Component - Inverting Amplifier (PGA_Inv) V1.70

®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
1.70
Features
 Gain steps from –1 to –49
 High input impedance
 Adjustable power settings
General Description
The Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv) component implements an opamp-based
inverting amplifier with user-programmable gain. It is derived from the switched
capacitor/continuous time (SC/CT) block.
The inverting gain can be between –1.0 (0 dB) and –49.0 (+33.8 dB). The gain can be selected
using configuration or changed at run time using the provided API. The maximum bandwidth is
limited by the gain-bandwidth of the opamp and is reduced as the gain is increased. The input of
the PGA_Inv operates from rail to rail, but the maximum input swing (difference between Vin and
Vref) is limited to VDDA/Gain. The output of the PGA_Inv is class A, and is rail to rail for
sufficiently high load resistance.
The PGA_Inv is used when an input signal has insufficient amplitude and the preferred output
polarity is the inverse of the input. You can place a PGA_Inv in front of a comparator, ADC, or
mixer to increase the signal amplitude. You can use a unity gain PGA_Inv following another gain
stage or buffer to generate differential outputs.
Input/Output Connections
This section describes the various input and output connections for the PGA_Inv. An asterisk (*)
in the list of I/Os indicates that the I/O may be hidden on the symbol under the conditions listed
in the description of that I/O.
Vin – Analog
Vin is the input signal terminal.
Vref – Analog
Vref is the input terminal for a reference signal. The reference input has a high impedance and
may be connected to fixed reference (for example, V DDA/2), VDAC output ,or routed to a pin.
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation • 198 Champion Court • San Jose, CA 95134-1709 • 408-943-2600
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
Revised November 1, 2011
Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Vout – Analog
Vout is the output voltage signal terminal. Vout is a function of (Vin – Vref) times the Gain:
Vout = Vref + (Vin – Vref) × Gain
where Gain is a negative value
Component Parameters
Drag a PGA_Inv component onto your design and double-click it to open the Configure dialog.
Inverting_Gain
This parameter is used to set the default gain of the amplifier. The allowable inverting gains
provided are: –1 (default), –3, –7, –15, –22, –24, –31, –47, and –49.
Page 2 of 13
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
Power
This sets the initial drive power of the PGA_Inv. The Power setting determines the speed with
which the PGA_Inv responds to changes in the input signal. There are four power settings:
Minimum Power, Low Power (default), Medium Power, and High Power. A Low Power
setting results in the slowest response time and a High Power setting results in the fastest
response time. The Power setting can be set at run time using the PGA_Inv_SetPower() API.
Resources
The PGA_Inv uses one SC/CT block. Additional details on this block can be found in the
applicable device datasheet and the Technical Reference Manual (TRM). These documents are
available on the Cypress website.
API Memory
(Bytes)
Digital Blocks
Analog Blocks
Datapaths
Macro
cells
Status
Registers
Control
Registers
Counter7
Flash
RAM
Pins (per
External I/O)
1 SC/CT Fixed
block
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
356
20
3
Application Programming Interface
Application Programming Interface (API) routines allow you to configure the component using
software. The following table lists and describes the interface to each function. The subsequent
sections cover each function in more detail.
By default, PSoC Creator assigns the instance name “PGA_Inv_1” to the first instance of a
component in a given design. You can rename the instance to any unique value that follows the
syntactic rules for identifiers. The instance name becomes the prefix of every global function
name, variable, and constant symbol. For readability, the instance name used in the following
table is “PGA_Inv.”
Function
Description
PGA_Inv_Start()
Starts the PGA_Inv.
PGA_Inv_Stop()
Powers down the PGA_Inv.
PGA_Inv_SetGain()
Sets gain to predefined constants.
PGA_Inv_SetPower()
Sets drive power to one of four settings.
PGA_Inv_Sleep()
Stops and saves the user configurations.
PGA_Inv_Wakeup()
Restores and enables the user configurations.
