An HC11-Controlled Multiband RDS Radio

Order this document
by AN494/D
Rev. 1
Freescale Semiconductor
AN494
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
An HC11-Controlled Multiband RDS Radio
By Peter Topping
Motorola, Ltd.
East Kilbride, Scotland
This application note describes the software and hardware features of
the microcontroller (MCU) of a synthesized multiband radio which
includes RDS (radio data system) decoding (FM, band II). It uses an
MC68HC(7)11 MCU whose program can be on-chip or contained in an
external EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory). ROM
versions are available.
Both LCD (liquid crystal display) and VFD (vacuum fluorescent display)
16-character dot matrix display modules can be used to display RDS
and tuning information. Traffic messages, initiated by the reception of
EON (enhanced other networks) data (group 14B) or TA = TP = 1 (traffic
announcement = traffic program = 1) on the current frequency, are
handled. The station carrying the TA is tuned for the duration of the
message, followed by a return to the original frequency. A tuning knob
employing an incremental encoder is supported.
Introduction
Figure 1 shows a block diagram of the application. The controller
hardware and software are described in detail here. The other hardware
is not covered to the same depth, because that varies between different
implementations, the intention being to describe a controller which could
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2004. All rights reserved.
© Motorola, Inc., 2001
For More Information On This Produ
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
be added to an existing radio or to one which includes only one or two of
the possible bands.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Separate FM and AM PLLs (phase-locked loop) are shown. This is not
essential, but it reduces the amount of band switching necessary and
simplifies hardware fault finding. The illustrated configuration
corresponds to that used by the author for software development and
debugging.
4 BBC4 FM 21:40
RDS
DEMOLATOR
C
IRQ
M68HC11
INCREMENTAL
ENCODER
FM TUNER
MC 145170
D
STEREO
&
AUDIO
÷5
XIRQ
MC 145157
AM TUNER
MC 14028
BRAND SELECT
SW MEM. SELECT
FM IF SELECT
DISPLAY SELECT
LCD MUX
IRQ CONTROL
RDS
TA
9/10
:
SL
–
TA
TEST
+
7
4
8
5
9
6
AL
S/S
1
0
STANDBY
MUTE
TA = TP = 1
M/S
3
2
MODECL ST ONOFF
Figure 1. Main Block Diagram
The MCU used is the MC68HC(7)11. The MC68HC711K4 (K4) [and
similar chips such as the MC68HC711P2 (P2) and MC68HC711PH8
(PH8)] can be used in expanded mode, but this application has been
included in the ROM of an E32 and a PH8.
To use the ROMed parts in this application, the first three bytes of
EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable ROM) should contain an
extended jump to the appropriate start address. The E32 (ZC403311)
requires $7E, $90, and $00 at addresses $B600, $B601, and $B602,
while the PH8 (ZC428200 or ZC428202) requires $7E, $40, and $00 at
AN494
2
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Introduction
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
addresses $0D00, $0D01, and $0D02. This can be done using either
PCbug11 or the BUFFALO (bit users fast friendly aid to logical
operation) monitor (see reference 5). The E32 version uses all the
input/output (I/O) and can, therefore, be used only in single-chip mode.
The circuit diagram of the HC11E controller is shown in Figure 3 and the
circuit diagram of the K4/PH8 in Figure 4. The K4/PH8 version shows
the additional hardware (within the dotted line) used to develop and
debug the software on a K4 using PCbug11. This implementation uses
two of the K4’s chip selects to enable external memories allowing debug
to be done with the code in RAM and the PCbug11 talker in an EPROM.
This arrangement requires a further four I/O (input/output) lines, leaving
30 for use in the application. The description of the application, and the
listed software, corresponds to the E32 ROMed version (ZC403311).
Later sections list the port allocation and functional differences which
apply to the PH8 ROMed versions (ZC428200 and ZC428202).
Forty programs (10 on FM, 10 on MW and 20 on SW) can be stored
using the HC11E’s on-chip EEPROM (the PH8 has 20 additional SW
(shortwave) programs). Each contains frequency, an 8-character name
[PS (program service) name on a station with RDS] and, on FM only, PI
(program identification) code and a TA inhibit bit. For stations with no
RDS (for example, all AM stations), the saved name can be manually
entered. Programs saved with no name use their frequency instead. The
SW banks are selected by an I/O line (two for the PH8). When the MCU
is reset, or any of the band or memory select inputs are changed, the last
used program in the selected band is tuned. This feature does not
require that the MCU is permanently powered up, as this information is
also stored in non-volatile EEPROM.
The keyboard uses an MC14028 decoder to minimize the number of I/O
lines used. Either LCD or VFD 16-digit dot matrix displays can be used.
The VFD display driver supported is the MSC7128, and the LCD driver
the HD44780. This driver on its own provides a 16-way multiplexed LCD.
In conjunction with an HD44100, it can facilitate an 8-way multiplexed
higher contrast display. The input level on a port pin selects the
appropriate type of multiplexing to match the display in use. To minimize
the I/O activity, only one display is driven, the choice between LCD and
VFD again being determined by an I/O line.
AN494
3
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
MC145170 and MC145157 PLLs are supported, using the same data
and clock lines as the VFD driver, along with dedicated chip selects. The
MC145157 requires an external prescaler for frequencies above 20
MHz, but the MC145170 has an on-chip 160-MHz capability.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
A tuning knob can be included by using an incremental encoder. This
can utilize either IRQ or XIRQ. As IRQ is used for the RDS clock, XIRQ
is most appropriate for the tuning function. The possibility of using IRQ
(see information described later) has been included to facilitate debug
with PCbug11, which can employ XIRQ for its communication with the
PC. Edges detected on the encoder execute the PS edit and alarm setup
functions of the +/– (plus/minus) keys, depending on the direction of
rotation. This provides a quick and convenient method of editing the PS
name and changing the alarm time. A difference in function between the
encoder and the +/– keys applies in normal mode. The program number
is not affected by the tuning knob. In this mode, when the +/– keys
control the program number, the tuning knob increments or decrements
the frequency.
Two I/O lines are used to select the band. These lines are regularly
monitored; if they change, the radio is retuned to the last used station in
the selected band. Table 1 shows the bands which are available.
•
Band 2 is intended for single-conversion (low IF, intermediate
frequency) MW or SW radios. The large step size of 9 or 10 kHz
is suitable for MW rather than SW, but the small step size of 1 kHz
is suitable for either SW or MW.
•
Band 3 is for dual-conversion (10.7-MHz first IF) SW designs. The
FM IF offset is selected as + or –, according to the level on port A,
bit 2 (high: LO high; low: LO low).
•
Bands 0 and 1 both are intended for VHF/FM, the difference
between them being in the use of the M68HC11’s IRQ pin. It is
possible to use IRQ interrupts for both RDS and the tuning knob,
as the two functions are not required simultaneously. To facilitate
this, the band-select inputs affect the function performed when an
edge is detected in the IRQ pin. When band 0 is selected, an RDS
bit is read, but in any other band the incremental encoder function
is performed. This enables automatic selection of function if bit 0
AN494
4
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Introduction
on port A is taken high when movement is detected from the shaft
encoder. This facility can be disabled (RDS function only) by
holding bit 3 of port A low. This should be done if XIRQ is being
used for the tuning knob. As XIRQ is level-sensitive, some
additional components are required to interface it with the
incremental encoder. Figure 2 shows a simple circuit which can
be used for this purpose.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 1. Available Bands
Band
PA1
PA0
IF Offset
Step
Memory
Use
Prescaler
MC145157
Only
0
0
0
+/–10,700
50, 10
10
VHF
10
1
0
1
+/–10,700
50, 10
10
VHF
10
2
1
0
455
9 (or 10),
1
10
MW/SW
—
3
1
1
10,700
5
20/40
SW
5
5V
10 kΩ x 2
100 kΩ
1N914
E5
INCREMENTAL
ENCODER
1N914
XIRQ
1nx2
100 n
H
C
1
1
1M
Figure 2. Incremental Encoder Interface Circuit
AN494
5
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
TA
SL
8
5
2
MODE
RDS
:
7
4
1
0
ST
CL
3
6
9
–
9/10
RDS
DEMODULATOR
ON
6
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
19 IRQ
46(49) E5
18
XIRQ
44(47)
E4
31(34)
A3
MOD B
MOD A
RESET
0.1 µ
VLCD
3
Figure 3. MC68HC11E32 Circuit
33p
33p
8.388 MHz
BAND & MEM
C
D
E
5V
A6 A5
28 29
(31) (32)
E7
A7
A2
D5
A4
M/S
5V
VFD
LCD
+8
+16
(DISP. SEL.)
(LCD MUX)
+10.7
(FM IF)
–10.7
STANDBY
MUTE
MC145157
MC145170
~
5 V –HT Vf
VFD MODULE
TA = TP = 1
50(53)
27(30)
33(36)
25(26)
30(33)
B3 39(42)
41(44)
B1
42(45)
B0
42 41 40
(45) (44) (43)
B0 B1 B2
38(41)
B4
10 kΩ
100 kΩ x3
E6 A1 A0
48 33 34
(51) (36) (37)
52-PIN PLCC
(56-PIN SDIP)
MC68HC11E32
37 36 35
9
(40) (39) (38)
16
B5 B6 B7
C
D0 D7 – 1
14
7
LCD MODULE
+
10 µ RS R/W E
4
6
5
2 +
E3
E2
E1
E0 –VSS– VRL EXTAL XTAL
(21) 1 (56) 51 7 10 M 8
(54)
49(52)
47(50)
45(48)
43(46)
7
6
Q6 16
1 Q5
5V
+
Q4
M
15
Q3 C
12 24(25)
C
D4
1
2
Q2 4
0 B 13 23(24) D3
14
Q1 2
8
A 10 22(23) D2
D
–
8
11
10 kΩ x4
OFF
S/S
AL
+
TA
TEST
3
INCREMENTAL
ENCODER
3
2
17
VDD VRH
26 52
(29) (27) (55)
10 kΩ
x3
2
M
C
3 1
4
0
6
4
5V
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
AN494
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
0
1
4
7
RDS
+
SL
10 kΩ x4
6
1 Q5
Q4
9
8
AL
M
15
Q3 C
5
6
S/S
1
2
Q2 4
2
3
0
14
ST
ON
Q1 2
MODE CL
OFF
8
D
11
—
TA
TEST
INCREMENTAL
ENCODER
TA
RDS
DEMODULATOR
3
2
M
C 1
3
4
0
6
4
5V
13 76 D3
39
40
41
42
3
G4
G2
A
84-PIN PLCC
MC68HC11K4
(PH8)
G3
29 1
31 30
78
RS R/W E D0 D7 – 1
14
10 µ 4
6 7
5
+
LCD MODULE
VLCD
C
D
E
18
H6
H4 16
13
H1
12
H0
G0 33
D5 77
A0–A7
A8 B0
A9 B1
A10 B2
A11 B3
A12 B4
A13 B5
CSPROG H7
21 A10
24 A9
9 (-)
53 (-)
55 (-)
46 (-)
11 (-)
10 (-)
10
19
A0
25 A8
3 A7
2 A12
23 A11
8 (-)
27
1
2
7
C
6
4
+ PGM VPP
20 CE
26 NC
28
7 (-)
6 (-)
19 (-)
5V
MUTE
STANDBY
PLLs
(5157 / 5170
~
5 V –HT Vf
VFD MODULE
17(–)
CSGP1 H5
26(–)
R/W G7
32(–)
XA14 G1
12 13 14
H0 H1 H2
10
kΩ
BAND & MEM
Figure 4. MC68HC11K4 and PH8 Circuit
8.388 MHz
7
D0
— OE
14 22
D7
A0
2 13 15
+
11
10
19
24 A9
25 A8
3
A7
23 A11
21 A10
26 A13
2 A12
M
C
M
6
0
2
5
6
5V
28
+
20
CE
27
R/W
1 A14
VCC VDD C1- C1+C2- C2+VSS GND 10 2
T3
I3
MC145407
9 3
12 O3
R3
11
D7
DATA C
E3
D0
62 (-)
11
OE
—
E2
14
22
E1
VRL EXTAL XTAL A7
E7 E6 G8 G5
D0 D1 XIRQ
E0 –VSS–
5V
78
3 24 45 63 43
67 68(66)
72 73 21
35 36 27 28
10 M
(PH8 ONLY)
(-) (-) (-)
5V
22 µF x 4
100 kΩ
10
10
+
+
+
kΩ
kΩ
100 kΩ x4
33 p
19 17 18 20 3
14
33 p
A 10 74 D2
–
8
B
12 76
D4
54 IRQ
37 E5
21
XIRQ
38
E4
15
A3
7
Q6 16
+
5V
C
0.1 µ
2 23 34 64 44
69 –V – V
DD
RH
(70)
RESET
71
MODA
(20)
MODB
70
10
kΩ
x4
2 +
RS 232 (25-WAY)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Introduction
AN494
7
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Frequency Synthesis
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Synthesis of the local oscillator (LO) in a superheterodyne radio provides
many advantages over mechanical tuning. The main benefits are:
•
Tuning accuracy
•
Stability
•
Storing of often-used frequencies.
The accuracy and stability result from the fact that the LO is phaselocked to a crystal oscillator. In conjunction with RDS, frequency
synthesis provides the additional facility of allowing the radio to retune
itself to a traffic announcement or news bulletin. A synthesizer can be
retrofitted to most radios by replacing the tuning capacitor with a varicap
diode. The voltage biasing the varicap is supplied by the synthesizer and
also can be used to provide RF (radio frequency) tuning. Alternatively,
manual preselector or no RF tuning can be employed.
Motorola’s MC145157 and MC145170 synthesizers are two of a series
offering a variety of options including serial or parallel interfacing and
single or dual modulus prescaling. The MC145157 requires a prescaler
for frequencies above 20 MHz but the MC145170 can handle input
frequencies up to 160 MHz. The MC145157 has been included to retain
compatibility with hardware developed for use with the MC68HC05B4
synthesizer described in ANE416 (reference 1).
Figure 5 shows the block diagram of the MC145170. It uses the
Motorola bitgrabber system, whereby the number of bits sent determines
the register which is written to. There is, therefore, no need for the
control bit which is required by the MC145157.
AN494
8
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Frequency Synthesis
OSCIn 1
OSCOut 2
15-STAGE R COUNTER
OSC
fR CONTROL
9
fR
15
4-STAGE
REFERENCE
DIVIDER
REFOut 3
CLOCK
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
DATA IN
DATA OUT
7
SHIFT
REGISTER
AND
CONTROL
LOGIC
5
8
3
BITGRABBER
R REG
15 BITS
LOCK DETECTOR
AND CONTROL
11
LD
16
BITGRABBER
C REG
8 BITS
13
PHRASE/FREQUENCY
DETECTOR A & CONTROL
PDOut
POR
ENABLE 6
14
PHRASE/FREQUENCY
DETECTOR B & CONTROL 15
∅R
∅V
BITGRABBER
N REG
16 BITS
16
fIn
4
INPUT
AMP
fV CONTROL
10
fV
16-STAGE N COUNTER
Figure 5. MC145170 Block Diagram
The reference counter divides the 8-MHz crystal oscillator (10 MHz for
the MC145157) down to the reference frequency (in this case, 1 kHz for
the MC145157 and 10 kHz for the MC145170) at which the comparison
is made with the (also divided down) local oscillator. The filtered output
of the phase comparator supplies the tuning voltage to the local
oscillator. The numbers chosen as the divide ratios determine the
frequency at which this oscillator stabilizes. The equation that follows
shows the relationship between the various frequencies where P is the
LO prescaler (MC145157 only). The received frequency can be changed
by altering the LO divide ratio. The MCU takes care of the decimal-tobinary conversion, IF offset, and the other arithmetic required.
