ATMEL AT89C51AC3

Features
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80C51 Core Architecture
256 Bytes of On-chip RAM
2048 Bytes of On-chip ERAM
64K Bytes of On-chip Flash Memory
– Data Retention: 10 Years at 85°C
– Read/Write Cycle: 100K
Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
2K Bytes of On-chip Flash for Bootloader
In-System Programming by On-Chip UART Boot Program and IAP Capability
2K Bytes of On-chip EEPROM
Read/Write Cycle: 100K
Integrated Power Monitor (POR: PFD) To Supervise Internal Power Supply
14-sources 4-level Interrupts
Three 16-bit Timers/Counters
Full Duplex UART Compatible 80C51
High-speed Architecture
– In Standard Mode:
40 MHz (Vcc 3V to 5.5V, both Internal and external code execution)
60 MHz (Vcc 4.5V to 5.5V and Internal Code execution only)
– In X2 mode (6 Clocks/machine cycle)
20 MHz (Vcc 3V to 5.5V, both Internal and external code execution)
30 MHz (Vcc 4.5V to 5.5V and Internal Code execution only)
Five Ports: 32 + 4 Digital I/O Lines
Five-channel 16-bit PCA with
– PWM (8-bit)
– High-speed Output
– Timer and Edge Capture
Double Data Pointer
21-bit WatchDog Timer (7 Programmable Bits)
A 10-bit Resolution Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) with 8 Multiplexed Inputs
SPI Interface (PLCC52 and VPFP64 packages only)
On-chip Emulation Logic (Enhanced Hook System)
Power Saving Modes
– Idle Mode
– Power-down Mode
Power Supply: 3 volts to 5.5 volts
Temperature Range: Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
Packages: VQFP44, PLCC44, VQFP64, PLCC52
Enhanced 8-bit
Microcontroller
with 64KB Flash
Memory
AT89C51AC3
Description
The AT89C51AC3 is a high performance Flash version of the 80C51 single chip 8-bit
microcontrollers.
In X2 mode a maximum external clock rate of 20 MHz reaches a 300 ns cycle time.
Besides the AT89C51AC3 provides 64K Bytes of Flash memory including In-System
Programming (ISP) and IAP, 2K Bytes Boot Flash Memory, 2K Bytes EEPROM and
2048 byte ERAM.
Primary attention is paid to the reduction of the electro-magnetic emission of
AT89C51AC3.
Rev. 4383B–8051–01/05
T2
T2EX
PCA
ECI
Vss
Vcc
TxD
RxD
Block Diagram
XTAL1
RAM
256x8
UART
XTAL2
ALE
C51
CORE
PSEN
Flash Boot
EE
64k x 8 loader PROM
2kx8 2kx8
ERAM
2048
PCA
Timer2
IB-bus
CPU
EA
Notes:
2
Emul
Unit
10 bit
ADC
SPI
Interface
MOSI
SCK
MISO
P4(2)
P3
P2
INT1
INT0
T1
T0
RESET
WR
Parallel I/O Ports and Ext. Bus Watch
Dog
Port 0 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 4
P1(1)
INT
Ctrl
P0
Timer 0
Timer 1
RD
1. 8 analog Inputs/8 Digital I/O
2. 5-Bit I/O Port
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
6
5
4
3
2
1
44
43
42
41
40
P1.3/AN3/CEX0
P1.2/AN2/ECI
P1.1/AN1/T2EX
P1.0/AN 0/T2
VAREF
VAGND
RESET
VSS
VCC
XTAL1
XTAL2
Pin Configuration
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
PLCC44
ALE
PSEN
P0.7/AD7
P0.6/AD6
P0.5/AD5
P0.4/AD4
P0.3/AD3
P0.2/AD2
P0.1/AD1
P0.0/AD0
P2.0/A8
P1.3/AN3/CEX0
P1.2/AN2/ECI
P1.1/AN1/T2EX
P1.0/AN 0/T2
VAREF
VAGND
RESET
VSS
VCC
XTAL1
XTAL2
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
P4.0
P4.1
P2.7/A15
P2.6/A14
P2.5/A13
P2.4/A12
P2.3/A11
P2.2/A10
P2.1/A9
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
P1.4/AN4/CEX1
P1.5/AN5/CEX2
P1.6/AN6/CEX3
P1.7/AN7/CEX4
EA
P3.0/RxD
P3.1/TxD
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1
44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34
P1.4/AN4/CEX1
P1.5/AN5/CEX2
P1.6/AN6/CEX3
P1.7/AN7/CEX4
EA
P3.0/RxD
P3.1/TxD
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1
2
33
32
3
4
30
1
5
6
31
VQFP44
29
28
27
7
8
9
26
25
10
24
23
11
ALE
PSEN
P0.7/AD7
P0.6/AD6
P0.5/AD5
P0.4 /AD4
P0.3 /AD3
P0.2 /AD2
P0.1 /AD1
P0.0 /AD0
P2.0/A8
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
P4.0
P4.1
P2.7/A15
P2.6/A14
P2.5/A13
P2.4/A12
P2.3/A11
P2.2/A10
P2.1/A9
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
3
4383B–8051–01/05
3
VCC
XTAL1
XTAL2
VAGND
RESET
VSS
TESTI
VCC
2
1 52 51 50 49 48 47
46
9
10
45
44
11
43
12
13
41
14
42
PLCC52
15
40
39
16
38
17
37
ALE
PSEN
P0.7/AD7
P0.6/AD6
NC
P0.5/AD5
P0.4 /AD4
P0.3 /AD3
P0.2 /AD2
P0.1 /AD1
18
36
19
35
P4.4/MOSI
P0.0 /AD0
34
P2.0/A8
20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
P4.0
P4.1
P2.7/A15
P2.6/A14
NC
P3.1/TxD
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1/SS
5 4
P2.5/A13
P2.4/A12
P2.3/A11
P2.2/A10
P2.1/A9
P4.2/MISO
P1.4/AN4/CEX1
P1.5/AN5/CEX2
P1.6/AN6/CEX3
P1.7/AN7/CEX4
EA
NC
P3.0/RxD
P4.3/SCK
6
VAREF
P1.3/AN3/CEX0
P1.2/AN2/ECI
P1.1/AN1/T2EX
P1.0/AN 0/T2
7
8
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
P1.3/AN3/CEX0
P1.2/AN2/ECI
P1.1/AN1/T2EX
P1.0/AN0/T2
VAREF
VAGND
RESET
VSS
VSS
VSS
TESTI
VCC
VCC
VCC
XTAL1
XTAL2
TESTI must be connected to VSS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
VQFP64
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
NC
ALE
PSEN
P0.7/AD7
P0.6/AD6
NC
P0.5/AD5
NC
NC
P0.4/AD4
P0.3/AD3
P0.2/AD2
P0.1/AD1
P4.4/MOSI
P0.0/AD0
P2.0/A8
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
P4.0
P4.1
P2.7/A15
P2.6/A14
NC
NC
NC
NC
P2.5/A13
P2.4/A12
P2.3/A11
P2.2/A10
P2.1/A9
P4.2/MISO
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
P1.4/AN4/CEX1
NC
P1.5/AN5/CEX2
P1.6/AN6/CEX3
P1.7/AN7/CEX4
NC
EA
NC
NC
P3.0/RxD
P4.3/SCK
P3.1/TxD
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1/SS
TESTI must be connected to VSS
4
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Pin Name
Type
Description
VSS
GND
Circuit ground
TESTI
I
VCC
Must be connected to VSS
Supply Voltage
VAREF
Reference Voltage for ADC
VAGND
Reference Ground for ADC
P0.0:7
I/O
Port 0:
Is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. Port 0 pins that have 1’s written to them float, and in this state can be used as
high-impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low-order address and data bus during accesses to external Program
and Data Memory. In this application it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1’s.
Port 0 also outputs the code Bytes during program validation. External pull-ups are required during program verification.
P1.0:7
I/O
Port 1:
Is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 1 pins can be used for digital input/output or as analog inputs for
the Analog Digital Converter (ADC). Port 1 pins that have 1’s written to them are pulled high by the internal pull-up transistors
and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are being pulled low externally will be the source of current
(IIL, see section "Electrical Characteristic") because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 pins are assigned to be used as analog
inputs via the ADCCF register (in this case the internal pull-ups are disconnected).
As a secondary digital function, port 1 contains the Timer 2 external trigger and clock input; the PCA external clock input and
the PCA module I/O.
P1.0/AN0/T2
Analog input channel 0,
External clock input for Timer/counter2.
P1.1/AN1/T2EX
Analog input channel 1,
Trigger input for Timer/counter2.
P1.2/AN2/ECI
Analog input channel 2,
PCA external clock input.
P1.3/AN3/CEX0
Analog input channel 3,
PCA module 0 Entry of input/PWM output.
P1.4/AN4/CEX1
Analog input channel 4,
PCA module 1 Entry of input/PWM output.
P1.5/AN5/CEX2
Analog input channel 5,
PCA module 2 Entry of input/PWM output.
P1.6/AN6/CEX3
Analog input channel 6,
PCA module 3 Entry of input/PWM output.
P1.7/AN7/CEX4
Analog input channel 7,
PCA module 4 Entry ot input/PWM output.
Port 1 receives the low-order address byte during EPROM programming and program verification.
It can drive CMOS inputs without external pull-ups.
P2.0:7
I/O
Port 2:
Is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 2 pins that have 1’s written to them are pulled high by the internal
pull-ups and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are being pulled low externally will be a source of
current (IIL, see section "Electrical Characteristic") because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte
during accesses to the external Program Memory and during accesses to external Data Memory that uses 16-bit addresses
(MOVX @DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1’s. During accesses to external Data
Memory that use 8 bit addresses (MOVX @Ri), Port 2 transmits the contents of the P2 special function register.
It also receives high-order addresses and control signals during program validation.
It can drive CMOS inputs without external pull-ups.
5
4383B–8051–01/05
Pin Name
Type
P3.0:7
I/O
Description
Port 3:
Is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 3 pins that have 1’s written to them are pulled high by the internal
pull-up transistors and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are being pulled low externally will be a
source of current (IIL, see section "Electrical Characteristic") because of the internal pull-ups.
The output latch corresponding to a secondary function must be programmed to one for that function to operate (except for
TxD and WR). The secondary functions are assigned to the pins of port 3 as follows:
P3.0/RxD:
Receiver data input (asynchronous) or data input/output (synchronous) of the serial interface
P3.1/TxD:
Transmitter data output (asynchronous) or clock output (synchronous) of the serial interface
P3.2/INT0:
External interrupt 0 input/timer 0 gate control input
P3.3/INT1:
External interrupt 1 input/timer 1 gate control input
P3.4/T0:
Timer 0 counter input
P3.5/T1/SS:
Timer 1 counter input
SPI Slave Select
P3.6/WR:
External Data Memory write strobe; latches the data byte from port 0 into the external data memory
P3.7/RD:
External Data Memory read strobe; Enables the external data memory.
It can drive CMOS inputs without external pull-ups.
P4.0:4
I/O
Port 4:
Is an 2-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 4 pins that have 1’s written to them are pulled high by the internal
pull-ups and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 4 pins that are being pulled low externally will be a source of
current (IIL, on the datasheet) because of the internal pull-up transistor.
The secondary functions are assigned to the 5 pins of port 4 as follows:
P4.0: Regular Port I/O
P4.1: Regular Port I/O
P4.2/MISO:
Master Input Slave Output of SPI controller
P4.3/SCK:
Serial Clock of SPI controller
P4.4/MOSI:
Master Ouput Slave Input of SPI controller
It can drive CMOS inputs without external pull-ups.
6
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Pin Name
Type
Description
RESET
I/O
Reset:
A high level on this pin during two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. An internal pull-down
resistor to VSS permits power-on reset using only an external capacitor to VCC.
ALE
O
ALE:
An Address Latch Enable output for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to the external memory. The ALE is
activated every 1/6 oscillator periods (1/3 in X2 mode) except during an external data memory access. When instructions are
executed from an internal Flash (EA = 1), ALE generation can be disabled by the software.
PSEN
O
PSEN:
The Program Store Enable output is a control signal that enables the external program memory of the bus during external
fetch operations. It is activated twice each machine cycle during fetches from the external program memory. However, when
executing from of the external program memory two activations of PSEN are skipped during each access to the external Data
memory. The PSEN is not activated for internal fetches.
EA
I
EA:
When External Access is held at the high level, instructions are fetched from the internal Flash. When held at the low level,
AT89C51AC3 fetches all instructions from the external program memory.
XTAL1
I
XTAL1:
Input of the inverting oscillator amplifier and input of the internal clock generator circuits.
To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL1 should be driven, while XTAL2 is left unconnected. To operate
above a frequency of 16 MHz, a duty cycle of 50% should be maintained.
XTAL2
O
XTAL2:
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
I/O Configurations
Each Port SFR operates via type-D latches, as illustrated in Figure 1 for Ports 3 and 4. A
CPU "write to latch" signal initiates transfer of internal bus data into the type-D latch. A
CPU "read latch" signal transfers the latched Q output onto the internal bus. Similarly, a
"read pin" signal transfers the logical level of the Port pin. Some Port data instructions
activate the "read latch" signal while others activate the "read pin" signal. Latch instructions are referred to as Read-Modify-Write instructions. Each I/O line may be
independently programmed as input or output.
Port 1, Port 3 and Port 4
Figure 1 shows the structure of Ports 1 and 3, which have internal pull-ups. An external
source can pull the pin low. Each Port pin can be configured either for general-purpose
I/O or for its alternate input output function.
To use a pin for general-purpose output, set or clear the corresponding bit in the Px register (x = 1,3 or 4). To use a pin for general-purpose input, set the bit in the Px register.
This turns off the output FET drive.
To configure a pin for its alternate function, set the bit in the Px register. When the latch
is set, the "alternate output function" signal controls the output level (see Figure 1). The
operation of Ports 1, 3 and 4 is discussed further in the "quasi-Bidirectional Port Operation" section.
7
4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 1. Port 1, Port 3 and Port 4 Structure
VCC
ALTERNATE
OUTPUT
FUNCTION
READ
LATCH
INTERNAL
BUS
READ
PIN
Port 0 and Port 2
P1.x
P3.x
P4.x
D P1.X Q
P3.X
P4.X
LATCH
CL
WRITE
TO
LATCH
Note:
INTERNAL
PULL-UP (1)
ALTERNATE
INPUT
FUNCTION
The internal pull-up can be disabled on P1 when analog function is selected.
Ports 0 and 2 are used for general-purpose I/O or as the external address/data bus. Port
0, shown in Figure 3, differs from the other Ports in not having internal pull-ups. Figure 3
shows the structure of Port 2. An external source can pull a Port 2 pin low.
To use a pin for general-purpose output, set or clear the corresponding bit in the Px register (x = 0 or 2). To use a pin for general-purpose input, set the bit in the Px register to
turn off the output driver FET.
Figure 2. Port 0 Structure
ADDRESS LOW/ CONTROL
DATA
VDD
(2)
READ
LATCH
P0.x (1)
1
INTERNAL
BUS
WRITE
TO
LATCH
D
P0.X
LATCH
Q
0
READ
PIN
Notes:
8
1. Port 0 is precluded from use as general-purpose I/O Ports when used as
address/data bus drivers.
2. Port 0 internal strong pull-ups assist the logic-one output for memory bus cycles only.
Except for these bus cycles, the pull-up FET is off, Port 0 outputs are open-drain.
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Figure 3. Port 2 Structure
ADDRESS HIGH/ CONTROL
VDD
INTERNAL
PULL-UP (2)
READ
LATCH
P2.x (1)
1
INTERNAL
BUS
WRITE
TO
LATCH
D
P2.X
LATCH
Q
0
READ
PIN
Notes:
1. Port 2 is precluded from use as general-purpose I/O Ports when as address/data bus
drivers.
2. Port 2 internal strong pull-ups FET (P1 in FiGURE) assist the logic-one output for
memory bus cycle.
When Port 0 and Port 2 are used for an external memory cycle, an internal control signal
switches the output-driver input from the latch output to the internal address/data line.
