AN3152, Using the Wireless Sensing Triple Axis Reference Design

Freescale Semiconductor
Application Note
AN3152
Rev 2, 01/2007
Using the Wireless Sensing Triple Axis
Reference Design
RD3152MMA7260Q Reference Design (ZSTAR)
by: Pavel Lajšner and Radomír Kozub
Rožnov Czech System Center
Czech Republic
The Wireless Sensing Triple Axis Reference Design
(ZSTAR) is a wireless successor of the popular STAR board
described in AN3112 (RD3112MMA7260Q). It is an improved
demonstration tool that is designed to allow visualization of
key accelerometer applications in the consumer industry as
well as the low-cost 2.4 GHz wireless solution based on the
MC13191 transceiver.
The ZSTAR is a two-board design where a MMA7260QT
triple axis accelerometer is controlled by an 8-bit MCU
MC9S08QG8 and connected via a wireless link to a computer.
The USB stick connects via the computer’s USB slot. For the
USB communication, a Full-Speed USB 2.0 8-bit
microcontroller MCHC908JW32 is employed.
MC13191
MC13191
S08QG8
HC908JW32
MMA7260QT
Figure 1. ZSTAR Design Overview
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2007. All rights reserved.
FEATURED PRODUCTS
This demo consists of several Freescale products. The
main features are listed below.
Triple Axis Accelerometer MMA7260QT
The ZSTAR board is a demonstration tool for the
MMA7260QT, a 3-Axis Low-g accelerometer. The
MMA7260QT has many unique features that make it an ideal
solution for many consumer applications such as freefall
protection for laptops and MP3 players, tilt detection for ecompass compensation and cell phone scrolling, motion
detection for handheld games and game controllers, position
sensing for g-mice, shock detection for warranty monitors, and
vibration for out of balance detection.
Features such as low power, low current, and sleep mode
with a quick turn-on time allow the battery life to be extended
in end applications. The 3-axis sensing in a small QFN
package requires only 6 mm x 6 mm board space, with a
profile of 1.45 mm, allowing for easy integration into many
small handheld electronics.
There are several other derivatives of MMA7260QT:
• MMA7261Q XYZ triple axis accelerometer with
selectable 2.5g to 10g range
• MMA6270Q XY dual axis accelerometer with
selectable 1.5g to 6g range
• MMA6271Q XY dual axis accelerometer with
selectable 2.5g to 10g range
• MMA6280Q XZ dual axis accelerometer with
selectable 1.5g to 6g range
• MMA6281Q XZ dual axis accelerometer with
selectable 2.5g to 10g range
All members of this sensor family are footprint (QFN
package) compatible, which simplifies the evaluation and
design of the target application.
Microcontroller MC9S08QG8
The MC9S08QG8 is a highly integrated member of
Freescale’s 8-bit family of microcontrollers based on the highperformance, low-power consumption HCS08 core.
Integrating features normally found in larger, more expensive
components, the MC9S08QG8 MCU includes a background
debugging system and on-chip in-circuit emulation (ICE)
with real-time bus capture, providing single-wire debugging
and emulation interface. It also features a programmable
16-bit timer/pulse-width modulation (PWM) module (TPM) that
is one of the most flexible and cost-effective of its kind.
The compact, tightly integrated MC9S08QG8 delivers a
versatile combination and wealth of Freescale peripherals and
the advanced features of the HCS08 core, including extended
battery life with maximum performance down to 1.8 V,
industry-leading Flash and innovative development support.
The MC9S08QG8 is an excellent solution for power and sizesensitive applications, such as wireless communications and
handheld devices, small appliances, Simple Media Access
Controller (SMAC)-based applications and toys.