LO frequency = RF + IF = P x [(Xtal frequency) / (ref. divide ratio)] x LO divide ratio
The MC145157 is specified to operate up to 20 MHz, so prescaling is
required on FM and SW (10.7-MHz IF). For this SW band, divide-by-5
AN494
9
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
prescaling is used; for FM, divide-by-10 is used. This increases the
minimum step size to 10 kHz of FM, which is ideal for this band, and to
5 kHz on SW, which is suitable for almost all broadcast stations. The
MC145170 does not require any prescaling even on the FM band and
can use this to advantage by allowing the use of a higher reference
frequency, making the low-pass filter design less critical.
An important part of any PLL is the loop filter. The filter in Figure 6 is an
active filter using the double-ended phase detector outputs from the
MC145170 feeding a CA3460 operational amplifier. This dual op-amp
allows the simple double-ended low-pass filter to be followed by a
second order Sallen and Key filter. An active filter has the added
advantage of increasing the available voltage swing beyond the supply
rail of the MC145170/MC145157.
12 V
3 7805 1
2
100 n
8.0 MHz
62 kΩ
16
VDD
1 OSC
In
100 n
30 pf
10 n
100 n
CA3620
10 M
47 pf
1n
LO
2 OSC
Out
∅R
14
∅V
15
150 kΩ
7
150 kΩ
4 f
In
100 µ
6
5
4k3
47 n
100 n
µC
B4 38
B1 41
B0
42
6 E
5
D
7 C
3
8
27 kΩ
VSS
12
10 n
2
62 kΩ
4
1
10 kΩ
TUNING
2k2
22 kΩ
MC145170
4n7
10 kΩ
10 n
Figure 6. MC145170 Circuit
AN494
10
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Radio Data System
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The combination of active filter and double-ended phase detector
outputs makes it simple to select the correct relationship between
voltage and frequency. Usually, the fixed side of the varicap diode is
grounded, so increased voltage increases the frequency of the
oscillator; in some oscillator designs, the fixed side may be taken to the
supply rail, and increasing the voltage will decrease the frequency. With
the filter design shown here, the choice can be made simply by
swapping the phase detector outputs from the PLLs.
Radio Data System
The radio data system (RDS) adds a digital data capability to the FM
VHF transmissions on band II (87.5 to 108 MHz). The specification is
defined in CENELEC EN 50067 (formerly EBU Technical Document
3244, see reference 2). An MC68HC05E0 implementation of RDS is
described in AN460, (reference 5). It monitors the RDS activity on the
MPX signal of a VHF radio but is not able to tune the radio and,
therefore, cannot, use AF (alternative frequencies) or EON data. This
application can tune the radio and uses EON data to retune the radio
when a traffic announcement is taking place on another frequency. An
announcement is initiated by a packet 14B and the radio retunes if TAs
are enabled. At the end of the TA, the original station is re-tuned. TAs
are not active in standby mode (standby line high).
To transmit the data, a subcarrier is added at 57 kHz. This subcarrier is
amplitude-modulated with the shaped bi-phase coded data signal. The
subcarrier itself is suppressed to avoid data modulated cross-talk in
phase-locked-loop stereo decoders and to maintain compatibility with
the German ARI system which uses the same subcarrier frequency.
Information is sent in groups of four 26-bit blocks. Each group of 104 bits
is one of several types containing different information. It is up to the
broadcaster to decide which features are transmitted as long as the
specified format is adhered to and PI, PTY, and TP are included. Each
group contains a different subset of the RDS features; a list of all
currently defined features is shown in Table 2.
AN494
11
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
The retrieval of data is carried out by demodulation hardware, which
generates clock and data signals that can be used by the MCU. Suitable
devices which can perform this function include SAA6579, SAA7579T
(plus an external filter), TDA7330, LA2231, and RDS hybrids.
Table 2. RDS Features
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Feature
Information
PI
Program identification
PTY
Program type
PS
Program service name
RT
Radiotext
CT
Clock time and date
AF
Alternative frequencies
TA
Traffic announcement
TP
Traffic program
MS
Music/speech switch
DI
Decoder identification
PIN
Program item number
EON
Enhanced other networks
TDC
Transparent data channel
INH
In-house data
This application supports PI, PTY, PS, RT, CT, TP, TA, MS, DI, PIN, and
EON. These features facilitate permanent display of the 8-digit station
name (PS) and time (CT), and, on request, can display program type
(PTY), radiotext data (RT), and the status of the other RDS information
(see Table 5).
EON data can be displayed and used to switch to traffic announcements,
but the retuning features associated with AF are not supported, as they
are appropriate only for a radio intended for use in a vehicle. In a car
radio, AF data would be used to tune the radio to the strongest signal
carrying the selected service. PI is a 2-byte number which identifies the
AN494
12
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Radio Data System
country, coverage area, and service. It can be used by the control MCU
but is not normally intended for display. A change in PI code causes the
initialization of all RDS data as it indicates that the radio has been
retuned. This application facilitates the display of the current PI code.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
PTY is a 5-bit number which indicates the current program type. At
present, 16 of these types are defined. Examples include "no
programme type," "Current affairs," and "Pop music," although the actual
syntax which is displayed is determined by the software of the controlling
MCU. In this example, PTY can be displayed on request; Table 3 shows
the display used for each PTY code.
PS is the 8-character name of the station and is permanently displayed
(except in standby mode). In the absence of RDS (for example, AM
bands), the name can be entered manually. If none is entered, then the
frequency is used as the station name when the program is stored in
EEPROM.
Radiotext (RT) constitutes a string of up to 64 characters which give
additional information regarding the service or program currently being
transmitted. In this application, RT is displayed on request on the 16-digit
dot matrix displays, using scrolling. The data often contains extra spaces
to center the text on a 2 x 32 character display. As these are not
appropriate for a 16-character scrolling display, the software reduces all
sequences of two or more spaces to a single space.
CT (clock time and date) data is transmitted every minute on the minute
and provides a very accurate clock, traceable to national standards. The
(modified Julian) date and local time variation are also transmitted. Time
is permanently displayed. In standby mode (see information later), the
date is displayed instead of the PS name. The MJD number, which is the
form in which the date is received, can also be displayed. The MCU
converts this number into day-of-week, day-of-month, month and year.
AF would be used by a car radio to retune to the strongest signal carrying
the selected service. AF data, along with TDC (transparent data
channel) and INH (in-house data), is not used in this application.
TA and TP are flags. TP is set if the transmitter normally carries traffic
information and TA is set if a traffic announcement is in progress. The
AN494
13
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
combination — TA = 1 and TP = 0 — is used to indicate that EON data
is being used to supply information on other networks, including traffic
announcements. A port line (port A, bit 5) is asserted (low) when
TA = TP = 1. This can be used to demute or switch from another source
(for instance, cassette when a TA occurs).
Table 3. PTY Types
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
PTY
Display
0
no program type
1
News
2
Current affairs
3
Information
4
Sport
5
Education
6
Drama
7
Culture
8
Science
9
Varied
10
Pop music
11
Rock music
12
Easy listening
13
Light classics
14
Serious classics
15
Other music
16–31
no program type
M/S is a single bit indicating either music or speech and is intended to
be used to make a tone or volume adjustment to a radio’s audio stage.
The M/S bit is displayed on request. A port line (port A, bit 6) is asserted
(low) when M/S = 1. This can be used to control external hardware.
AN494
14
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Radio Data System
Decoder information (DI) constitutes four bits indicating the type of
transmission (mono, stereo, binaural, etc.). Currently, it is not in use in
the United Kingdom, but it can be displayed as a number between
1 and 15.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Program item number (PIN) is used to identify the program currently
being broadcast. The format is a 2-byte number which includes the
scheduled time and date (day of month) of the start of the program. PIN
can be displayed as four hexadecimal digits or fully decoded to day of
month and time.
EON (enhanced other networks) replaces the older ON format. If type 14
groups are used to provide EON data, then type 3 groups (ON) will not
be used. Type 14A groups are used to send information about other
networks. The PS name and principal frequency of up to 16 other
networks can be displayed. Type 14B groups are used to switch to traffic
announcements; they include the PI code of the station carrying the
announcement. This PI code is searched for in NVM, and the required
station is tuned if it is stored in NVM. This method allows the user to
select which TAs are allowed (they will not occur if the station is not in
NVM or if its TA inhibit bit is set) and avoids attempts to jump to an
announcement which is not relevant or not receivable with sufficient
signal strength to be useful.
Keyboard
The keyboard has 23 keys. Table 4 shows the layout and Table 5
contains a summary of key functions against mode.
Table 4. Keyboard Layout
PE0
PE1
PE2
PE3
Q6
RDS
Traffic
MW step
TA test
Q5
Time colon
Sleep
—
+
Q4
7
8
9
Alarm
Q3
4
5
6
Store
Q2
1
2
3
Q1
0
Manual
Clear/Step
On/Off
AN494
15
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
The following functions are available.
On/Off
This key is intended as an on/off control for the radio. It sets a port line
low for on and high for standby and can be used to control the power
supply to the radio. Its status affects the behavior of other keys as
described later in this application note.
ON/OFF
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Sleep
When pressed, the 1-hour sleep timer starts, leaving the standby line low
(radio on) until the sleep time has elapsed. At this time, the line is
switched to the standby mode (high). In the normal display mode, the
sleep timer running causes the decimal point to appear on the display
modules’ first character. The sleep timer can be cancelled by pressing
ON/OFF. The sleep time can be reduced in increments of five minutes
by repressing or holding down the SLEEP key.
SLEEP
Alarm
The alarm key selects the alarm display mode and toggles the alarm
armed status. When the alarm is not armed, the legend ALARM-OFF is
displayed. When it is armed, the alarm time is shown and adjustment of
the alarm setup can be done by selecting the field (5/7 day, hours, or
minutes) with the STORE/SET key. The selected field (hours or minutes)
flashes and can be adjusted with the +/– keys or the tuning knob. The
alarm setup display returns to normal three seconds after the last
adjustment. If the radio is in standby mode and the alarm is set, the
alarm time is displayed instead of the date. The radio will come fully on
(standby line low) at the alarm time. After a 500-ms delay to allow power
supplies to stabilize, the program which was tuned when the radio was
last used is retuned. When set to the 5-day alarm, the alarm will not
occur on Saturdays and Sundays.
ALARM
Plus (+)
and Minus (–)
+
and
—
Pressing + or –, while in normal mode, increments or decrements the
program number. The program number wraps round at 0 and 9. The
mute line is set high before retuning and returned low 100 ms after the
new frequency has been sent to the PLL. Changing the tuned program
using the +/– keys (or the 0–9 keys) disables PS name clearing if RDS
information is absent or contains multiple errors.
AN494
16
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Radio Data System
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
In PS-edit mode (see entry that follows), the + and – keys are used to
change the character at the cursor position. This function is duplicated
on the tuning knob incremental encoder. In the alarm setup mode, the
+ and – keys are used to change the alarm time as described earlier.
The field which is currently selected for adjustment (using the STORE
key) flashes. This function is duplicated on the tuning knob also.
In manual mode, these keys increment and decrement the current
frequency in steps of 10 kHz or 50 kHz (FM) as selected by the
CLEAR/STEP key. The default is 10 kHz. On the SW band, 1-kHz
(455 kHz IF only) or 5-kHz steps are available; on the MW/LW band, 1or 9-kHz steps are available. In the U.S.A., 10 kHz is appropriate instead
of 9 kHz; this can be selected with a special key (see entry that follows).
This function is duplicated on the tuning knob both in this mode and in
normal mode. Use of the +/– keys (or the incremental encoder) to adjust
the frequency enables PS name clearing if RDS information is absent or
contains multiple errors. In normal mode, on the AM bands, use of the
tuning knob displays the frequency in the PS name field, facilitating
simultaneous display of frequency and time.
Store/Set
STORE/SET
In normal modes (not manual or alarm), the store key selects the PS-edit
mode in which the first character of the displayed PS-name flashes and
can be changed by the + and – keys or the tuning knob. Subsequent
presses of STORE move to the next character. A space is shown as a
hyphen (–). This mode returns to the normal display mode 10 seconds
after the last key press. This mode can be used to give a name to a
station with no RDS PS name (all AM stations or an FM station with no
RDS or with RDS or unusable quality). See the entry that follows for the
method of saving this name in EEPROM. Entry of a PS name in this way
requires that PS name clearing is disabled. This is achieved by changing
the program number (by using the +/– or 0–9 keys). Fine tuning enables
PS name clearing (see +/– key description). Direct frequency entry does
not affect the PS name clearing status.
In the alarm setup mode, STORE selects what will be changed when the
+ or – keys or the tuning knob are used (5/7 day, hours, or minutes).
Hours or minutes flash when they are selected.
AN494
17
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
In manual mode, STORE enters a special manual store mode in which
the 9–0 keys save, rather than recall, a program. After pressing STORE,
the program number flashes to indicate this change of function.
Alternatively, a second press of STORE saves the current tuning
information into the current program number. The current frequency, PI
code (FM), PS name, and TA inhibit flag (FM) are saved in EEPROM.
The TA inhibit status can be changed using the TRAFFIC key (see entry
that follows). If the PS edit mode has been used, then manual store
mode should be used to save the entered PS name.
Manual
MANUAL
Select manual entry of frequency; a second press returns to normal
mode if the tuned frequency has not been changed. If it has been
changed, the second press retunes to the new frequency and an
additional press is required to return to the normal mode. In manual
mode, frequency is displayed instead of the time; the + and – keys or the
tuning knob enable incrementing and decrementing of the current
frequency. Direct entry of frequency can be made using 0–9 keys. In this
mode, the STORE key enters the manual store mode in which the
program number flashes, allowing storing of the tuned program and PS
name into the current, or a different, program number. A second press
of STORE saves the current frequency, PS name, PI code, and TA
inhibit bit (FM) in EEPROM.
In manual mode, the TRAFFIC (TA) key controls the TA inhibit bit, which
can be stored with each program. If the current station has its TP flag
high, the least significant digit of the frequency will alternate with a
decimal point. Pressing TP toggles the NVM inhibit bit. When inhibited,
the decimal point between the MHz and kHz becomes a "–". A
subsequent press of STORE saves this bit in NVM along with the
frequency, PI code, and PS name.
0 to 9
0
to — 9
These keys are used both for direct frequency entry and for recalling the
40 available programs. In all modes, except standby and manual, when
a 0–9 key is pressed, the selected program is tuned. Changing the tuned
program using the 0–9 keys (or the +/– keys) disables PS name clearing
if RDS information is absent or contains multiple errors. In manual mode,
these keys are used for the direct entry of frequency. After entering the
required frequency, pressing MANUAL retunes to the new frequency.
