CSIO status selected. Some statuses can only be cleared by hardware
automatically.
Mfs_Csio_SendData() writes a byte of data into the CSIO transfer buffer, and Mfs_Csio_ReceiveData()
reads a byte of data from the CSIO receive buffer. The bit length of data is configured in Mfs_Csio_Init().
Mfs_Csio_ResetFifo() resets CSIO hardware FIFO.
Mfs_Csio_SetFifoCount() provides a possibility to change the FIFO size after CSIO is initialized.
Mfs_Csio_GetFifoCount() gets the current data count in the FIFO.
3.7
Example Code
Based on the low-level driver API, an example is given here to show how to transfer data via CSIO using the interrupt
flag polling method. It uses CSIO ch.0 to transfer 10 bytes and then receive 10 bytes.
Before using CSIO, configure the pin function of CSIO as follows:
/* Initialize CSIO function I/O */
SetPinFunc_SIN0_0();
SetPinFunc_SOT0_0();
SetPinFunc_SCK0_0();
Then configure the CSIO configuration structure and initialize the CSIO channel.




Mode: Master mode
Baud rate: 100 kbps
Data length: 8 bits
Direction: MSB first
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stc_mfs_csio_config_t stcCsioConfig;
/* Clear configuration structure */
PDL_ZERO_STRUCT(stcCsioConfig);
/* Initialize CSIO master */
stcCsioConfig.enMsMode = CsioMaster;
stcCsioConfig.enActMode = CsioActNormalMode;
stcCsioConfig.bInvertClk = FALSE;
stcCsioConfig.u32BaudRate = 100000;
stcCsioConfig.enDataLength = CsioEightBits;
stcCsioConfig.enBitDirection = CsioDataMsbFirst;
stcCsioConfig.enSyncWaitTime = CsioSyncWaitZero;
stcCsioConfig.pstcFifoConfig = NULL;
if (Ok != Mfs_Csio_Init(&CSIO0, &stcCsio0Config))
{
While(1);
}
The following code can send 10 CSIO bytes via the SOT pin.
uint8_t u8Cnt = 0;
uint8_t au8TxBuf[10] = {0x01,0x23,0x45,0x67,0x89,0xAB,0xCD,0xEF};
/* Enable TX function of CSIO0
*/
Mfs_Csio_EnableFunc(&CSIO0, CsioTx);
while(u8Cnt < 10)
{
/* Wait until transmit data register empty */
while (TRUE != Mfs_Csio_GetStatus(&CSIO0,CsioTxEmpty));
/* Write data to transmit data register */
Mfs_Csio_SendData(&CSIO0, au8TxBuf[u8Cnt], TRUE);
u8Cnt++;
}
/* Wait until master TX bus idle */
while (TRUE != Mfs_Csio_GetStatus(&CSIO0, CsioTxIdle));
/* Disable TX function of CSIO0
*/
Mfs_Csio_DisableFunc(&CSIO0, CsioTx);
The following code can receive 10 CSIO bytes via the SIN pin. It should be noted that in the synchronization
communication, the clock line is always controlled by the master, even if the master is receiving data from the slave.
When the master needs to receive data from the slave, the dummy data should be sent to generate the clock.
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uint8_t u8Cnt = 0;
uint8_t au8RxBuf[10];
/* Enable TX and RX function of CSIO0
Mfs_Csio_EnableFunc(&CSIO0, CsioTx);
Mfs_Csio_EnableFunc(&CSIO0, CsioRx);
*/
while(u8Cnt < 10)
{
/* write a dummy data */
Mfs_Csio_SendData(&CSIO0, 0x00u, FALSE);
/* wait until receive data register full */
while(TRUE != Mfs_Csio_GetStatus(&CSIO0, CsioRxFull));
/* Read data from receive data register */
au8RxBuf[u8Cnt] = Mfs_Csio_ReceiveData(&CSIO0);
u8Cnt++;
}
/* Wait until master TX bus idle */
while (TRUE != Mfs_Csio_GetStatus(&CSIO0, CsioTxIdle));
/* Disable RX function of CSIO0
*/
Mfs_Csio_DisableFunc(&CSIO0, CsioTx);
Mfs_Csio_DisableFunc(&CSIO0, CsioRx);
4
I2C
2
2
2
The I C interface (I C communications control interface) supports the I C bus and operates as a master/slave device
2
on the I C bus.
2
When the MD bits’ SMR register is set to b’100, I C mode is configured.
bit7
bit6
bit5
0
0
0
Operation mode 0 (asynchronous normal mode)
0
0
1
Operation mode 1 (asynchronous multiprocessor mode)
0
1
0
Operation mode 2 (clock sync mode)
0
1
1
Operation mode 3 (LIN communication mode)
1
0
0
Operation mode 4 (I2C mode)
Other than the above
4.1
Description
Setting is prohibited.
Features