Read-Modify-Write
Instructions
Some instructions read the latch data rather than the pin data. The latch based instructions read the data, modify the data and then rewrite the latch. These are called "ReadModify-Write" instructions. Below is a complete list of these special instructions (see
Table ). When the destination operand is a Port or a Port bit, these instructions read the
latch rather than the pin:
Instruction
Description
Example
ANL
logical AND
ANL P1, A
ORL
logical OR
ORL P2, A
XRL
logical EX-OR
XRL P3, A
JBC
jump if bit = 1 and clear bit
JBC P1.1, LABEL
CPL
complement bit
CPL P3.0
INC
increment
INC P2
DEC
decrement
DEC P2
DJNZ
decrement and jump if not zero
DJNZ P3, LABEL
MOV Px.y, C
move carry bit to bit y of Port x
MOV P1.5, C
CLR Px.y
clear bit y of Port x
CLR P2.4
SET Px.y
set bit y of Port x
SET P3.3
It is not obvious the last three instructions in this list are Read-Modify-Write instructions.
These instructions read the port (all 8 bits), modify the specifically addressed bit and
9
4383B–8051–01/05
write the new byte back to the latch. These Read-Modify-Write instructions are directed
to the latch rather than the pin in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of voltage
(and therefore, logic) levels at the pin. For example, a Port bit used to drive the base of
an external bipolar transistor can not rise above the transistor’s base-emitter junction
voltage (a value lower than VIL). With a logic one written to the bit, attempts by the CPU
to read the Port at the pin are misinterpreted as logic zero. A read of the latch rather
than the pins returns the correct logic-one value.
Quasi-Bidirectional Port
Operation
Port 1, Port 2, Port 3 and Port 4 have fixed internal pull-ups and are referred to as
"quasi-bidirectional" Ports. When configured as an input, the pin impedance appears as
logic one and sources current in response to an external logic zero condition. Port 0 is a
"true bidirectional" pin. The pins float when configured as input. Resets write logic one to
all Port latches. If logical zero is subsequently written to a Port latch, it can be returned
to input conditions by a logical one written to the latch.
Note:
Port latch values change near the end of Read-Modify-Write instruction cycles. Output
buffers (and therefore the pin state) update early in the instruction after Read-ModifyWrite instruction cycle.
Logical zero-to-one transitions in Port 1, Port 2, Port 3 and Port 4 use an additional pullup (p1) to aid this logic transition (see Figure 4.). This increases switch speed. This
extra pull-up sources 100 times normal internal circuit current during 2 oscillator clock
periods. The internal pull-ups are field-effect transistors rather than linear resistors. Pullups consist of three p-channel FET (pFET) devices. A pFET is on when the gate senses
logical zero and off when the gate senses logical one. pFET #1 is turned on for two
oscillator periods immediately after a zero-to-one transition in the Port latch. A logical
one at the Port pin turns on pFET #3 (a weak pull-up) through the inverter. This inverter
and pFET pair form a latch to drive logical one. pFET #2 is a very weak pull-up switched
on whenever the associated nFET is switched off. This is traditional CMOS switch convention. Current strengths are 1/10 that of pFET #3.
Figure 4. Internal Pull-Up Configurations
2 Osc. PERIODS
OUTPUT DATA
VCC
VCC
VCC
p1(1)
p2
p3
P1.x
P2.x
P3.x
P4.x
n
INPUT DATA
READ PIN
Note:
10
Port 2 p1 assists the logic-one output for memory bus cycles.
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
SFR Mapping
The Special Function Registers (SFRs) of the AT89C51AC3 fall into the following
categories:
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ACC
E0h Accumulator
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
B
F0h B Register
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
PSW
D0h Program Status Word
CY
AC
F0
RS1
RS0
OV
F1
P
SP
81h Stack Pointer
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
DPL
Data Pointer Low
82h byte
LSB of DPTR
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
DPH
Data Pointer High
83h byte
MSB of DPTR
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
P0
80h Port 0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P1
90h Port 1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P2
A0h Port 2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P3
B0h Port 3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P4
C0h Port 4 (x5)
–
–
–
P4.4 /
MOSI
P4.3 /
SCK
P4.2 /
MISO
P4.1
P4.0
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TH0
8Ch
Timer/Counter 0 High
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TL0
8Ah
Timer/Counter 0 Low
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TH1
8Dh
Timer/Counter 1 High
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TL1
8Bh
Timer/Counter 1 Low
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TH2
CDh
Timer/Counter 2 High
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TL2
CCh
Timer/Counter 2 Low
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TCON
88h
Timer/Counter 0 and
1 control
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
TMOD
89h
Timer/Counter 0 and
1 Modes
GATE1
C/T1#
M11
M01
GATE0
C/T0#
M10
M00
Mnemonic
Add
11
4383B–8051–01/05
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
T2CON
C8h
Timer/Counter 2
control
TF2
EXF2
RCLK
TCLK
EXEN2
TR2
C/T2#
CP/RL2#
T2MOD
C9h
Timer/Counter 2
Mode
–
–
–
–
–
–
T2OE
DCEN
RCAP2H
Timer/Counter 2
CBh Reload/Capture High
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
RCAP2L
Timer/Counter 2
CAh Reload/Capture Low
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
WDTRST
A6h
WatchDog Timer
Reset
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
WDTPRG
A7h
WatchDog Timer
Program
–
–
–
–
–
S2
S1
S0
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FE/SM0
SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
SCON
98h Serial Control
SBUF
99h Serial Data Buffer
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SADEN
B9h Slave Address Mask
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SADDR
A9h Slave Address
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Mnemonic Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCON
D8h PCA Timer/Counter Control
CF
CR
–
CCF4
CCF3
CCF2
CCF1
CCF0
CMOD
D9h PCA Timer/Counter Mode
CIDL
WDTE
–
–
–
CPS1
CPS0
ECF
CL
E9h PCA Timer/Counter Low byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CH
F9h PCA Timer/Counter High byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CCAPM0
DAh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 0
ECOM0
CAPP0
CAPN0
MAT0
TOG0
PWM0
ECCF0
CCAPM1
DBh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 1
ECOM1
CAPP1
CAPN1
MAT1
TOG1
PWM1
ECCF1
CCAPM2
DCh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 2
ECOM2
CAPP2
CAPN2
MAT2
TOG2
PWM2
ECCF2
CCAPM3
DDh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 3
ECOM3
CAPP3
CAPN3
MAT3
TOG3
PWM3
ECCF3
CCAPM4
DEh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 4
ECOM4
CAPP4
CAPN4
MAT4
TOG4
PWM4
ECCF4
–
CCAP0H
FAh PCA Compare Capture Module 0 H CCAP0H7 CCAP0H6 CCAP0H5 CCAP0H4 CCAP0H3 CCAP0H2 CCAP0H1 CCAP0H0
CCAP1H
FBh PCA Compare Capture Module 1 H CCAP1H7 CCAP1H6 CCAP1H5 CCAP1H4 CCAP1H3 CCAP1H2 CCAP1H1 CCAP1H0
CCAP2H
FCh PCA Compare Capture Module 2 H CCAP2H7 CCAP2H6 CCAP2H5 CCAP2H4 CCAP2H3 CCAP2H2 CCAP2H1 CCAP2H0
CCAP3H
FDh PCA Compare Capture Module 3 H CCAP3H7 CCAP3H6 CCAP3H5 CCAP3H4 CCAP3H3 CCAP3H2 CCAP3H1 CCAP3H0
CCAP4H
FEh PCA Compare Capture Module 4 H CCAP4H7 CCAP4H6 CCAP4H5 CCAP4H4 CCAP4H3 CCAP4H2 CCAP4H1 CCAP4H0
CCAP0L
EAh
PCA Compare Capture Module 0 L CCAP0L7 CCAP0L6 CCAP0L5 CCAP0L4 CCAP0L3 CCAP0L2 CCAP0L1 CCAP0L0
CCAP1L
EBh
PCA Compare Capture Module 1 L CCAP1L7 CCAP1L6 CCAP1L5 CCAP1L4 CCAP1L3 CCAP1L2 CCAP1L1 CCAP1L0
CCAP2L
ECh
PCA Compare Capture Module 2 L CCAP2L7 CCAP2L6 CCAP2L5 CCAP2L4 CCAP2L3 CCAP2L2 CCAP2L1 CCAP2L0
CCAP3L
EDh
PCA Compare Capture Module 3 L CCAP3L7 CCAP3L6 CCAP3L5 CCAP3L4 CCAP3L3 CCAP3L2 CCAP3L1 CCAP3L0
CCAP4L
EEh
PCA Compare Capture Module 4 L CCAP4L7 CCAP4L6 CCAP4L5 CCAP4L4 CCAP4L3 CCAP4L2 CCAP4L1 CCAP4L0
12
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IEN0
A8h
Interrupt Enable
Control 0
EA
EC
ET2
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
IEN1
E8h
Interrupt Enable
Control 1
–
–
–
–
ESPI
–
EADC
–
IPL0
B8h
Interrupt Priority
Control Low 0
–
PPC
PT2
PS
PT1
PX1
PT0
PX0
IPH0
B7h
Interrupt Priority
Control High 0
–
PPCH
PT2H
PSH
PT1H
PX1H
PT0H
PX0H
IPL1
F8h
Interrupt Priority
Control Low 1
–
–
–
–
SPIL
–
PADCL
–
IPH1
F7h
Interrupt Priority
Control High1
–
–
–
–
SPIH
–
PADCH
–
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADCON
F3h ADC Control
–
PSIDLE
ADEN
ADEOC
ADSST
SCH2
SCH1
SCH0
ADCF
F6h ADC Configuration
CH7
CH6
CH5
CH4
CH3
CH2
CH1
CH0
ADCLK
F2h ADC Clock
–
–
–
PRS4
PRS3
PRS2
PRS1
PRS0
ADDH
F5h ADC Data High byte
ADAT9
ADAT8
ADAT7
ADAT6
ADAT5
ADAT4
ADAT3
ADAT2
ADDL
F4h ADC Data Low byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADAT1
ADAT0
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPCON
D4h SPI Control
SPR2
SPEN
SSDIS
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
SPSCR
D5h
SPIF
–
OVR
MODF
SPTE
UARTM
SPTEIE
MOFIE
SPDAT
D6h SPI Data
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SMOD1
SMOD0
–
POF
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
SPI Status and
Control
Mnemonic
Add
Name
PCON
87h
Power Control
AUXR
8Eh
Auxiliary Register 0
DPU
VPFDP
M0
XRS2
XRS1
XRS0
EXTRAM
A0
AUXR1
A2h
Auxiliary Register 1
–
–
ENBOOT
–
GF3
0
–
DPS
CKCON0
8Fh
Clock Control 0
–
WDX2
PCAX2
SIX2
T2X2
T1X2
T0X2
X2
CKCON1
9Fh
Clock Control 1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SPIX2
FCON
D1h
Flash Control
FPL3
FPL2
FPL1
FPL0
FPS
FMOD1
FMOD0
FBUSY
EECON
D2h
EEPROM Contol
EEPL3
EEPL2
EEPL1
EEPL0
–
–
EEE
EEBUSY
FSTA
D3
Flash Status
-
-
-
-
-
-
SEQERR
FLOAD
13
4383B–8051–01/05
Table 1. SFR Mapping
0/8(2)
1/9
2/A
3/B
4/C
5/D
6/E
F8h
IPL1
xxxx x0x0
CH
0000 0000
CCAP0H
0000 0000
CCAP1H
0000 0000
CCAP2H
0000 0000
CCAP3H
0000 0000
CCAP4H
0000 0000
F0h
B
0000 0000
ADCLK
xxx0 0000
ADCON
x000 0000
ADDL
0000 0000
ADDH
0000 0000
ADCF
0000 0000
E8h
IEN1
xxxx x0x0
CCAP0L
0000 0000
CCAP1L
0000 0000
CCAP2L
0000 0000
CCAP3L
0000 0000
CCAP4L
0000 0000
E0h
ACC
0000 0000
D8h
CCON
0000 0000
CMOD
00xx x000
CCAPM0
x000 0000
CCAPM1
x000 0000
D0h
PSW
0000 0000
FCON
0000 0000
EECON
xxxx xx00
FSTA
SPCON
SPSCR
SPDAT
xxxx xx00
0001 0100
0000 0000
xxxx xxxx
C8h
T2CON
0000 0000
T2MOD
xxxx xx00
RCAP2L
0000 0000
RCAP2H
0000 0000
TL2
0000 0000
TH2
0000 0000
C0h
P4
xxx1 1111
B8h
IPL0
x000 0000
B0h
P3
1111 1111
A8h
IEN0
0000 0000
A0h
P2
1111 1111
98h
SCON
0000 0000
90h
P1
1111 1111
88h
TCON
0000 0000
TMOD
0000 0000
TL0
0000 0000
TL1
0000 0000
80h
P0
1111 1111
SP
0000 0111
DPL
0000 0000
DPH
0000 0000
0/8(2)
1/9
2/A
3/B
CL
0000 0000
7/F
FFh
IPH1
xxxx x0x0
F7h
EFh
E7h
CCAPM2
x000 0000
CCAPM3
x000 0000
CCAPM4
x000 0000
DFh
D7h
CFh
C7h
SADEN
0000 0000
BFh
IPH0
x000 0000
SADDR
0000 0000
B7h
AFh
AUXR1
xxxx 00x0
WDTRST
1111 1111
SBUF
0000 0000
WDTPRG
xxxx x000
A7h
CKCON1
xxxx xxx0
9Fh
97h
TH0
0000 0000
4/C
TH1
0000 0000
5/D
AUXR
x001 0100
6/E
CKCON0
x00 0000
8Fh
PCON
00x1 0000
87h
7/F
Reserved
Note:
1. Do not read or write Reserved Registers
2. These registers are bit–addressable.
Sixteen addresses in the SFR space are both byte–addressable and bit–addressable. The bit–addressable SFR’s are those
whose address ends in 0 and 8. The bit addresses, in this area, are 0x80 through to 0xFF.
14
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Clock
The AT89C51AC3 core needs only 6 clock periods per machine cycle. This feature,
called”X2”, provides the following advantages:
•
Divides frequency crystals by 2 (cheaper crystals) while keeping the same CPU
power.
•
Saves power consumption while keeping the same CPU power (oscillator power
saving).
•
Saves power consumption by dividing dynamic operating frequency by 2 in
operating and idle modes.
•
Increases CPU power by 2 while keeping the same crystal frequency.
In order to keep the original C51 compatibility, a divider-by-2 is inserted between the
XTAL1 signal and the main clock input of the core (phase generator). This divider may
be disabled by the software.
An extra feature is available to start after Reset in the X2 mode. This feature can be
enabled by a bit X2B in the Hardware Security Byte. This bit is described in the section
"In-System Programming".
Description
The X2 bit in the CKCON register (see Table 2) allows switching from 12 clock cycles
per instruction to 6 clock cycles and vice versa. At reset, the standard speed is activated
(STD mode).
Setting this bit activates the X2 feature (X2 mode) for the CPU Clock only (see Figure
5.).
The Timers 0, 1 and 2, Uart, PCA or WatchDog switch in X2 mode only if the corresponding bit is cleared in the CKCON register.
The clock for the whole circuit and peripheral is first divided by two before being used by
the CPU core and peripherals. This allows any cyclic ratio to be accepted on the XTAL1
input. In X2 mode, as this divider is bypassed, the signals on XTAL1 must have a cyclic
ratio between 40 to 60%. Figure 5. shows the clock generation block diagram. The X2
bit is validated on the XTAL1÷2 rising edge to avoid glitches when switching from the X2
to the STD mode. Figure 6 shows the mode switching waveforms.
15
4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 5. Clock CPU Generation Diagram
X2B
Hardware byte
PCON.0
On RESET
IDL
X2
CKCON.0
÷2
XTAL1
CPU Core
Clock
0
1
XTAL2
CPU
CLOCK
PD
CPU Core Clock Symbol
and ADC
PCON.1
÷2
1
0
÷2
1
FT1 Clock
0
÷2
1
FT2 Clock
0
÷2
FT0 Clock
1
FUart Clock
0
÷2
1
FPca Clock
0
÷2
1
FWd Clock
0
÷2
1
FSPIClock
0
X2
PERIPH
CLOCK
CKCON.0
SPIX2
WDX2
PCAX2
SIX2
T2X2
T1X2
T0X2
CKCON1.0 CKCON0.6 CKCON0.5 CKCON0.4 CKCON0.3 CKCON0.2 CKCON0.1
16
Peripheral
Clock Symbol
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Figure 6. Mode Switching Waveforms
XTAL1
XTAL1/2
X2 bit
CPU clock
STD Mode
Note:
X2 Mode
STD Mode
In order to prevent any incorrect operation while operating in the X2 mode, users must be aware that all peripherals using the
clock frequency as a time reference (UART, timers...) will have their time reference divided by two. For example a free running
timer generating an interrupt every 20 ms will then generate an interrupt every 10 ms. A UART with a 4800 baud rate will have
a 9600 baud rate.