AN494
18
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Radio Data System
The mute line is set high before retuning and returned low 100 ms after
the new frequency has been sent to the PLL. In manual store mode, the
program number flashes and the 0–9 keys save the tuned program into
the selected program number in EEPROM.
RDS
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
RDS
Traffic
TRAFFIC
Clear/Step
CLEAR/STEP
TA Test
TA TEST
Time Colon
TIME COLON
The first press displays scrolling RT data. Subsequent presses display
PTY code, PI code, TA and TP, PIN code (two formats), MJD, MS and
DI, last TA PI code, the reason for returning from last TA and EON (up
to 16 networks with their principal frequency). See Table 5 for the
display formats. The RDS key is operational in all modes except
standby.
Enable/disable traffic switching. When disabled, this is indicated by a
decimal point in the 11th character of the dot matrix displays. Default at
power-up is enabled. The TRAFFIC key works in all modes except
standby. During manual mode and manual store mode, it toggles the TA
inhibit status, which can subsequently be saved in NVM.
Toggles between 10-kHz and 50-kHz steps on the FM band or between
1 and 9 kHz (or 10 kHz) on the MW band. There is no indication on the
dot matrix displays. In manual mode, the displayed frequency is cleared
to facilitate the entry of a new frequency. If the clear is followed by use
of the + or – keys or the tuning knob, the original frequency is retained,
allowing a change of step size only. In PS edit mode, the clear key clears
the current PS name.
Pressing TA test simulates the arrival of a group 14B. The PI code of the
other network is embedded in the code (C5B1, Radio Clyde in the
ROMed version).
This key enables or disables the flashing colon in the time display. This
can be used to prevent unnecessary I/O activity thus reducing RFI.
Disabling the colon prevents 1-Hz updating, as the display modules are
only updated if the data to be displayed has changed.
AN494
19
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
MW Step
This optional key selects 9- or 10-kHz steps on MW. Nine kHz is
appropriate in Europe and 10 kHz in the United States. The default is 9
kHz, and the key need not be implemented if 10 kHz will never be
required.
MW STEP
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 5. Key Function by Mode
On/Off
Sleep
Alarm
+/–
Store
Manual
TP
RDS
0–9
Clear
Standby
(OFF)
mode
normal
(ON)
mode
sleep
(ON)
mode
alarm
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Normal
(ON)
mode
standby
(ON)
mode
PS-edit
mode
manual
display
“
+/–
prog.
tune
prog.
PS edit
A
off
“
“
“
“
+/–
ASCII
“
“
mode
alarm on
+/–
prog.
—
5/7 day
toggle
mode
setup
toggle
traffic
enable
flag
RT
toggle
step
10/
50 kHz
PTY
next
char.
“
“
“
“
PI
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
input
freq.
“
save
prog.
&
clear
freq.
TA TP
PIN hex
L
on
A
“
“
mode
alarm
off
R
M setup
M
A
N
U
A store
L
“
“
PIN dec
“
“
MJD
M/S DI
hour/min
+/–
toggle
hour/min
“
“
TA ret.
TA PI
“
“
“
“
mode
alarm
“
+/–
freq.
mode
store
“
save
prog.
mode
normal
“
toggle
traffic
enable
NV bit
EON
(16)
“
AN494
20
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Circuit
Circuit
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The circuit is in two distinct parts. The circuit for the MC145170
synthesizer is shown in Figure 6. The synthesizer board is the only part
of the synthesizer controller which actually needs to be in (or close to)
the radio. A local oscillator signal to supply the synthesizer should be
taken from a low-impedance point so that the oscillator is not
significantly loaded. Pulling of the oscillator frequency is not a problem
as the PLL circuitry will compensate, but loading the tuned circuit itself
is not recommended unless a high-impedance buffer is included. This
prevents affecting the tuning range or the "Q" of the oscillator.
The MC145157 requires a divide-by-10 prescaler for FM and divide-by-5
for band 3. The MC145170 does not require prescaling. The standard
LP1186 FM tuner does not have an LO take-off but a signal can be
taken, without other modification, from the emitter of the oscillator BF195
(near the center of the PCB).
The Mullard LP1186 is unusual in having its local oscillator low. More
recent tuners, for instance, the Larsholt 7254/55, almost always have
their local oscillator above the tuned frequency. This selection can be
made using port A, bit 2.
A 16-digit LCD (parallel) or VFD (serial) dot-matrix display module can
be driven. The two display modules show the same data (within the
limitations of their character ROMs). The VFD display driver supported
is the MSC7128 and the LCD driver, the HD44780. On its own, this driver
can be used to provide a 16-way multiplexed display, but an 8-way
multiplexed higher contrast display is possible if the module also
incorporates an HD44100. In an application which drives an LCD
module (for instance, a ROMed PH8) and the module is not connected,
a 10-k pulldown resistor should be added to bit 7 of port A. This prevents
the software hanging up waiting for the busy line to go low.
Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the circuit diagrams of the controllers.
Figure 3 gives the pin numbers for the 52-pin PLCC HC11E with the
numbers for the 56-pin SDIP (if different) in brackets. With the E32, the
display in use can be selected by the level on port E, bit 7 (high for LCD
and low for VFD) and the LCD multiplexing by port A, bit 7 (high for
AN494
21
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
divide-by-16, low for divide-by-8). The SW bank is selected by the level
on port E, bit 6.
Figure 4 shows pin numbers for the 84-pin PLCC K4, with the
differences for the PH8 in brackets. Debug on the K4 using PCbug11
(reference 5) requires some additional hardware (within the dotted line)
and port D bits 0 and 1 (SCI), port G bits 1 and 7 (XA14 and R/W), and
port H bits 5 and 7 (CSGP1 and CSPROG), leaving 30 input/output (I/O)
lines for use in the application. The display selections are not available
on the PH8 ROMed versions, but there are four SW banks of 10 program
memories; they are selected by port E, bits 6 and 7.
Since different demodulator devices can be used, the circuitry for the
demodulator is not shown. The clock from the demodulator interrupts the
microprocessor on each positive edge. At this time, a data bit is available
and is read on bit 5 of port E.
Software
An assembled listing of part of the HC11E32 ROMed version
(ZC403311) of the application is included. The software is in three
modules and was assembled and linked using the Introl re-locatable
assembler and linker. The first module is listed. It contains all the main
control routines, including the main loop and keyboard scanning, and the
function to be performed by each key.
The second module contains the RDS and display functions, while the
third module is the 4-function, 9-digit integer BCD arithmetic required for
the MJD date calculations.
The second and third modules are described and listed in AN495
(reference 4). EB419/D (reference 5) describes and lists additional
debug code contained in the ROMed parts.
The code which is executed only on startup (power-on or reset) begins
at the label START on the third page of the first module’s listing, while
the main loop starts at the label IDLE on the next page. The idle loop is
quite long, as many functions and checks have to be carried out.
AN494
22
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Software
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
These include:
•
Pacing the loop using the main timer
•
Checking to see if the display needs updating or if a transient
display has timed out
•
Checking if alarm is armed and, if so, comparing its time with the
current time
•
Sleep timer operation
•
Traffic announcement timing and return
•
Keyboard scanning and selected function execution
•
Incremental encoder execution
•
Checking for changes in the band and memory selection inputs
•
Timing band changes
•
Updating TA = TP = 1 and M/S outputs
The keyboard subroutine (KBD) is executed at 64 Hz from the idle loop
and checks to see if a key is pressed. If the same key is pressed on three
consecutive tries, its function is performed. The remainder of the first
module constitutes the subroutines performed by each key and the
arithmetic and serial activity required to tune the synthesizers. The batch
files used for linking the modules are shown as comments at the end of
the listing, along with the pseudo-vectors required by PCbug11 during
debug.
The displays are only updated when there is a change in the displayed
data. At 8 Hz, a check is made to see if any characters have changed; if
there has been a change, the display update routine is executed. This is
done to minimize interference caused by communication with the
displays. The colon between the hours and minutes of the time display
changes at 1 Hz. This can be disabled (colon permanently displayed) by
using the time colon key. The display routine (MOD) is executed in the
idle loop if the flag bit 3 of STAT2 is set. It is set every 125 ms by timer B
interrupts. If flag bit 4 of STAT2 is set, the display is initialized, indicating
no valid RDS data. The dot-matrix modules are then updated, if
necessary, with new data. Each time, before anything is written to the
LCD module, the subroutine WAIT is used; this checks that the controller
AN494
23
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
in the module is not busy. The different display formats are selected by
checking the various flags and the relevant routine executed. The
normal display permanently shows PS name and time. As the locations
in RAM used for hours and minutes contain binary numbers, they are
converted to BCD before being written to the relevant bytes in DISP.
Once all 16 bytes in DISP have been loaded, loops are used to send the
data to the display modules. The standby display (alarm not enabled)
shows date and time. After a power-up, the display "Mon 0 inv 0:00"
indicates that the date and time are invalid. The date and time will be
correct once a valid RDS CT group has been received.
The VFD routine sends the same data as is shown on the LCD module
to the serial VFD module. The display driver used has a different
character set from the standard ASCII set used by the LCD module. The
table VTAB is used to convert ASCII data into the required character in
the VFD module. The small table INITF is used to send the required
initialization bytes to the VFD module. This module does not require a
busy check but does require a delay between successive bytes. This is
satisfied by the wait loop within the serial output loop VFDL. The LCD
and VFD routines are in the second software module (see reference 4).
Table 6. Display Formats
Display Mode
Standby
Off
Alarm off
Alarm off, no CT
Alarm on
Normal
On
With RDS PS name
Without RDS
Auto name
Tuning knob (AM)
Alarm
Alarm off
Alarm on/setup
Sleep
Format
Thu 12 May 21:35
Mon 0 inv
0:00
0659 alarm
21:35
4 BBC 4 FM 21:40
5 ----------- 21:40
6 -- 9410
21:40
6 -- 9415
21:40
Alarm — OFF
5-day alarm 0659
Sleep 60 minutes
AN494
24
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Traffic Announcements
Table 6. Display Formats (Continued)
Display Mode
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
RDS
RT
PTY
PI
TA & TP
PIN (hex)
PIN (decoded)
MJD
MS & DI
last TA 1.
2.
EON (16)
Manual
Format
Kaleidoscope. . . .
Culture
PI code — C204
TP — 0
TA — 1
PIN no. — 655E
12th at 21:30
MJ day — 49484
M/S M DI 01
last TA PI C514
TA rtrn: EON PI
BBC 3 FM
92.10
BBC Gael
103.70
BBC Nwcl
96.00
BBC Scot
94.30
BBC Scot
92.50
BBC Scot
94.70
BBC Scot
93.50
Classic
101.70
BBC Eng
107.90
BBC 1 FM
99.50
BBC 2 FM
89.90
--------------------------6 Classic
101.70
Traffic Announcements
The radio can respond to EON-initiated traffic announcements if they are
enabled by the TRAFFIC (TA) key. This status is indicated by a decimal
point at the 11th character on the dot-matrix displays. A switch to a TA
on another frequency will only occur if the station has previously been
stored in NVM; the EON data which can be displayed using the RDS key
is not used for TA switching. The PI code of the last TA (or attempted
TA) can be displayed by pressing the RDS key eight times. A further
press displays one of the TA return/inhibit messages shown here. TAs
which are the result of TA = TP = 1 on the current frequency do not
update the last TA PI or TA return/inhibit messages.
AN494
25
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
When a 14B group is received, the following occurs:
•
Check traffic flag; if enabled, proceed; otherwise, set TA rtrn/inhb
message to:
TA inhb: flag — Traffic key inhibit flag (d.p. at the 11th character
position)
•
Search for TA PI code in NVM; if found, proceed; otherwise, set
TA rtrn/inhb message to:
TA inhb: EON PI — The PI code given in 14B is not in the NVM.
•
Check station TA inhibit flag in NVM; if clear, proceed; otherwise,
set TA rtrn/inhb message to:
TA inhb: NVM — User inhibit of station using bit stored in NVM
•
Retune to frequency stored in NVM against EON PI code. The PS
name display changes to show the PS name of the service
carrying the traffic announcement and the time display is replaced
by the new frequency. If the service has its TP flag high, then the
10s of kHz digit will flash as in the manual mode display. After one
second, check TP flag at the new frequency. If high, then proceed;
otherwise, return to original frequency and set TA rtrn/inhb
message to:
TA rtrn: TP low — TP station does not have TP bit high.
•
Check PI code at new frequency. If correct (same as 14B EON TA
PI code), then proceed; otherwise, retune to original frequency
and set TA rtrn/inhb message to:
TA rtrn: PI code — PI code of TP station was not as expected.
•
After an additional two seconds, start to monitor the TA flag; if
high, remain on current frequency, if low, return to original
frequency and set TA rtrn/inhb message to:
TA rtrn: TA low — TA flag of TP station low. This is the normal
return method.
•
If, during a TA, the radio is manually retuned, the TA rtrn/inhb
message is set to:
TA rtrn:manual — User-initiated manual return
AN494
26
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Traffic Announcements
Table 7. MCU I/O
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
K4 and PH8
Function
E32
Port A bits
0–7
LCD module data bus
Port C bits
0–7
Port B bits
0–7
High-order addresses (K4)
N/A
—
Port C bits
0–7
Data bus (K4)
N/A
—
0–1
2–4
5
Debug (PCbug11 or BUFFALO)
Keyboard rows (via 14028 encoder)
Standby (high:standby, low:on)
Port D bits
Port D bits
0–1
2–4
5
Keyboard columns
Shaft direction (XIRQ)
RDS data in or shaft direction (IRQ)
Short-wave memory select 1
Short-wave memory select 2 (PH8 only)
Port E bits
Port E bits
0–3
4
5
6
7
N/A
0–3
4
5
6
—
Port F bits
0–7
Low-order addresses
N/A
—
Port G bits
0
1
2–4
5–6
7
Mute
XA14 (K4 only)
LCD control lines (RS, R/W, and clock)
Band select
R/W (K4)
Port A bit
N/A
Port B bits
Port A bits
N/A
4
—
5–7
0–1
—
Port H bits
0–1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Serial clock/data for VFD and PLLs
VFD chip enable (PH8: +/– 10.7 MHz)
Port E, bit 5 input control
MC145170 PLL chip enable
CSGP1 (K4 only)
MC145157 PLL chip enable
CSPROG (K4 only)
Port B bits
Port B bit
Port A bit
Port B bit
N/A
Port B bit
N/A
0–1
2
3
4
—
3
—
N/A
FM IF select (+/– 10.7 MHz
Port A bit
2
N/A
TA = TP = 1
Port A bit
5
N/A
M/S = 1
Port A bit
6
N/A
LCD multiplex select (8/16)
Port A bit
7
N/A
Display module (LCD/VFD) select
Port E bit
7
AN494
27
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Setup and Testing
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
An effective method of fault finding a PLL circuit is to initially do the
tuning with a potentiometer, leaving the output of the filter disconnected
from the VCO. As the radio is tuned through the frequency setup in the
synthesizer, the filter output should switch from one extreme to the other.
Until this test passes, it is not useful to close the loop, as it is difficult to
distinguish the cause of a problem from its effects.
