Component - Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA) V1.70 Datasheet.pdf

®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
1.70
Features
 Gain steps from 1 to 50
 High input impedance
 Selectable input reference
 Adjustable power settings
General Description
The PGA implements an opamp-based, noninverting amplifier with user-programmable gain.
This amplifier has high input impedance, wide bandwidth, and selectable input voltage reference.
It is derived from the switched capacitor/continuous time (SC/CT) block.
The gain can be between 1 (0 dB) and 50 (+34 dB). You can select the gain using configuration
or change it at run time using the provided API. The maximum bandwidth is limited by the gainbandwidth product of the opamp and is reduced as the gain is increased. The input of the PGA
operates from rail to rail, but the maximum input swing (difference between Vin and Vref) is
limited to VDDA/Gain. The output of the PGA is class A, and is rail to rail for sufficiently high load
resistance.
The PGA is used when an input signal has insufficient amplitude. You can put a PGA in front of a
comparator, ADC, or mixer to increase the amplitude of the signal to these components. The
PGA can be used as a unity gain amplifier to buffer the inputs of lower impedance blocks,
including Mixers or inverting PGAs. You can also use a unity gain PGA to buffer the output of a
VDAC or reference.
Input/Output Connections
This section describes the various input and output connections for the PGA. An asterisk (*) in
the list of I/Os indicates that the I/O may be hidden on the symbol under the conditions listed in
the description of that I/O.
Vin – Analog
Vin is the input signal terminal.
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation • 198 Champion Court • San Jose, CA 95134-1709 • 408-943-2600
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
Revised October 13, 2011
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Vref – Analog *
Vref is the input terminal for a reference signal.
The reference input can be connected to an external (to the component) reference or internal (to
the component) VSS (ground). When the reference is connected externally, the routing resistance
is added to the internal resistors, slightly decreasing the gain and increasing the gain tolerance.
Vout – Analog
Vout is the output voltage signal terminal. Vout is a function of (Vin – Vref) times the specified
Gain:
Vout = Vref + (Vin – Vref) × Gain
Component Parameters
Drag a PGA component onto your design and double-click it to open the Configure dialog.
Gain
This parameter sets the initial gain of the PGA. The gain may be selected from the following set
of allowed values: 1 (default), 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48, and 50.
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Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
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PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
Power
This parameter sets the initial drive power of the PGA. The power determines the speed with
which the PGA reacts to changes in the input signal. There are four power settings: Minimum
Power, Low Power (default), Medium Power, and High Power. A Minimum Power setting
results in the slowest response time and a High Power setting results in the fastest response
time.
Vref_Input
This parameter is used to select the input voltage reference. The options include:


Internal Vss – A ground signal internal to the component provides the amplifier reference.
External (default) – A signal on the Vref terminal provides the amplifier reference.
The symbol displayed in PSoC Creator changes depending on the reference input selected.
Figure 1. PGA Configurations
Resources
The PGA uses one SC/CT block. You can find detailed information about this block in the
applicable device datasheet and Technical Reference Manual (TRM). These documents are
available on the Cypress website.
API Memory
(Bytes)
Digital Blocks
Analog Blocks
Datapaths
Macro
cells
Status
Registers
Control
Registers
Counter7
Flash
RAM
Pins (per
External I/O)
1 SC/CT fixed
block
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
381
20
3
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
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Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Application Programming Interface
Application Programming Interface (API) routines allow you to configure the component using
software. The following table lists and describes the interface to each function. The subsequent
sections cover each function in more detail.
By default, PSoC Creator assigns the instance name “PGA_1” to the first instance of a
component in a given design. You can rename it to any unique value that follows the syntactic
rules for identifiers. The instance name becomes the prefix of every global function name,
variable, and constant symbol. For readability, the instance name used in the following table is
“PGA.”
Function
Description
PGA_Start()
Starts the PGA
PGA_Stop()
Powers down the PGA
PGA_SetGain()
Sets gain to predefined constants
PGA_SetPower()
Sets drive power to one of four settings
PGA_Sleep()
Stops and saves the user configurations
PGA_Wakeup()
Restores and enables the user configurations
PGA_Init()
Initializes or restores default PGA configuration
PGA_Enable()
Enables the PGA
PGA_SaveConfig()
Empty function. Provided for future use.