Master/slave function
15-bit baud rate selection
8-bit data length
Bus arbitration function
Transmission direction detection function in slave mode
Function to generate and detect iteration start condition
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU






Bus error detection function
7-bit addressing as slave
Generation of an interrupt enabled during transmission or a bus error
Removal of noise from 2 to 32 clocks in the bus clock for serial clock/serial data input
Support for DMA transferring
Interrupt requests






4.2
1
Received interrupt request by factor of reception completion, overrun error
Transmit interrupt request by factor of transmit data empty, transmit bus idle
Transmit FIFO interrupt request by factor of transmit FIFO empty
Status interrupt request by factor of data transmission/reception completion, detection of bus error and NACK
Detection of stop condition and iteration start
Transmit/receive FIFO installed
2
1
Only some FM products have a noise filter; see the datasheet of the product used.
2
The FIFO capacity varies depending on the product type; see the datasheet of the product used.
Protocol
2
The I C frame always consists of a start condition, 7-bit slave address + 1-bit R/W, data, and stop condition, as
shown in Figure 14.
2
2
When the I C master sends data to the I C slave, set the R/W bit to 0. After sending the start condition signal and first
byte, the master will receive an ACK bit from the slave. The master then continues to send data to the slave and will
2
receive an ACK bit from the slave at the end of each byte in a normal condition. After the I C master sends all the
data, it sends a stop condition signal to the slave to indicate that the data transfer is complete.
2
2
When the I C master receives data from the I C slave, set the R/W bit to 1. After sending the start condition signal
2
and first byte, the master will receive an ACK bit from the slave. The master can then read data from the I C slave
and should send a 1-bit ACK to the slave after receiving each byte. Note that master should send a 1-bit NACK to the
slave after receiving the last data, which informs the slave that it is the last data that the master wants to receive.
2
Then the master sends the stop condition signal to complete the I C data receive process.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
2
Figure 14. I C Data Format
ST
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
SlaveSlave
address
address
A0
R/W ACK
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
ACK
D7
ACK SP
1st data byte:
(can
consist
of
(Canalso
also be
consist
of fixed
fixed
andaddress)
LSBs
MSBMSBs
and LSB
address)
Transmission direction depends on
previously sent R/W bit
Acknowledge bit:
0: Acknowledge successful
1: Not acknowledged
R/W bit:
0: Transmit Data from Master to Slave
1: Transmit Data from Slave to Master
2
Figure 15 is the timing diagram of the I C start and stop conditions.
Start condition:

When the SCL (SCK) line is high, if it has a falling edge on the SDA (SOT) line, it indicates the start of the I C
frame.

In the I C module of the FM MCU, when MSS = 0 and ACT = 0, setting MSS to 1 will generate the I C start
condition. Then the ACT bit will also be set to 1 automatically to indicate that it has entered master mode
operation.
2
2
2
Stop condition:

When the SCL (SCK) line is high, if it has a rising edge on the SDA (SOT) line, it indicates the stop of the I C
frame.