Check operation of the MC34064 LVI circuit. As the supply voltage is
lowered, it should pull the reset pin low. This should occur between 4.70
and 4.50 volts. Adjust trimmer on the EXTAL pin of the M68HC711 for
accurate timekeeping in the absence of RDS CT information. (Radio
should be detuned or tuned to a station known not to provide RDS.) The
trimmer on pin 2 of the PLL chip (MC145157 or MC145170) should be
adjusted to provide an accurate reference frequency. This adjustment
can be made simply to tuning to a strong broadcast of known frequency
and adjusting for optimum reception or symmetric adjacent-channel
response.
PH8 ROMed Application
The ROMed PH8s (ZC428200 and ZC428202) differ from the described
E32 version of this application as follows:
1. 40 short-wave programs can be stored instead of 20. These are
accessed by the use of a second memory-select line (port E, bit 7).
2. There is no display selection; both LCD and VFD signals are
generated. If an LCD module is not connected, a pulldown on port
A, bit 7 should be included (see Figure 4).
3. LCD multiplexing is fixed at divide-by-8.
4. Traffic announcement (retune to TA frequency) is not fully
implemented in the ZC428200.
AN494
28
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
References
5. Time colon FLASH defeat key is not implemented; the display
modules are always updated at 8 Hz.
6. TA = TP = 1 and M/S outputs are not implemented.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
7. 10-kHz MW steps are not available (no 9/10 key).
8. +/–10.7-MHz IF selection (FM) is carried out on port H, bit 2 which
is read after reset but before it is set up as an output. A pullup or
pulldown resistor will determine the IF selection (pullup for LO high
and pulldown for LO low) without affecting the pin’s subsequent
function as an output (VFD chip enable).
9. The 500-ms delay at switch-on between the standby line moving
and the PLLs being retuned is not implemented.
10. The sleep d.p. flashes during operation of the sleep timer.
References
1. A Radio Synthesizer Using the MC68HC05B4, Motorola
document order number ANE416/D
2. CENELEC EN 50067, Specifications of the Radio Data System
(RDS), formerly EBU technical document 3244
3. An RDS Decoder Using the MC68HC05E0, Motorola document
order number AN460/D
4. RDS Decoding for an HC11 Controlled Radio, Motorola document
order number AN495/D
5. ROMed HC11E32 and HC11PH8 Including BUFFALO Monitor
and PCbug 11 Talker, Motorola document order number EB419/D
AN494
29
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
*************************************************************
*
*
*
MC68HC11E32 RDS multiband radio.
*
*
*
*
Used with RDSE.S11, FNCE.S11 & RDRAME.S11.
*
*
*
*
P. Topping
3rd April ’94
*
*************************************************************
IMPORT
SDATA,TINTB,INITD,MOD,CLOCK,MJDAT,WAIT,CLREON,CBCD, PROC, TFCC
EXPORT
DCON2,NEW,CLTR,SHAFT
LIB
RDRAME.S11
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PORTD
PORTE
PORTCD
PORTDD
TMSK2
PACTL
OPTION
INIT
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
$00
$04
$03
$08
$0A
$07
$09
$24
$26
$39
$3D
PORT
"
"
"
"
PORT
"
RBO
PPROG
ND
EQU
EQU
EQU
$1000
$3B
9
REGISTER BLOCK OFFSET
EEPROM CONTROL REGISTER
No. DIGITS
A ADDRESS
B "
C "
D "
E "
C DATA DIRECTION REG.
D "
"
"
SECTION.S .RAM1,COMM
BMJD
Q
TMQ
R
TMP
R
MJD
YR
MNTH
DOM
DOW
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
3
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
2
2
1
BINARY MJD
WORKING NUMBER 1 - RDS
SCRATCH
WORKING NUMBER 2 - RDS
MULT. OVER. OR DIV. REMAINDER
WORKING NUMBER 3 - RDS
MODIFIED JULIAN DAY NUMBER
YEAR
MONTH
DATE
DAY OF WEEK
********************************************
*
*
*
RAM allocation, RDS & radio.
*
*
*
********************************************
DIST
SLEPT
RDSTO
PSNP
DAT
TMPGRP
GROUP
PTY
PTYCMP
PI
PION
PIN
LEV
BIT
ITMP1
SYN
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
1
1
1
1
4
8
8
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
TRANSIENT DISPLAY, TIMEOUT,COUNTER
SLEEP TIMER MINUTES COUNTER
RDS TIMEOUT COUNTER
PS DISPLAY POINTER
SERIAL DATA BUFFER
TEMPORARY GROUP DATA
COMPLETE GROUP DATA
PROGRAM-TYPE CODE (CURRENT)
PROGRAM TYPE CODE (PTY SCAN)
PROGRAM IDENTIFICATION CODE
PROGRAM IDENTIFICATION CODE (EON)
PROGRAM ITEM NUMBER
VALID BLOCK LEVEL
BIT LEVEL
TEMP BYTE FOR USE IN IRQ
SYNDROME
AN494
30
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
CONF
TH32
TH8
SEC
MIN
OUR
AMIN
AOUR
DISP1
DISP2
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
RQ
RMB
6
RP
RMB
6
RR
RMB
2
W1
RMB
2
W2
RMB
2
W3
RMB
2
W4
RMB
2
W5
RMB
2
W6
RMB
2
W7
RMB
2
KEY
RMB
1
KOUNT
RMB
1
DIG2
RMB
1
CARRY
RMB
1
COUNT
RMB
1
NUM1
RMB
2
NUM2
RMB
2
LED
RMB
1
SMEM
RMB
2
REARET
RMB
1
RTDIS
RMB
1
DI
RMB
1
SCHAN
RMB
1
********************************************
*
*
*
Flags, & pages 1-2.
*
*
*
********************************************
SYNDROME CONFIDENCE
TICS (SECONDS/32)
EIGHTHS OF SECONDS
SECONDS
MINUTES
HOURS
ALARM MINUTES
ALARM HOURS
RT DISPLAY POINTER #1
RT DISPLAY POINTER #2
STAT
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
STAT2
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
STAT3
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
STAT4
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
STAT5
*
*
*
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
0:
1:
2:
3:
RMB
1
RMB
1
RMB
1
RMB
1
RMB
1
WORKING BCD NUMBER 1 RADIO
"
"
"
2 "
"
"
"
3 "
W
O
R
K
I
N
G
CODE OF PRESSED KEY
KEYBOARD COUNTER
2nd DIGIT TIMEOUT COUNTER
BCD CARRY
LOOP COUNTER
1ST No. POINTER (ADD & SUBTRACT)
2ND No. POINTER (ADD & SUBTRACT)
STATION NUMBER
CURRENT FREQUENCY
LAST TA REASON FOR RETURN
RDS DISPLAY TYPE
DECODER IDENTIFICATION
SCAN CHANNEL
MODE 1: STATION, 0: FREQ
STEP 1: 50KHz, 0: 10KHz
CLRQ 1: CLEAR IF NO. KEYED
TIMER MS BIT TOGGLE (64 Hz)
RDS DATA CLEARING ENABLE
KEY FUNCTION PERFORMED
KEY REPEATING
NOT JUST POWERED UP
VALID SYNDROME
VALID GROUP
RT DISPLAY
UPDATE DISPLAY
CLEAR DISPLAY
SPACE FLAG
NOT ON PROGRAM (AM)
TA RETUNE DONE
NOT ON PROGRAM (FM)
TEXTA/TEXTB BIT (RT)
TA FLAG
TP FLAG
SHAFT DIRECTION
SHAFT ROTATION
UPDATE DATE
SHAFT INTERRUPTS
DISPLAY (OR TA SWITCH) TRANSIENT
SLEEP TIMER RUNNING
TRAFFIC ENABLED
ALARM DISPLAY
ALARM ARMED
ALARM SET-UP
ALARM HOURS (SET-UP)
VALID GROUP 14B RECEIVED
BAND CHANGE TIMEOUT
RDS DISPLAYS
SLEEP DISPLAY
M/S 0: M, 1: S
AN494
31
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
*
*
*
*
STAT6
BCTO
SCNT
EON
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
DISP
DISPP
PSN
RT
STRST
TMRB
IRQ
4:
5:
6:
7:
RMB
RMB
RMB
1
1
1
RETUNE FLAG (FREQUENCY MODE)
TA INHIBIT FLAG (NVM)
STORE MODE
WEEKDAY ONLY ALARM
BAND/BANK (,MW STEP,COLON, ,A1,A0,,E6)
BAND CHANGE TIMEOUT
SHAFT DETENT COUNTER
SECTION .RAM2,COMM
RMB
256
SECTION .RAM3,COMM
RMB
16
RMB
16
RMB
8
RMB
69
SECTION .ROM1
JMP
START
JMP
TINTB
JMP
SDATA
EON DATA (16 NETWORKS)
LCD MODULE BUFFER
CURRENT LCD MODULE CONTENTS
RADIOTEXT
RESET VECTOR
RTI
IRQ
********************************************
*
*
*
Reset routine - set-up ports etc.
*
*
*
********************************************
START
H2L
*
*
LDAA
STAA
LDAA
STAA
#$01
INIT
#$10
$1035
LDAA
STAA
LDAA
STAA
LDAA
STAA
LDAA
STAA
#$30
$1039
#$03
$1026
#$40
$1024
#$00
$1028
IRQ EDGE SENSITIVE
LDS
#$02FF
INITIALISE STACK POINTER
LDY
LDAA
STAA
#$1000
#$10
PORTA,Y
0,1:
3:
6:
LDAA
STAA
#$00
PORTB,Y
0,1:
SERIAL CLOCK/DATA, 5,6,7: LCD CONTROL
2,3,4: LATCH SIGNALS (VFD, 5157 & 5170)
CLR
LDAA
STAA
PORTC,Y
#$FF
PORTCD,Y
0-7:
LCD PARALLEL BUS
CLR
LDAA
STAA
PORTD,Y
#$3C
PORTDD,Y
0,1:
2-4:
5:
SCI (DEBUG)
KEYBOARD OUTPUTS
STANDBY
0-3:
5:
KEYBOARD INPUTS, 4: SHAFT INPUT (XIRQ)
RDS/SHAFT INPUT, 6: SW BANK, 7: LCD/VFD
REGISTERS AT $1000
ENABLE EEPROM WRITE (NOT CONFIG)
32Hz RTI (8.388MHz XTAL)
PORTA, BITS 3 & 7 INPUTS
ENABLE REAL TIME INTERRUPTS
DWOM = 0, PORTD PUSH-PULL
PORTE
"
BAND INPUTS (FM, FM, MW, SW), 2: FM IF
IRQ CONTROL, 4: MUTE, 5: TA=TP=1
M/S=1, 7: 8/16 LCD MUX
********************************************
*
*
*
INITIALISE LCD AND RAM.
*
*
*
********************************************
CLOOP
JSR
LDAA
JSR
JSR
LDAA
JSR
DBOUNC
#$30
CLOCK
DBOUNC
#$30
CLOCK
WAIT 15ms
LDX
CLR
#BMJD
0,X
INITIALISE PAGE 0 RAM
INITIALISE LCD
WAIT 15ms
INITIALISE LCD
AN494
32
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
M8
INX
CPX
BNE
BSET
BSET
#SCNT+1
CLOOP
STAT4,$04
STAT,$01
LDAA
JSR
JSR
LDAA
BRCLR
LDAA
JSR
JSR
LDAA
JSR
JSR
LDAA
JSR
JSR
JSR
#$30
CLOCK
WAIT
#$30
PORTA,Y,$80,M8
#$38
CLOCK
WAIT
#$08
CLOCK
WAIT
#$01
CLOCK
INITD
CLREON
MORE ?
ENABLE TRAFFIC SWITCHING - DEFAULT ?
STATION MODE
INITIALISE LCD
/8 DISPLAY
/16 DISPLAY
LATCH IT
SWITCH DISPLAY OFF
LATCH IT
CLEAR DISPLAY
LATCH IT
INITIALISE RDS DATA & DISPLAY
AND EON DATA
*
Initialise interrupt JMPs
JRT1
JIRQ
JXIRQ
EQU
EQU
EQU
$00EB
$00EE
$00F1
E32 BUFFALO RAM JUMP TABLE
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
LDAA
STAA
STAA
STAA
LDD
STD
LDD
STD
LDD
STD
#$7E
JRTI
JIRQ
JXIRQ
#TINTB
JRTI+1
#SDATA
JIRQ+1
#SHAFTX
JXIRQ+1
RTI
LDAA
TAP
#$00
ENABLE IRQ & XIRQ
IRQ
XIRQ
********************************
*
*
*
Idle loop.
*
*
*
********************************
IDLE
LDY
BRSET
BRSET
BSET
BRA
BRCLR
BCLR
#$1000
STAT,$08,TBH
$0E,Y,$80,*
STAT,$08
NO2D
$0E,Y,$80,*
STAT,$80
BRCLR
LDAA
BNE
JSR
STAT4,$01,NOPS
DIST
NOPS
CLTR
YES, TIMED OUT ?
NOPS
BRCLR
JSR
BCLR
STAT2,$08,NDU
MOD
STAT2,$08
DISPLAY UPDATE REQUIRED ?
YES, DO IT
AND CLEAR FLAG
NDU
BRCLR
PORTD,Y,$20,FULON
STANDBY ?
NOTSNZ
NTJ2
BRSET
JMP
STAT4, $10,NNT2
NT2
STANDBY, ALARM ARMED ?
NNT2
BRCLR
LDAA
CMPA
BHI
LDAA
CMPA
STAT5,$80,NWA
DOW
#4
NT2J
AOUR
OUR
YES, WEEKDAY ALARM ONLY ?
YES
SATURDAY OR
SUNDAY ?
NO, COMPARE ALARM HOURS
WITH TIME
TBH
NO2D
NWA
DISPLAY TRANSIENT ?
AN494
33
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
ONAG
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
FULON
BNE
LDAA
CMPA
BNE
LDAA
BNE
BCLR
JSR
BCLR
JSR
NT2J
AMIN
MIN
NT2J
SEC
NT2
PORTD,Y,$20
DEL500
PORTA,Y,$10
P5170
SAME ?
YES, COMPARE ALARM MINUTES
WITH TIME
SAME ?
ONLY ALLOW WAKE-UP IN FIRST SECOND
TO PREVENT SWITCH-OFF LOCKOUT
YES, SWITCH ON,
WAIT 500ms,
DEMUTE
AND TUNE (5170 & 5157)
BRCLR
LDAA
BNE
BCLR
BSET
BSET
STAT4,$02,FLN
SLEPT
FLN
STAT4,$02
PORTD,Y,$20
PORTA,Y,$10
SLEEP TIMER RUNNING ?
YES
TIME TO FINISH ?
YES, CLEAR FLAG,
SWITCH OFF
AND MUTE
********************************
*
*
*
Idle loop (cont.).
*
*
*
********************************
FLN
*
*
*
*
SOK
TPOK
PINOK1
NT1
NWWS
NT2
ANTI
NSRO
BRCLR
BRSET
BSET
CLR
LDAA
STAA
BSET
BSET
JSR
JSR
BRCLR
JSR
BRCLR
LDAA
STAA
BRA
JSR
BRSET
LDAA
STAA
BRA
LDAA
CMPA
BNE
LDAA
CMPA
BEQ
LDAA
STAA
STAT4,$80,NT1
STAT2,$80,NT2
STAT2,$80
REARET
#25
DIST
STAT4,$01
PORTA,Y,$10
DBNC
RETUNE2
STAT4,$80,NWWS
DEL500
PORTE,Y,$10,SOK
#2
REARET
NT1
DEL500
STAT3,S08,TPOK
#5
REARET
NT1
PI
PION
PINOK1
PI+1
PION+1
NT2
#3
REARET
14B FLAG HIGH ?