PGA_RestoreConfig()
Empty function. Provided for future use.
Global Variables
Variable
PGA_initVar
Description
Indicates whether the PGA has been initialized. The variable is initialized to 0 and set to 1 the
first time PGA_Start() is called. This allows the component to restart without reinitialization after
the first call to the PGA_Start() routine.
If reinitialization of the component is required, then the PGA_Init() function can be called before
the PGA_Start() or PGA_Enable() function.
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Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
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PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
void PGA_Start(void)
Description:
This is the preferred method to begin component operation. Turns on the amplifier with the
power and gain based on the settings provided during the configuration or the current values
after a PGA_Stop() has been called.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
void PGA_Stop(void)
Description:
Turns off PGA and enables its lowest power state.
Note This API is not recommended for use on PSoC 3 ES2 and PSoC 5 silicon. These
devices have a defect that causes connections to several analog resources to be unreliable
when not powered. The unreliability manifests itself in silent failures (for example,
unpredictably bad results from analog components) when the component using that resource
is stopped. When using this silicon, all analog components in a design should be powered up
(by calling their respective _Start() APIs, for instance PGA_Start()) at all times. Do not call the
PGA_Stop() APIs.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None. Does not affect power or gain settings.
void PGA_SetPower(uint8 power)
Description:
Sets the drive power to one of four settings; minimum, low, medium, or high.
Parameters:
uint8 power: See the following table for valid power settings.
Power Setting
Notes
PGA_MINPOWER
Minimum active power and slowest reaction time
PGA_LOWPOWER
Low power and speed
PGA_MEDPOWER
Medium power and speed
PGA_HIGHPOWER
Highest active power and fastest reaction time
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
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Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
void PGA_SetGain(uint8 gain)
Description:
Sets the amplifier gain to a value between 1 and 50.
Parameters:
uint8 gain: See the following table for valid gain settings.
Gain Setting
Notes
PGA_GAIN_01
Gain = 1
PGA_GAIN_02
Gain = 2
PGA_GAIN_04
Gain = 4
PGA_GAIN_08
Gain = 8
PGA_GAIN_16
Gain = 16
PGA_GAIN_24
Gain = 24
PGA_GAIN_32
Gain = 32
PGA_GAIN_48
Gain = 48
PGA_GAIN_50
Gain = 50
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
void PGA_Sleep(void)
Description:
This is the preferred API to prepare the component for sleep. The PGA_Sleep() API saves
the current component state. Then it calls the PGA_Stop() function and calls
PGA_SaveConfig() to save the hardware configuration.
Call the PGA_Sleep() function before calling the CyPmSleep() or the CyPmHibernate()
function. Refer to the PSoC Creator System Reference Guide for more information about
power management functions.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
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Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
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PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
void PGA_Wakeup(void)
Description:
This is the preferred API to restore the component to the state when PGA_Sleep() was
called. The PGA_Wakeup() function calls the PGA_RestoreConfig() function to restore the
configuration. If the component was enabled before the PGA_Sleep() function was called,
the PGA_Wakeup() function will also re-enable the component.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
Calling the PGA_Wakeup() function without first calling the PGA_Sleep() or
PGA_SaveConfig() function may produce unexpected behavior.
void PGA_Init(void)
Description:
Initializes or restores the component according to the customizer Configure dialog settings. It
is not necessary to call PGA_Init() because the PGA_Start() API calls this function and is the
preferred method to begin component operation.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
All registers will be set to values according to the customizer Configure dialog.
void PGA_Enable(void)
Description:
Activates the hardware and begins component operation. It is not necessary to call
PGA_Enable() because the PGA_Start() API calls this function, which is the preferred
method to begin component operation.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
void PGA_SaveConfig(void)
Description:
Empty function. Provided for future use.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
Page 7 of 16
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
void PGA_RestoreConfig(void)
Description:
Empty function. Provided for future use.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
Sample Firmware Source Code
PSoC Creator provides many example projects that include schematics and example code in the
Find Example Project dialog. For component-specific examples, open the dialog from the
Component Catalog or an instance of the component in a schematic. For general examples,
open the dialog from the Start Page or File menu. As needed, use the Filter Options in the
dialog to narrow the list of projects available to select.