In the I C module of the FM MCU, when MSS = 1 and ACT = 1, setting MSS to 0 will generate the I C stop
condition. Then the ACT bit will also be set to 0 automatically to indicate that it has entered stop mode operation.
2
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2
Figure 15. I C Start and Stop Condition Timing Diagram
SDA
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
R/W ACK
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
SCL
SCL
SDA
SDA
Start condition
D1
D0
ACK
D7
ACK
Stop condition
2
Figure 16 is the timing diagram of the I C iteration (repeated) start condition.
Iteration (repeated) start condition:
2
When I C communication has started, if the master generates the start condition again, it is called an “iteration start
2
condition” or “repeated start condition.” This signal may be used when reading the data from an I C EEPROM.
2
In the I C module of the FM MCU, when MSS = 1 and ACT = 1, setting the MSS to 1 will generate a repeated start
condition.
2
Figure 16. I C Repeated Start Condition Timing Diagram
SCL
SDA
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
ACK
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
ACK
SCL
SDA
Iteration start condition
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The following is a description of the MSS and ACT bits in the IBCR register:
MSS Bit
4.3
ACT Bit
State
0
0
Idle
0
1
The slave address matching or ACK is responded to the reserved
address, and slave mode is in operation.
1
0
The master mode operation waits.
1
1
During master mode operation
Data Transfer Timing
2
Figure 17 is the timing diagram to write some data via I C when FIFO is not enabled.
2
Figure 17. I C Data Transfer Diagram
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
2
Figure 18 is the timing diagram to read some data via I C when FIFO is not enabled.
2
Figure 18. I C Data Receive Diagram
4.4
Low-Level API
2
Following is the I C driver API of the PDL, which is placed in the mfs.c/h files.

















Mfs_I2c_Init()
Mfs_I2c_DeInit()
Mfs_I2c_EnableIrq()
MfI2c_DisableIrq()
Mfs_I2c_GenerateStart()
Mfs_I2c_GenerateRestart()
Mfs_I2c_GenerateStop()
Mfs_I2c_SetBaudRate()
Mfs_I2c_SendData()
Mfs_I2c_ReceiveData()
Mfs_I2c_ConfigAck()
Mfs_I2c_GetAck()
Mfs_I2c_GetStatus()
Mfs_I2c_ClrStatus()
Mfs_I2c_GetDataDir()
Mfs_I2c_ResetFifo()
Mfs_I2c_SetFifoCount()
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU

Mfs_I2c_GetFifoCount()
2
Mfs_I2c_Init() is used to initialize an MFS instance to I C mode with parameter pstcConfig of type
2
#stc_mfs_i2c_config_t. This function sets only the basic I C configuration. Mfs_I2c_DeInit() is used to
2
reset all MFS I C-related registers.
2
Mfs_I2c_EnableIrq() enables I C interrupt sources selected by enumeration type #en_i2c_irq_sel_t, and
2
Mfs_I2c_DisableIrq() disables the I C interrupt sources selected by enumeration type #en_i2c_irq_sel_t.
2
2
Mfs_I2c_SetBaudRate() provides a possibility to change the I C baud rate after I C is initialized.
2
Mfs_I2c_SendData() writes a byte of data into the I C transfer buffer, and Mfs_I2c_ReceiveData() reads a
2
byte of data from the I C receive buffer.
2
2
Mfs_I2c_GenerateStart() generates an I C start signal. Mfs_I2c_GenerateRestart() generates an I C
2
restart signal. Mfs_I2c_GenerateStop() generates an I C stop signal.
Mfs_I2c_ConfigAck() configures the ACK signal when receiving data. Mfs_I2c_GetAck() gets the ACK signal
status after receiving an ACK.
Mfs_I2c_GetStatus()
gets
the
status
selected
by
Mfs_I2c_GetStatus#enStatus,
and
2
Mfs_I2c_ClrStatus() clears the I C status selected. Some statuses can only be cleared by hardware
automatically.
2
Mfs_I2c_GetDataDir() gets the data direction of I C in the slave mode.
2
Mfs_I2c_ResetFifo() resets the I C hardware FIFO. Mfs_I2c_SetFifoCount() provides a possibility to
2
change the FIFO size after I C is initialized.
Mfs_I2c_GetFifoCount() gets the current data count in the FIFO.
4.5
Example Code
2
Based on the low-level driver API, an example is given here to show how to transfer data via I C using the interrupt
2
flag polling method. It uses I C ch.0 to transfer 10 bytes and then receive 10 bytes.
2
2
Before using I C, configure the pin function of I C as follows:
/* Initialize I2C function I/O */
SetPinFunc_SOT0_0();
SetPinFunc_SCK0_0();
2
2
Then configure the I C configuration structure and initialize the I C channel.