YES, BIT AGREES ?
NO, SET BIT
BRCLR
BCLR
BSET
JSR
BCLR
LDAA
JSR
STAT2,$80,NT2
STAT4,$80
PORTA,Y,$10
DBNC
STAT2,$80
LED
RETUNE2
14B FLAG LOW, BIT AGREES ?
MAKE SURE 14B CANCELLED
MUTE
WAIT 150 ms
CLEAR FLAG
SELECTED PROG.
AND RETURN TO ORIGINAL PROGRAM
JSR
JSR
BRCLR
BCLR
BRSET
JSR
BRA
JSR
BRCLR
JSR
KBD
KEYP
STAT3,$20,NSRO
STAT3,$20
STAT3,$10,ANTI
PINC2
NSRO
PDEC2
STAT3,$40,NRDSP
MJDAT
READ KEYBOARD
EXECUTE KEY
SHAFT ROTATION PENDING ?
YES, CLEAR FLAG
DIRECTION ?
CLOCKWISE, INCREMENT
LOCK OUT RETURN
FOR 3 SECONDS
SET DISPLAY TRANSIENT FLAG
MUTE
WAIT 150 ms
AND RETUNE
PI CODE NOT IN EON LIST ?
WAIT 500ms
SIGNAL OK ?
WAIT 500ms
TP OK?
YES, CHECK PI CODE
AGAINST PI (EON)
IF OK STAY SWITCHED
ANTI-CLOCKWIRE, DECREMENT
UPDATE DATE ?
YES, CONVERT FROM MJD
*********************************************
*
*
*
Idle loop (cont.).
*
AN494
34
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NRDSP
* Retune if band or SW bank inputs changed. *
*
*
*****************************************
LDY
#$1000
BRCLR
STAT,$80,BTO
JUST POWERED UP ?
BRCLR
PORTA,Y,$01,L5
NO, A0 LOW ?
BRSET
STAT6,$04,CG6
NO, HIGH, BIT AGREES ?
BSET
STAT6,$04
NO, MAKE IT HIGH
BRSET
STAT6,$08,BTO
BAND ONE ?
BSET
STAT3,$80
YES, SHAFT INTERRUPTS
BRA
CHE
AND NOTHING ELSE TO DO
L5
BRCLR
BCLR
BRSET
BCLR
BRA
STAT6,$04,CG6
STAT6,$04
STAT6,$08,BTO
STAT3,$80
CHE
YES, A0 LOW, BUT AGREES ?
NO, MAKE IT LOW
BAND ZERO ?
YES, RDS INTERRUPTS
AND NOTHING ELSE TO DO
CG6
BRCLR
BRSET
BSET
BRA
PORTA,Y,$02,L6
STAT6,$08,CHE
STAT6,$08
BTO
A1 LOW ?
NO, HIGH, BIT AGREES ?
NO, MAKE IT HIGH
L6
BRCLR
BCLR
BRSET
BCLR
BRA
STAT6,$08,CHE
STAT6,$08
STAT6,$04,BTO
STAT3,$80
BTO
YES, A1 LOW, BIT AGREES ?
NO, MAKE IT LOW
BAND ZERO ?
YES, RDS INTERRUPTS
CHE
BRSET
BRA
STAT6,$0C,BD3
OK6
BAND 3 ?
BRCLR
BRSET
BSET
BRA
PORTE,Y,$40,E6L
STAT6,$01,OK6
STAT6,$01
BTO
NO, E6 LOW ?
NO, HIGH, BIT AGREES ?
NO, MAKE IT HIGH
E6L
BRCLR
BCLR
STAT6,$01,OK6
STAT6,$01
YES, E6 LOW, BIT AGREES ?
NO, MAKE IT LOW
BTO
BSET
LDAA
STAA
BSET
STAT,$80
#10
BCTO
STAT5,$01
SET POWER-UP FLAG,
BD3
CE6
INITIALISE
AND START BAND-CHANGE TIMEOUT
********************************
*
*
*
Idle loop (cont.).
*
*
*
********************************
OK6
BRCLR
DEC
BNE
BCLR
BSR
BRCLR
BSET
STAT5,$01,ARI
BCTO
ARI
STAT5,$01
RCLP
STAT6,$0C,ARI
STAT3,$80
TIMEOUT RUNNING?
YES, DECREMENT COUNT
FINISHED ?
YES, CLEAR FLAG
AND RECALL LAST USED PROG. No.
BAND 0 ?
NO, SHAFT INTERUPTS
ARI
BRSET
BSET
BRA
BCLR
STAT3,$0C,TATP
PORTA,Y,$20
IOOK
PORTA,7,$20
TA=TP=1 ?
MSH
BRSET
BSET
BRA
BCLR
STAT5,$08,MSH
PORTA,Y,$40
IDLJ
PORTA,Y,$40
IDLJ
JMP
IDLE
RCLP
BSET
LDAB
JSR
STAA
PORTA,Y,$10
#120
READ1
LED
TATP
IOOK
YES, A5 LOW
M/S=1 ?
YES, A6 LOW
MUTE
GET STORED PROG. No.
AN494
35
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
JMP
RETUNE2
PROGRAM 145170/57
********************************
*
*
*
Shaft rotation interrupts. *
*
*
********************************
SHAFT
SEM
TEM
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SHAFTX
XEM
YEM
BRSET
BCLR
BRA
BSET
BSET
RTI
PORTE,Y,$20,SEM
STAT3,$10
TEM
STAT3,$10
STAT3,$20
IRQ,SHAFT I/O HIGH (E5) ?
NO, CLEAR DIRECTION BIT
BRSET
BCLR
BRA
BSET
BSET
RTI
PORTE,Y,$10,XEM
STAT3,$10
YEM
STAT3,$10
STAT3,$20
XIRQ, SHAFT I/O HIGH (E4) ?
NO, CLEAR DIRECTION BIT
YES, SET DIRECTION BIT
SET FLAG TO INDICATE ROTATION
YES, SET DIRECTION BIT
SET FLAG TO INDICATE ROTATION
********************************
*
*
*
Keyboard routine.
*
*
*
********************************
KBD
KEY1
L1
EXIT
NOTCH
NRML
GON2
GOON2
CLR
LDY
LDX
LDAB
ADDB
STAB
LDAB
ANDB
ADDB
STAB
LDAA
BITA
BNE
DEX
BNE
CLR
BRA
LDAB
LSLB
LSLB
LDAA
ANDA
ABA
CMPA
BEQ
STAA
CLR
INC
LDAA
BRCLR
LDAB
BEQ
CMPA
BRA
CMPA
BRA
CMPA
BLO
BEQ
CMPA
BHI
LDAA
BEQ
CLC
RTS
LDAA
CMPA
BEQ
W1
#$1000
#7
W1
#$04
W1
PORTD,Y
#$20
W1
PORTD,Y
PORTE,Y
#$0F
L1
SELECT COLUMN
PRESERVE OTHER PORTD DATA
READ KEYBOARD
ANY INPUT LINE HIGH ?
NO, TRY NEXT COLUMN
LAST COLUMN ?
YES, NO KEY PRESSED
KEY1
KEY
EXIT
W1
PORTE,Y
#$0F
READ KEYBOARD
KEY
EXIT
KEY
KOUNT
KOUNT
KOUNT
STAT,$40,NRML
PSNP
NOTCH
#8
GON2
#16
GON2
#3
KCLC
GOON
#47
GOON2
KEY
RKEY
SAME AS LAST TIME ?
NO, SAVE THIS KEY
YES, THE SAME
REPEATING ?
YES
CHARACTER CHANGE ?
YES, REPEAT AT 8 Hz
NO, REPEAT AT 4 Hz
NO, 3 THE SAME ?
IF NOT DO NOTHING
IF 3 THEN PERFORM KEY FUNCTION
MORE THAN 3, MORE THAN 47 (750mS) ?
TIME TO DO SOMETHING ?
NO
KEY PRESSED ?
YES BUT DO NOTHING
KEY
#$54
GOON3
DEC. PROG.
AN494
36
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
GOON3
GOON
RKEY
DNT2
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
KCLC
DNT
CMPA
BEQ
CMPA
BNE
BSET
CLR
LDAA
BEQ
SEC
RTS
BCLR
BCLR
CLR
CLC
RTS
#$58
GOON3
#$52
DNT2
STAT,$40
KOUNT
KEY
RKEY
INC.PROG.
STAT,$20
STAT,$40
KOUNT
NO, CLEAR DONE FLAG
CLEAR REPEAT FLAG
CLEAR COUNTER
SLEEP
IF NOT A REPEAT KEY, DO NOTHING
SET REPEAT FLAG
SOMETHING TO DO ?
YES, SET C
********************************
*
*
*
Execute key.
*
*
*
********************************
KEYP
KEYP2
RPT
RJ
PJ
BCC
LDAA
CMPA
BEQ
CMPA
BEQ
CMPA
BEQ
BRSET
CLRB
LDX
ABX
LDAA
CMPA
BEQ
CMPA
BEQ
ADDB
BRA
BSET
JSR
JMP
DNT
KEY
#$54
RPT
#$58
RPT
#$52
RPT
STAT,$20,DNT
ANYTHING TO DO ?
YES, GET KEY
DEC. PROG. (M)
INC. PROG. (S)
SLEEP
NOT A REPEAT KEY, FLAG SET ?
#CTAB
0,X
KEY
PJ
LAST
DNT
#4
RJ
STAT,$20
1,X
P5170
FETCH KEYCODE
THIS ONE ?
YES
NO, LAST CHANCE ?
YES, ABORT
NO TRY THE NEXT KEY
********************************
*
*
*
Keyboard jump table.
*
*
*
********************************
CTAB
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
$11
DIGIT
$21
DIGIT
$22
DIGIT
$24
DIGIT
$31
DIGIT
$32
DIGIT
$34
DIGIT
$41
DIGIT
$42
DIGIT
$44
DIGIT
$48
ALARM
$38
SAVE
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
ALARM
STORE/SET
AN494
37
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Application Note
LAST
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
FCB
JMP
$18
ONOFF
$14
CLEAR
$12
MODE
$52
SLEEP
$54
PDEC
$58
PINC
$61
RTDSP
$62
TPEN
$64
T910
$51
TFCC
$68
TEST
ON/OFF
CLEAR/STEP
MODE (PROG./FREQ.)
SLEEP TIMER START
DEC. PROG./FREQ./CHAR.
INC. PROG./FREQ./CHAR.
RDS DISPLAYS
TRAFFIC ENABLE (TOGGLE)
MW STEP 9/10kHz (TOGGLE)
COLON CONTROL
TA TEST
********************************
*
*
*
Alarm key.
*
*
*
*******************************
ALARM
ALOF
ADON
UDCNT
ABOA
BRCLR
BRCLR
BCLR
BRA
BSET
BRA
STAT4,$08,ADON
STAT4,$10,ALOF
STAT4,$10
UDCNT
STAT4,$10
UDCNT
ALARM DISPLAY ON ?
YES, ALARM ON ?
YES, SWITCH OFF
JSR
BSET
BCLR
LDAA
STAA
BSET
RTS
CLTR
STAT4,$08
STAT4,$20
#25
DIST
STAT4,$01
NO, ENABLE ALARM DISPLAY
ALARM DISPLAY FLAG
CANCEL SET-UP
3 SECONDS TIMEOUT
NO, SWITCH ON
SET DISPLAY TRANSIENT FLAG
********************************
*
*
*
On/off key.
*
*
*
********************************
ONOFF
SODM
ALRON
JSR
BCLR
BCLR
CLTR
STAT4,$82
STAT5,$40
CLEAR DISPLAY TRANSIENTS
CANCELL SLEEP TIMER & TA SWITCH FLAG
CANCEL STORE MODE
BRCLR
BCLR
JSR
BCLR
RTS
BSET
BSET
RTS
PORTD,Y,$20,ALRON
PORTD,Y,$20
DEL500
PORTA,Y,$10
ON ?
NO, SWITCH ON
WAIT 500ms
AND DEMUTE
PORTD,Y,$20
PORTA,Y,$10
YES, SWITCH OFF
AND MUTE
********************************
*
*
*
PS name clear.
*
*
*
********************************
PSC
CPSL
LDX
LDAA
STAA
INX
CPX
BNE
RTS
#PSN
#$FF
0,X
#PSN+8
CPSL
AN494
38
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
********************************
*
*
*
TP.
*
*
*
********************************
TPEN
TAEH
HIGH
NS1
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
TPOF
BRSET
BRSET
BRSET
BSET
RTS
BCLR
RTS
PORTD,Y,$20,HIGH
STAT,$01,NS1
STAT5,$20,TAEH
STAT5,$20
STANDBY ?
NO, NORMAL MODE ?
NO, FREQ. MODE, NVM DISABLE FLAG SET ?
NO, SET IT
STAT5,$20
YES, CLEAR IT
BRCLR
BCLR
RTS
BSET
RTS
STAT4,$04,TPOF
STAT4,$04
NORMAL MODE, TRAFFIC ON ?
YES, DISABLE
STAT4,$04
NO, ENABLE
********************************
*
*
*
Sleep timer.
*
*
*
********************************
SLEEP
INSLP
SLEP
STR
DECS
SLPTOK
BRSET
BRSET
LDAA
STAA
BSET
JSR
BSET
BRA
LDAA
SUBA
STAA
BMI
STAT5,$04,DECS
STAT4,$02,STR
#60
SLEPT
STAT4,$02
CLTR
STAT5,$04
SLPTOK
SLEPT
#5
SLEPT
INSLP
LDAA
STAA
BSET
BRSET
BCLR
RTS
#25
DIST
STAT4,$01
PORTD,Y,$20,SODM
PORTA,Y,$10
ALREADY SLEEP DISPLAY ?
NO, SLEEP TIMER ALREADY RUNNING ?
NO, INITIALISE SLEEP TIMER
START SLEEP TIMER
YES, CLEAR DISPLAY TRANSIENTS
SLEEP DISPLAY
NO DECREMENT IF FIRST TIME
DECREMENT SLEEP TIMER
START DISPLAY TRANSIENT
ALREADY ON ?
YES, JUST DEMUTE
********************************
*
*
*
Number entry routine. *
*
*
********************************
DIGIT
SHIFT
AGS
BRSET
JSR
LSRB
LSRB
BRSET
BRSET
BSET
BLCR
STAB
BRCLR
BCLR
JSR
BSR
LDX
LDAA
STAA
INX
CPX
BNE
LDAA
STAA
RTS
PORTD,Y,$20,AB03
CLTR
STANDBY ?
NO, CLEAR DISPLAY TRANSIENTS
STAT,$01,SKP
STAT5,$40,SKP
STAT5,$10
STAT5,$20
W3
STAT,$04,SHIFT
STAT,$04
CLQ
DR1
W1
1,X
1,X
STATION MODE ?
NO, STORE MODE ?