MC9S08QG8 Features
•
Up to 20 MHz operating frequencies at >2.1 volts and
16 MHz at <2.1 volts
•
•
•
•
•
•
8 K Flash and 512 bytes RAM
Support for up to 32 interrupt/reset sources
8-bit modulo timer module with 8-bit prescaler
Enhanced 8-channel, 10-bit analog-to-digital converter
(ADC)
Analog comparator module
Three communication interfaces: SCI, SPI and IIC
MC13191 2.4 GHz ISM Band Low Power Transceiver
The MC13191 is a short range, low power, 2.4 GHz
Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band transceiver. The
MC13191 contains a complete packet data modem which is
compliant with the IEEE® 802.15.4 Standard PHY (Physical)
layer. This allows the development of proprietary point-topoint and star networks based on the 802.15.4 packet
structure and modulation format. For full 802.15.4 compliance,
the MC13192 and Freescale's 802.15.4 MAC software are
required.
When combined with an appropriate microcontroller
(MCU), the MC13191 provides a cost-effective solution for
short-range data links and networks. Interfacing the MCU is
accomplished by using a four wire serial peripheral interface
(SPI) connection and an interrupt request output which allows
for the use of a variety of processors. The software and
processor can be scaled to fit applications ranging from simple
point-to-point to star networks.
MC13192/MC13193 2.4 GHz Low Power Transceiver
for the IEEE® 802.15.4 Standard
The MC13192 and MC13193 are short range, low power,
2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band
transceivers. The MC13192/MC13193 contains a complete
802.15.4 physical layer (PHY) modem designed for the IEEE®
802.15.4 wireless standard which supports peer-to-peer, star,
and mesh networking.
The MC13192 includes the 802.15.4 PHY/MAC for use with
the HCS08 Family of MCUs. The MC13193 also includes the
802.15.4 PHY/MAC plus the ZigBee™ Protocol Stack for use
with the HCS08 Family of MCUs. With the exception of the
addition of the ZigBee™ Protocol Stack, the MC13193
functionality is the same as the MC13192.
When combined with an appropriate microcontroller
(MCU), the MC13192/MC13193 provides a cost-effective
solution for short-range data links and networks. Interfacing
the MCU is accomplished by using a four wire serial peripheral
interface (SPI) connection and an interrupt request output
which allows for the use of a variety of processors. The
software and processor can be scaled to fit applications
ranging from simple point-to-point systems, through complete
ZigBee™ networking.
Microcontroller MCHC908JW32
The MCHC908JW32 is a member of the low-cost, highperformance M68HC08 Family of 8-bit microcontroller units
(MCUs). All MCUs in the family use the enhanced M68HC08
central processor unit (CPU08) and are available with a
variety of modules, memory sizes and types, and package
types.
AN3152
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MCHC908JW32 Features
•
•
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•
•
Maximum internal bus frequency: 8 MHz at 3.5–5 V
operating voltage
Oscillators:
– 4 MHz crystal oscillator clock input with 32 MHz
internal phase-lock loop
– Internal 88 kHz RC oscillator for timebase wakeup
32,768 bytes user program FLASH memory with
security feature
1,024 bytes of on-chip RAM
29 general-purpose input/output (I/O) ports:
– 8 keyboard interrupt with internal pull-up
– 3 pins with direct LED drive
– 2 pins with 10 mA current drive for PS/2 connection
16-bit, 2-channel timer interface module (TIM) with
selectable input capture, output compare, PWM
capability on each channel, and external clock input
option
Timebase module
PS/2 clock generator module
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) Module
Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0 Full Speed functions:
– 12 Mbps data rate
– Endpoint 0 with 8-byte transmit buffer and 8-byte
receive buffer
– 64 bytes endpoint buffer to share among endpoints
1–4
ZSTAR REFERENCE BOARDS
The goal of the ZSTAR design was to provide a small
portable board with the capability to demonstrate and evaluate
various accelerometer applications that accommodate the
low-cost low-power wireless connection. One of the
considerations for design was to use a small and versatile tool
(board size is 56 mm x 27 mm or 2.20" x 1.10"). The Sensor
board includes two PCB 2.4 GHz antennas, CR2032 Lithium
battery holder and the two pushbuttons. The USB stick board
has the same two PCB 2.4 GHz antennas, one pushbutton
and a USB type “A” plug.