Mode: Master mode
Baud rate: 100 kbps
stc_mfs_i2c_config_t stcI2c0Config;
/* Configure I2C structure */
stcI2c0Config.enMsMode = I2cMaster;
stcI2c0Config.u32BaudRate = 100000u;
stcI2c0Config.bWaitSelection = FALSE;
stcI2c0Config.bDmaEnable = FALSE;
stcI2c0Config.pstcFifoConfig = NULL;
if (Ok != Mfs_I2c_Init(&I2C0, &stcI2c0Config))
{
While(1);
}
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2
The following code will send 10-byte data via I C; assume that the device address is 0x50.
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Generate start condition
*/
/*******************************************************************/
/* Prepare I2C device address */
Mfs_I2c_SendData(&I2C0, (0x50<<1));
/* Generate I2C start signal */
if(Ok != Mfs_I2c_GenerateStart(&I2C0))
{
while(1); /* Timeout or other error */
}
while(1)
{
if(TRUE != Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxTxIrq))
{
break;
}
}
if(I2cNAck == Mfs_I2c_GetAck((&I2C0))
{
while(1);
/* NACK */
}
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus((&I2C0, I2cBusErr))
{
while(1); /* Bus error occurs? */
}
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Send data
*/
/*******************************************************************/
for(uint8_t i=0;i<10;i++)
{
/* Transmit the data */
Mfs_I2c_SendData(&I2C0, pTxData[i]);
Mfs_I2c_ClrStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxTxIrq);
/* Wait for end of transmission */
while(1)
{
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxTxIrq))
{
break;
}
}
while(1)
{
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cTxEmpty))
{
break;
}
}
if(I2cNAck == Mfs_I2c_GetAck(&I2C0))
{
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while(1);
/* NACK */
}
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cBusErr))
{
while(1); /* Bus error occurs? */
}
}
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Generate stop condition
*/
/*******************************************************************/
/* Generate I2C start signal */
if(Ok != Mfs_I2c_GenerateStop(&I2C0))
{
while(1); /* Timeout or other error */
}
/* Clear Stop condition flag */
while(1)
{
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cStopDetect))
{
break;
}
}
Mfs_I2c_ClrStatus(&I2C0, I2cStopDetect);
Mfs_I2c_ClrStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxTxIrq);
2
The following code will read 10-byte data via I C; assume that the device address is 0x50.
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Generate start condition
*/
/*******************************************************************/
/* Prepare I2C device address */
Mfs_I2c_SendData(&I2C0, (0x50<<1));
/* Generate I2C start signal */
if(Ok != Mfs_I2c_GenerateStart(&I2C0))
{
while(1); /* Timeout or other error */
}
while(1)
{
if(TRUE != Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxTxIrq))
{
break;
}
}
if(I2cNAck == Mfs_I2c_GetAck((&I2C0))
{
while(1);
/* NACK */
}
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus((&I2C0, I2cBusErr))
{
while(1); /* Bus error occurs? */
}
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Read data
*/
/*******************************************************************/
uint8_t i;
/* Clear interrupt flag generated by device address send */
Mfs_I2c_ClrStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxTxIrq);
if(I2cNAck == Mfs_I2c_GetAck(&I2C0))
{
while(1);
/* NACK */
}
while(i < u8Size)
{
/* Wait for the receive data */
while(1)
{
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxTxIrq))
{
break;
}
}
if(i == u8Size-1)
{
Mfs_I2c_ConfigAck(&I2C0, I2cNAck); /* Last byte send a NACK */
}
else
{
Mfs_I2c_ConfigAck(&I2C0, I2cAck);
}
/* Clear interrupt flag and receive data to RX buffer */
Mfs_I2c_ClrStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxTxIrq);
/* Wait for the receive data */
while(1)
{
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxFull))
{
break;
}
}
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cBusErr))
{
while(1);
/* Bus error occurs? */
}
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cOverrunError))
{
while(1; /* Overrun error occurs? */
}
pRxData[i++] = Mfs_I2c_ReceiveData(&I2C0);
}
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Generate stop condition
*/
/*******************************************************************/
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
/* Generate I2C start signal */
if(Ok != Mfs_I2c_GenerateStop(&I2C0))
{
while(1); /* Timeout or other error */
}
/* Clear Stop condition flag */
while(1)
{
if(TRUE == Mfs_I2c_GetStatus(&I2C0, I2cStopDetect))
{
break;
}
}
Mfs_I2c_ClrStatus(&I2C0, I2cStopDetect);
Mfs_I2c_ClrStatus(&I2C0, I2cRxTxIrq);
5
LIN
The LIN interface (LIN communication control interface ver. 2.1) supports functions complying with the LIN bus.
When the MD bits’ SMR register is set to b’011, the LIN mode is configured.
bit7
bit6
bit5
0
0
0
Operation mode 0 (asynchronous normal mode)
0
0
1
Operation mode 1 (asynchronous multiprocessor mode)
0
1
0
Operation mode 2 (clock sync mode)
0
1
1
Operation mode 3 (LIN communication mode)
1
0
0
Operation mode 4 (I2C mode)
Other than the above
5.1
Description
Setting is prohibited.
Features