NO, SET RETUNE FLAG (FREQUENCY MODE)
AND CLEAR TA INHIBIT BIT (NVM)
W2
AGS
W3
0,X
CLEAR Q ?
YES, CLEAR FLAG
AND CLEAR Q
W1: MSD, W2: LSD
MOVE ALL DIGITS
UP ONE PLACE
DONE ?
YES, RECOVER NEW DIGIT
AND PUT IT IN LSD
AN494
39
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
SKP
BSET
TBA
STAA
JMP
PORTA,Y,$10
MUTE
LED
RETUNE
********************************
*
*
* Save pointers & 500ms delay. *
*
*
********************************
DR1
ABO3
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
DEL500
LDX
STX
LDAB
ABX
STX
RTS
#RQ
W1
#5
LDX
JSR
LDX
JMP
#255
SKDB
#255
SKDB
STORE POINTERS
W2
********************************
*
*
*
Increment key (& knob).
*
*
*
*******************************
PINC2
PINC
TOG57J
BRSET
BRSET
BRSET
LDAB
BNE
JMP
STAT4,$20,ALSU1
STAT4,$08,TOG57
PORTD,Y,$20,DMI
PSNP
PSN0
UP
ALARM SET-UP ?
NO, ALARM DISPLAY ?
NO,STANDBY ?
NO,PS EDIT MODE ?
NO, STEP UP
BRSET
BRSET
STAT4,$20,ALSU1
STAT4,#08,TOG57
ALARM SET-UP ?
NO, ALARM DISPLAY ?
BRSET
BRSET
JMP
PORTD,Y,$20,DMI
STAT,$01,NACS
UP
NO, STANDBY ?
NO, FREQ. MODE ?
YES, STEP UP
********************************
*
*
* Alarm inc. (hours/minutes).
*
*
*
********************************
ALSU1
TOOH
IHR
HTOH
T5S
DMI
NACS
BRSET
LDAA
CMPA
BHS
INC
BRA
CLR
BRA
LDAA
CMPA
BLO
CLR
BRA
INC
LDAA
STAA
BSET
BCLR
RTS
STAT4,$40,IHR
AMIN
#59
TOOH
AMIN
T5S
AMIN
T5S
AOUR
#23
HTOH
AOUR
T5S
AOUR
#80
DIST
STAT4,$01
PORTA,Y,$10
LDAB
BEQ
PSNP
CONTI
YES, SET-UP HOURS ?
NO, MINUTES
10 SECOND TIMEOUT
SET DISPLAY TRANSIENT FLAG
DEMUTE
NO, PS EDIT MODE ?
AN494
40
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
**********************************************
*
*
* P-S Edit inc. (ASCII) and 5/7 day toggle *
*
*
**********************************************
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
PSN0
MAK20
MAK2E
MAK30
MAK41
MAK61
CNTB
TOG57
A7
LDX
ABX
LDAA
INCA
CMPA
BLS
CMPA
BLS
CMPA
BLO
CMPA
BLS
CMPA
BLO
CMPA
BLS
CMPA
BLO
CMPA
BLS
LDAA
BRA
LDAA
BRA
LDAA
BRA
LDAA
BRA
LDAA
STAA
LDAA
JMP
#PSN-1
BRCLR
BRCLR
BCLR
BRA
BSET
BRA
STAT4,$10,DMI
STAT5,$80,A7
STAT5,$80
T5S
STAT5,$80
T5S
0,X
YES
INCREMENT ASCII VALUE
SPACE
LESS OR EQUAL ?
NO, .
LESS OR EQUAL ?
NO, 0
LESS ?
NO, 9
LESS OR EQUAL ?
NO, A
LESS ?
NO, Z
LESS OR EQUAL ?
NO, a
LESS ?
NO, z
LESS OR EQUAL ?
MAKE SPACE
#$20
MAK20
#$2E
MAK2E
#$30
MAK30
#$39
CNTB
#$41
MAK41
#$5A
CNTB
#$61
MAK61
#$7A
CNTB
#$20
CNTB
#$2E
CNTB
#$30
CNTB
#$41
CNTB
#$61
0,X
#80
OUTCH
MAKE .
MAKE 0
MAKE A
MAKE a
ALARM ARMED ?
YES, 7-DAY ALARM ?
NO, MAKE IT 7 DAY
YES, MAKE IT 5 DAY
********************************
*
*
* Program number increment.
*
*
*
********************************
CONTI
IOK
BSET
BSET
LDAA
BRSET
INCA
CMPA
BLS
CLRA
STAA
JMP
PORTA,Y,$10
STAT2,$08
LED
STAT2,$80,IOK
#9
IOK
MUTE
PROG. No. INCREMENT, UPDATE DISPLAY
IF SWITCHED TO TA DON’T INCREMENT
NEXT PROG.
TOO HIGH ?
YES, BACK TO ZERO
LED
RETUNE
********************************
*
*
*
Decrement key (& knob).
*
*
*
********************************
PDEC2
BRSET
BRSET
BRSET
LDAB
BNE
JMP
STAT4,$20,ALSU2
STAT4,$08,TOG57
PORTD,Y,$20,DMD
PSNP
PSN1
DOWN
ALARM SET-UP ?
NO, ALARM DISPLAY ?
NO, STANDBY ?
NO, PS EDIT MODE ?
NO, STEP DOWN
AN494
41
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
PDEC
BRSET
BRSET
BRSET
BRSET
JMP
STAT4,$20,ALSU2
STAT4,$08,TOG57
PORTD,Y,$20,DMD
STAT,$01,NACS2
DOWN
ALARM SET-UP ?
NO, ALARM DISPLAY ?
NO, STANDBY ?
NO, FREQ. MODE ?
YES, STEP DOWN
********************************
*
*
*
Alarm dec. (hours/minutes).*
*
*
********************************
ALSU2
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
MZ
IHRD
HZ
T5SD
DMD
NACS2
BRSET
TST
BEQ
DEC
BRA
LDAA
STAA
BRA
TST
BNE
LDAA
STAA
DEC
LDAA
STAA
BSET
BCLR
RTS
STAT4,$40,IHRD
AMIN
MZ
AMIN
T5SD
#59
AMIN
T5SD
AOUR
HZ
#24
AOUR
AOUR
#80
DIST
STAT4,$01
PORTA,Y,$10
LDAB
BEQ
PSNP
CONTD
YES, SET-UP HOURS ?
NO, MINUTES
10 SECOND TIMEOUT
SET DISPLAY TRANSIENT FLAG
DEMUTE
PS EDIT CHARACTER CHANGE ?
********************************
*
*
*
P-S Edit dec. (ASCII).
*
*
*
********************************
PSN1
MKE20
MKE2E
MKE5A
MKE7A
MKE39
CNTS
OUTCH
LDX
ABX
LDAA
DECA
CMPA
BLS
CMPA
BLS
CMPA
BLO
CMPA
BLS
CMPA
BLO
CMPA
BLS
CMPA
BLO
CMPA
BLS
LDAA
BRA
LDAA
BRA
LDAA
BRA
LDAA
BRA
LDAA
STAA
LDAA
#PSN-1
STAA
BSET
BCLR
RTS
DIST
STAT4,$01
STAT4,$08
0,X
YES
DECREMENT ASCII VALUE
SPACE
LESS OR EQUAL ?
NO, .
LESS OR EQUAL ?
NO, 0
LESS ?
NO, 9
LESS OR EQUAL ?
NO, A
LESS ?
NO, Z
LESS OR EQUAL ?
NO, a
LESS ?
NO, z
LESS OR EQUAL ?
MAKE SPACE
#$20
MKE7A
#$2E
MKE20
#$30
MKE2E
#$39
CNTS
#$41
MKE39
#$5A
CNTS
#$61
MKE5A
#$7A
CNTS
#$20
CNTS
#$2E
CNTS
#$5A
CNTS
#$7A
CNTS
#$39
0,X
#80
MAKE .
MAKE Z
MAKE z
MAKE A
SET DISPLAY TRANSIENT FLAG
NOT ALARM DISPLAY MODE
AN494
42
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
********************************
*
*
*
Program number decrement. *
*
*
********************************
CONTD
PNM1
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SK2P
RETUNE
RETUNE2
FOK
BSET
LDAA
BRSET
DECA
BPL
LDAA
STAA
PSHA
LDAB
JSR
PULA
BRCLR
BCLR
LDAA
STAA
RTS
PORTA,Y,$10
LED
STAT2,$80,RETUNE
SK2P
#9
LED
MUTE
PROG. No. DECREMENT
IF SWITCHED TO TA DON’T DECREMENT
DECREMENT PROGRAM NUMBER
TOO FAR ?
SAVE NEW PROGRAM NUMBER
#120
WRITE1
CHANGE PROGRAM NUMBER IN NVM
STAT4,$80,RETUNE2
STAT4,$80
#9
REARET
TA SWITCHED ?
YES, MANUAL RETURN FROM TA
JSR
JSR
LDX
JSR
BCLR
BCLR
BCLR
BCLR
RTS
DOIT
P5170
#64
SKDB
PORTA,Y,$10
STAT2,$02
STAT3,$01
STAT,$10
NEW PROGRAM
LDAB
MUL
ADDB
STAB
ADCA
STAA
JMP
#10
WAIT 100ms
DEMUTE
KILL ANY PENDING RDS GROUP
AND INHIBIT FM PS-NAME CLEARING
RE-ENABLE RDS DATA CLEARING
#$5C
SMEM
#$26
SMEM+1
NEW
********************************
*
*
* Tune to TA (using EEPROM data)*
*
*
********************************
TASW
TPIC
TASOK
TNP
ABTA
CLRB
ADDB
JSR
INCB
CMPA
BNE
DECB
JSR
CMPA
BNE
SUBB
JSR
PSHA
ANDA
BEQ
LDAA
BRA
PULA
STAA
JSR
JMP
CMPB
BLO
PSHA
LDAA
STAA
PULA
#10
READ1
FIND PI
PION
TNP
MSB OK ?
READ1
PION+1
TNP
#12
READ1
LSB OK ?
YES, FOUND IT
#$80
TASOK
#8
ABTA
NVM INHIBIT FLAG SET ?
NVM INHIBIT MESSAGE
SMEM+1
NEWSUB2
NEW
#252
TPIC
TRY NEXT RECORD
#7
REARET
AN494
43
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
BCLR
RTS
STAT4,$80
PI MATCH NOT FOUND, FORGET IT
********************************
*
*
*
Program store/recall.
*
*
*
*******************************
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
DOIT
BRSET
LDAB
MUL
BRSET
JMP
STAT2,$80,TASW
#12
STAT5,$40,STORE
RECALL
********************************
*
*
* NVW write, sub-address in X.
*
*
*
********************************
STORE
SKTA
PSNOK
PSOK
FINST
BCLR
BRCLR
BSET
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
CMPA
BEQ
CMPA
BNE
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
BRA
SMEM+1,$80
STAT5,$20,SKTA
SMEM+1,$80
SMEM+1
WRITE1
SMEM
WRITE1
PSN
#$A0
PSNOK
#$FF
PSOK
#$FF
WRITE1
DISP+10
WRITE1
DISP+11
WRITE1
DISP+12
WRITE1
DISP+13
WRITE1
DISP+14
WRITE1
DISP+15
WRITE1
#$20
WRITE1
#$00
WRITE1
#$00
FINST
JRS
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
LDAA
JSR
BCLR
RTS
WRITE1
PSN+1
WRITE1
PSN+2
WRITE1
PSN+3
WRITE1
PSN+4
WRITE1
PSN+5
WRITE1
PSN+6
WRITE1
PSN+7
WRITE1
PI
WRITE1
PI+1
WRITE1
STAT5,$40
TA NVM INHIBIT FLAG SET ?
BINARY FREQUENCY MSB
BINARY FREQUENCY LSB
PS NAME OK ?
PERHAPS, TRY FF
DUMMY PI CODE
PI CODE
CLEAR STORE MODE
AN494
44
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
********************************
*
*
*
NVW read, sub-address in X. *
*
*
********************************
RECALL
BSR
JMP
NEWSUB
NEW
NEWSUB
JSR
STAA
BCLR
BRCLR
BSET
JSR
CMPA
BNE
LDAA
STAA
LDAA
STAA
JSR
STAA
JSR
STAA
JSR
STAA
JSR
STAA
JSR
STAA
JSR
STAA
JSR
STAA
JSR
STAA
RTS
READ1
SMEM+1
STAT5,$20
SMEM+1,$80,NEWSUB2
STAT5,$20
READ1
#$FF
NOTFF2
#$26
SMEM+1
#$5C
SMEM
READ1
PSN
READ1
PSN+1
READ1
PSN+2
READ1
PSN+3
READ1
PSN+4
READ1
PSN+5
READ1
PSN+6
READ1
PSN+7
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NEWSUB2
NOTFF2
$04
$2E
********************************
*
*
*
NVW read & write one byte. *
*
*
********************************
READ1
JSR
LDAA
INCB
RTS
GETAD
0,X
WRITE1
LDY
BSET
BSR
JSR
BSET
DECB
#$1000
PPROG,Y,$16
WBYTE
DBOUNC
PPROG,Y,$02
SET EELAT, ERASE & BYTE ERASE BITS
ERASE BYTE
WAIT 15 ms
SET EELAT TO WRITE BYTE
JSR
STAA
BSET
JSR
CLR
INCB
RTS
GETAD
0,X
PPROG,Y,$01
DBOUNC
PPROG,Y
LATCH DATA
SET EEPGM BIT TO START PROGRAMMING
WAIT 15 ms
STOP
BAND
#$B618
GET BAND
EEPROM START ADDRESS
#1
FMB
#122
FM ?
#2
FMB
MW ?
WBYTE
GETAD
PSHA
PSHB
JSR
LDX
TBA
CMPA
BLS
LDAB
ABX
CMPA
BEQ
NO, AM
AN494
45
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
ABX
BRCLR
ABX
SWB2
*
*
*
FMB
BRCLR
ABX
ABX
PULB
PULA
ABX
RTS
PORTE,Y,$40,SWB2
NO, SW
SECOND BANK ?
YES
PORTE,Y,$80,FMB
SECOND PAIR OF BANKS ?
YES
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
********************************
*
*
*
RDS displays.
*
*
*
********************************
RTDSP
BRSET
BRSET
BRCLR
PORTD,Y,$20,SRT
STAT5,$02,NOTRT
STAT2,$04,NORT
STANDBY ?
ALREADY RDS DISPLAY ?
ALREADY RT DISPLAY ?
NOTRT
BSET
LDAA
INCA
CMPA
BEQ
STAA
LDAA
STAA
BSET
RTS
STAT5,$02
RTDIS
SET RDS DISPLAY FLAG
YES, MOVE ON
#26
NORT
RTDIS
#100
DIST
STAT4,$01
RE-START TRANSIENT TIMEOUT
JSR
BSET
LDAA
STAA
LDAA
STAA
RTS
CLTR
STAT2,$04
#9
DISP1
#1
DISP2
NORT
SET RT DISPLAY FLAG
*************************************
*
*
* Increment and decrement routines. *
*
*
*************************************
UP
IF
TT1
DOWN
DF
TT2
NEWJ
LDXR
LDXR2
NFMB
BSR
INC
BNE
INC
DECB
BNE
BRA
LDXR
SMEM
TT1
SMEM+1
NO, INCREMENT LSB
DID IT WRAP ROUND
YES, INCREMENT MSB
IF
NEWJ
ALL DONE ?