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
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Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Function
Description
PGA_Inv_Init()
Initializes or restores default PGA_Inv configuration.
PGA_Inv_Enable()
Enables the PGA_Inv.
PGA_Inv_SaveConfig()
Empty function. Provided for future use.
PGA_Inv_RestoreConfig()
Empty function. Provided for future use.
Global Variables
Variable
PGA_Inv_initVar
Description
Indicates whether the PGA_Inv has been initialized. The variable is initialized to 0 and set to 1
the first time PGA_Inv_Start() is called. This allows the component to restart without
reinitialization after the first call to the PGA_Inv_Start() routine.
If reinitialization of the component is required, then the PGA_Inv_Init() function can be called
before the PGA_Inv_Start() or PGA_Inv_Enable() function.
void PGA_Inv_Inv_Start(void)
Description:
Turns on the PGA_Inv and sets the power level.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
void PGA_Inv_Stop(void)
Description:
Turns off PGA_Inv and enables its lowest power state.
Note This API is not recommended for use on PSoC 3 ES2 and PSoC 5 silicon. These
devices have a defect that causes connections to several analog resources to be unreliable
when not powered. The unreliability manifests itself in silent failures (for example,
unpredictably bad results from analog components) when the component using that
resource is stopped. When using this silicon, all analog components in a design should be
powered up (by calling their respective _Start() APIs, for instance PGA_Inv_Start()) at all
times. Do not call the PGA_Inv_Stop() APIs.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None. Does not affect power or gain settings.
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Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
void PGA_Inv_SetGain(uint8 gain)
Description:
Sets gain of amplifier between –1 and –49. The table below shows the valid gain settings.
Parameters:
uint8 gain: Sets the gain to a specific value. See table below for valid gain settings.
Gain Setting
Notes
PGA_Inv_GAIN_01
Gain = –1
PGA_Inv_GAIN_03
Gain = –3
PGA_Inv_GAIN_07
Gain = –7
PGA_Inv_GAIN_15
Gain = –15
PGA_Inv_GAIN_22
Gain = –22
PGA_Inv_GAIN_24
Gain = –24
PGA_Inv_GAIN_31
Gain = –31
PGA_Inv_GAIN_47
Gain = –47
PGA_Inv_GAIN_49
Gain = –49
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
void PGA_Inv_SetPower(uint8 power)
Description:
Sets the drive power to one of four settings: minimum, low, medium, or high.
Parameters:
uint8 power: Sets the power level to one of three settings: low, medium, or high.
Power Setting
Notes
PGA_Inv_MINPOWER
Minimum active power and slowest reaction time
PGA_Inv_LOWPOWER
Low power and speed
PGA_Inv_MEDPOWER
Medium power and speed
PGA_Inv_HIGHPOWER
Highest active power and fastest reaction time
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
Page 5 of 13
Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
void PGA_Inv_Sleep(void)
Description:
This is the preferred routine to prepare the component for sleep. The PGA_Inv_Sleep()
function saves the current component state. Then it calls the PGA_Inv_Stop() function and
calls PGA_Inv_SaveConfig() to save the hardware configuration.
Call the PGA_Inv_Sleep() function before calling the CyPmSleep() or the CyPmHibernate()
function. Refer to the PSoC Creator System Reference Guide for more information about
power management functions.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
void PGA_Inv_Wakeup(void)
Description:
This is the preferred routine to restore the component to the state when PGA_Inv_Sleep()
was called. The PGA_Inv_Wakeup() function calls the PGA_Inv_RestoreConfig() function to
restore the configuration. If the component was enabled before the PGA_Inv_Sleep()
function was called, the PGA_Inv_Wakeup() function will also re-enable the component.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
Calling the PGA_Inv_Wakeup() function without first calling the PGA_Inv_Sleep() or
PGA_Inv_SaveConfig() function may produce unexpected behavior.