Support for LIN Protocol Revision 2.1
Master/slave device operation
Full-duplex operation
1
LIN break field generation (with variable bit length ranging from 13 to 16 bits)
LIN break delimiter generation (with variable data length ranging from 1 to 4 bits)
LIN break field detection
1
Detection of LIN sync field start/stop edges connected to input capture
15-bit baud rate selection
1
2
8-bit data length
Received error detection



1
Framing error
Overrun error
Interrupt requests

Received interrupt request by factor of reception completion, framing error, overrun error, or parity error
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU




5.2
Transmit interrupt request by factor of transmit data empty, transmit bus idle
Transmit FIFO interrupt request by factor of transmit FIFO empty
Support for DMA transferring
Transmit/receive FIFO installed
3
1
Only some products are equipped with the LIN module; see the datasheet of the product used.
2
The baud rate generator can also be sourced by an external clock.
3
The FIFO capacity size varies depending on the product type; see the datasheet of the product used.
Data Format
The LIN frame consists of the LIN break, Delimiter, LIN sync field, and ID and data fields, as shown in Figure 19.
In the LIN master mode, the LIN break length can be set by the LBL0 and LBL1 bits, and the LIN delimiter length can
be set by the DEL0 and DEL1 bits in the ESCR register.
Figure 19. LIN Data Format
LIN
Format
LIN Break (13 … 16 TBit)
Delimiter
(1…4 TBit)
LIN
Synch
LIN
Sync Field
Field
ID & Data
[bit3:2] LBL1/LBL0: LIN break field length select bits
bit3
0
0
1
1
bit2
0
1
0
1
Description
13-bit length
14-bit length
15-bit length
16-bit length
[bit1:0] DEL1/DEL0: LIN break delimiter length select bits
bit1
0
0
1
1
bit0
0
1
0
1
Description
1-bit length
2-bit length
3-bit length
4-bit length
In the LIN slave mode, the LIN break can be detected after a low level lasting 11 bit times. The baud rate can be
adjusted by capturing the LIN sync field with the internal Input Capture Unit (ICU).
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
5.3
Communication System
Figure 20 shows a communication system consisting of one LIN master and one LIN slave via a LIN transceiver.
Figure 20. LIN Communication System
SOT
SOT
SIN
SIN
LIN master
5.4
transceiver
transceiver
LIN slave
Operation Timing
Figure 21 is the timing diagram of data transmission in the LIN master mode.
1.
Setting the LIN break field (LBR) bit to 1 causes a break to be sent by the master, and then 0x55 (LIN sync field)
can be written into the TDR. It can be sent after the LIN break.
2.
The first bit of the LIN sync field (0x55) is shifted out to the SOT pin. The TDRE bit will be set to 1, and a transmit
interrupt will occur if the TIE bit is set to 1. Then the ID byte can be written to the TDR.
3.
The LIN master can receive whatever it sends. At this point, 0x55 is received, and a comparison with the original
data can be done to check if the data transmit is normal.
4.
When the first bit of the ID is sent out, the TDRE bit turns to 1, and transmit interrupt will occur if the TIE bit is set
to 1. Then the first data can be sent.
The data transmission process is the same with ID field transmission.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
Figure 21. LIN Master Data Transmission Timing Diagram
Break field
LIN bus
SCR:LBR
Data writing
in TDR
TDR
TIE
Sync Field
Sync Field (0x55)
ID Field
ID Fild
DATA1
Data field transmission
DATA2
DATA3
RIE,TXE
SCR:RXE
SCR:MS
"0"
TDRE(TIRQ)
RDRF(RIRQ)
②
①
③
④
Start of LIN break
Data writing in Sync
field (0x55)
A transmit interrupt occurred.:
The ID field is set.
A transmit interrupt occurred.:
The Data field is set.
A received interrupt occurred.:
The Data is read.
Figure 22 is the timing diagram of data transmission in the LIN slave mode.
1.
The LIN break can be detected after a low level lasting 11 bit times. If the LIN Break Interrupt Enable (LBIE) bit is
set to 1, a LIN break interrupt will occur. Then the ICU that connects the SYNC signal should be initialized and
enabled. Refer to the “GPIO” chapter of the peripheral manual to see the ICU channel corresponding to the
particular LIN channel.
2.
Upon the detection of the first falling edge in the sync field, the ICU interrupt will be triggered and the ICU data
register value can be stored into a variable a.
3.
When the ICU interrupt occurs again, the ICU data register value can be stored into a variable b.
The exact baud rate of the LIN master can be calculated with the following formula (if FRT does not overflow and
it is the same clock for MFS and FRT). The new baud rate should be set to the BGR, and the ICU function
should be disabled. Then receive can be enabled (RXE = 1), and receive interrupt can be enabled (RIE = 1).
BGR value = (b - a)/8 - 1
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a:
The ICU data register value after the first interrupt
b:
The ICU data register value after the second interrupt
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
4.
When the receive data register is full (RDRF = 1), if a receive interrupt is enabled, a receive interrupt will occur,
and the ID field can be read from the RDR.
The data receive process is the same with the ID field.
Figure 22. LIN Slave Data Transmission Timing Diagram
Break field
Sync Field
ID Field
Data field reception
LIN bus
LSYN (ICU input)
LBD
LBIE
RIE
RXE
TIE
TXE
TDRE(TIRQ)
RDRF(RIRQ)
ICU(IRQ)
①
A status interrupt occurred.:
LBD is cleared.
IRQ(ICU) ②
IRQ is cleared.
③
Baud rate setting
Received interrupt enabled (RIE=1)
Received enabled (RXE=1)
④
A received interrupt occurred.: The Data is read.
5.5
Low-Level API
Following is the LIN driver API of the PDL, which is placed in the mfs.c/h files.