Table 1 and Table 2 provide a brief description of the
components on the ZSTAR boards and Figure 2 and Figure 3
show the location on the boards.
Table 1. ZSTAR Sensor Board Components
Component
Component Function
MMA7260QT
3-axis Accelerometer part to give vibration and inertial readings to the board
MC9S08QG8
8-bit microprocessor on the Sensor board, containing the SMAC stack, which can be reprogrammed on-board
over the BDM (Background Debug Interface)
MC13191
2.4 GHz Low-Power RF Transceiver used for wireless transmission
Q1 Crystal
16.0 MHz crystal that accompanies MC13191 Transceiver
SW1 Main switch
Used to power on/off the Sensor board
S1 and S2 Pushbuttons
The pushbuttons are used when the Wireless mouse demonstration is active, acting as left and right mouse buttons.
D1 and D2 Status LEDs
These LEDs provide the user feedback about the Sensor board status, Transceiver or Sleep mode activity
Transmit and Receive
PCB Antennas
These small footprint antennas are designed on the opposite sides of the PCB.
CR2032 Lithium Battery
Holder
Provides the power for the Sensor board (on bottom side of the Sensor board). The footprint design allows to use
CR2430, CR2450 or CR2477 battery holders when larger battery capacity is required.
MC13191
Q1 Crystal
SW1 Main Switch
2.4 GHz
Loop Antennas
MMA720Q
MC9S08QG8
CR2032 Battery Holder
on Opposite Side
S1 and S2 Buttons
D1 and D2 LEDs
Figure 2. ZSTAR Sensor Board View
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Table 2. ZSTAR USB Stick Board Components
Component
Component function
MCHC908JW32
8-bit microprocessor on the USB stick board, contains the SMAC stack and USB driver software. Its main job is
bridging the received data from the Sensor board to the USB. Can be reprogrammed over the USB port.
MC13191
2.4 GHz Low-Power RF Transceiver used for wireless transmission
Q1 Crystal
16.0 MHz crystal that accompanies MC13191 Transceiver
Q2 Crystal
Q2 is the 6.0 MHz frequency reference for the MCHC908JW32 MCU
S1 Pushbutton
The pushbutton is used to change the operation mode of the USB stick (towards the PC).
D1, D2 and D3 Status
LEDs
These LEDs provide the user feedback about the USB stick board status, Transceiver and USB activity
Transmit and Receive
PCB Antennas
These small footprint antennas are designed on the opposite sides of the PCB
J1 USB type “A” plug
Provides the USB data connection and power from the USB slot
U3 and U4 Voltage
regulator
U3 and U4 voltage regulators provide the regulated voltage for MC13191 and MCHC908JW32 out of 5.0 V
voltage from USB port
PCB antennas
MC13191
LED indicators
Button
MCHC908JW32
USB “A” type plug
Figure 3. ZSTAR USB Stick Board View
SOFTWARE
This reference design contains two pieces of software. The
first one is on the Sensor board MCU (MC9S08QG8). Its job
is to collect sensor data from the MMA7260QT accelerometer,
create a data packet and send it over the SMAC (Simple
Media Access Controller) driver using the MC13191 RF
Transceiver.
The sensor data is measured over three channels of the
Analog-to-Digital converter, while another GPIO pin controls
the sleep mode of the MMA7260QT accelerometer to
conserve power.
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) is used for communication
with the MC13191.
The overall application is powered from the coin-sized
CR2032 Lithium battery that is located on the bottom side of
the board. The overall average current consumption is below
1 mA with 20 data transmissions per second rate. This allows
approximately 10 days of continuous operation at this realtime data rate.
The simple ZSTAR RF protocol also transfers the
calibration data. These data are stored in non-volatile Flash
memory and are transferred on request.
The software and hardware interface is shown in Figure 4.