17
4383B–8051–01/05
Registers
Table 2. CKCON0 Register
CKCON0 (S:8Fh)
Clock Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
WDX2
PCAX2
SIX2
T2X2
T1X2
T0X2
X2
Bit
Number
Reserved
The value read from this bits is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
7
-
6
WDX2
WatchDog clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
5
PCAX2
Programmable Counter Array clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
4
SIX2
Enhanced UART clock (MODE 0 and 2) (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
3
T2X2
Timer2 clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
2
T1X2
Timer1 clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
1
T0X2
Timer0 clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
0
Note:
Bit
Mnemonic Description
X2
CPU clock
Clear to select 12 clock periods per machine cycle (STD mode) for CPU and all
the peripherals.
Set to select 6 clock periods per machine cycle (X2 mode) and to enable the
individual peripherals "X2"bits.
1. This control bit is validated when the CPU clock bit X2 is set; when X2 is low, this bit
has no effect.
Reset Value = x000 0000b
18
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Table 3. CKCON1 Register
CKCON1 (S:9Fh)
Clock Control Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIX2
Bit
Number
7-1
0
Note:
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
SPIX2
Reserved
The value read from these bits is indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
SPI clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
1. This control bit is validated when the CPU clock bit X2 is set; when X2 is low, this bit
has no effect.
Reset Value = XXXX XXX0b
19
4383B–8051–01/05
Data Memory
The AT89C51AC3 provides data memory access in two different spaces:
1. The internal space mapped in three separate segments:
•
the lower 128 Bytes RAM segment.
•
the upper 128 Bytes RAM segment.
•
the expanded 2048 Bytes RAM segment (ERAM).
2. The external space.
A fourth internal segment is available but dedicated to Special Function Registers,
SFRs, (addresses 80h to FFh) accessible by direct addressing mode.
Figure 8 shows the internal and external data memory spaces organization.
Figure 7. Internal Memory - RAM
FFh
80h
7Fh
00h
Upper
128 Bytes
Internal RAM
indirect addressing
FFh
Special
Function
Registers
direct addressing
80h
Lower
128 Bytes
Internal RAM
direct or indirect
addressing
Figure 8. Internal and External Data Memory Organization ERAM-XRAM
FFFFh
64K Bytes
External XRAM
FFh or 7FFh
256 up to 2048 Bytes
Internal ERAM
EXTRAM = 0
00h
0000h
Internal
20
EXTRAM = 1
External
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Internal Space
Lower 128 Bytes RAM
The lower 128 Bytes of RAM (see Figure 8) are accessible from address 00h to 7Fh
using direct or indirect addressing modes. The lowest 32 Bytes are grouped into 4
banks of 8 registers (R0 to R7). Two bits RS0 and RS1 in PSW register (see Figure 6)
select which bank is in use according to Table 4. This allows more efficient use of code
space, since register instructions are shorter than instructions that use direct addressing, and can be used for context switching in interrupt service routines.
Table 4. Register Bank Selection
RS1
RS0
Description
0
0
Register bank 0 from 00h to 07h
0
1
Register bank 0 from 08h to 0Fh
1
0
Register bank 0 from 10h to 17h
1
1
Register bank 0 from 18h to 1Fh
The next 16 Bytes above the register banks form a block of bit-addressable memory
space. The C51 instruction set includes a wide selection of single-bit instructions, and
the 128 bits in this area can be directly addressed by these instructions. The bit
addresses in this area are 00h to 7Fh.
Figure 9. Lower 128 Bytes Internal RAM Organization
7Fh
30h
20h
18h
10h
08h
00h
2Fh
Bit-Addressable Space
(Bit Addresses 0-7Fh)
1Fh
17h
0Fh
4 Banks of
8 Registers
R0-R7
07h
Upper 128 Bytes RAM
The upper 128 Bytes of RAM are accessible from address 80h to FFh using only indirect
addressing mode.
Expanded RAM
The on-chip 2048 Bytes of expanded RAM (ERAM) are accessible from address 0000h
to 07FFh using indirect addressing mode through MOVX instructions. In this address
range, the bit EXTRAM in AUXR register is used to select the ERAM (default) or the
XRAM. As shown in Figure 8 when EXTRAM = 0, the ERAM is selected and when
EXTRAM = 1, the XRAM is selected.
The size of ERAM can be configured by XRS2-0 bit in AUXR register (default size is
2048 Bytes).
Note:
Lower 128 Bytes RAM, Upper 128 Bytes RAM, and expanded RAM are made of volatile
memory cells. This means that the RAM content is indeterminate after power-up and
must then be initialized properly.
21
4383B–8051–01/05
External Space
Memory Interface
The external memory interface comprises the external bus (port 0 and port 2) as well as
the bus control signals (RD#, WR#, and ALE).
Figure 10 shows the structure of the external address bus. P0 carries address A7:0
while P2 carries address A15:8. Data D7:0 is multiplexed with A7:0 on P0. Table 5
describes the external memory interface signals.
Figure 10. External Data Memory Interface Structure
RAM
PERIPHERAL
AT89C51AC3
A15:8
P2
ALE
P0
AD7:0
Latch
A15:8
A7:0
A7:0
D7:0
RD#
WR#
OE
WR
Table 5. External Data Memory Interface Signals
External Bus Cycles
Signal
Name
Type
Alternative
Function
A15:8
O
Address Lines
Upper address lines for the external bus.
P2.7:0
AD7:0
I/O
Address/Data Lines
Multiplexed lower address lines and data for the external
memory.
P0.7:0
ALE
O
Address Latch Enable
ALE signals indicates that valid address information are available
on lines AD7:0.
RD#
O
Read
Read signal output to external data memory.
P3.7
WR#
O
Write
Write signal output to external memory.
P3.6
Description
-
This section describes the bus cycles the AT89C51AC3 executes to read (see
Figure 11), and write data (see Figure 12) in the external data memory.
External memory cycle takes 6 CPU clock periods. This is equivalent to 12 oscillator
clock period in standard mode or 6 oscillator clock periods in X2 mode. For further information on X2 mode.
Slow peripherals can be accessed by stretching the read and write cycles. This is done
using the M0 bit in AUXR register. Setting this bit changes the width of the RD# and
WR# signals from 3 to 15 CPU clock periods.
For simplicity, the accompanying figures depict the bus cycle waveforms in idealized
form and do not provide precise timing information. For bus cycle timing parameters
refer to the Section “AC Characteristics” of the AT89C51AC3 datasheet.
22
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Figure 11. External Data Read Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
RD#1
P0
P2
Notes:
DPL or Ri
P2
D7:0
DPH or P22
1. RD# signal may be stretched using M0 bit in AUXR register.
2. When executing MOVX @Ri instruction, P2 outputs SFR content.
Figure 12. External Data Write Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
WR#1
P0
P2
Notes:
DPL or Ri
P2
D7:0
DPH or P22
1. WR# signal may be stretched using M0 bit in AUXR register.
2. When executing MOVX @Ri instruction, P2 outputs SFR content.
23
4383B–8051–01/05
Dual Data Pointer
Description
The AT89C51AC3 implements a second data pointer for speeding up code execution
and reducing code size in case of intensive usage of external memory accesses.
DPTR 0 and DPTR 1 are seen by the CPU as DPTR and are accessed using the SFR
addresses 83h and 84h that are the DPH and DPL addresses. The DPS bit in AUXR1
register (see Figure 8) is used to select whether DPTR is the data pointer 0 or the data
pointer 1 (see Figure 13).
Figure 13. Dual Data Pointer Implementation
DPL0
0
DPL1
1
DPTR0
DPS
DPTR1
Application
DPH0
0
DPH1
1
DPL
DPTR
AUXR1.0
DPH
Software can take advantage of the additional data pointers to both increase speed and
reduce code size, for example, block operations (copy, compare…) are well served by
using one data pointer as a “source” pointer and the other one as a “destination” pointer.
Hereafter is an example of block move implementation using the two pointers and coded
in assembler. The latest C compiler takes also advantage of this feature by providing
enhanced algorithm libraries.
The INC instruction is a short (2 Bytes) and fast (6 machine cycle) way to manipulate the
DPS bit in the AUXR1 register. However, note that the INC instruction does not directly
force the DPS bit to a particular state, but simply toggles it. In simple routines, such as
the block move example, only the fact that DPS is toggled in the proper sequence matters, not its actual value. In other words, the block move routine works the same whether
DPS is '0' or '1' on entry.
; ASCII block move using dual data pointers
; Modifies DPTR0, DPTR1, A and PSW
; Ends when encountering NULL character
; Note: DPS exits opposite to the entry state unless an extra INC AUXR1 is added
AUXR1EQU0A2h
move:movDPTR,#SOURCE ; address of SOURCE
incAUXR1 ; switch data pointers
movDPTR,#DEST ; address of DEST
mv_loop:incAUXR1; switch data pointers
movxA,@DPTR; get a byte from SOURCE
incDPTR; increment SOURCE address
incAUXR1; switch data pointers
[email protected],A; write the byte to DEST
incDPTR; increment DEST address
jnzmv_loop; check for NULL terminator
end_move:
24
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Registers
Table 6. PSW Register
PSW (S:8Eh)
Program Status Word Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CY
AC
F0
RS1
RS0
OV
F1
P
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
CY
Carry Flag
Carry out from bit 1 of ALU operands.
6
AC
Auxiliary Carry Flag
Carry out from bit 1 of addition operands.
5
F0
User Definable Flag 0.
4-3
RS1:0
2
OV
Overflow Flag
Overflow set by arithmetic operations.
1
F1
User Definable Flag 1
0
P
Parity Bit
Set when ACC contains an odd number of 1’s.
Cleared when ACC contains an even number of 1’s.
Register Bank Select Bits
Refer to Table 4 for bits description.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 7. AUXR Register
AUXR (S:8Eh)
Auxiliary Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
M0
XRS2
XRS1
XRS0
EXTRAM
A0
Bit
Number
7-6
5
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
M0
Reserved
The value read from these bits are indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Stretch MOVX control:
the RD/ and the WR/ pulse length is increased according to the value of M0.
M0
Pulse length in clock period
0
6
1
30
25
4383B–8051–01/05
Bit
Number
4-2
1
0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
XRS1-0
EXTRAM
A0
ERAM size:
Accessible size of the ERAM
XRS 2:0 ERAM size
000
256 Bytes
001
512 Bytes
010
768 Bytes
011
1024 Bytes
100
1792 Bytes
101
2048 Bytes (default configuration after reset)
110
Reserved
111
Reserved
Internal/External RAM (00h - FFh)
access using MOVX @ Ri/@ DPTR
0 - Internal ERAM access using MOVX @ Ri/@ DPTR.
1 - External data memory access.
Disable/Enable ALE)
0 - ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency (or 1/3 if X2
mode is used)
1 - ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
Reset Value = X001 0100b
Not bit addressable
Table 8. AUXR1 Register
AUXR1 (S:A2h)
Auxiliary Control Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
ENBOOT
-
GF3
0
-
DPS
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Reserved
The value read from these bits is indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
7-6
-
5
ENBOOT
4
-
3
GF3
2
0
Always Zero
This bit is stuck to logic 0 to allow INC AUXR1 instruction without affecting GF3
flag.
1
-
Reserved for Data Pointer Extension.
0
DPS
Enable Boot Flash
Set this bit for map the boot Flash between F800h -FFFFh
Clear this bit for disable boot Flash.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
General-purpose Flag 3
Data Pointer Select Bit
Set to select second dual data pointer: DPTR1.
Clear to select first dual data pointer: DPTR0.
Reset Value = XXXX 00X0b
26
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Power Monitor
The POR/PFD function monitors the internal power-supply of the CPU core memories
and the peripherals, and if needed, suspends their activity when the internal power supply falls below a safety threshold. This is achieved by applying an internal reset to them.
By generating the Reset the Power Monitor insures a correct start up when
AT89C51CC03 is powered up.
Description
In order to startup and maintain the microcontroller in correct operating mode, VCC has
to be stabilized in the VCC operating range and the oscillator has to be stabilized with a
nominal amplitude compatible with logic level VIH/VIL.
These parameters are controlled during the three phases: power-up, normal operation
and power going down. See Figure 14.
Figure 14. Power Monitor Block Diagram
VCC
CPU core
Power On Reset
Power Fail Detect
Voltage Regulator
Regulated
Supply
Memories
Peripherals
(1)
XTAL1
Internal Reset
RST pin
PCA
Watchdog
Note:
Hardware
Watchdog
1. Once XTAL1 high and low levels reach above and below VIH/VIL a 1024 clock period
delay will extend the reset coming from the Power Fail Detect. If the power falls below
the Power Fail Detect thresthold level, the reset will be applied immediately.
The Voltage regulator generates a regulated internal supply for the CPU core the memories and the peripherals. Spikes on the external Vcc are smoothed by the voltage
regulator.
The Power fail detect monitor the supply generated by the voltage regulator and generate a reset if this supply falls below a safety threshold as illustrated in the Figure 15.
27
4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 15. Power Fail Detect
Vcc
t
Reset
Vcc
When the power is applied, the Power Monitor immediately asserts a reset. Once the
internal supply after the voltage regulator reach a safety level, the power monitor then
looks at the XTAL clock input. The internal reset will remain asserted until the Xtal1 levels are above and below VIH and VIL. Further more. An internal counter will count 1024
clock periods before the reset is de-asserted.
If the internal power supply falls below a safety level, a reset is immediately asserted.
.
28
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Reset
Introduction
The reset sources are : Power Management, Hardware Watchdog, PCA Watchdog and
Reset input.
Figure 16. Reset Schematic
Power
Monitor
Hardware
Watchdog
Internal Reset
PCA
Watchdog
RST
Reset Input
The Reset input can be used to force a reset pulse longer than the internal reset controlled by the Power Monitor. RST input has a pull-down resistor allowing power-on
reset by simply connecting an external capacitor to VCC as shown in Figure 17. Resistor
value and input characteristics are discussed in the Section “DC Characteristics” of the
AT89C51AC3 datasheet. The status of the Port pins during reset is detailed in Table 9.
Figure 17. Reset Circuitry and Power-On Reset
To internal reset
RST
VDD
R
RST
+
RST
VSS
a. RST input circuitry
b. Power-on Reset
29
4383B–8051–01/05
Reset Output
As detailed in Section “Watchdog Timer”, page 79, the WDT generates a 96-clock
period pulse on the RST pin. In order to properly propagate this pulse to the rest of the
application in case of external capacitor or power-supply supervisor circuit, a 1 kΩ resistor must be added as shown Figure 18.
Figure 18. Recommended Reset Output Schematic
VDD
+
RST
VDD
1K
AT89C51AC3
RST
VSS
30
To other
on-board
circuitry
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Power Management
Introduction
Two power reduction modes are implemented in the AT89C51AC3. The Idle mode and
the Power-Down mode. These modes are detailed in the following sections. In addition
to these power reduction modes, the clocks of the core and peripherals can be dynamically divided by 2 using the X2 mode detailed in Section “Clock”, page 15.
Idle Mode
Idle mode is a power reduction mode that reduces the power consumption. In this mode,
program execution halts. Idle mode freezes the clock to the CPU at known states while
the peripherals continue to be clocked. The CPU status before entering Idle mode is
preserved, i.e., the program counter and program status word register retain their data
for the duration of Idle mode. The contents of the SFRs and RAM are also retained. The
status of the Port pins during Idle mode is detailed in Table 9.
Entering Idle Mode
To enter Idle mode, set the IDL bit in PCON register (see Table 10). The AT89C51AC3
enters Idle mode upon execution of the instruction that sets IDL bit. The instruction that
sets IDL bit is the last instruction executed.
Note:
Exiting Idle Mode
If IDL bit and PD bit are set simultaneously, the AT89C51AC3 enters Power-Down mode.
Then it does not go in Idle mode when exiting Power-Down mode.