void PGA_Inv_Init(void)
Description:
Initializes or restores the component according to the customizer Configure dialog settings. It
is not necessary to call PGA_Inv_Init() because the PGA_Inv_Start() routine calls this
function and is the preferred method to begin component operation.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
All registers will be set to values according to the customizer Configure dialog.
void PGA_Inv_Enable(void)
Description:
Activates the hardware and begins component operation. It is not necessary to call
PGA_Inv_Enable() because the PGA_Inv_Start() routine calls this function, which is the
preferred method to begin component operation.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
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Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
void PGA_Inv_SaveConfig(void)
Description:
Empty function. Provided for future use.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
void PGA_Inv_RestoreConfig(void)
Description:
Empty function. Provided for future use.
Parameters:
None
Return Value:
None
Side Effects:
None
Sample Firmware Source Code
PSoC Creator provides numerous example projects that include schematics and example code
in the Find Example Project dialog. For component-specific examples, open the dialog from the
Component Catalog or an instance of the component in a schematic. For general examples,
open the dialog from the Start Page or File menu. As needed, use the Filter Options in the
dialog to narrow the list of projects available to select.
Refer to the “Find Example Project” topic in the PSoC Creator Help for more information.
Functional Description
The PGA_Inv is constructed from a generic SC/CT block. The gain is selected by adjusting two
resistors, Ra and Rb (see Figure 1). Ra may be set to either 20k or 40k ohms, depending on
selected gain. Rb may be set between 20k and 1000k ohms, to generate the possible gain
values selectable in either the Configure dialog or the PGA_Inv_SetGain() function.
Figure 1. PGA_Inv Schematic
Rb
Vin
Ra
Vout
Vref
The block has a programmable capacitor in parallel with the feedback resistor, Rb. The capacitor
value is configured for each gain selection to achieve guaranteed stability. Reassigning Rb
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
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Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
values without also selecting the appropriate feedback capacitor value may result in PGA_Inv
instability. You are strongly advised to use the provided APIs for gain changes.
The input resistance of the PGA_Inv is finite. The gain accuracy is dependent on the routing
resistance between the source and the Vin input. The gain specifications accommodate the
nominal variation in the routing resistance.
Registers
The PGA_Inv component configuration is implemented in registers SC[0..3]_CR0, SC[0..3]_CR1
and SC[0..3]_CR2. These can be accessed in user code by reference to the instantiated
component name, for example, PGA_Inv_1_CR0_REG. You can review the register contents in
the PSoC Creator component debug window. Refer to the applicable TRM, available on the
Cypress website, for a detailed description of each register. The following registers are displayed
in the PGA component debug window.
Register:
PGA_Inv_1_CR0_REG
Name:
Switched Capacitor Control Register 0
Description:
Register bits 3:1 configure the switch capacitor block operating mode. This field is set to 110b
for the PGA component.
Register:
PGA_Inv_1_CR1_REG
Name:
Switched Capacitor Control Register 1
Description:
Register fields configure drive mode, compensation capacitor values, and gain setting of the
switch capacitor block.
Register:
PGA_Inv_1_CR2_REG
Name:
Switched Capacitor Control Register 2
Description:
Register fields configure the input impedance, feedback impedance and the reference ground
selection for the switch capacitor block.
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Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
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PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
Register:
PGA_Inv_1_PM_ACT_CFG_REG
Name:
Active Power Mode Configuration Register 9
Description:
Register bits 3:0 enable power to the four switch capacitor blocks.
DC and AC Electrical Characteristics for PSoC 3
The following values indicate expected performance and are based on initial characterization
data. Unless otherwise specified in the tables below, all TA = 25 °C, VDD = 5.0 V, Power HIGH,
opamp bias LOW, output referenced to Analog Ground = VSSA.
5.0-V/3.3-V DC Electrical Characteristics
Data collection is currently in progress. This table will be updated in a future release.