AN3152
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Freescale Semiconductor
MC9S08QG8
Software
Calibration Data
ZSTAR RF Protocol Handler
Sensor Data
SMAC
Analog-to-Digital Converter
(ADC) Module
MMA7260Q
GPIO
Serial Peripheral Interface
(SPI) Module
MC13191
Sleep
Figure 4. ZSTAR Sensor Board Software Overview
The second piece of software is contained within the USB
stick board and its job is to create a “bridge” between the RF
link and the USB connection. The sensor and keyboard data
are received from the Sensor board and stored in the USB
stick RAM memory. Another independent process is the USB
protocol communication. Several options are possible. USB
specifications define several ways of transferring data
between the USB peripheral and the PC (called “profiles” or
classes). In this demo two classes are demonstrated:
• Serial communication class (“virtual serial port”)
• HID (Human Interface Device) class
The Microsoft™ Windows 2000/XP operating system
contains by default a driver support for these classes which
makes this solution simple for demonstration purposes.
If the serial communication (virtual serial port) is
demonstrated, the accelerometric data is available through
the simple serial protocol compatible with the STAR demo.
Thus most of the RD3112MMA7260QSW is usable also for
data visualization.
On the other hand, if the HID class is demonstrated, the
ZSTAR demo behaves as a mouse. By tilting the sensor
board, the mouse cursor movement can be controlled.
The software and hardware interfacing is shown in
Figure 5.
MC68HC908JW32
Software
Sensor & Button Data
ZSTAR RF Protocol Handler
“Virtual Serial Port" or Mouse
USB Protocol Handler
SMAC
Low-Level USB Protocol Driver
Serial Peripheral Interface
(SPI) Module
USB 2.0 Full Speed Module
MC13191
USB Connection to PC
Figure 5. ZSTAR USB Stick Software Overview
AN3152
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Freescale Semiconductor
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SUMMARY
Multi-axis sensing using an XYZ-axis low g acceleration
sensor, MMA7260QT with selectable g-ranges of
1.5g/2g/4g/6g, is combined with the versatile MC9S08QG8
8-bit microcontroller.
2.4 GHz wireless communication is enabled by the latest
RFCMOS technology. The MC13191 is a member of the pinto-pin compatible series of Freescale's transceivers, including
the MC13192 which supports the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and
the MC13193 which supports full ZigBee™ compliant
applications.
The USB 2.0 with the 8-bit MCHC908JW32 full speed chip
offers plug and play benefits.
RD3152MMA7260Q demonstrates:
• Consumer and industrial wireless sensing applications
• Accelerometer: MMA7260QT
(MMA7261QT/MMA6270QT/MMA6271QT/MMA6280
QT/MMA6281QT)
{ Package: Quad Flat No-Lead (QFN)
6 x 6 x 1.45 mm
{ Power: Low Voltage 2.2 V to 3.6 V
{ Low power consumption: 500 µA (3 µA in standby
mode)
{ Selective g range:
– 1.5g, 2g, 4g, 6g (MMA7260QT/MMA6270QT/
MMA6280QT)
– 2.5g, 3.3g, 6.7g, 10g (MMA7261QT/
MMA6271QT/MMA6281QT)
•
•
•
{ Response time: 1 ms
Microprocessor: MC9S08QG8
{ Versatile 8-bit microcontroller
Wireless connectivity: ZigBee™ Transceivers
(MC1319x)