BSR
TST
BNE
DEC
DEC
DECB
BNE
JSR
JSR
BCLR
RTS
LDXR
SMEM
TT2
SMEM+1
SMEM
NO, IS LSB ZERO ?
IF NOT LEAVE MSD
DECREMENT MSB
DECREMENT LSB
DF
NEW
P5170
PORTA,Y,$10
ALL DONE ?
BRCLR
BSET
BRA
BSET
JSR
TBA
LDAB
BRCLR
CMPA
STAT6,$08,LDXR2
STAT2,$40
NFMB
STAT3,$01
BAND
AM ?
YES, CLEAR PS NAME
NO, FM, ENABLE PS NAME CLEARING
GET BAND
#1
STAT,$02,SRT
#3
SINGLE STEP (1,5,10 kHz FOR MW,SW,FM)
LARGE STEPS SELECTED ?
YES, BAND 3 (SW) ?
DEMUTE
AN494
46
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
SRT
BEQ
LDAB
CMPA
BNE
LDAB
BRCLR
INCB
RTS
SRT
#5
#2
SRT
#9
STAT6,$40,SRT
NO, x5 STEP (50 kHz FOR FM)
MW ?
YES, 9kHz
OR SHOULD IT BE 10kHz
YES
********************************
*
*
*
TA test.
*
*
*
********************************
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
TEST
AOB
NABT
SAVE
A5SD
AISM
MSM
BRSET
LDD
STD
BRSET
LDAA
STAA
RTS
BSET
RTS
PORTD,Y,$20,AOB
#$C5B1
PION
STAT4,$04,NABT
#1
REARET
STANDBY ?
CLYDE 1
STAT4,$80
YES, DO IT
********************************
*
*
*
Store key.
*
*
*
********************************
BRCLR
STAT4,$08,NAME
BRCLR
STAT4,$10,NTB2
BRSET
STAT4,$20,AISM
BSET
STAT4,$60
LDAA
#80
BRA
SDT
BRSET
STAT4,$40,MSM
BCLR
STAT4,$20
BRA
A5SD
BCLR
STAT4,$40
BRA
A5SD
TA SWITCHING ENABLED ?
NO, SET RETURN REASON
ALARM DISPAY ?
YES, ALARM ARMED ?
YES, ALREADY SET-UP MODE ?
NO, ENTER SET-UP MODE, HOURS
YES, SET-UP HOURS ?
NO, CANCEL SET-UP
YES, MAKE IT MINUTES
NAME
BRSET
BRSET
BRSET
BSET
RTS
PORTD,Y,$20,NTB2
STAT,$01,NFM
STAT5,$40,ASM
STAT5,$40
STANDBY ?
NO, FREQUENCY MODE ?
YES, STORE MODE ?
NO, ENTER STORE MODE
ASM
LDAA
JMP
LED
DOIT
SAVE
LDAA
BNE
JSR
INC
LDAA
CMPA
BLS
CLR
LDAA
STAA
BSET
RTS
PSNP
SKPCLR
CLTR
PSNP
PSNP
#8
NTB3
PSNP
#80
DIST
STAT4,$01
NFM
SKPCLR
NTB3
SDT
NTB2
NOT FREQUENCY MODE
SET
UP
PS-NAME CHANGE MODE
SET DISPLAY TRANSIENT FLAG
*******************************************
*
*
* PROG, the displayed number is added to *
* the IF offset, converted to binary and *
* stored in SMEM & SMEM+1.
*
*
*
* NEW takes binary working frequency
*
* in SMEM & SMEM+1 converts it to BCD and *
* subtracts the IF offset.
*
*
*
*******************************************
AN494
47
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
PROG
BRSET
JSR
JSR
STAT,$01,NEW
IFO
ADB
JSR
BNE
JSR
LDX
LDAA
STAA
DEX
BNE
BAND
ONE
ADD
#5
RQ-1,X
RQ,X
LPP
MOVE ALL DIGITS
IN Q DOWN ONE
PLACE TO DEVIDE
BY 10 (Q < Q/5)
ONE
JSR
BCON
CONVERT Q TO BINARY
NEW
JSR
DCON
CONVERT TO BCD IN Q
JSR
BNE
STX
LDX
JSR
LDX
STX
LDX
JSR
LDX
JSR
BAND
STIF
NUM1
#RP
ADD
#RP
NUM1
#RQ
ADD
#RQ
ADD
JSR
BSET
JMP
IFO
STAT,$04
SUB
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
LPP
STIF
STATION MODE ?
P < IF OFFSET
Q < FREQ + IF
BAND 3 (SW) ?
YES, DIVIDE BY 5, Q < 2 X (FREQ + IF)
BAND 3 (SW) ?
YES
P < 2Q
Q < 3Q
Q < 5Q
P < IF OFFSET
Q < (RATIO X STEP) -IF
*******************************************
*
*
* The IF offset is selected according to *
* the required band and placed in "RP."
*
*
*
*******************************************
IPO
BSR
BRSET
CMPB
BHI
LDAB
LDAA
MUL
LDX
ABX
LDY
LDAA
STAA
INX
INY
CPY
BLO
LDY
LDX
STX
LDX
STX
RTS
BAND
PORTA,Y,$04,NOTN
#1
NOTN
#4
#6
IFS
FCB
FCB
FCB
FCB
FCB
0,0,1,0,7,0
0,0,1,0,7,0
0,0,0,4,5,5
0,1,0,7,0,0
9,9,8,9,3,0
10.70
10.70
455
10.70
–10.70
BAND
LDAB
ANDB
LDX
STX
CMPB
RTS
PORTA,Y
#$03
#RQ
NUM2
#3
GET BAND
NOTN
LP6
FIND BAND
NEGATIVE FM IF ?
YES
BUT IS IT FM ?
YES, FIFTH IS FROM TABLE
TIMES 6
#1FS
#RP
0,X
0,Y
TRANSFER
INTO RP
#RP+6
LP6
#$1000
#RP
NUM2
#RQ
NUM1
DONE ?
RE-INITIALISE Y
SET-UP POINTERS
MHz
MHz
kHz
MHz
MHz
FM OSC HIGH
FM OSC HIGH
SW/MW
SW (EXT/5 FOR 5157)
FM OSC LOW
BAND 3 (SW, /5) ?
AN494
48
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
********************************
*
*
* Mode change & clear routines.*
*
*
********************************
MODE
SKIP
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SK
SKSM
NNTR
CLEAR
CLAL
SM
SPCC
KHZ
CLP
CLQ
CLRAS
CR
CLTR
CLTR2
BRSET
JSR
JSR
BRCLR
BCLR
RTS
PORTD,Y,$20,CLP
CLTR
PROG
STAT,$01,SK
STAT,$01
STANDBY ?
BCLR
BRCLR
BSET
JSR
JSR
LDX
JSR
BCLR
BCLR
BCLR
RTS
BSET
BCLR
RTS
STAT5,$40
STAT5,$10,NNTR
PORTA,Y,$10
DBNC
P5170
#64
SKDB
PORTA,Y,$10
STAT2,$02
STAT5,$10
FREQ. MODE, CLEAR STORE MODE
NEW FREQUENCY ENTERED ?
YES, MUTE
WAIT 15ms
STAT,$01
STAT5,$40
NO, RETURN TO STATION MODE
CANCEL STORE MODE
BRSET
BRSET
BSET
BSR
LDAA
BEQ
JSR
JSR
BRSET
BSET
RTS
BCLR
RTS
PORTD,Y,$20,CLP
STAT,$01,SM
STAT5,$10
CLQ
PSNP
SPCC
PSC
CLTR
STAT,$02,KHZ
STAT,$02
STANDBY ?
NO, STATION MODE ?
FREQUENCY CHANGED
NO, CLEAR Q
STAT,$02
1 (MW), 10 (FM) kHz STEPS
LDX
LDAA
STAA
CLR
INX
DEC
BNE
RTS
#RQ
#06
COUNT
0,X
CLEAR RQ
CLEAR 6 BYTES
STARTING AT X
COUNT
CR
DONE ?
BCLR
BCLR
CLR
BCLR
BCLR
CLR
RTS
STAT4,$01
STAT2,$04
RTDIS
STAT4,$28
STAT5,$06
PSNP
SEND DISPLAYED FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY MODE ?
NO, SET TO FREQUENCY MODE
WAIT 100ms
DE-MUTE
AND KILL ANY PENDING RDS GROUP
CLEAR RETUNE FLAG
CLEAR DISPLAY TRANSIENTS
9 (MW), 50 (FM) kHz STEPS
CLEAR DISPLAY TRANSIENT FLAG
CANCEL RT DISPLAY
NOT ALARM (DISPLAY OR SET-UP)
NOT RT OR SLEEP DISPLAY
NOT PS-EDIT
********************************************
*
*
* BCD to binary conversion. No, in "RQ" is *
* converted to binary in SMEM & SMEM+1.
*
*
*
********************************************
BCON
L2
CLR
CLR
LDX
LDAA
LSLA
STAA
ROL
LDAA
STAA
SMEM
SMEM+1
#0
SMEM
W1
SMEM+1
SMEM+1
W2
CLEAR WORKING
FREQUENCY LOCATIONS
LS BYTE
2xLSB
SAVE 2xLSB
2xMS BYTE
SAVE 2xMSB
AN494
49
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Application Note
LDAA
LSLA
ROL
LSLA
ROL
ADDA
STAA
LDAA
ADCA
STAA
ADCA
STAA
INX
LDAA
ADDA
STAA
LDAA
ADCA
STAA
CPX
BNE
RTS
W1
2xLSB
4xLSB
4xMSB
8xLSB
8xMSB
10xLSB
SMEM+1
SMEM+1
W1
SMEM
SMEM+1
W2
SMEM+1
W2
SMEM+1
10xMSB
FETCH
NEXT
DIGIT
AND
(CLRA CLEARS THE C BIT)
ADD IT TO WORKING
FREQUENCY
DONE ?
RQ,X
SMEM
SMEM
#0
SMEM+1
SMEM+1
#5
L2
********************************
*
*
*
Clear NVM - not used.
*
*
*
********************************
CLRNVW
CLOP
CLR
LDAA
LDAB
JSR
INC
BNE
CLRA
LDAB
JMP
COUNT
#$FF
COUNT
WRITE1
COUNT
CLOP
#120
WRITE1
CLEAR MAX. PROG. No.
********************************************
*
*
* Addition and subtraction of BCD numbers. *
*
*
********************************************
SUB
COM2
COMP
LOOP3
ADD
AD
LOOP
STX
LDX
LDAB
LDAA
SUBA
STAA
DEX
DECB
BNE
CLR
INC
BRA
W5
NUM2
#$06
#$09
5,X
5,X
CLR
STX
LDAB
LDX
STX
LDX
STX
LDX
LDAA
DEX
STX
LDX
ADDA
DEX
STX
ADDA
CLR
BSR
CARRY
W5
#$06
NUM1
W3
NUM2
W4
W3
5,X
LOOP3
CARRY
CARRY
AD
ANSWER POINTER
9S COMPLIMENT
SECOND NUMBER
SUBTRACT FROM 9
AND PUT IT BACK
SET CARRY TO ONE
BEFORE ADDING
ADD FIRST NUMBER
ANSWER POINTER
1st No. POINTER
2nd No. POINTER
W3
W4
5,X
ADD
W4
CARRY
CARRY
ADJ
SET ON ADDITION OVERFLOW
OR POS. RESULT SUBTRACTION
DECIMAL ADJUST
AN494
50
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
AJ
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
ADJ
LDX
STAA
DEX
STX
DECB
BNE
RTS
W5
5,X
LOOP
DONE ?
SUBA
INC
CMPA
BHS
RTS
#10
CARRY
#10
AJ
YES, SUBTRACT 10
AND RECORD CARRY
SAVE ANSWER
W5
10 OR MORE ?
NO
******************************************
*
*
* Current binary divide ratio in SMEM & *
* SMEM+1 is converted to decimal in RQ. *
*
*
******************************************
DCON
DCON2
LOOP2
NXT
LDAA
STAA
LDAA
STAA
LDX
STX
JSR
INC
JSR
LDAA
STAA
LSR
ROR
BCC
LDX
STX
BSR
LDX
STX
BSR
DEC
BNE
RTS
SMEM+1
W2
SMEM
W1
#RR
NUM1
CLRAS
RR+5
CLQ
#14
W6
W2
W1
NXT
#RQ
NUM2
ADD
#RR
NUM2
ADD
W6
LOOP2
TRANSFER CURRENT
FREQUENCY DIVIDE
RATIO INTO
WORKING AREA
CLEAR
RR
RR <- 1
CLEAR RQ
14 BITS TO CONVERT
MOVE OUT
FIRST (LS) BIT
ZERO
ONE, ADD
CURRENT VALUE
OF RR
ADD RR
TO
ITSELF
ALL
DONE ?
********************************
*
*
*
Delay (X x 1.5mS).
*
*
*
********************************
DBNC
DBOUNC
SKDB
DLP
DLOOP
ABO
LDX
BRA
LDX
STX
LDX
BRN
BRN
DEX
BNE
DEC
BNE
RTS
#100
SKDB
#10
W6
#$FF
"
"
150mS
APPROX 15mS WITH A 8.388 MHz XTAL
X x 1.5mS
PAUSE
256X12
CYCLES
DLOOP
W6+1
DLP
*******************************************
*
*
* Serial output routine to the MC145170. *
*
*
*******************************************
P5170
BCLR
BCLR
LDAA
BSR
BSET
PORTB,Y,$01
PORTB,Y,$10
#0
SQU8I
PORTB,Y,$10
CLOCK LOW
LE LOW
CLEAR
CONTROL REGISTER
LATCH IT
AN494
51
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Application Note
BCLR
LDAA
ANDA
BSR
LDAA
BSR
BSET
PORTB,Y,$10
SMEM+1
#$7F
SQU8I
SMEM
SQU8I
PORTB,Y,$10
LE LOW
SEND MSBYTE
AND LSBYTE OF
NEW FREQUENCY
LATCH IT
BCLR
LDAA
BSR
LDAA
BSR
BSET
PORTB,Y,$10
#$03
SQU7I
#$20
SQU8I
PORTB,Y,$10
LE LOW
SEND
REFERENCE
DIVIDE RATIO
800 = 8MHz/10kHz
LATCH IT
******************************************
*
*
* Serial output routine to the MC145157. *
*
*
*
******************************************
P5157
LDAA
LSLA
STAA
LDAA
ROLA
BSR
LDAA
BSR
BSET
BCLR
LDAA
BSR
LDAA
BSR
BSET
BCLR
RTS
SMEM
W4
SMEM+1
SQU7
W4
SQU8
PORTB,Y,$08
PORTB,Y,$08
#$4E
SQU7
#$21
SQU8
PORTB,Y,$08
PORTB,Y,$08
TRANSFER SMEM AND
MEM+1 TO TEMPORARY
LOCATIONS AND MOVE
UP ONE BIT TO INCLUDE
THE 5157 CONTROL BIT.