Mfs_Lin_Init()
Mfs_Lin_DeInit()
Mfs_Lin_EnableIrq()
Mfs_Lin_DisableIrq()
MfsLinIrqHandlerStatus()
Mfs_Lin_SetBaudRate()
Mfs_Lin_GenerateBreakField()
Mfs_Lin_EnableFunc()
Mfs_Lin_DisableFunc()
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU







Mfs_Lin_GetStatus()
Mfs_Lin_ClrStatus()
Mfs_Lin_SendData()
Mfs_Lin_ReceiveData()
Mfs_Lin_ResetFifo()
Mfs_Lin_SetFifoCount()
Mfs_Lin_GetFifoCount()
Mfs_Lin_Init() is used to initialize an MFS instance to LIN mode with its dedicated LIN configuration
#stc_mfs_lin_config_t. This function sets only the basic LIN configuration. Mfs_Lin_DeInit() is used to
reset all MFS LIN-related registers.
Mfs_Lin_EnableIrq() enables the LIN interrupt sources selected by interrupt type #en_lin_irq_sel_t, and
Mfs_Lin_DisableIrq() disables the LIN interrupt sources selected by interrupt type #en_lin_irq_sel_t.
Mfs_Lin_SetBaudRate() provides a possibility to change the LIN baud rate after the LIN is initialized.
Mfs_Lin_GenerateBreakField() generates a LIN break field, which can also be detected by itself.
Mfs_Lin_EnableFunc() enables the LIN function selected by the parameter Mfs_Lin_EnableFunc#enFunc,
and Mfs_Lin_DisableFunc() disables the LIN function.
Mfs_Lin_GetStatus()
gets
the
status
selected
by
Mfs_Lin_GetStatus#enStatus,
and
Mfs_Lin_ClrStatus() clears the LIN status selected. Some statuses can only be cleared by hardware
automatically.
Mfs_Lin_SendData() writes a byte of data into the LIN transfer buffer, and Mfs_Lin_ReceiveData() reads a
byte of data from the LIN receive buffer.
Mfs_Lin_ResetFifo() resets the LIN hardware FIFO.
Mfs_Lin_SetFifoCount() provides a possibility to change the FIFO size after the LIN is initialized.
Mfs_Lin_GetFifoCount() gets the current data count in the FIFO.
5.6
Example Code
Based on the low-level driver API, an example is given here to show how to transfer data via the LIN using the
interrupt flag polling method. It uses LIN ch.0 as the LIN master to transfer 10 bytes.
Before using LIN, configure the pin function of LIN as follows:
/* Initialize LIN function I/O */
SetPinFunc_SOT0_0();
SetPinFunc_SIN0_0();
Then configure the LIN configuration structure and initialize the LIN channel.