There are two ways to exit Idle mode:
1. Generate an enabled interrupt.
–
Hardware clears IDL bit in PCON register which restores the clock to the
CPU. Execution resumes with the interrupt service routine. Upon completion
of the interrupt service routine, program execution resumes with the
instruction immediately following the instruction that activated Idle mode.
The general purpose flags (GF1 and GF0 in PCON register) may be used to
indicate whether an interrupt occurred during normal operation or during Idle
mode. When Idle mode is exited by an interrupt, the interrupt service routine
may examine GF1 and GF0.
2. Generate a reset.
–
Note:
Power-Down Mode
A logic high on the RST pin clears IDL bit in PCON register directly and
asynchronously. This restores the clock to the CPU. Program execution
momentarily resumes with the instruction immediately following the
instruction that activated the Idle mode and may continue for a number of
clock cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. Reset
initializes the AT89C51AC3 and vectors the CPU to address C:0000h.
During the time that execution resumes, the internal RAM cannot be accessed; however,
it is possible for the Port pins to be accessed. To avoid unexpected outputs at the Port
pins, the instruction immediately following the instruction that activated Idle mode should
not write to a Port pin or to the external RAM.
The Power-Down mode places the AT89C51AC3 in a very low power state. PowerDown mode stops the oscillator, freezes all clock at known states. The CPU status prior
to entering Power-Down mode is preserved, i.e., the program counter, program status
word register retain their data for the duration of Power-Down mode. In addition, the SFR
and RAM contents are preserved. The status of the Port pins during Power-Down mode
is detailed in Table 9.
Note:
VCC may be reduced to as low as VRET during Power-Down mode to further reduce
power dissipation. Take care, however, that VDD is not reduced until Power-Down mode
is invoked.
31
4383B–8051–01/05
Entering Power-Down Mode
To enter Power-Down mode, set PD bit in PCON register. The AT89C51AC3 enters the
Power-Down mode upon execution of the instruction that sets PD bit. The instruction
that sets PD bit is the last instruction executed.
Exiting Power-Down Mode
Note:
If VCC was reduced during the Power-Down mode, do not exit Power-Down mode until
VCC is restored to the normal operating level.
There are two ways to exit the Power-Down mode:
1. Generate an enabled external interrupt.
–
The AT89C51AC3 provides capability to exit from Power-Down using INT0#,
INT1#.
Hardware clears PD bit in PCON register which starts the oscillator and
restores the clocks to the CPU and peripherals. Using INTx# input,
execution resumes when the input is released (see Figure 19). Execution
resumes with the interrupt service routine. Upon completion of the interrupt
service routine, program execution resumes with the instruction immediately
following the instruction that activated Power-Down mode.
Note:
The external interrupt used to exit Power-Down mode must be configured as level sensitive (INT0# and INT1#) and must be assigned the highest priority. In addition, the
duration of the interrupt must be long enough to allow the oscillator to stabilize. The execution will only resume when the interrupt is deasserted.
Note:
Exit from power-down by external interrupt does not affect the SFRs nor the internal RAM
content.
Figure 19. Power-Down Exit Waveform Using INT1:0#
INT1:0#
OSC
Active phase
Power-down phase
Oscillator restart phase
Active phase
2. Generate a reset.
–
32
A logic high on the RST pin clears PD bit in PCON register directly and
asynchronously. This starts the oscillator and restores the clock to the CPU
and peripherals. Program execution momentarily resumes with the
instruction immediately following the instruction that activated Power-Down
mode and may continue for a number of clock cycles before the internal
reset algorithm takes control. Reset initializes the AT89C51AC3 and vectors
the CPU to address 0000h.
Note:
During the time that execution resumes, the internal RAM cannot be accessed; however,
it is possible for the Port pins to be accessed. To avoid unexpected outputs at the Port
pins, the instruction immediately following the instruction that activated the Power-Down
mode should not write to a Port pin or to the external RAM.
Note:
Exit from power-down by reset redefines all the SFRs, but does not affect the internal
RAM content.
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Table 9. Pin Conditions in Special Operating Modes
Mode
Port 0
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 4
ALE
PSEN#
Reset
Floating
High
High
High
High
High
High
Idle
(internal
code)
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
High
High
Idle
(external
code)
Floating
Data
Data
Data
Data
High
High
PowerDown(inter
nal code)
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Low
Low
PowerDown
(external
code)
Floating
Data
Data
Data
Data
Low
Low
33
4383B–8051–01/05
Registers
Table 10. PCON Register
PCON (S87:h) Power configuration Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Reserved
The value read from these bits is indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
7-4
-
3
GF1
General Purpose flag 1
One use is to indicate whether an interrupt occurred during normal operation or
during Idle mode.
2
GF0
General Purpose flag 0
One use is to indicate whether an interrupt occurred during normal operation or
during Idle mode.
PD
Power-Down Mode bit
Cleared by hardware when an interrupt or reset occurs.
Set to activate the Power-Down mode.
If IDL and PD are both set, PD takes precedence.
IDL
Idle Mode bit
Cleared by hardware when an interrupt or reset occurs.
Set to activate the Idle mode.
If IDL and PD are both set, PD takes precedence.
1
0
Reset Value= XXXX 0000b
34
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
EEPROM Data
Memory
The 2-Kbyte on-chip EEPROM memory block is located at addresses 0000h to 07FFh of
the XRAM/ERAM memory space and is selected by setting control bits in the EECON
register. A read in the EEPROM memory is done with a MOVX instruction.
A physical write in the EEPROM memory is done in two steps: write data in the column
latches and transfer of all data latches into an EEPROM memory row (programming).
The number of data written on the page may vary from 1 up to 128 Bytes (the page
size). When programming, only the data written in the column latch is programmed and
a ninth bit is used to obtain this feature. This provides the capability to program the
whole memory by Bytes, by page or by a number of Bytes in a page. Indeed, each ninth
bit is set when the writing the corresponding byte in a row and all these ninth bits are
reset after the writing of the complete EEPROM row.
Write Data in the Column
Latches
Data is written by byte to the column latches as for an external RAM memory. Out of the
11 address bits of the data pointer, the 4 MSBs are used for page selection (row) and 7
are used for byte selection. Between two EEPROM programming sessions, all the
addresses in the column latches must stay on the same page, meaning that the 4 MSB
must no be changed.
The following procedure is used to write to the column latches:
•
Save and disable interrupt.
•
Set bit EEE of EECON register
•
Load DPTR with the address to write
•
Store A register with the data to be written
•
Execute a MOVX @DPTR, A
•
If needed loop the three last instructions until the end of a 128 Bytes page
•
Restore interrupt.
Note:
Programming
The EEPROM programming consists of the following actions:
•
writing one or more Bytes of one page in the column latches. Normally, all Bytes
must belong to the same page; if not, the first page address will be latched and the
others discarded.
•
launching programming by writing the control sequence (50h followed by A0h) to the
EECON register.
•
EEBUSY flag in EECON is then set by hardware to indicate that programming is in
progress and that the EEPROM segment is not available for reading.
•
The end of programming is indicated by a hardware clear of the EEBUSY flag.
Note:
Read Data
The last page address used when loading the column latch is the one used to select the
page programming address.
The sequence 5xh and Axh must be executed without instructions between then otherwise the programming is aborted.
The following procedure is used to read the data stored in the EEPROM memory:
•
Save and disable interrupt
•
Set bit EEE of EECON register
•
Load DPTR with the address to read
•
Execute a MOVX A, @DPTR
•
Restore interrupt
35
4383B–8051–01/05
Examples
;*F*************************************************************************;* NAME: api_rd_eeprom_byte
;* DPTR contain address to read.
;* Acc contain the reading value
;* NOTE: before execute this function, be sure the EEPROM is not BUSY
;***************************************************************************
api_rd_eeprom_byte:
MOV EECON, #02h; map EEPROM in XRAM space
MOVX A, @DPTR
MOV EECON, #00h; unmap EEPROM
ret
;*F*************************************************************************
;* NAME: api_ld_eeprom_cl
;* DPTR contain address to load
;* Acc contain value to load
;* NOTE: in this example we load only 1 byte, but it is possible upto
;* 128 Bytes.
;* before execute this function, be sure the EEPROM is not BUSY
;***************************************************************************
api_ld_eeprom_cl:
MOV EECON, #02h ; map EEPROM in XRAM space
MOVX @DPTR, A
MOVEECON, #00h; unmap EEPROM
ret
;*F*************************************************************************
;* NAME: api_wr_eeprom
;* NOTE: before execute this function, be sure the EEPROM is not BUSY
;***************************************************************************
api_wr_eeprom:
MOV EECON, #050h
MOV EECON, #0A0h
ret
36
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Registers
Table 11. EECON Register
EECON (S:0D2h)
EEPROM Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EEPL3
EEPL2
EEPL1
EEPL0
-
-
EEE
EEBUSY
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7-4
EEPL3-0
Programming Launch command bits
Write 5Xh followed by AXh to EEPL to launch the programming.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
1
EEE
0
EEBUSY
Description
Enable EEPROM Space bit
Set to map the EEPROM space during MOVX instructions (Write in the column
latches)
Clear to map the XRAM space during MOVX.
Programming Busy flag
Set by hardware when programming is in progress.
Cleared by hardware when programming is done.
Can not be set or cleared by software.
Reset Value = XXXX XX00b
Not bit addressable
37
4383B–8051–01/05
Program/Code
Memory
The AT89C51AC3 implement 64K Bytes of on-chip program/code memory. Figure 20
shows the partitioning of internal and external program/code memory spaces depending
on the product.
The Flash memory increases EPROM and ROM functionality by in-circuit electrical erasure and programming. Thanks to the internal charge pump, the high voltage needed for
programming or erasing Flash cells is generated on-chip using the standard VDD voltage. Thus, the Flash Memory can be programmed using only one voltage and allows InSystem Programming commonly known as ISP. Hardware programming mode is also
available using specific programming tool.
Figure 20. Program/Code Memory Organization
FFFFh
FFFFh
64K Bytes
external
memory
64K Bytes
internal
Flash
EA = 0
EA = 1
0000h
38
0000h
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
External Code Memory Access
Memory Interface
The external memory interface comprises the external bus (port 0 and port 2) as well as
the bus control signals (PSEN#, and ALE).
Figure 21 shows the structure of the external address bus. P0 carries address A7:0
while P2 carries address A15:8. Data D7:0 is multiplexed with A7:0 on P0. Table 21
describes the external memory interface signals.
Figure 21. External Code Memory Interface Structure
Flash
EPROM
AT89C51AC3
A15:8
P2
ALE
P0
AD7:0
Latch
A15:8
A7:0
A7:0
D7:0
PSEN#
OE
Table 12. External Code Memory Interface Signals
External Bus Cycles
Signal
Name
Type
A15:8
O
Address Lines
Upper address lines for the external bus.
P2.7:0
AD7:0
I/O
Address/Data Lines
Multiplexed lower address lines and data for the external memory.
P0.7:0
ALE
O
Address Latch Enable
ALE signals indicates that valid address information are available on lines
AD7:0.
-
PSEN#
O
Program Store Enable Output
This signal is active low during external code fetch or external code read
(MOVC instruction).
-
Description
Alternate
Function
This section describes the bus cycles the AT89C51AC3 executes to fetch code (see
Figure 22) in the external program/code memory.
External memory cycle takes 6 CPU clock periods. This is equivalent to 12 oscillator
clock period in standard mode or 6 oscillator clock periods in X2 mode. For further information on X2 mode see section “Clock “.
For simplicity, the accompanying figure depicts the bus cycle waveforms in idealized
form and do not provide precise timing information.
For bus cycling parameters refer to the ‘AC-DC parameters’ section.
39
4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 22. External Code Fetch Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
PSEN#
P0 D7:0
PCL
P2 PCH
Flash Memory
Architecture
D7:0
PCL
D7:0
PCH
PCH
AT89C51AC3 features two on-chip Flash memories:
•
Flash memory FM0:
containing 64K Bytes of program memory (user space) organized into 128 byte
pages,
•
Flash memory FM1:
2K Bytes for boot loader and Application Programming Interfaces (API).
The FM0 can be program by both parallel programming and Serial In-System Programming (ISP) whereas FM1 supports only parallel programming by programmers. The ISP
mode is detailed in the "In-System Programming" section.
All Read/Write access operations on Flash Memory by user application are managed by
a set of API described in the "In-System Programming" section.
The bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register is used to map FM1 from F800h to FFFFh. Figure
23 and Figure 24 show the Flash memory configuration with ENBOOT=1 and
ENBOOT=0.
Figure 23. Flash Memory Architecture with ENBOOT=1 (boot mode)
Hardware Security (1 byte)
Extra Row (128 Bytes)
Column Latches (128 Bytes)
FFFFh
64K Bytes
2K Bytes
Flash memory
boot space
FM1
F800h
FM0
FFFFh
F800h
FM1 mapped between FFFFh and
F800h when bit ENBOOT is set in
AUXR1 register
0000h
Memory space not accessible
40
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Figure 24. Flash Memory Architecture with ENBOOT=0 (user modemode)
Hardware Security (1 byte)
Extra Row (128 Bytes)
Column Latches (128 Bytes)
FFFFh
64K Bytes
2K Bytes
Flash memory
boot space
FM1
F800h
FM0
FFFFh
F800h
FM1 mapped between FFFFh and
F800h when bit ENBOOT is set in
AUXR1 register
0000h
Memory space not accessible
41
4383B–8051–01/05
FM0 Memory Architecture
The Flash memory is made up of 4 blocks (see Figure 23):
•
The memory array (user space) 64K Bytes
•
The Extra Row
•
The Hardware security bits
•
The column latch registers
User Space
This space is composed of a 64K Bytes Flash memory organized in 512 pages of 128
Bytes. It contains the user’s application code.
Extra Row (XRow)
This row is a part of FM0 and has a size of 128 Bytes. The extra row may contain information for boot loader usage.
Hardware security Byte (HSB)
The Hardware security Byte space is a part of FM0 and has a size of 1 byte.
The 4 MSB can be read/written by software (from FM0 and , the 4 LSB can only be read
by software and written by hardware in parallel mode.
H Hardware Security Byte (HSB)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X2
BLJB
-
-
-
LB2
LB1
LB0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7
X2
Description
X2 Mode
Programmed (=’0’) to force X2 mode (6 clocks per instruction) after reset
Unprogrammed to force X1 mode, Standard Mode, afetr reset (Default)
Boot Loader Jump Bit
When unprogrammed (=’1’), at the next reset :
-ENBOOT=0 (see code space memory configuration)
6
BLJB
-Start address is 0000h (PC=0000h)
When programmed (=’0’)at the nex reset:
-ENBOOT=1 (see code space memory configuration)
-Start address is F800h (PC=F800h)
5
-
Reserved
4
-
Reserved
3
-
Reserved
2-0
LB2-0
General Memory Lock Bits (only programmable by programmer tools)
Section “Flash Protection from Parallel Programming”, page 51
Column Latches
The column latches, also part of FM0, have a size of full page (128 Bytes).
The column latches are the entrance buffers of the three previous memory locations
(user array, XROW and Hardware security byte). The column latches are write only and
can be accessed only from FM1 (boot mode) and from external memory
Cross Flash Memory Access
Description
The FM0 memory can be program only from FM1. Programming FM0 from FM0 or from
external memory is impossible.
The FM1 memory can be program only by parallel programming.
The Table show all software Flash access allowed.
42
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Code executing from
Cross Flash Memory Access
FM0
(user Flash)
FM1
(boot Flash)
Action
FM0
(user Flash)
FM1
(boot Flash)
Read
ok
-
Load column latch
ok
-
Write
-
-
Read
ok
ok
Load column latch
ok
-
Write
ok
-
Read
(a)
-
External
memory
Load column latch
-
-
EA = 0
Write
-
-
(a) Depend upon general lock bit configuration.
43
4383B–8051–01/05
Overview of FM0
Operations
Flash Registers (SFR)
The CPU interfaces to the flash memory through the FCON register, AUXR1 register
and FSTA register.
These registers are used to map the column latches, HSB, extra row and EEDATA in
the working data or code space.
FCON Register
Table 13. FCON Register
FCON Register (S:D1h)
Flash Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FPL3
FPL2
FPL1
FPL0
FPS
FMOD1
FMOD0
FBUSY
Bit
Number
7-4
Bit
Mnemonic Description
FPL3:0
Programming Launch Command Bits
Write 5Xh followed by AXh to launch the programming according to FMOD1:0.