Microprocessor: MCHC908JW32 (USB 2.0 Full
Speed)
References
AN3112 Using the Sensing Triple Axis Reference Board
(STAR)
AN1986 Using the TRIAX Evaluation Board
AN3107 Measuring Tilt with Low-g Accelerometers
AN3109 Using the Multi-Axis g-Select Evaluation Boards
AN1611 Impact and Measurement Using Accelerometers
AN2731 Compact, Integrated Antennas: Designs and
Applications for the MC13191 and MC13192
SMACRM Simple Media Access Controller (SMAC) User's
Guide
AN2728 Demonstration Guide for SMAC Applications
AN2295 Developer's Serial Bootloader for M68HC08 and
HCS08 MCUs
AN3152
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A
B
C
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2
1
SLEEP
g-Sel2
g-Sel1
U1
BATT2
BATT1
Battery/Renata CR2477 Battery/Renata CR2032
5
+
10k
R5
13
4
C11
10nF
GND
VDD
C12
10nF
GND
D1
LED
3
GND
VDD
LED2
GND
C8
6.8pF
GND
C9
6.8pF
Q1
16MHz NX2520SA
2
1
GND
LED1
LED2
SPICLK
SPICLK
MOSI
MOSI
SS
VDD
G_SEL2/TxD
G_SEL1/RxD
IRQ
J2
BDM
MISO
D2
LED
R9
0R
GND
VDD
GND
GND
Figure 6. ZSTAR Sensor Board Schematics
C13
10nF
R8
0R
LED1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Alps SKRP
S1
S2
Alps SKRP
PTA0/KBI0/AD0/TPM1CH0/ACMP1+ PTA5/RESET/IRQ/TCLK
PTA1/KBI1/AD1/ACMP1PTA4/BKGD/MS/ACMP1O
PTA2/KBI2/AD2/SDA1
Vdd
PTA3/KBI3/AD3/SCL1
Vss
PTB0/KBI4/AD4/RxD1
PTB7/SCL1/EXTAL
PTB1/KBI5/AD5/TxD1
PTB6/SDA1/XTAL
PTB2/KBI6/AD6/SPSCK1
PTB5/TPM1CH1/SS1
PTB3/KBI7/AD7/MOSI1
PTB4/MISO1
GND GND GND
C1
C2
C3
100nF 100nF 100nF
MC9S08QG8CDTE
C10
10nF
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
10k
R4
14
U2
10k
R3
15
C14
470uF/4V
SPICLK
MOSI
G_SEL1/RxD
G_SEL2/TxD
GND
Z
Y
X
MMA7260QT
VDD
SW1
Alps/SSSS811101
GND
R7
0R
R6
0R
GND
R2
INF
R1
INF
VDD
1
2
3
4
3
4
3
VDD
VSS
4
3
1
4
1
1
1
2
2
4
6
1
1
3
5
1
CRYSTAL2
CRYSTAL1
GPIO1
GPIO2
GPIO3
GPIO4
GPIO5
GPIO6
GPIO7
CE
MOSI
MISO
SPICLK
ATTN
IRQ
RXTXEN
CLKO
RST
U3
VDD
Low-cost 2.4GHz Triax Board
GND
30
21
2
1
5
6
29
28
32
GND
C6
10nF
VDDA
GND
GND
C7
10nF
L4
4.7nH
L3
5.6nH
L1
22nH
GND
C4 100pF
C5 10nF
1
L2
22nH
Freescale Semiconductor RCSC
1. maje 1009
756 61 Roznov p.R., Czech Republic, Europe
VDDVCO
VDDD
RFIN+
RFIN-
PAO+
PAO-
VDDLO1
VDDLO2
VDDA
MC13191FC
2
1
Rev 2.0
Schematic Name:
Size A4
SCHEMATIC1
Friday, December 15, 2006
Modify Date:
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Radomir Kozub & Pavel Lajsner
Author:
Design Name:
Title
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10
9
8
23
24
25
19
17
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16
14
20
13
15
12
2
31
VBATT
22
VDDINT
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
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APPENDIX A
ZSTAR BOARDS SCHEMATICS AND PCBs
AN3152
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Figure 7. Top Layer of the Sensor Board
Figure 8. Bottom Layer of the Sensor Board
Figure 9. Top Component Placement of the Sensor Board
Figure 10. Bottom Component Placement of the
Sensor Board
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Freescale Semiconductor
AN3152
A
B
C
C10
2n2
R6
2k2
VDD
VDD
VDD
1
GND
LED
D3
LED
D2
LED
D1
GND
560
560
R4
R5
3
5
GND
R7
1M
OSC1
1
MRESET
MIRQ
GND
RxD
IRQ
VDD36
PTA0
Q2
Murata CSTCR6M00G53
2
560
R3
MIRQ
Q3
EPSON-SG310 4.0MHz
OSC.