Mode: Master mode
Baud Rate: 9600 bps
Break Length: 13 bits
Delimiter Length: 1 bit
Stop Bit Length: 1 bit
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
stc_mfs_lin_config_t stcLinConfig;
uint32_t u32i;
uint8_t u8RdData;
/* Initialize LIN */
stcLinConfig.enMsMode = LinMasterMode;
stcLinConfig.u32BaudRate = 9600;
stcLinConfig.enBreakLength = LinBreakLength13;
stcLinConfig.enDelimiterLength = LinDelimiterLength1;
stcLinConfig.enStopBits = LinOneStopBit;
stcLinConfig.pstcFifoConfig = NULL;
if (Ok != Mfs_Lin_Init(&LIN0, &stcLinConfig))
{
while(1); /* Initialization error */
}
The following code will send 10 bytes with the ID field set to 0x3A.
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Send LIN break
*/
/*******************************************************************/
/* Generate LIN break field */
Mfs_Lin_GenerateBreakField(&LIN0);
while(Mfs_Lin_GetStatus(&LIN0, LinBreakFlag) != TRUE);
Mfs_Lin_ClrStatus(&LIN0, LinBreakFlag);
/* Enable TX and RX function of LIN
Mfs_Lin_EnableFunc(&LIN0, LinTx);
Mfs_Lin_EnableFunc(&LIN0, LinRx);
*/
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Send Sync filed
*/
/*******************************************************************/
while(Mfs_Lin_GetStatus(&LIN0, LinTxEmpty) != TRUE); // Wait until TDR empty
Mfs_Lin_SendData(&LIN0, 0x55);
while(Mfs_Lin_GetStatus(&LIN0, LinRxFull) != TRUE); // Wait until RDR full
u8RdData = Mfs_Lin_ReceiveData(&LIN0);
if(u8RdData != 0x55)
{
while(1); /* Send data error */
}
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Send ID filed
*/
/*******************************************************************/
while(Mfs_Lin_GetStatus(&LIN0, LinTxEmpty) != TRUE); // Wait until TDR empty
Mfs_Lin_SendData(&LIN0, 0x3A);
while(Mfs_Lin_GetStatus(&LIN0, LinRxFull) != TRUE); // Wait until RDR full
u8RdData = Mfs_Lin_ReceiveData(&LIN0);
if(u8RdData != 0x3A)
{
while(1); /* Send data error */
}
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
/*******************************************************************/
/*
Send Data filed
*/
/*******************************************************************/
for(u32i=0; u32i<10; u32i++)
{
while(Mfs_Lin_GetStatus(&LIN0, LinTxEmpty) != TRUE); // Wait until TDR empty
Mfs_Lin_SendData(&LIN0, pData[u32i]);
while(Mfs_Lin_GetStatus(&LIN0, LinRxFull) != TRUE); // Wait until RDR full
u8RdData = Mfs_Lin_ReceiveData(&LIN0);
if(u8RdData != pData[u32i])
{
While(1);
}
}
while(Mfs_Lin_GetStatus(LinCh1, LinTxIdle) != TRUE); // Wait until TX bus idle
6
Summary
The MFS interface is highly flexible and can be applied to various types of serial communication.
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
Document History
Document Title: AN99218 - Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
Document Number: 001-99218
Revision
**
ECN
4918086
www.cypress.com
Orig. of
Change
Submission
Date
CHZH
09/30/2015
Description of Change
New application note
Document No. 001-99218 Rev.**
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Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
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