(see Table 16.)
Flash Map Program Space
When this bit is set:
3
FPS
The MOVX @DPTR, A instruction writes in the columns latches space
When this bit is cleared:
The MOVX @DPTR, A instruction writes in the regular XDATA memory space
2-1
0
FMOD1:0
FBUSY
Flash Mode
See Table 16.
Flash Busy
Set by hardware when programming is in progress.
Clear by hardware when programming is done.
Can not be changed by software.
Reset Value= 0000 0000b
44
AT89C51AC3
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AT89C51AC3
FSTA Register
Table 14. FSTA Register
FSTA Register (S:D3h)
Flash Status Register
7
6
Bit
Number
5
4
3
2
1
0
SEQERR
FLOAD
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-2
unusesd
1
SEQERR
Flash activation sequence error
Set by hardware when the flash activation sequence(MOV FCON 5X and MOV
FCON AX )is not correct (See Error Repport Section)
Clear by software or clear by hardware if the last activation sequence was
correct (previous error are canceled)
0
FLOAD
Flash Colums latch loaded
Set by hardware when the first data is loaded in the column latches.
Clear by hardware when the activation sequence suceed (flash write sucess, or
reset column latch success)
Reset Value= 0000 0000b
Mapping of the Memory Space By default, the user space is accessed by MOVC A, @DPTR instruction for read only.
The column latches space is made accessible by setting the FPS bit in FCON register.
Writing is possible from 0000h to FFFFh, address bits 6 to 0 are used to select an
address within a page while bits 15 to 7 are used to select the programming address of
the page.
Setting FPS bit takes precedence on the EXTRAM bit in AUXR register.
The other memory spaces (user, extra row, hardware security) are made accessible in
the code segment by programming bits FMOD0 and FMOD1 in FCON register in accordance with Table 15. A MOVC instruction is then used for reading these spaces.
Table 15. FM0 Blocks Select Bits
Notes:
Launching Programming
FMOD1
FMOD0
FM0 Adressable space
0
0
User (0000h-FFFFh)
0
1
Extra Row(FF80h-FFFFh)
1
0
Hardware Security Byte (0000h)
1
1
Column latches reset (note1)
1. The column latches reset is a new option introduced in the AT89C51AC3, and is not
available in T89C51CC01/2
FPL3:0 bits in FCON register are used to secure the launch of programming. A specific
sequence must be written in these bits to unlock the write protection and to launch the
programming. This sequence is 5xh followed by Axh. Table 16 summarizes the memory
spaces to program according to FMOD1:0 bits.
45
4383B–8051–01/05
Table 16. Programming Spaces
Write to FCON
FPL3:0
FPS
FMOD1
FMOD0
Operation
5
X
0
0
No action
A
X
0
0
Write the column latches in user
space
5
X
0
1
No action
A
X
0
1
Write the column latches in extra row
space
User
Extra Row
Hardware
Security
Byte
5
X
1
0
No action
A
X
1
0
Write the fuse bits space
Reset
5
X
1
1
No action
Columns
Latches
A
X
1
1
Reset the column latches
Notes:
Status of the Flash Memory
1. The sequence 5xh and Axh must be executing without instructions between them
otherwise the programming is not executed (see Flash Status Register)
2. The sequence 5xh and Axh must be executed with the same FMOD0 FMOD1
configuration.
3. Interrupts that may occur during programming time must be disabled to avoid any
spurious exit of the programming mode.
The bit FBUSY in FCON register is used to indicate the status of programming.
FBUSY is set when programming is in progress.
The flash programming process is launched the second machine cycle following the
sequence 5xh and Axh in FCON. Thus the FBUSY flag should be read by sofware not
during the insctruction after the 5xh, Axh sequence but the the second instruction after
the 5xh, Axh sequence in FCON (See next example). FBUSY is cleared when the programming is completed.
;*F*************************************************************************
;* NAME: launch_prog
;;***************************************************************************
launch_prog:
MOV FCON, #050h
MOV FCON #0A0h ; Flash Write Sequence
NOP
;Required time before reading busy flag
wait_busy:
MOV A,FCON
JB ACC.0,wait_busy
RET
Selecting FM1
The bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register is used to map FM1 from F800h to FFFFh.
Loading the Column Latches
Any number of data from 1-byte to 128 Bytes can be loaded in the column latches. This
provides the capability to program the whole memory by byte, by page or by any number
of Bytes in a page. Data written in the column latches do not have to be in consecutive
46
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
order. The page address of the last address loaded in the column latches will be used
for the whole page.
When programming is launched, an automatic erase of the locations loaded in the column latches is first performed, then programming is effectively done. Thus no page or
block erase is needed and only the loaded data are programmed in the corresponding
page
Notes:
1. : If no bytes are written in the column latches the SEQERR bit in the FSTA register
will be set.
2. When a flash write sequence is in progress (FBUSY is set) a write sequence to the
column latches will be ignored and the content of the column latches at the time of
the launch write sequence will be preserved.
3. MOVX @DPTR, A instruction must be used to load the column latches. Never use
MOVX @Ri, A instructions.
4. When a programming sequence is launched, Flash bytes corresponding to activated
bytes in the column latches are first erased then the bytes in the column latches are
copied into the Flash bytes. Flash bytes corresponding to bytes in the column latches
not activated (not loaded during the load column latches sequence) will not be erased
and written.
The following procedure is used to load the column latches and is summarized in
Figure 25:
•
Save and Disable interrupt and map the column latch space by setting FPS bit.
•
Load the DPTR with the address to load.
•
Load Accumulator register with the data to load.
•
Execute the MOVX @DPTR, A instruction.
•
If needed loop the three last instructions until the page is completely loaded.
•
unmap the column latch.
•
Restore Interrupt
47
4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 25. Column Latches Loading Procedure
Column Latches
Loading
Save and Disable IT
EA = 0
Column Latches Mapping
FCON = 08h (FPS=1)
Data Load
DPTR = Address
ACC = Data
Exec: MOVX @DPTR, A
Last Byte
to load?
Data memory Mapping
FCON = 00h (FPS = 0)
Restore IT
Note:
The last page address used when loading the column latch is the one used to select the
page programming address.
Programming the Flash Spaces
User
The following procedure is used to program the User space and is summarized in
Figure 26:
Extra Row
48
•
Load up to one page of data in the column latches from address 0000h to FFFFh.
•
Save and Disable the interrupts.
•
Launch the programming by writing the data sequence 50h followed by A0h in
FCON register (only from FM1).
The end of the programming indicated by the FBUSY flag cleared.
•
Restore the interrupts.
The following procedure is used to program the Extra Row space and is summarized in
Figure 26:
•
Load data in the column latches from address FF80h to FFFFh.
•
Save and Disable the interrupts.
•
Launch the programming by writing the data sequence 52h followed by A2h in
FCON register (only from FM1).
The end of the programming indicated by the FBUSY flag cleared.
•
Restore the interrupts.
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Figure 26. Flash and Extra Row Programming Procedure
Flash Spaces
Programming
Column Latches Loading
see Figure 25
Save and Disable IT
EA = 0
Launch Programming
FCON = 5xh
FCON = Axh
FBusy
Cleared?
Clear Mode
FCON = 00h
End Programming
Restore IT
Hardware Security Byte
The following procedure is used to program the Hardware Security Byte space
and is summarized in Figure 27:
•
Set FPS and map Hardware byte (FCON = 0x0C)
•
Save and disable the interrupts.
•
Load DPTR at address 0000h.
•
Load Accumulator register with the data to load.
•
Execute the MOVX @DPTR, A instruction.
•
Launch the programming by writing the data sequence 54h followed by A4h in
FCON register (only from FM1).
The end of the programming indicated by the FBusy flag cleared.
•
Restore the interrupts.
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4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 27. Hardware Programming Procedure
Flash Spaces
Programming
Save and Disable IT
EA = 0
Save and Disable IT
EA = 0
FCON = 0Ch
Launch Programming
FCON = 54h
FCON = A4h
Data Load
DPTR = 00h
ACC = Data
Exec: MOVX @DPTR, A
FBusy
Cleared?
End Loading
Restore IT
Clear Mode
FCON = 00h
End Programming
RestoreIT
Reset the Column Latches
An automatic reset of the column latches is performed after a successful Flash
write sequence. User can also reset the column latches manually, for instance
to reload the column latches before writing the Flash. The following procedure is
summarized below.
•
Save and disable the interrupts.
•
Launch the reset by writing the data sequence 56h followed by A6h in FCON
register (only from FM1).
•
Restore the interrupts.
Error Reports
Flash Programming Sequence
Errors
When a wrong sequence is detected, the SEQERR bit in FSTA register is set. Possible
wrong sequence are :
•
MOV FCON, 5xh instruction not immediately followed by a MOV FCON, Ax
instruction.
•
A write Flash sequence is launched while no data were loaded in the column latches
The SEQERR bit can be cleared
•
By software
•
By hardware when a correct programming sequence is completed
When multiple pages are written into the Flash, the user should check FSTA for errors
after each write page sequences, not only at the end of the multiple write pages.
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AT89C51AC3
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AT89C51AC3
Power Down Request
Before entering in Power Down (Set bit PD in PCON register) the user should check that
no write sequence is in progress (check BUSY=0), then check that the column latches
are reset (FLOAD=0 in FSTA register. Launch a reset column latches to clear FLOAD if
necessary.
Reading the Flash Spaces
User
The following procedure is used to read the User space:
•
Read one byte in Accumulator by executing MOVC A,@A+DPTR with
A+DPTR=read@.
Note:
Extra Row
Hardware Security Byte
FCON is supposed to be reset when not needed.
The following procedure is used to read the Extra Row space and is summarized in
Figure 28:
•
Map the Extra Row space by writing 02h in FCON register.
•
Read one byte in Accumulator by executing MOVC A,@A+DPTR with A = 0 and
DPTR = FF80h to FFFFh.
•
Clear FCON to unmap the Extra Row.
The following procedure is used to read the Hardware Security space and is
summarized in Figure 28:
•
Map the Hardware Security space by writing 04h in FCON register.
•
Read the byte in Accumulator by executing MOVC A,@A+DPTR with A = 0 and
DPTR = 0000h.
Figure 28. Clear FCON to unmap the Hardware Security Byte.Reading Procedure
Flash Spaces Reading
Flash Spaces Mapping
FCON= 00000xx0b
Data Read
DPTR= Address
ACC= 0
Exec: MOVC A, @A+DPTR
Clear Mode
FCON = 00h
Flash Protection from Parallel
Programming
The three lock bits in Hardware Security Byte (see "In-System Programming" section)
are programmed according to Table 17 provide different level of protection for the onchip code and data located in FM0 and FM1.
The only way to write this bits are the parallel mode. They are set by default to level 4
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4383B–8051–01/05
Table 17. Program Lock Bit
Program Lock Bits
Security
level
LB0
LB1
LB2
1
U
U
U
No program lock features enabled.
U
MOVC instruction executed from external program memory are
disabled from fetching code bytes from internal memory, EA is sampled
and latched on reset, and further parallel programming of the Flash is
disabled.
2
P
U
Protection Description
ISP and software programming with API are still allowed.
Writing EEprom Data from external parallel programmer is disabled but
still allowed from internal code execution.
3
U
P
U
4
U
U
P
Same as 2, also verify through parallel programming interface is
disabled.
Writing And Reading EEPROM Data from external parallel programmer
is disabled but still allowed from internal code execution..
Same as 3, also external execution is disabled
Program Lock bits
U: unprogrammed
P: programmed
WARNING: Security level 2 and 3 should only be programmed after Flash and Core
verification.
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AT89C51AC3
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AT89C51AC3
Operation Cross Memory Access
Space addressable in read and write are:
•
RAM
•
ERAM (Expanded RAM access by movx)
•
XRAM (eXternal RAM)
•
EEPROM DATA
•
FM0 ( user flash )
•
Hardware byte
•
XROW
•
Boot Flash
•
Flash Column latch
The table below provide the different kind of memory which can be accessed from different code location.
Table 18. Cross Memory Access
XRAM
Action
RAM
ERAM
Hardware
Boot FLASH
FM0
E² Data
Byte
XROW
Read
OK
OK
OK
OK
-
Write
-
OK(1)
OK(1)
OK(1)
OK(1)
Read
OK
OK
OK
OK
-
Write
-
OK (idle)
OK(1)
-
OK
Read
-
-
OK
-
-
Write
-
-
OK(1)
-
-
boot FLASH
FM0
External
memory
EA = 0
or Code Roll
Over
Note:
1. RWW: Read While Write
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4383B–8051–01/05
Sharing Instructions
Table 19. Instructions shared
XRAM
Action
RAM
ERAM
EEPROM
DATA
Boot
FLASH
FM0
Hardware
Byte
XROW
Read
MOV
MOVX
MOVX
MOVC
MOVC
MOVC
MOVC
Write
MOV
MOVX
MOVX
-
by cl
by cl
by cl
Note:
by cl : using Column Latch
Table 20. Read MOVX A, @DPTR
Flash
EEE bit in
FPS in
XRAM
EECON
Register
FCON Register
ENBOOT
EA
ERAM
0
0
X
X
OK
0
1
X
X
OK
1
0
X
X
1
1
X
X
EEPROM
DATA
Column
Latch
OK
OK
Table 21. Write MOVX @DPTR,A
Flash
EEE bit in
FPS bit in
XRAM
EECON
Register
FCON Register
ENBOOT
EA
ERAM
0
0
X
X
OK
0
1
X
EEPROM
Data
Column
Latch
1
0
1
0
X
1
1
X
OK
OK
X
OK
1
0
54
OK
OK
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Table 22. Read MOVC A, @DPTR
FCON Register
Code Execution FMOD1
0
FMOD0
0
FPS
ENBOOT
DPTR
0
0000h to FFFFh
OK
0000h to F7FF
OK
X
FM1
FM0
XROW
Hardware
External
Byte
Code
1
F800h to FFFFh
Do not use this configuration
0000 to 007Fh
OK
0
1
X
X
1
0
X
X
X
0
000h to FFFFh
OK
0000h to F7FF
OK
From FM0
1
1
X
See (1)
OK
1
F800h to FFFFh
Do not use this configuration
0000h to F7FF
OK
1
0
0
0
F800h to FFFFh
0
X
1
X
0
X
1
0000h to 007h
OK
NA
OK
1
From FM1
(ENBOOT =1
0
1
X
0
See
NA
OK
(2)
NA
1
1
0
X
OK
X
0
NA
1
1
1
X
OK
000h to FFFFh
0
NA
External code :
EA=0 or Code
Roll Over
X
0
X
X
X
OK
1. For DPTR higher than 007Fh only lowest 7 bits are decoded, thus the behavior is the same as for addresses from 0000h to
007Fh
2. For DPTR higher than 007Fh only lowest 7 bits are decoded, thus the behavior is the same as for addresses from 0000h to
007Fh
55
4383B–8051–01/05
In-System
Programming (ISP)
With the implementation of the User Space (FM0) and the Boot Space (FM1) in Flash
technology the AT89C51AC3 allows the system engineer the development of applications with a very high level of flexibility. This flexibility is based on the possibility to alter
the customer program at any stages of a product’s life:
•
Before assembly the 1st personalization of the product by programming in the FM0
and if needed also a customized Boot loader in the FM1.
Atmel provide also a standard UART Boot loader by default.
•
After assembling on the PCB in its final embedded position by serial mode via the
UART.
This In-System Programming (ISP) allows code modification over the total lifetime of the
product.
Besides the default Boot loader Atmel provide to the customer also all the needed Application-Programming-Interfaces (API) which are needed for the ISP. The API are located
also in the Boot memory.
This allow the customer to have a full use of the 64-Kbyte user memory.
Flash Programming and
Erasure
There are three methods of programming the Flash memory:
•
The Atmel bootloader located in FM1 is activated by the application. Low level API
routines (located in FM1)will be used to program FM0. The interface used for serial
downloading to FM0 is the UART. API can be called also by the user’s bootloader
located in FM0 at [SBV]00h.
•
A further method exists in activating the Atmel boot loader by hardware activation.
•
The FM0 can be programmed also by the parallel mode using a programmer.