Refer to the “Find Example Project” topic in the PSoC Creator Help for more information.
Functional Description
The PGA is constructed from a generic SC/CT block. You can find details about this block in the
applicable device datasheet and TRM, available on the Cypress website. The gain is selected by
adjusting two resistors, Ra and Rb (see Figure 2. PGA Schematic). Ra may be set to either
20 k or 40 k . Rb is set between 20 k and 1000 k to generate the gain values selectable in
either the parameter dialog or the PGA_SetGain() function.
The block has a programmable capacitor in parallel with the feedback resistor, Rb. The value of
the capacitor is configured for each gain selection to achieve guaranteed stability. Reassigning
Rb values without also selecting the appropriate feedback capacitor value can result in PGA
instability. Cypress strongly recommends that you use the provided APIs for gain changes.
Figure 2. PGA Schematic
Vin
Vout
Vref
Ra
Rb
The bandwidth of the PGA is determined by gain and power setting. Because of compensation
capacitor and stability requirements, the bandwidth is somewhat reduced from the absolute
maximum expected from the opamp's open loop gain-bandwidth.
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Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
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PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
Registers
The PGA component configuration is implemented in registers SC[0..3]_CR0, SC[0..3]_CR1,
and SC[0..3]_CR2. These can be accessed in your code by referring to the instantiated
component name, for example, PGA_1_CR0_REG. The register contents can be reviewed in the
PSoC Creator component debug window. See the applicable TRM, available on the Cypress
website, for a detailed description of each register. The following registers are displayed in the
PGA component debug window.
Register:
PGA_1_CR0_REG
Name:
Switched Capacitor Control Register 0
Description:
Register bits 3:1 configure the switch capacitor block operating mode. This field is set to 110b
for the PGA component.
Register:
PGA_1_CR1_REG
Name:
Switched Capacitor Control Register 1
Description:
Register fields configure drive mode, compensation capacitor values, and gain setting of the
switch capacitor block.
Register:
PGA_1_CR2_REG
Name:
Switched Capacitor Control Register 2
Description:
Register fields configure the input impedance, feedback impedance, and the reference ground
selection for the switch capacitor block.
Register:
PGA_1_PM_ACT_CFG_REG
Name:
Active Power Mode Configuration Register 9
Description:
Register bits 3:0 enable power to each of the four switch capacitor blocks.
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
Page 9 of 16
®
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
DC and AC Electrical Characteristics for PSoC 3
The following values are based on characterization data. Specifications are valid for –40 °C £ T A
£ 85 °C and TJ £ 100 °C except where noted. Unless otherwise specified in the following tables,
all Typical values are for TA = 25 °C, VDDA = 5.0 V, Power = High, output referenced to analog
ground, VSSA.
5.0-V/3.3-V DC Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
Description
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Input
VOS
Input offset voltage
All power modes (High, Medium, Low,
Minimum)
N/A
3.5
10
TCVOS
Temp. coeff. input
offset voltage,
absolute value
All power modes (High, Medium, Low,
Minimum)
N/A
6.0
12.3
µV/°C
CIN
Input capacitance
Positive gain, noninverting input, not
including pin and routing capacitance
N/A
2.0
N/A
pF
Ge1
Gain accuracy,
deviation from
nominal
G = 1, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
0.01
0.15
+/-%
G = 2, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
0.1
1.0
Ge4
G = 4, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
0.5
1.35
Ge8
G = 8, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
0.6
1.6
Ge16
G = 16, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
0.7
2.5
Ge32
G = 32, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
0.85
5.0
Ge50
G = 50, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
2.1
5.0
G = 1, Vref internally connected to VSS
N/A
1.2
2.5
G = 2, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
8.6
20
Gd4
G = 4, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
13
29
Gd8
G = 8, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
15
35
Gd16
G = 16, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
18
40
Gd32
G = 32, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