3
4
Alps SKRP
C7
100pF
VDD36
GND
GND
1
2
21
23
24
25
26
37
38
34
27
28
6
1
48
47
46
45
40
39
36
VDD36
PTE2/PS2CLK/D+
PTE3/DPTE4/SPCLK
PTE5/MOSI
PTE6/MISO
PTE7/SS
NC
NC
NC
PTB0
PTB1
PTB5 U2
GND
4
GND
NC
NC
NC
NC
PTD0
PTD1
PTD2
PTD3
MC68HC908JW32FC PTD4
PTD5
RESET
PTD6
IRQ
PTD7
CGMXFC
PTC0/T1CH0
PTC1/TCLK1
OSC1
PTC2/T1CH1
OSC2
PTC3
PTA0/KBA0
PTA1/KBA1
PTA2/KBA2
PTA3/KBA3
PTA4/KBA4
PTA5/KBA5
PTA6/KBA6
PTA7/KBA7
GND
C1
100nF
43
REG25V
S1
32
REG33V
2
3
12
20
7
4
41
5
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
22
30
31
11
10
9
8
SPCLK
R2 33R
R1 33R
C11
1uF
uMON08
J3
Serial
J2
2
4
6
2
4
6
U3
NCP502SQ33T1G
5
Vin Vout
1
3
5
1
3
5
MISO
J1
USB-A-MALE
RST
VREG33EN
GND
U4
NCP502SQ36T1G
1 Vin Vout 5
VDD
GND
GND
3
C12
1uF
ATTN
RTXEN
CLKO
GND
26
11
10
9
8
23
24
25
19
17
18
16
14
20
13
15
12
Q1
GND
VDD33
C13
1uF
GND
GND
VDD36
GND
C9
6.8pF
VDD33
CRYSTAL2
VDDVCO
VDDD
RFIN+
RFIN-
PAO+
PAO-
GND
GND
GND
C6
10nF
GND
C5
10nF
L6
4.7nH
L5
5.6nH
L4
22nH
C4
100pF
VDDA C2
10nF
1
L3
22nH
Freescale Semiconductor RCSC
1. maje 1009
756 61 Roznov p.R., Czech Republic, Europe
30
21
2
1
5
6
29
28
32
2
1
Rev 2.0
Schematic Name:
Size A4
SCHEMATIC1
Monday, December 18, 2006
Modify Date:
Sheet
of
1
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2005
General Business Information
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Radomir Kozub & Pavel Lajsner
Author:
Design Name:
ZSTAR USB dongle
GND
GND
VDDLO1
VDDLO2
VDDA
C3
10nF
U1
MC13191FC
CRYSTAL1
GPIO1
GPIO2
GPIO3
GPIO4
GPIO5
GPIO6
GPIO7
CE
MOSI
MISO
SPICLK
ATTN
IRQ
RXTXEN
CLKO
RST
Title
16MHz NX2520SA 27
2
1
GND
C8
6.8pF
PTA0
VDD36
GND
IRQ
IRQ
2
Figure 11. ZSTAR USB Stick Board Schematics
GND
VDD
1
VREG33EN
MRESET
MIRQ
OSC1
GND
RxD
TxD
1
MOSI SS
GND
FB2
BEAD
1
2
3
4
FB1
BEAD
1
3
1
VDD
1
4
1
5
42
VDD
D
4
1
31
VBATT
2
1
2
1
35
VDDPLL
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
108
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
100
VSS33
VSSPLL
29
33
VSS
44
3
1
GND
2
GND
2
2
1
Enable
3
Enable
3
1
4
22
VDDINT
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
EPGND
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Figure 12. Top Layer of the USB Stick Board
Figure 13. Bottom Layer of the USB Stick Board
Figure 14. Top Component Placement of the USB
Stick Board
Figure 15. Bottom Component Placement of the USB
Stick Board
AN3152
10
Sensors
Freescale Semiconductor
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AN3152
Rev. 2
01/2007
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