Parameter
Description
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
VSSA
–
VDDA
Units
VIN
Input voltage range
Power mode = minimum
VOS
Input offset voltage
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, VDDA = 5 V
–
–
10
mV
TCVOS
Input offset voltage drift
with temperature
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, VDDA = 5 V
–
±30
–
µV/°C
Ge1
Gain error, gain = 1
VDDA = 5 V
–
–
±0.15
%
Ge15
Gain error, gain = 15
VDDA = 5 V
–
–
±2.5
%
Ge49
Gain error, gain = 49
VDDA = 5 V
–
–
±5
%
Gd1
Gain drift, gain = 1
–
–
–
ppm/°C
Gd15
Gain drift, gain = 15
–
–
–
ppm/°C
Gd49
Gain drift, gain = 49
–
–
–
ppm/°C
VONL
DC output nonlinearity
–
–
±0.01
RIN
Input resistance
35
–
–
M
CIN
Input capacitance
–
–
–
pF
VOH, VOL
Output voltage swing
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, RLOAD = 100 k
to VDDA/2
VDDA –
0.15
–
VSSA +
0.15
V
IOUT
Output current, source or
sink
VSSA + 500 mV = Vout =
VDDA – 500 mV
–
–
–
µA
IDD
Operating current
Power mode = high
–
1.5
1.65
mA
PSRR
Power supply rejection
ratio
69
–
–
dB
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
Gain = 1
V
% of FSR
Page 9 of 13
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Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Figures
Histogram Input Offset Voltage
18
16
Typical Operating Current versus Temp, Power = Minimum
1200
Occurance
1100
Idda uA
14
12
1000
10
900
8
800
6
4
700
2
600
500
-50
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
-4.0
-6.0
0
Vos mV
Typical Operating Current versus Temp, Power = Low
1200
1100
1100
Idda uA
1000
1000
900
900
5.5V
3.3V
2.7V
1.71V
700
50
deg C 100
150
5.5V
3.3V
2.7V
1.71V
800
Idda uA
700
600
600
500
-50
0
Typical Operating Current versus Temp, Power = High
1200
800
5.5V
3.3V
2.7V
1.71V
0
50
deg C 100
150
500
-50
0
50
deg C 100
150
5.0-V/3.3-V AC Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
Description
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
BW1
–3 dB bandwidth
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, VDDA = 5V
3.1
–
–
MHz
SR1
Slew rate
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, 20% to 80%
3
–
–
V/µs
en
Input noise density
Power mode = high,
VDDA = 5 V, at 100 kHz
–
43
–
nV/sqrtHz
Page 10 of 13
Units
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
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PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
Figures
Voltage noise, VDDA = 5.0V, Power = High
1000
nV/rtHz
100
10
0.01
0.1
1
kHz
10
100
1000
DC and AC Electrical Characteristics for PSoC 5
The following values indicate expected performance and are based on initial characterization
data. Unless otherwise specified in the tables below, all TA = 25 °C, VDD = 5.0 V, Power high,
opamp bias low, output referenced to Analog Ground = V SSA.
5.0-V/3.3-V DC Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
Description
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
VSSA
–
VDDA
Units
VIN
Input voltage range
Power mode = minimum
VOS
Input offset voltage
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, VDDA = 5 V
–
5
20
mV
TCVOS
Input offset voltage drift
with temperature
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, VDDA = 5 V
–
±30
±40
µV/°C
Ge1
Gain error, gain = 1
VDDA = 5 V
–
±2.5
±5.5
%
Ge15
Gain error, gain = 15
VDDA = 5 V
–
±8
±11.5
%
Ge49
Gain error, gain = 49
VDDA = 5 V
–
±13
±19.5
%
Gd1
Gain drift, gain = 1
–
±95
±200
ppm/°C
Gd15
Gain drift, gain = 15
–
±115
±250
ppm/°C
Gd49
Gain drift, gain = 49
–
±350
±850
ppm/°C
VONL
DC output nonlinearity
–
–
±1.8
% of FSR
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
Gain = 1
V
Page 11 of 13
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Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
Parameter
Description
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
VOH, VOL
Output voltage swing
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, RLOAD = 100 k
to VDDA/2
VDDA –
0.15
–
VSSA +
0.15
V
IOUT
Output current, source or
sink
VSSA + 500 mV = Vout =
VDDA – 500 mV
250
–
–
µA
IDD
Operating current
Power mode = high
–
1.5
1.65
mA
PSRR
Power supply rejection
ratio
48
65
–
dB
5.0-V/3.3-V AC Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
Description
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
BW1
–3 dB bandwidth
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, VDDA = 5 V
3.1
–
–
MHz
SR1
Slew rate
Power mode = high,
gain = 1, 20% to 80%
3
–
–
V/µs
Component Changes
This section lists the major changes in the component from the previous version.