38
75
Gd50
G = 50, Vref internally connected to VSS
–
167
400
Ge2
Gd1
Gd2
Gain change versus
temperature
mV
ppm/°C
Vout_range
Output swing
Gain = 1, RLOAD = 100k to VDDA/2,
Difference from VDDA or VSSA
–
–
150
mV
IDDA
Operating current
VDDA = 1.71 V, P = Low
–
700
1000
µA
VDDA = 5.0 V, P = High
–
1100
1350
µA
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Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
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PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
Figures
Histogram Input Offset Voltage
18
16
Typical Operating Current versus Temp, Power = Minimum
1200
Occurance
1100
Idda uA
14
12
1000
10
900
8
800
6
4
700
2
600
500
-50
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
-4.0
-6.0
0
Vos mV
Typical Operating Current versus Temp, Power = Low
1200
1100
1100
Idda uA
1000
1000
900
900
5.5V
3.3V
2.7V
1.71V
700
50
deg C 100
150
5.5V
3.3V
2.7V
1.71V
800
Idda uA
700
600
600
500
-50
0
Typical Operating Current versus Temp, Power = High
1200
800
5.5V
3.3V
2.7V
1.71V
0
50
deg C 100
150
500
-50
0
50
deg C 100
150
5.0-V/3.3-V AC Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
Description
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
GBW_H
Gain bandwidth
product, P = High
Gain = 1, VDDA = 5.0 V, 25 °C
7.0
9.0
N/A
MHz
SR_G1
Slew rate
20 - 80%, Gain = 1, P = High
3.0
4.8
N/A
V/µs
SR_G16
20 - 80%, Gain = 16, P = High
0.5
0.87
N/A
V/µs
SR_G50
20 - 80%, Gain = 50, P = High
0.25
0.84
N/A
V/µs
PSRR_AC
Power supply
rejection ratio
Vn
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
f = 100 kHz
48
f = 100 kHz, P = High
na
dB
42
N/A
nV/rtHz
Page 11 of 16
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Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Figures
Typical Gain versus Frequency, Power = High
Voltage noise, VDDA = 5.0V, Power = High
40
1000
G=50
G=32
G=16
G=8
G=4
G=2
G=1
20
nV/rtHz
dB
30
100
10
0
-10
1
10
100
kHz
1000
10000
10
0.01
0.1
1
kHz
10
100
1000
Bandwidth versus Temperature, at Different Gain Settings,
Power = High
10
BW, MHz
Gain = 1
Gain = 24
1
Gain = 48
0.1
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature, °C
Page 12 of 16
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
DC and AC Electrical Characteristics for PSoC 5
The following values are based on characterization data. Specifications are valid for –40 °C £ T A
£ 85 °C and TJ £ 100 °C except where noted. Unless otherwise specified in the following tables,
all Typical values are for TA = 25 °C, VDDA = 5.0 V, Power = High, output referenced to analog
ground, VSSA.
5.0-V/3.3-V DC Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
Description
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
VSSA
–
VDDA
Units
Input
Vin
Input voltage range
Power mode = minimum
VOS
Input offset voltage
Power mode = high, gain = 1
–
–
20
mV
TCVOS
Input offset voltage
Power mode = high, gain = 1
drift with temperature
–
–
±30
µV/°C
CIN
Input capacitance
–
–
7
pF
Ge1
Gain error, gain = 1
–
–
±2
%
Ge16
Gain error, gain = 16
–
–
±8
%
Ge50
Gain error, gain = 50
–
–
±10
%
VONL
DC output
nonlinearity
Gain =1
–
–
±0.1
%of
FSR
VOH
Output swing
Power mode = high, gain = 1,
RLOAD = 100 k to VDDA/2
VDDA – 0.15
–
–
V
VOL
Output swing
Power mode = high, gain = 1,
RLOAD = 100 k to VDDA/2
–
–
VSSA +
0.15
V
VSRC
Output voltage under
load
ILOAD = 250 A, power mode =
high
–
–
300
mV
IDDA
Operating current
Power mode = high
–
1.5
1.65
mA
PSRR
Power supply
rejection ratio
48
–
–
dB
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
V
Page 13 of 16
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Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Figures
PGA Voffset Histogram, 4096 samples/1024 parts
25
20
%
15
10
5
10
5
0
-10
-5
0
Voffset, mV
5.0-V/3.3-V AC Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
Description
Conditions
BW1
–3 dB bandwidth
Power mode = high, gain = 1,
noninverting mode, 300 mV £ VIN £
VDDA – 1.2 V, CL £ 25 pF
SR1
Slew rate
Power mode = high, gain = 1, 20% to
80%
en
Input noise density Power mode = high, VDDA = 5 V at
100 kHz
Min
Typ
Max
Units
6
8
–
MHz
3.0
–
–
V/µs
–
43
nV/sqrtHz
Figures
Bandwidth versus Temperature, at Different Gain
Settings, Power Mode = High
Noise versus Frequency, VDDA = 5 V, Power Mode =
High
1000
10
BW, MHz
nV/rtHz
Gain = 1
Gain = 24
1
100
Gain = 48
0.1
-40
-20
0
20
40
Temperature, °C
Page 14 of 16
60
80
10
0.01
0.1
1
kHz
10
100
1000
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
Component Changes
This section lists the major changes in the component from the previous version.