Figure 29. Flash Memory Mapping
FFFFh
FFFFh
Custom
Boot Loader
[SBV]00h
F800h
2K Bytes IAP
bootloader
FM1
64K Bytes
Flash memory
FM1 mapped between F800h and FFFFh
when API called
FM0
0000h
Boot Process
Software Boot Process
Example
56
Many algorithms can be used for the software boot process. Before describing them,
The description of the different flags and Bytes is given below:
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Boot Loader Jump Bit (BLJB):
- This bit indicates if on RESET the user wants to jump to this application at address
@0000h on FM0 or execute the boot loader at address @F800h on FM1.
- BLJB = 0 on parts delivered with bootloader programmed.
- To read or modify this bit, the APIs are used.
Boot Vector Address (SBV):
- This byte contains the MSB of the user boot loader address in FM0.
- The default value of SBV is FFh (no user boot loader in FM0).
- To read or modify this byte, the APIs are used.
Extra Byte (EB) and Boot Status Byte (BSB):
- These Bytes are reserved for customer use.
- To read or modify these Bytes, the APIs are used.
Hardware Boot Process
At the falling edge of RESET, the bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register is initialized with the
value of Boot Loader Jump Bit (BLJB).
Further at the falling edge of RESET if the following conditions (called Hardware condition) are detected:
•
PSEN low,
•
EA high,
•
ALE high (or not connected).
–
After Hardware Condition the FCON register is initialized with the value 00h
and the PC is initialized with F800h (FM1).
The Hardware condition makes the bootloader to be executed, whatever BLJB value is.
If no hardware condition is detected, the FCON register is initialized with the value F0h.
Check of the BLJB value.
•
If bit BLJB = 1:
User application in FM0 will be started at @0000h (standard reset).
•
If bit BLJB = 0:
Boot loader will be started at @F800h in FM1.
Note:
1. As PSEN is an output port in normal operating mode (running user applications or
bootloader applications) after reset it is recommended to release PSEN after the falling edge of Reset is signaled.
The hardware conditions are sampled at reset signal Falling Edge, thus they can be
released at any time when reset input is low.
2. To ensure correct microcontroller startup, the PSEN pin should not be tied to ground
during power-on.
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4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 30. Hardware Boot Process Algorithm
bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register
is initialized with BLJB.
RESET
Hardware
Hardware
condition?
No
ENBOOT = 0
PC = 0000h
No
ENBOOT = 1
PC = F800h
FCON = 00h
Yes
FCON = F0h
BLJB = = 0
?
Yes
Software
ENBOOT = 1
PC = F800h
Application
in FM0
Application
Programming Interface
Boot Loader
in FM1
Several Application Program Interface (API) calls are available for use by an application
program to permit selective erasing and programming of Flash pages. All calls are made
by functions.
All these APIs are describe in an documentation: "In-System Programing: Flash Library
for AT89C51AC3" available on the Atmel web site.
XROW Bytes
58
Table 23. XROW Mapping
Description
Default Value
Address
Copy of the Manufacturer Code
58h
30h
Copy of the Device ID#1: Family code
D7h
31h
Copy of the Device ID#2: Memories size and type
FFh
60h
Copy of the Device ID#3: Name and Revision
FEh
61h
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Hardware Security Byte
Table 24. Hardware Security Byte
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X2B
BLJB
-
-
-
LB2
LB1
LB0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
X2B
X2 Bit
Set this bit to start in standard mode
Clear this bit to start in X2 mode.
6
BLJB
Boot Loader JumpBit
- 1: To start the user’s application on next RESET (@0000h) located in FM0,
- 0: To start the boot loader(@F800h) located in FM1.
5-3
-
2-0
LB2:0
Reserved
The value read from these bits are indeterminate.
Lock Bits
Default value after erasing chip: FFh
Notes:
1. Only the 4 MSB bits can be accessed by software.
2. The 4 LSB bits can only be accessed by parallel mode.
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Serial I/O Port
The AT89C51AC3 I/O serial port is compatible with the I/O serial port in the 80C52.
It provides both synchronous and asynchronous communication modes. It operates as a
Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) in three full-duplex modes
(Modes 1, 2 and 3). Asynchronous transmission and reception can occur simultaneously
and at different baud rates
Serial I/O port includes the following enhancements:
•
Framing error detection
•
Automatic address recognition
Figure 31. Serial I/O Port Block Diagram
IB Bus
Write SBUF
Read SBUF
SBUF
Receiver
SBUF
Transmitter
TXD
Load SBUF
Mode 0 Transmit
Receive
Shift register
RXD
Serial Port
Interrupt Request
RI
TI
SCON
Framing Error Detection Framing bit error detection is provided for the three asynchronous modes. To enable the
framing bit error detection feature, set SMOD0 bit in PCON register.
Figure 32. Framing Error Block Diagram
SM0/FE SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
Set FE bit if stop bit is 0 (framing error)
SM0 to UART mode control
SMOD SMOD0
-
POF
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
To UART framing error control
When this feature is enabled, the receiver checks each incoming data frame for a valid
stop bit. An invalid stop bit may result from noise on the serial lines or from simultaneous
transmission by two CPUs. If a valid stop bit is not found, the Framing Error bit (FE) in
SCON register bit is set.
The software may examine the FE bit after each reception to check for data errors.
Once set, only software or a reset clears the FE bit. Subsequently received frames with
valid stop bits cannot clear the FE bit. When the FE feature is enabled, RI rises on the
stop bit instead of the last data bit (See Figure 33. and Figure 34.).
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AT89C51AC3
Figure 33. UART Timing in Mode 1
RXD
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Data byte
Start
bit
Stop
bit
RI
SMOD0=X
FE
SMOD0=1
Figure 34. UART Timing in Modes 2 and 3
RXD
D0
Start
bit
D1
D2
D3
D4
Data byte
D5
D6
D7
D8
Ninth Stop
bit
bit
RI
SMOD0=0
RI
SMOD0=1
FE
SMOD0=1
Automatic Address
Recognition
The automatic address recognition feature is enabled when the multiprocessor communication feature is enabled (SM2 bit in SCON register is set).
Implemented in the hardware, automatic address recognition enhances the multiprocessor communication feature by allowing the serial port to examine the address of each
incoming command frame. Only when the serial port recognizes its own address will the
receiver set the RI bit in the SCON register to generate an interrupt. This ensures that
the CPU is not interrupted by command frames addressed to other devices.
If necessary, you can enable the automatic address recognition feature in mode 1. In
this configuration, the stop bit takes the place of the ninth data bit. Bit RI is set only when
the received command frame address matches the device’s address and is terminated
by a valid stop bit.
To support automatic address recognition, a device is identified by a given address and
a broadcast address.
Note:
The multiprocessor communication and automatic address recognition features cannot
be enabled in mode 0 (i.e. setting SM2 bit in SCON register in mode 0 has no effect).
61
4383B–8051–01/05
Given Address
Each device has an individual address that is specified in the SADDR register; the
SADEN register is a mask byte that contains don’t-care bits (defined by zeros) to form
the device’s given address. The don’t-care bits provide the flexibility to address one or
more slaves at a time. The following example illustrates how a given address is formed.
To address a device by its individual address, the SADEN mask byte must be 1111
1111b.
For example:
SADDR0101 0110b
SADEN1111 1100b
Given0101 01XXb
Here is an example of how to use given addresses to address different slaves:
Slave A:SADDR1111 0001b
SADEN1111 1010b
Given1111 0X0Xb
Slave B:SADDR1111 0011b
SADEN1111 1001b
Given1111 0XX1b
Slave C:SADDR1111 0011b
SADEN1111 1101b
Given1111 00X1b
The SADEN byte is selected so that each slave may be addressed separately.
For slave A, bit 0 (the LSB) is a don’t-care bit; for slaves B and C, bit 0 is a 1. To communicate with slave A only, the master must send an address where bit 0 is clear (e.g.
1111 0000b).
For slave A, bit 1 is a 0; for slaves B and C, bit 1 is a don’t care bit. To communicate with
slaves A and B, but not slave C, the master must send an address with bits 0 and 1 both
set (e.g. 1111 0011b).
To communicate with slaves A, B and C, the master must send an address with bit 0 set,
bit 1 clear, and bit 2 clear (e.g. 1111 0001b).
Broadcast Address
A broadcast address is formed from the logical OR of the SADDR and SADEN registers
with zeros defined as don’t-care bits, e.g.:
SADDR0101 0110b
SADEN1111 1100b
SADDR OR SADEN1111 111Xb
The use of don’t-care bits provides flexibility in defining the broadcast address, however
in most applications, a broadcast address is FFh. The following is an example of using
broadcast addresses:
Slave A:SADDR1111 0001b
SADEN1111 1010b
Given1111 1X11b,
Slave B:SADDR1111 0011b
SADEN1111 1001b
Given1111 1X11B,
Slave C:SADDR=1111 0010b
SADEN1111 1101b
Given1111 1111b
62
AT89C51AC3
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AT89C51AC3
For slaves A and B, bit 2 is a don’t care bit; for slave C, bit 2 is set. To communicate with
all of the slaves, the master must send an address FFh. To communicate with slaves A
and B, but not slave C, the master can send and address FBh.
Registers
Table 25. SCON Register
SCON (S:98h)
Serial Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FE/SM0
SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
Bit
Number
7
Bit
Mnemonic Description
FE
Framing Error bit (SMOD0=1)
Clear to reset the error state, not cleared by a valid stop bit.
Set by hardware when an invalid stop bit is detected.
SM0
Serial port Mode bit 0 (SMOD0=0)
Refer to SM1 for serial port mode selection.
6
SM1
Serial port Mode bit 1
SM0 SM1
Mode
0
0
Shift Register
0
1
8-bit UART
1
0
9-bit UART
1
1
9-bit UART
5
SM2
Serial port Mode 2 bit/Multiprocessor Communication Enable bit
Clear to disable multiprocessor communication feature.
Set to enable multiprocessor communication feature in mode 2 and 3.
4
REN
Reception Enable bit
Clear to disable serial reception.
Set to enable serial reception.
3
TB8
Transmitter Bit 8/Ninth bit to transmit in modes 2 and 3
Clear to transmit a logic 0 in the 9th bit.
Set to transmit a logic 1 in the 9th bit.
2
RB8
Receiver Bit 8/Ninth bit received in modes 2 and 3
Cleared by hardware if 9th bit received is a logic 0.
Set by hardware if 9th bit received is a logic 1.
1
TI
Transmit Interrupt flag
Clear to acknowledge interrupt.
Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in mode 0 or at the beginning of the
stop bit in the other modes.
0
RI
Receive Interrupt flag
Clear to acknowledge interrupt.
Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in mode 0, see Figure 33. and
Figure 34. in the other modes.
Baud Rate
FXTAL/12 (or FXTAL /6 in mode X2)
Variable
FXTAL/64 or FXTAL/32
Variable
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Bit addressable
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4383B–8051–01/05
Table 26. SADEN Register
SADEN (S:B9h)
Slave Address Mask Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-0
Mask Data for Slave Individual Address
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
Table 27. SADDR Register
SADDR (S:A9h)
Slave Address Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-0
Slave Individual Address
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
Table 28. SBUF Register
SBUF (S:99h)
Serial Data Buffer
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Data sent/received by Serial I/O Port
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
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AT89C51AC3
Table 29. PCON Register
PCON (S:87h)
Power Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SMOD1
SMOD0
–
POF
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
SMOD1
Serial port Mode bit 1
Set to select double baud rate in mode 1, 2 or 3.
6
SMOD0
Serial port Mode bit 0
Clear to select SM0 bit in SCON register.
Set to select FE bit in SCON register.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
POF
Power-Off Flag
Clear to recognize next reset type.
Set by hardware when VCC rises from 0 to its nominal voltage. Can also be set
by software.
3
GF1
General-purpose Flag
Cleared by user for general-purpose usage.
Set by user for general-purpose usage.
2
GF0
General-purpose Flag
Cleared by user for general-purpose usage.
Set by user for general-purpose usage.
1
PD
Power-Down mode bit
Cleared by hardware when reset occurs.
Set to enter power-down mode.
0
IDL
Idle mode bit
Clear by hardware when interrupt or reset occurs.
Set to enter idle mode.
Reset Value = 00X1 0000b
Not bit addressable
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4383B–8051–01/05
Timers/Counters
The AT89C51AC3 implements two general-purpose, 16-bit Timers/Counters. Such are
identified as Timer 0 and Timer 1, and can be independently configured to operate in a
variety of modes as a Timer or an event Counter. When operating as a Timer, the
Timer/Counter runs for a programmed length of time, then issues an interrupt request.
When operating as a Counter, the Timer/Counter counts negative transitions on an
external pin. After a preset number of counts, the Counter issues an interrupt request.
The various operating modes of each Timer/Counter are described in the following
sections.
Timer/Counter
Operations
A basic operation is Timer registers THx and TLx (x = 0, 1) connected in cascade to
form a 16-bit Timer. Setting the run control bit (TRx) in TCON register (see Figure 30)
turns the Timer on by allowing the selected input to increment TLx. When TLx overflows
it increments THx; when THx overflows it sets the Timer overflow flag (TFx) in TCON
register. Setting the TRx does not clear the THx and TLx Timer registers. Timer registers can be accessed to obtain the current count or to enter preset values. They can be
read at any time but TRx bit must be cleared to preset their values, otherwise the behavior of the Timer/Counter is unpredictable.
The C/Tx# control bit selects Timer operation or Counter operation by selecting the
divided-down peripheral clock or external pin Tx as the source for the counted signal.
TRx bit must be cleared when changing the mode of operation, otherwise the behavior
of the Timer/Counter is unpredictable.
For Timer operation (C/Tx# = 0), the Timer register counts the divided-down peripheral
clock. The Timer register is incremented once every peripheral cycle (6 peripheral clock
periods). The Timer clock rate is FPER/6, i.e. FOSC/12 in standard mode or FOSC/6 in X2
mode.
For Counter operation (C/Tx# = 1), the Timer register counts the negative transitions on
the Tx external input pin. The external input is sampled every peripheral cycles. When
the sample is high in one cycle and low in the next one, the Counter is incremented.
Since it takes 2 cycles (12 peripheral clock periods) to recognize a negative transition,
the maximum count rate is FPER/12, i.e. FOSC/24 in standard mode or F OSC/12 in X2
mode. There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of the external input signal, but to
ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes, it should be held for
at least one full peripheral cycle.
Timer 0
Timer 0 functions as either a Timer or event Counter in four modes of operation.
Figure 35 to Figure 38 show the logical configuration of each mode.
Timer 0 is controlled by the four lower bits of TMOD register (see Figure 31) and bits 0,
1, 4 and 5 of TCON register (see Figure 30). TMOD register selects the method of Timer
gating (GATE0), Timer or Counter operation (T/C0#) and mode of operation (M10 and
M00). TCON register provides Timer 0 control functions: overflow flag (TF0), run control
bit (TR0), interrupt flag (IE0) and interrupt type control bit (IT0).
For normal Timer operation (GATE0 = 0), setting TR0 allows TL0 to be incremented by
the selected input. Setting GATE0 and TR0 allows external pin INT0# to control Timer
operation.
Timer 0 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets TF0 flag generating an interrupt request.
It is important to stop Timer/Counter before changing mode.
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Mode 0 (13-bit Timer)
Mode 0 configures Timer 0 as an 13-bit Timer which is set up as an 8-bit Timer (TH0
register) with a modulo 32 prescaler implemented with the lower five bits of TL0 register
(see Figure 35). The upper three bits of TL0 register are indeterminate and should be
ignored. Prescaler overflow increments TH0 register.
Figure 35. Timer/Counter x (x = 0 or 1) in Mode 0
See the “Clock” section
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
0
THx
(8 bits)
1
Tx
TLx
(5 bits)
Overflow
TFx
TCON reg
Timer x
Interrupt
Request
C/Tx#
TMOD reg
INTx#
GATEx
TRx
TMOD reg
Mode 1 (16-bit Timer)
TCON reg
Mode 1 configures Timer 0 as a 16-bit Timer with TH0 and TL0 registers connected in
cascade (see Figure 36). The selected input increments TL0 register.