Version
1.70
Description of Changes
Reason for Changes / Impact
PGA_Inv_Stop() API modified for
PSoC 5
Change required to prevent the component from impacting
unrelated analog signals when stopped, when using PSoC 5.
Updated PGA_Inv response graph
Change required to dynamically resize graph to fit window and to
add horizontal and vertical grids.
Added DC and AC electrical
characteristics data for PSoC 5
1.60
Removed VDDA parameter from
component customizer
VDDA setting in the component is redundant and unnecessary for
multiple components. The parameter was removed and the
component queries the global setting for minimum VDDA in the
DWR and automatically enables the pump when necessary.
Configuration window created to
include Frequency response graphs
a better ease of use GUI.
Previous configuration window did not provide enough information
for ease of use.
SetGain constants corrected in the
header file
The constants provided for the SetGain API had incorrect values.
These have been corrected.
Added characterization data to
datasheet
Minor datasheet edits and updates
Page 12 of 13
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
®
PSoC Creator™ Component Datasheet
Version
1.50
Description of Changes
Inverting Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA_Inv)
Reason for Changes / Impact
Added Sleep/Wakeup and
Init/Enable APIs.
To support low power modes, as well as to provide common
interfaces to separate control of initialization and enabling of most
components.
Removed Gain setting of 23.
The gain of 23 was too close to 22 and 24 and therefore offered
no value.
Updated the symbol and Configure
dialog.
These were updated to comply with corporate standards.
© Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 2011. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Cypress Semiconductor Corporation assumes no responsibility for the use of
any circuitry other than circuitry embodied in a Cypress product. Nor does it convey or imply any license under patent or other rights. Cypress products are not warranted nor intended to be used
for medical, life support, life saving, critical control or safety applications, unless pursuant to an express written agreement with Cypress. Furthermore, Cypress does not authorize its products for
use as critical components in life-support systems where a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress products in lifesupport systems application implies that the manufacturer assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress against all charges.
PSoC® is a registered trademark, and PSoC Creator™ and Programmable System-on-Chip™ are trademarks of Cypress Semiconductor Corp. All other trademarks or registered trademarks
referenced herein are property of the respective corporations.
Any Source Code (software and/or firmware) is owned by Cypress Semiconductor Corporation (Cypress) and is protected by and subject to worldwide patent protection (United States and
foreign), United States copyright laws and international treaty provisions. Cypress hereby grants to licensee a personal, non-exclusive, non-transferable license to copy, use, modify, create
derivative works of, and compile the Cypress Source Code and derivative works for the sole purpose of creating custom software and or firmware in support of licensee product to be used only in
conjunction with a Cypress integrated circuit as specified in the applicable agreement. Any reproduction, modification, translation, compilation, or representation of this Source Code except as
specified above is prohibited without the express written permission of Cypress.
Disclaimer: CYPRESS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Cypress reserves the right to make changes without further notice to the materials described herein.
Cypress does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit described herein. Cypress does not authorize its products for use as critical components in lifesupport systems where a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress’ product in a life-support systems application
implies that the manufacturer assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress against all charges.
Use may be limited by and subject to the applicable Cypress software license agreement.
Document Number: 001-70856 Rev. *A
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