Version
Description of Changes
Reason for Changes / Impact
1.70.a
Added DC and AC Electrical
characteristics data for PSoC 5
1.70
PGA_Stop() API modified for
PSoC 5
Change required to prevent the component from impacting
unrelated analog signals when stopped, when using PSoC 5.
Updated PGA response graph
Change required to dynamically resize graph to fit window and to
add horizontal and vertical grids.
Removed VDDA parameter from
component customizer
VDDA setting in the component is redundant and unnecessary for
multiple components. The parameter was removed and the
component queries the global setting for minimum VDDA in the
DWR and automatically enables the pump when necessary.
Configuration window created to
include. Frequency response
graphs a better ease of use GUI.
Previous configuration window did not provide enough information
for ease of use.
SetGain constants corrected in the
header file
The constants provided for the SetGain API had incorrect values.
These have been corrected.
1.60
Added characterization data to
datasheet
1.50
Minor datasheet edits and updates
Added Sleep/Wakeup and
Init/Enable APIs.
To support low power modes, as well as to provide common
interfaces to separate control of initialization and enabling of most
components.
Removed Gain setting of 25.
The gain of 25 was too close to other values and therefore offered
no value.
Updated the symbol image and
Configure dialog.
These were updated to comply with corporate standards.
Changed the names of the registers Updated to comply with coding guidelines.
by adding "_REG."
Added specification table and
graphic placeholders
Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
Data to be provided when characterization is complete.
Page 15 of 16
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
© Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 2011. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Cypress Semiconductor Corporation assumes no responsibility for the use of
any circuitry other than circuitry embodied in a Cypress product. Nor does it convey or imply any license under patent or other rights. Cypress products are not warranted nor intended to be used
for medical, life support, life saving, critical control or safety applications, unless pursuant to an express written agreement with Cypress. Furthermore, Cypress does not authorize its products for
use as critical components in life-support systems where a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress products in lifesupport systems application implies that the manufacturer assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress against all charges.
PSoC® is a registered trademark, and PSoC Creator™ and Programmable System-on-Chip™ are trademarks of Cypress Semiconductor Corp. All other trademarks or registered trademarks
referenced herein are property of the respective corporations.
Any Source Code (software and/or firmware) is owned by Cypress Semiconductor Corporation (Cypress) and is protected by and subject to worldwide patent protection (United States and
foreign), United States copyright laws and international treaty provisions. Cypress hereby grants to licensee a personal, non-exclusive, non-transferable license to copy, use, modify, create
derivative works of, and compile the Cypress Source Code and derivative works for the sole purpose of creating custom software and or firmware in support of licensee product to be used only in
conjunction with a Cypress integrated circuit as specified in the applicable agreement. Any reproduction, modification, translation, compilation, or representation of this Source Code except as
specified above is prohibited without the express written permission of Cypress.
Disclaimer: CYPRESS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Cypress reserves the right to make changes without further notice to the materials described herein.
Cypress does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit described herein. Cypress does not authorize its products for use as critical components in lifesupport systems where a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress’ product in a life-support systems application
implies that the manufacturer assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress against all charges.
Use may be limited by and subject to the applicable Cypress software license agreement.
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Document Number: 001-70324 Rev. *A
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