Figure 36. Timer/Counter x (x = 0 or 1) in Mode 1
See the “Clock” section
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
0
THx
(8 bits)
1
Tx
TLx
(8 bits)
Overflow
TFx
TCON reg
Timer x
Interrupt
Request
C/Tx#
TMOD reg
INTx#
GATEx
TMOD reg
TRx
TCON reg
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4383B–8051–01/05
Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with Auto- Mode 2 configures Timer 0 as an 8-bit Timer (TL0 register) that automatically reloads
Reload)
from TH0 register (see Figure 37). TL0 overflow sets TF0 flag in TCON register and
reloads TL0 with the contents of TH0, which is preset by software. When the interrupt
request is serviced, hardware clears TF0. The reload leaves TH0 unchanged. The next
reload value may be changed at any time by writing it to TH0 register.
Figure 37. Timer/Counter x (x = 0 or 1) in Mode 2
See the “Clock” section
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
0
TLx
(8 bits)
1
Tx
Overflow
TFx
TCON reg
Timer x
Interrupt
Request
C/Tx#
TMOD reg
INTx#
GATEx
THx
(8 bits)
TRx
TMOD reg
TCON reg
Mode 3 (Two 8-bit Timers)
Mode 3 configures Timer 0 such that registers TL0 and TH0 operate as separate 8-bit
Timers (see Figure 38). This mode is provided for applications requiring an additional 8bit Timer or Counter. TL0 uses the Timer 0 control bits C/T0# and GATE0 in TMOD register, and TR0 and TF0 in TCON register in the normal manner. TH0 is locked into a
Timer function (counting FPER /6) and takes over use of the Timer 1 interrupt (TF1) and
run control (TR1) bits. Thus, operation of Timer 1 is restricted when Timer 0 is in mode
3.
Figure 38. Timer/Counter 0 in Mode 3: Two 8-bit Counters
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
0
1
T0
TL0
(8 bits)
Overflow
TH0
(8 bits)
Overflow
TF0
TCON.5
Timer 0
Interrupt
Request
C/T0#
TMOD.2
INT0#
GATE0
TMOD.3
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
See the “Clock” section
68
TR0
TCON.4
TF1
TCON.7
Timer 1
Interrupt
Request
TR1
TCON.6
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Timer 1
Timer 1 is identical to Timer 0 excepted for Mode 3 which is a hold-count mode. The following comments help to understand the differences:
•
Timer 1 functions as either a Timer or event Counter in three modes of operation.
Figure 35 to Figure 37 show the logical configuration for modes 0, 1, and 2. Timer
1’s mode 3 is a hold-count mode.
•
Timer 1 is controlled by the four high-order bits of TMOD register (see Figure 31)
and bits 2, 3, 6 and 7 of TCON register (see Figure 30). TMOD register selects the
method of Timer gating (GATE1), Timer or Counter operation (C/T1#) and mode of
operation (M11 and M01). TCON register provides Timer 1 control functions:
overflow flag (TF1), run control bit (TR1), interrupt flag (IE1) and interrupt type
control bit (IT1).
•
Timer 1 can serve as the Baud Rate Generator for the Serial Port. Mode 2 is best
suited for this purpose.
•
For normal Timer operation (GATE1 = 0), setting TR1 allows TL1 to be incremented
by the selected input. Setting GATE1 and TR1 allows external pin INT1# to control
Timer operation.
•
Timer 1 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets the TF1 flag generating
an interrupt request.
•
When Timer 0 is in mode 3, it uses Timer 1’s overflow flag (TF1) and run control bit
(TR1). For this situation, use Timer 1 only for applications that do not require an
interrupt (such as a Baud Rate Generator for the Serial Port) and switch Timer 1 in
and out of mode 3 to turn it off and on.
•
It is important to stop Timer/Counter before changing mode.
Mode 0 (13-bit Timer)
Mode 0 configures Timer 1 as a 13-bit Timer, which is set up as an 8-bit Timer (TH1 register) with a modulo-32 prescaler implemented with the lower 5 bits of the TL1 register
(see Figure 35). The upper 3 bits of TL1 register are ignored. Prescaler overflow increments TH1 register.
Mode 1 (16-bit Timer)
Mode 1 configures Timer 1 as a 16-bit Timer with TH1 and TL1 registers connected in
cascade (see Figure 36). The selected input increments TL1 register.
Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with Auto- Mode 2 configures Timer 1 as an 8-bit Timer (TL1 register) with automatic reload from
Reload)
TH1 register on overflow (see Figure 37). TL1 overflow sets TF1 flag in TCON register
and reloads TL1 with the contents of TH1, which is preset by software. The reload
leaves TH1 unchanged.
Mode 3 (Halt)
Placing Timer 1 in mode 3 causes it to halt and hold its count. This can be used to halt
Timer 1 when TR1 run control bit is not available i.e. when Timer 0 is in mode 3.
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4383B–8051–01/05
Interrupt
Each Timer handles one interrupt source that is the timer overflow flag TF0 or TF1. This
flag is set every time an overflow occurs. Flags are cleared when vectoring to the Timer
interrupt routine. Interrupts are enabled by setting ETx bit in IEN0 register. This assumes
interrupts are globally enabled by setting EA bit in IEN0 register.
Figure 39. Timer Interrupt System
Timer 0
Interrupt Request
TF0
TCON.5
ET0
IEN0.1
Timer 1
Interrupt Request
TF1
TCON.7
ET1
IEN0.3
Registers
Table 30. TCON Register
TCON (S:88h)
Timer/Counter Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
TF1
Timer 1 Overflow Flag
Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to interrupt routine.
Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow, when Timer 1 register overflows.
6
TR1
Timer 1 Run Control Bit
Clear to turn off Timer/Counter 1.
Set to turn on Timer/Counter 1.
5
TF0
Timer 0 Overflow Flag
Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to interrupt routine.
Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow, when Timer 0 register overflows.
4
TR0
Timer 0 Run Control Bit
Clear to turn off Timer/Counter 0.
Set to turn on Timer/Counter 0.
3
IE1
Interrupt 1 Edge Flag
Cleared by hardware when interrupt is processed if edge-triggered (see IT1).
Set by hardware when external interrupt is detected on INT1# pin.
2
IT1
Interrupt 1 Type Control Bit
Clear to select low level active (level triggered) for external interrupt 1 (INT1#).
Set to select falling edge active (edge triggered) for external interrupt 1.
1
IE0
Interrupt 0 Edge Flag
Cleared by hardware when interrupt is processed if edge-triggered (see IT0).
Set by hardware when external interrupt is detected on INT0# pin.
0
IT0
Interrupt 0 Type Control Bit
Clear to select low level active (level triggered) for external interrupt 0 (INT0#).
Set to select falling edge active (edge triggered) for external interrupt 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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Table 31. TMOD Register
TMOD (S:89h)
Timer/Counter Mode Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
GATE1
C/T1#
M11
M01
GATE0
C/T0#
M10
M00
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
GATE1
Timer 1 Gating Control Bit
Clear to enable Timer 1 whenever TR1 bit is set.
Set to enable Timer 1 only while INT1# pin is high and TR1 bit is set.
6
C/T1#
Timer 1 Counter/Timer Select Bit
Clear for Timer operation: Timer 1 counts the divided-down system clock.
Set for Counter operation: Timer 1 counts negative transitions on external pin T1.
5
M11
4
M01
3
GATE0
Timer 0 Gating Control Bit
Clear to enable Timer 0 whenever TR0 bit is set.
Set to enable Timer/Counter 0 only while INT0# pin is high and TR0 bit is set.
2
C/T0#
Timer 0 Counter/Timer Select Bit
Clear for Timer operation: Timer 0 counts the divided-down system clock.
Set for Counter operation: Timer 0 counts negative transitions on external pin T0.
1
M10
0
M00
Timer 1 Mode Select Bits
M11 M01
Operating mode
0
0
Mode 0: 8-bit Timer/Counter (TH1) with 5-bit prescaler (TL1).
0
1
Mode 1: 16-bit Timer/Counter.
1
0
Mode 2: 8-bit auto-reload Timer/Counter (TL1) (1)
1
1
Mode 3: Timer 1 halted. Retains count
Timer 0 Mode Select Bit
Operating mode
M10 M00
0
0
Mode 0: 8-bit Timer/Counter (TH0) with 5-bit prescaler (TL0).
0
1
Mode 1: 16-bit Timer/Counter.
1
0
Mode 2: 8-bit auto-reload Timer/Counter (TL0) (2)
1
1
Mode 3: TL0 is an 8-bit Timer/Counter
TH0 is an 8-bit Timer using Timer 1’s TR0 and TF0 bits.
1.
Reloaded from TH1 at overflow.
2.
Reloaded from TH0 at overflow.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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4383B–8051–01/05
Table 32. TH0 Register
TH0 (S:8Ch)
Timer 0 High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7:0
High Byte of Timer 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 33. TL0 Register
TL0 (S:8Ah)
Timer 0 Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7:0
Low Byte of Timer 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 34. TH1 Register
TH1 (S:8Dh)
Timer 1 High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
High Byte of Timer 1.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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Table 35. TL1 Register
TL1 (S:8Bh)
Timer 1 Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Low Byte of Timer 1.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
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4383B–8051–01/05
Timer 2
The AT89C51AC3 timer 2 is compatible with timer 2 in the 80C52.
It is a 16-bit timer/counter: the count is maintained by two eight-bit timer registers, TH2
and TL2 that are cascade- connected. It is controlled by T2CON register (See Table )
and T2MOD register (See Table 38). Timer 2 operation is similar to Timer 0 and Timer
1. C/T2 selects FT2 clock/6 (timer operation) or external pin T2 (counter operation) as
timer clock. Setting TR2 allows TL2 to be incremented by the selected input.
Timer 2 includes the following enhancements:
Auto-Reload Mode
•
Auto-reload mode (up or down counter)
•
Programmable clock-output
The auto-reload mode configures timer 2 as a 16-bit timer or event counter with automatic reload. This feature is controlled by the DCEN bit in T2MOD register (See
Table 38). Setting the DCEN bit enables timer 2 to count up or down as shown in
Figure 40. In this mode the T2EX pin controls the counting direction.
When T2EX is high, timer 2 counts up. Timer overflow occurs at FFFFh which sets the
TF2 flag and generates an interrupt request. The overflow also causes the 16-bit value
in RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers to be loaded into the timer registers TH2 and TL2.
When T2EX is low, timer 2 counts down. Timer underflow occurs when the count in the
timer registers TH2 and TL2 equals the value stored in RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers.
The underflow sets TF2 flag and reloads FFFFh into the timer registers.
The EXF2 bit toggles when timer 2 overflow or underflow, depending on the direction of
the count. EXF2 does not generate an interrupt. This bit can be used to provide 17-bit
resolution.
Figure 40. Auto-Reload Mode Up/Down Counter
see section “Clock”
FT2
CLOCK
:6
0
1
TR2
T2CON.2
CT/2
T2CON.1
T2
(DOWN COUNTING RELOAD VALUE)
FFh
(8-bit)
FFh
(8-bit)
T2EX:
1=UP
2=DOWN
TOGGLE T2CONreg
EXF2
TL2
(8-bit)
RCAP2L
(8-bit)
TH2
(8-bit)
TF2
T2CONreg
TIMER 2
INTERRUPT
RCAP2H
(8-bit)
(UP COUNTING RELOAD VALUE)
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AT89C51AC3
Programmable ClockOutput
In clock-out mode, timer 2 operates as a 50%-duty-cycle, programmable clock generator (See Figure 41). The input clock increments TL2 at frequency FOSC/2. The timer
repeatedly counts to overflow from a loaded value. At overflow, the contents of RCAP2H
and RCAP2L registers are loaded into TH2 and TL2. In this mode, timer 2 overflows do
not generate interrupts. The formula gives the clock-out frequency depending on the
system oscillator frequency and the value in the RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers:
FT2clock
Clock – OutFrequency = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 × ( 65536 – RCAP2H ⁄ RCAP2L )
For a 16 MHz system clock in x1 mode, timer 2 has a programmable frequency range of
61 Hz (FOSC/216) to 4 MHz (FOSC/4). The generated clock signal is brought out to T2 pin
(P1.0).
Timer 2 is programmed for the clock-out mode as follows:
•
Set T2OE bit in T2MOD register.
•
Clear C/T2 bit in T2CON register.
•
Determine the 16-bit reload value from the formula and enter it in RCAP2H/RCAP2L
registers.
•
Enter a 16-bit initial value in timer registers TH2/TL2. It can be the same as the
reload value or different depending on the application.
•
To start the timer, set TR2 run control bit in T2CON register.
It is possible to use timer 2 as a baud rate generator and a clock generator simultaneously. For this configuration, the baud rates and clock frequencies are not
independent since both functions use the values in the RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers.
Figure 41. Clock-Out Mode
TL2
(8-bit)
FT2
CLOCK
TH2
(8-bit)
OVERFLOW
TR2
T2CON.2
RCAP2L RCAP2H
(8-bit)
(8-bit)
Toggle
T2
Q
Q
D
T2OE
T2MOD reg
T2EX
EXF2
EXEN2
T2CON reg
TIMER 2
INTERRUPT
T2CON reg
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4383B–8051–01/05
Registers
Table 36. T2CON Register
T2CON (S:C8h)
Timer 2 Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TF2
EXF2
RCLK
TCLK
EXEN2
TR2
C/T2#
CP/RL2#
Bit
Number
7
Bit
Mnemonic Description
TF2
Timer 2 Overflow Flag
TF2 is not set if RCLK=1 or TCLK = 1.
Must be cleared by software.
Set by hardware on timer 2 overflow.
6
EXF2
Timer 2 External Flag
Set when a capture or a reload is caused by a negative transition on T2EX pin if
EXEN2=1.
Set to cause the CPU to vector to timer 2 interrupt routine when timer 2 interrupt
is enabled.
Must be cleared by software.
5
RCLK
Receive Clock bit
Clear to use timer 1 overflow as receive clock for serial port in mode 1 or 3.
Set to use timer 2 overflow as receive clock for serial port in mode 1 or 3.
4
TCLK
Transmit Clock bit
Clear to use timer 1 overflow as transmit clock for serial port in mode 1 or 3.
Set to use timer 2 overflow as transmit clock for serial port in mode 1 or 3.
3
EXEN2
2
TR2
1
C/T2#
0
CP/RL2#
Timer 2 External Enable bit
Clear to ignore events on T2EX pin for timer 2 operation.
Set to cause a capture or reload when a negative transition on T2EX pin is
detected, if timer 2 is not used to clock the serial port.
Timer 2 Run Control bit
Clear to turn off timer 2.
Set to turn on timer 2.
Timer/Counter 2 Select bit
Clear for timer operation (input from internal clock system: FOSC).
Set for counter operation (input from T2 input pin).
Timer 2 Capture/Reload bit
If RCLK=1 or TCLK=1, CP/RL2# is ignored and timer is forced to auto-reload on
timer 2 overflow.
Clear to auto-reload on timer 2 overflows or negative transitions on T2EX pin if
EXEN2=1.
Set to capture on negative transitions on T2EX pin if EXEN2=1.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Bit addressable
76
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Table 37. T2MOD Register
T2MOD (S:C9h)
Timer 2 Mode Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
T2OE
DCEN
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
1
T2OE
Timer 2 Output Enable bit
Clear to program P1.0/T2 as clock input or I/O port.
Set to program P1.0/T2 as clock output.
0
DCEN
Down Counter Enable bit
Clear to disable timer 2 as up/down counter.
Set to enable timer 2 as up/down counter.
Reset Value = XXXX XX00b
Not bit addressable
Table 38. TH2 Register
TH2 (S:CDh)
Timer 2 High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
High Byte of Timer 2.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
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4383B–8051–01/05
Table 39. TL2 Register
TL2 (S:CCh)
Timer 2 Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-0
Low Byte of Timer 2.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
Table 40. RCAP2H Register
RCAP2H (S:CBh)
Timer 2 Reload/Capture High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-0
High Byte of Timer 2 Reload/Capture.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
Table 41. RCAP2L Register
RCAP2L (S:CAH)
TIMER 2 REload/Capture Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Low Byte of Timer 2 Reload/Capture.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
78
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Watchdog Timer
AT89C51AC3 contains a powerful programmable hardware Watchdog Timer (WDT)
that automatically resets the chip if it software fails to reset the WDT before the selected
time interval has elapsed. It permits large Time-Out ranking from 16ms to 2s @Fosc =
12MHz in X1 mode.
This WDT consists of a 14-bit counter plus a 7-bit programmable counter, a Watchdog
Timer reset register (WDTRST) and a Watchdog Timer programming (WDTPRG) register. When exiting reset, the WDT is -by default- disable.