SEND MSBYTE (7 BITS)
AND LSBYTE OF
NEW FREQUENCY
LATCH
IT
SEND 15 BIT (14+1)
REFERENCE
DIVIDE RATIO
LATCH IT
ALL LOW (5157/70 SWITCHED OFF)
**************************************
*
*
* Subroutines for the MC145157/170. *
*
*
**************************************
SQU8I
SQU7I
S1I
S21
SQU8
SQU7
S1
S2
LDAB
BRA
LSLA
LDAB
LSLA
BCC
BSET
BSET
BCLR
BCLR
DECB
BNE
RTS
#8
S1I
SEND 8 BITS
S1I
ANY MORE ?
LDAB
BRA
LSLA
LDAB
LSLA
BCC
BSET
BCLR
BSET
BCLR
DECB
BNE
RTS
#8
S1
SEND 8 BITS
#7
S2I
PORTB,Y,$02
PORTB,Y,$01
PORTB,Y,$01
PORTB,Y,$02
#7
S2
PORTB,Y,$02
PORTB,Y,$01
PORTB,Y,$01
PORTB,Y,$02
S1
MOVE OUT MS BIT
AND SEND OTHER 7
MOVE I BIT INTO "C"
ZERO ?
NO
CLOCK
IT
MOVE OUT MS BIT
AND SEND OTHER 7
MOVE 1 BIT INTO "C"
ZERO ?
NO
CLOCK
IT
ANY MORE ?
AN494
52
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
********************************
*
*
*
Toggle 9/10 kHz step (MW). *
*
*
********************************
T910
CBH
BRSET
BSET
RTS
BCLR
RTS
STAT6,$40,CBH
STAT6,$40
STAT6,$40
****************************************************************************
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
*
*
LINK batch files (RLE.BAT & RDE.LD) and PCBUG11 Vectors.
*
*
*
*
ILD11 RADE.O FNCE.O RDSE.O -MKUF E32.MAP -G RDE -O RDE.OUT
*
*
IHEX RDE.OUT -O RDE.0
*
*
TYPE E32.MAP
*
*
*
*
section .RAM1 BSS origin 0x0000
*
*
section .RAM2 BSS origin 0x0100
*
*
section .RAM3 BSS origin 0x0200
E32
*
*
section .ROM1 origin 0xD000
$9000
*
*
section .ROM2 origin 0xE000
$9c00
*
*
section .ROM3 origin 0xF000
$A000
*
*
section .VECT origin 0xBFC1
*
*
section .VECT2 origin 0xFFD6
($FFD6)
*
*
*
****************************************************************************
*
SECTION
.VECT
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
*
*
*
********************************
*
*
*
MC68HC11E32 Vectors.
*
*
*
********************************
*
SECTION
ORG
.VECT2
$FFD6
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
START
TINTB
SDATA
SHAFTX
START
START
START
START
START
SCI
SPI
PULSE ACCUMULATOR EDGE
"
"
OVER
TIMER OVER
"
IC4/OC5
"
OC4
"
OC3
"
OC2
"
OC1
"
IC3
"
IC2
"
IC1
RTI
IRQ
NOT USED, XIRQ USED BY PCbug11
SWI
ILLEGAL OP CODE
COP
CLOCK MONITOR
RESET
SCI
SPI
PULSE
"
TIMER
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
ACCUMULATOR EDGE
"
OVER
OVER
IC4/OC5
OC4
OC3
OC2
OC1
IC3
IC2
AN494
53
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
FDB
START
TINTB
SDATA
SHAFTX
START
START
START
START
START
"
IC1
RTI
IRQ
XIRQ
SWI
ILLEGAL OP CODE
COP
CLOCK MONITOR
RESET
END
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
174)
256)
109)
2889)
42)
.RAM1
.RAM2
.RAM3
.ROM1
.VECT2
A5SD
A7
ABO
ABO3
ABOA
ABTA
AD
ADD
ADJ
ADON
AGS
AISM
AJ
ALARM
ALOF
ALRON
ALSU1
ALSU2
AMIN
ANTI
AOB
AOUR
ARI
ASM
BAND
BCON
BCTO
BD3
BIT
BMJD
BTO
CARRY
CBCD
I
CBH
CE6
CG6
CHE
CLAL
CLEAR
CLOCK I
CLOOP
CLOP
CLP
CLQ
CLRAS
CLREON I
CLRNVM
1
2
3
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
1
4
4
4
4
1
4
1
1
4
1
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
4
0
4
Symbol
00000000 |
00000000 |
00000000 |
00000000 |
00000000 |
00000847 |
00000524 |
00000aa7 |
00000470 |
000003a3 |
0000065c |
00000a24 |
00000a1f |
00000a53 |
00000393 |
0000044e |
0000084b |
00000a4e |
00000381 |
0000038e |
000003be |
000004a5 |
00000569 |
00000072 |
00000191 |
00000833 |
00000073 |
00000220 |
0000086a |
00000926 |
000009b6 |
000000ac |
000001ec |
00000068 |
00000000 |
00000201 |
00000099 |
00000000 |
00000b45 |
000001ec |
000001c8 |
000001e6 |
0000097b |
0000096f |
00000000 |
0000005a |
000009f5 |
00000992 |
00000993 |
00000996 |
00000000 |
000009f2 |
Section synopsis
.RAM1
.RAM2
.RAM3
.ROM1
.VECT2
table
CONTD
CONTI
COUNT
CPSL
CR
CTAB
DAT
DBNC
DBOUNC
DCON
DCON2
DECS
DEL500
DF
DI
DIG2
DIGIT
DISP
DISP1
DISP2
DISPP
DIST
DLOOP
DLP
DMD
DMI
DNT
DNT2
DOIT
DOM
DOW
DOWN
DR1
E6L
EON
EXIT
FINST
FLN
FMB
FOK
FULON
GETAD
GON2
GOON
GOON2
GOON3
GROUP
H2L
HIGH
HTOH
HZ
IDLE
E
4
4
1
4
4
4
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
4
3
1
1
3
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
4
4
4
000005df
00000529
0000009a
000003cc
0000099a
00000325
0000004b
00000a8e
00000a93
00000a58
00000a60
0000040d
00000471
000007e0
000000a4
00000098
00000426
00000000
00000074
00000075
00000010
00000047
00000a9b
00000a98
00000594
000004d2
000002f4
000002ed
00000663
00000044
00000046
000007de
00000466
000001fa
00000000
000002ab
000006fb
00000122
0000079b
0000061d
0000010f
00000780
000002c8
000002e4
000002d0
000002de
00000057
00000032
000003e9
000004c4
00000586
000000ac
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
INSLP
IOK
IOOK
IRQ
ITMP1
KBD
KCLC
KEY
KEY1
KEYP
KEYP2
KHZ
KOUNT
L1
L2
L5
L6
LAST
LDRX
LDXR2
LED
LEV
LOOP
LOOP2
LOOP3
LP6
LPP
M8
MAK20
MAK2E
MAK30
MAK41
MAK61
MIN
MJD
MJDAT
MKE20
MKE2E
MKE39
MKE5A
MKE7A
MNTH
MOD
MODE
MSH
MSM
MZ
NABT
NACS
NACS2
NAME
NDU
I
I
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
1
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
0
4
4
4
4
4
1
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
000003fe
0000053c
0000022e
00000006
00000069
0000026f
000002f3
00000096
00000279
000002f5
000002f7
0000098f
00000097
00000298
000009bf
000001b8
000001d6
0000037d
000007f9
00000802
0000009f
00000067
00000a2e
00000a72
00000a0d
000008eb
0000089f
00000079
000004fe
00000502
00000506
0000050a
0000050e
00000070
00000030
00000000
000005c0
000005c4
000005d0
000005c8
000005cc
00000042
00000000
00000933
00000238
00000854
00000577
00000834
000004d3
00000595
00000859
000000db
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
NNTR
NO2D
NOPS
NORT
NOTCH
NOTFF2
NOTN
NOTRT
NOTSNZ
NRDSP
NRML
NS1
NSRO
NT1
NT2
NT2J
NTB2
NTB3
NUM1
NUM2
NWA
NWWS
NXT
OK6
ONAG
ONE
ONOFF
OUR
OUTCH
P
P5157
P5170
PDEC
PDEC2
PI
PIN
PINC
PINC2
PINOK1
PION
PJ
PNM1
PROC
PROG
PSC
PSN
PSN0
PSN1
PSNOK
PSNP
PSOK
PTY
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
4
1
4
4
4
4
1
1
4
4
4
1
4
4
0
4
4
3
4
4
4
1
4
1
00000968
000000c6
000000d1
000007c0
000002bc
00000723
000008e0
000007ac
000000e0
0000019b
000002c0
000003ea
00000194
00000165
0000017b
000000e4
00000889
00000882
0000009b
0000009d
000000f1
00000173
00000a81
0000020b
00000101
000008a6
000003a4
00000071
000005d6
00000015
00000ada
00000aa8
00000555
00000541
00000061
00000065
00000491
0000047d
00000161
00000063
0000031d
000005e9
00000000
0000088a
000003c7
00000020
000004d7
00000599
00000690
0000004a
000006c7
0000005f
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
RECALL
RETUNE
RETUNE2
RJ
RKEY
RP
RPT
RQ
RR
RT
RTDIS
RTDSP
S1
S1I
S2
S2I
SAVE
SCHAN
SCNT
SDATA
I
SDT
SEC
SEM
SHAFT
E
SHAFTX
SHIFT
SK
SK2P
SKDB
SKIP
SKP
SKPCLR
SKSM
SKTA
SLEEP
SLEP
SLEPT
SLPTOK
SM
SMEM
SODM
SOK
SPCC
SQU7
SQU7I
SQU8
SQU8I
SRT
START
STAT
STAT2
STAT3
4
4
4
4
4
1
4
1
1
3
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
0
4
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
00000702
000005f0
00000603
0000030a
000002ea
0000007c
00000309
00000076
00000082
00000028
000000a3
0000079f
00000b26
00000b08
00000b2d
00000b0f
00000838
000000a5
000000ad
00000000
00000884
0000006f
00000257
0000024d
0000025e
0000044a
00000946
000005ee
00000a96
0000093e
0000045c
00000876
00000964
0000067b
000003f6
00000400
00000048
00000415
0000097d
000000a0
000003b2
00000148
00000984
00000b23
00000b05
00000b1f
00000b01
00000820
00000009
000000a6
000000a7
000000a8
AN494
54
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Application Note
Code Listing
CLTR
CLTR2
CNTB
CNTS
COM2
COMP
CONF
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
000009a3
000009a6
00000510
000005d2
00000a09
00000a0b
0000006c
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
IDLJ
IF
IFO
IFS
IHR
IHRD
INITD
4
4
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
00000a07
0000079b
0000006a
000004c7
00000589
00000b3d
000003e6
0000064c
0000062b
0000022a
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
TATP
TBH
TEM
TEST
TFCC
TH32
TH8
TINTB
TMP
I
I
I
4
4
4
4
4
4
0
0000023c
000007d1
000008d3
00000908
000004b9
0000057d
00000000
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
NEW
E
NEWJ
NEWSUB
NEWSUB2
NFM
NFMB
NNT2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
000008a9
000007ee
00000707
00000716
0000086f
00000805
000000e7
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
PTYCMP
Q
R
RCLP
RDSTO
READ1
REARET
1
1
1
4
1
4
1
00000060
00000003
00000027
0000023f
00000049
00000756
000000a2
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
STAT4
STAT5
STAT6
STIF
STORE
STR
STRST
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
000000a9
000000aa
000000ab
000008ca
00000671
00000405
00000000
4
4
4
4
0
1
1
0
1
0000022a
000000be
0000025a
00000821
00000000
0000006d
0000006e
00000000
0000001e
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
TMPGRP
TMQ
TMRB
TNP
TOG57
TOG57J
TOOH
TPEN
TPIC
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
0000004f
0000000c
00000003
00000655
00000517
00000495
000004b4
000003d5
0000062c
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
TPOF
TPOK
TT1
TT2
UDCNT
UP
W1
W2
W3
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
000003f2
00000155
000007d9
000007e8
00000399
000007cf
00000088
0000008a
0000008c
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
W4
W5
W6
W7
WAIT
WBYTE
WRITE1
XEM
YEM
1
1
1
1
0
4
4
4
4
0000008e
00000090
00000092
00000094
00000000
0000076f
0000075d
00000268
0000026b
I
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SUB
SWB2
SYN
T5S
T5SD
T910
TAEH
TASOK
TASW
TATP
E
AN494
55
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
N O N - D I S C L O S U R E
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
A G R E E M E N T
R E Q U I R E D
Application Note
How to Reach Us:
Home Page:
www.freescale.com
E-mail:
[email protected]escale.com
USA/Europe or Locations Not Listed:
Freescale Semiconductor
Technical Information Center, CH370
1300 N. Alma School Road
Chandler, Arizona 85224
+1-800-521-6274 or +1-480-768-2130
[email protected]
Europe, Middle East, and Africa:
Freescale Halbleiter Deutschland GmbH
Technical Information Center
Schatzbogen 7
81829 Muenchen, Germany
+44 1296 380 456 (English)
+46 8 52200080 (English)
+49 89 92103 559 (German)
+33 1 69 35 48 48 (French)
[email protected]
Japan:
Freescale Semiconductor Japan Ltd.
Headquarters
ARCO Tower 15F
1-8-1, Shimo-Meguro, Meguro-ku,
Tokyo 153-0064
Japan
0120 191014 or +81 3 5437 9125
[email protected]
Asia/Pacific:
Freescale Semiconductor Hong Kong Ltd.
Technical Information Center
2 Dai King Street
Tai Po Industrial Estate
Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong
+800 2666 8080
[email protected]
For Literature Requests Only:
Freescale Semiconductor Literature Distribution Center
P.O. Box 5405
Denver, Colorado 80217
1-800-441-2447 or 303-675-2140
Fax: 303-675-2150
[email protected]
Information in this document is provided solely to enable system and software
implementers to use Freescale Semiconductor products. There are no express or
implied copyright licenses granted hereunder to design or fabricate any integrated
circuits or integrated circuits based on the information in this document.
Freescale Semiconductor reserves the right to make changes without further notice to
any products herein. Freescale Semiconductor makes no warranty, representation or
guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does
Freescale Semiconductor assume any liability arising out of the application or use of
any product or circuit, and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without
limitation consequential or incidental damages. “Typical” parameters which may be
provided in Freescale Semiconductor data sheets and/or specifications can and do
vary in different applications and actual performance may vary over time. All operating
parameters, including “Typicals” must be validated for each customer application by
customer’s technical experts. Freescale Semiconductor does not convey any license
under its patent rights nor the rights of others. Freescale Semiconductor products are
not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in systems intended for
surgical implant into the body, or other applications intended to support or sustain life,
or for any other application in which the failure of the Freescale Semiconductor product
could create a situation where personal injury or death may occur. Should Buyer
purchase or use Freescale Semiconductor products for any such unintended or
unauthorized application, Buyer shall indemnify and hold Freescale Semiconductor
and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless against all
claims, costs, damages, and expenses, and reasonable attorney fees arising out of,
directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such
unintended or unauthorized use, even if such claim alleges that Freescale
Semiconductor was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part.
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com