To enable the WDT, the user has to write the sequence 1EH and E1H into WDTRST
register no instruction in between. When the Watchdog Timer is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running and there is no way to disable
the WDT except through reset (either hardware reset or WDT overflow reset). When
WDT overflows, it will generate an output RESET pulse at the RST pin. The RESET
pulse duration is 96xTOSC, where TOSC=1/FOSC. To make the best use of the WDT, it
should be serviced in those sections of code that will periodically be executed within the
time required to prevent a WDT reset
Note:
When the Watchdog is enable it is impossible to change its period.
Figure 42. Watchdog Timer
Fwd
CLOCK
÷ PS
CPU and Peripheral
Clock
÷6
Decoder
RESET
WR
Control
WDTRST
Enable
14-bit COUNTER
7-bit COUNTER
Fwd Clock
WDTPRG
Outputs
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
0
RESET
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4383B–8051–01/05
Watchdog Programming
The three lower bits (S0, S1, S2) located into WDTPRG register permit to program the
WDT duration.
Table 42. Machine Cycle Count
S2
S1
S0
Machine Cycle Count
0
0
0
214 - 1
0
0
1
215 - 1
0
1
0
216 - 1
0
1
1
217 - 1
1
0
0
218 - 1
1
0
1
219 - 1
1
1
0
220 - 1
1
1
1
221 - 1
To compute WD Time-Out, the following formula is applied:
F wd
FTime – Out = ----------------------------------------------------------------14
Svalue
12 × ( ( 2 × 2
) – 1)
Note:
Svalue represents the decimal value of (S2 S1 S0)
The following table outlines the time-out value for FoscXTAL = 12 MHz in X1 mode
Table 43. Time-Out Computation
80
S2
S1
S0
Fosc = 12 MHz
Fosc = 16 MHz
Fosc = 20 MHz
0
0
0
16.38 ms
12.28 ms
9.82 ms
0
0
1
32.77 ms
24.57 ms
19.66 ms
0
1
0
65.54 ms
49.14 ms
39.32 ms
0
1
1
131.07 ms
98.28 ms
78.64 ms
1
0
0
262.14 ms
196.56 ms
157.28 ms
1
0
1
524.29 ms
393.12 ms
314.56 ms
1
1
0
1.05 s
786.24 ms
629.12 ms
1
1
1
2.10 s
1.57 s
1.25 s
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Watchdog Timer During
Power-down Mode and
Idle
In Power-down mode the oscillator stops, which means the WDT also stops. While in
Power-down mode, the user does not need to service the WDT. There are 2 methods of
exiting Power-down mode: by a hardware reset or via a level activated external interrupt
which is enabled prior to entering Power-down mode. When Power-down is exited with
hardware reset, the Watchdog is disabled. Exiting Power-down with an interrupt is significantly different. The interrupt shall be held low long enough for the oscillator to
stabilize. When the interrupt is brought high, the interrupt is serviced. To prevent the
WDT from resetting the device while the interrupt pin is held low, the WDT is not started
until the interrupt is pulled high. It is suggested that the WDT be reset during the interrupt service for the interrupt used to exit Power-down.
To ensure that the WDT does not overflow within a few states of exiting powerdown, it is
best to reset the WDT just before entering powerdown.
In the Idle mode, the oscillator continues to run. To prevent the WDT from resetting
AT89C51AC3 while in Idle mode, the user should always set up a timer that will periodically exit Idle, service the WDT, and re-enter Idle mode.
Register
Table 44. WDTPRG Register
WDTPRG (S:A7h)
Watchdog Timer Duration Programming Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
S2
S1
S0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2
S2
Watchdog Timer Duration selection bit 2
Work in conjunction with bit 1 and bit 0.
1
S1
Watchdog Timer Duration selection bit 1
Work in conjunction with bit 2 and bit 0.
0
S0
Watchdog Timer Duration selection bit 0
Work in conjunction with bit 1 and bit 2.
Reset Value = XXXX X000b
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4383B–8051–01/05
Table 45. WDTRST Register
WDTRST (S:A6h Write only)
Watchdog Timer Enable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
7
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
Watchdog Control Value
Reset Value = 1111 1111b
Note:
82
The WDRST register is used to reset/enable the WDT by writing 1EH then E1H in
sequence without instruction between these two sequences.
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Serial Port Interface
(SPI)
The Serial Peripheral Interface Module (SPI) allows full-duplex, synchronous, serial
communication between the MCU and peripheral devices, including other MCUs.
Features
Features of the SPI Module include the following:
Signal Description
•
Full-duplex, three-wire synchronous transfers
•
Master or Slave operation
•
Six programmable Master clock rates in master mode
•
Serial clock with programmable polarity and phase
•
Master Mode fault error flag with MCU interrupt capability
Figure 43 shows a typical SPI bus configuration using one Master controller and many
Slave peripherals. The bus is made of three wires connecting all the devices.
Figure 43. SPI Master/Slaves Interconnection
Slave 1
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
VDD
Slave 4
Slave 3
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
0
1
2
3
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
PORT
Master
Slave 2
The Master device selects the individual Slave devices by using four pins of a parallel
port to control the four SS pins of the Slave devices.
Master Output Slave Input
(MOSI)
This 1-bit signal is directly connected between the Master Device and a Slave Device.
The MOSI line is used to transfer data in series from the Master to the Slave. Therefore,
it is an output signal from the Master, and an input signal to a Slave. A Byte (8-bit word)
is transmitted most significant bit (MSB) first, least significant bit (LSB) last.
Master Input Slave Output
(MISO)
This 1-bit signal is directly connected between the Slave Device and a Master Device.
The MISO line is used to transfer data in series from the Slave to the Master. Therefore,
it is an output signal from the Slave, and an input signal to the Master. A Byte (8-bit
word) is transmitted most significant bit (MSB) first, least significant bit (LSB) last.
SPI Serial Clock (SCK)
This signal is used to synchronize the data transmission both in and out of the devices
through their MOSI and MISO lines. It is driven by the Master for eight clock cycles
which allows to exchange one Byte on the serial lines.
Slave Select (SS)
Each Slave peripheral is selected by one Slave Select pin (SS). This signal must stay
low for any message for a Slave. It is obvious that only one Master (SS high level) can
drive the network. The Master may select each Slave device by software through port
pins (Figure 44). To prevent bus conflicts on the MISO line, only one slave should be
selected at a time by the Master for a transmission.
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4383B–8051–01/05
In a Master configuration, the SS line can be used in conjunction with the MODF flag in
the SPI Status register (SPSCR) to prevent multiple masters from driving MOSI and
SCK (see Error conditions).
A high level on the SS pin puts the MISO line of a Slave SPI in a high-impedance state.
The SS pin could be used as a general-purpose if the following conditions are met:
•
The device is configured as a Master and the SSDIS control bit in SPCON is set.
This kind of configuration can be found when only one Master is driving the network
and there is no way that the SS pin could be pulled low. Therefore, the MODF flag in
the SPSCR will never be set(1).
•
The Device is configured as a Slave with CPHA and SSDIS control bits set(2). This
kind of configuration can happen when the system includes one Master and one
Slave only. Therefore, the device should always be selected and there is no reason
that the Master uses the SS pin to select the communicating Slave device.
Note:
1. Clearing SSDIS control bit does not clear MODF.
2. Special care should be taken not to set SSDIS control bit when CPHA =’0’ because in
this mode, the SS is used to start the transmission.
Baud Rate
In Master mode, the baud rate can be selected from a baud rate generator which is controlled by three bits in the SPCON register: SPR2, SPR1 and SPR0.The Master clock is
selected from one of seven clock rates resulting from the division of the internal clock by
4, 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128.
Table 46 gives the different clock rates selected by SPR2:SPR1:SPR0.
In Slave mode, the maximum baud rate allowed on the SCK input is limited to Fsys/4
Table 46. SPI Master Baud Rate Selection
84
SPR2
SPR1
SPR0
Clock Rate
Baud Rate Divisor (BD)
0
0
0
Don’t Use
No BRG
0
0
1
FCLK PERIPH /4
4
0
1
0
FCLK PERIPH/8
8
0
1
1
FCLK PERIPH /16
16
1
0
0
FCLK PERIPH /32
32
1
0
1
FCLK PERIPH /64
64
1
1
0
FCLK PERIPH /128
128
1
1
1
Don’t Use
No BRG
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Functional Description
Figure 44 shows a detailed structure of the SPI Module.
Figure 44. SPI Module Block Diagram
Internal Bus
SPDAT
Transmit Data Register
Shift Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Receive Data Register
SPSCR
SPIF
-
OVR
MODF SPTE
UARTM SPTEIE MODFIE
Clock
Logic
SPI
Control
SPCON
SPR2
SPEN SSDIS MSTR
CPOL
Pin
Control
Logic
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
FCLK
PERIPH
M
S
MOSI
MISO
SCK
SS
SPI Interrupt
Request
8-bit bus
1-bit signal
Operating Modes
The Serial Peripheral Interface can be configured in one of the two modes: Master mode
or Slave mode. The configuration and initialization of the SPI Module is made through
two registers:
•
The Serial Peripheral Control register (SPCON)
•
The Serial Peripheral Status and Control Register (SPSCR)
Once the SPI is configured, the data exchange is made using:
•
The Serial Peripheral DATa register (SPDAT)
During an SPI transmission, data is simultaneously transmitted (shifted out serially) and
received (shifted in serially). A serial clock line (SCK) synchronizes shifting and sampling on the two serial data lines (MOSI and MISO). A Slave Select line (SS) allows
individual selection of a Slave SPI device; Slave devices that are not selected do not
interfere with SPI bus activities.
85
4383B–8051–01/05
When the Master device transmits data to the Slave device via the MOSI line, the Slave
device responds by sending data to the Master device via the MISO line. This implies
full-duplex transmission with both data out and data in synchronized with the same clock
(Figure 45).
Figure 45. Full-Duplex Master-Slave Interconnection
8-bit Shift register
SPI
Clock Generator
MISO
MISO
MOSI
MOSI
SCK
SS
Master MCU
8-bit Shift register
SCK
VDD
SS
VSS
Slave MCU
Master Mode
The SPI operates in Master mode when the Master bit, MSTR (1), in the SPCON register
is set. Only one Master SPI device can initiate transmissions. Software begins the transmission from a Master SPI Module by writing to the Serial Peripheral Data Register
(SPDAT). If the shift register is empty, the Byte is immediately transferred to the shift
register. The Byte begins shifting out on MOSI pin under the control of the serial clock,
SCK. Simultaneously, another Byte shifts in from the Slave on the Master’s MISO pin.
The transmission ends when the Serial Peripheral transfer data flag, SPIF, in SPSCR
becomes set. At the same time that SPIF becomes set, the received Byte from the Slave
is transferred to the receive data register in SPDAT. Software clears SPIF by reading
the Serial Peripheral Status register (SPSCR) with the SPIF bit set, and then reading the
SPDAT.
Slave Mode
The SPI operates in Slave mode when the Master bit, MSTR (2), in the SPCON register is
cleared. Before a data transmission occurs, the Slave Select pin, SS, of the Slave
device must be set to’0’. SS must remain low until the transmission is complete.
In a Slave SPI Module, data enters the shift register under the control of the SCK from
the Master SPI Module. After a Byte enters the shift register, it is immediately transferred to the receive data register in SPDAT, and the SPIF bit is set. To prevent an
overflow condition, Slave software must then read the SPDAT before another Byte
enters the shift register (3). A Slave SPI must complete the write to the SPDAT (shift register) at least one bus cycle before the Master SPI starts a transmission. If the write to
the data register is late, the SPI transmits the data already in the shift register from the
previous transmission.
Transmission Formats
Software can select any of four combinations of serial clock (SCK) phase and polarity
using two bits in the SPCON: the Clock Polarity (CPOL (4) ) and the Clock Phase
(CPHA4). CPOL defines the default SCK line level in idle state. It has no significant
effect on the transmission format. CPHA defines the edges on which the input data are
sampled and the edges on which the output data are shifted (Figure 46 and Figure 47).
The clock phase and polarity should be identical for the Master SPI device and the communicating Slave device.
1.
The SPI Module should be configured as a Master before it is enabled (SPEN set). Also,
the Master SPI should be configured before the Slave SPI.
2.
3.
The SPI Module should be configured as a Slave before it is enabled (SPEN set).
The maximum frequency of the SCK for an SPI configured as a Slave is the bus clock
speed.
Before writing to the CPOL and CPHA bits, the SPI should be disabled (SPEN =’0’).
4.
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AT89C51AC3
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AT89C51AC3
Figure 46. Data Transmission Format (CPHA = 0)
SCK Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
MSB
bit6
bit5
bit4
bit3
bit2
bit1
LSB
bit6
bit5
bit4
bit3
bit2
bit1
LSB
SPEN (Internal)
SCK (CPOL = 0)
SCK (CPOL = 1)
MOSI (from Master)
MISO (from Slave)
MSB
SS (to Slave)
Capture Point
Figure 47. Data Transmission Format (CPHA = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
MOSI (from Master)
MSB
bit6
bit5
bit4
bit3
bit2
bit1
LSB
MISO (from Slave)
MSB
bit6
bit5
bit4
bit3
bit2
bit1
SCK Cycle Number
SPEN (Internal)
SCK (CPOL = 0)
SCK (CPOL = 1)
LSB
SS (to Slave)
Capture Point
Figure 48. CPHA/SS Timing
MISO/MOSI
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Master SS
Slave SS
(CPHA = 0)
Slave SS
(CPHA = 1)
As shown in Figure 46, the first SCK edge is the MSB capture strobe. Therefore, the
Slave must begin driving its data before the first SCK edge, and a falling edge on the SS
pin is used to start the transmission. The SS pin must be toggled high and then low
between each Byte transmitted (Figure 48).
Figure 47 shows an SPI transmission in which CPHA is ’1’. In this case, the Master
begins driving its MOSI pin on the first SCK edge. Therefore, the Slave uses the first
SCK edge as a start transmission signal. The SS pin can remain low between transmissions (Figure 48). This format may be preferred in systems having only one Master and
only one Slave driving the MISO data line.
Queuing transmission
For an SPI configured in master or slave mode, a queued data byte must be transmitted/received immediately after the previous transmission has completed.
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4383B–8051–01/05
When a transmission is in progress a new data can be queued and sent as soon as
transmission has been completed. So it is possible to transmit bytes without latency,
useful in some applications.
The SPTE bit in SPSCR is set as long as the transmission buffer is free. It means that
the user application can write SPDAT with the data to be transmitted until the SPTE
becomes cleared.
Figure 49 shows a queuing transmission in master mode. Once the Byte 1 is ready, it is
immediately sent on the bus. Meanwhile an other byte is prepared (and the SPTE is
cleared), it will be sent at the end of the current transmission. The next data must be
ready before the end of the current transmission.
Figure 49. Queuing Transmission In Master Mode
SCK
MOSI
MSB
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
LSB MSB
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
LSB
MISO
MSB
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
LSB MSB
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
LSB
Data
Byte 1
Byte 2
BYTE 1 under transmission
Byte 3
BYTE 2 under transmission
SPTE
In slave mode it is almost the same except it is the external master that start the
transmission.
Also, in slave mode, if no new data is ready, the last value received will be the next data
byte transmitted.
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AT89C51AC3
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AT89C51AC3
Error Conditions
The following flags in the SPSCR register indicate the SPI error conditions:
Mode Fault Error (MODF)
Mode Fault error in Master mode SPI indicates that the level on the Slave Select (SS)
pin is inconsistent with the actual mode of the device.
•
Mode fault detection in Master mode:
MODF is set to warn that there may be a multi-master conflict for system control. In this
case, the SPI system is affected in the following ways:
–
An SPI receiver/error CPU interrupt request is generated
–
The SPEN bit in SPCON is cleared. This disables the SPI
–
The MSTR bit in SPCON is cleared
Clearing the MODF bit is accomplished by a read of SPSCR register with MODF bit set,
followed by a write to the SPCON register. SPEN Control bit may be restored to its original set state after the MODF bit has been cleared.
Figure 50. Mode Fault Conditions in Master Mode (Cpha =’1’/Cpol =’0’)
0
1
2
1
z
0
MSB
B6
MISO
(from slave)
1
z
0
MSB
B6
SPI enable
1
z
0
SS
(master)
1
z
0
SS
(slave)
1
z
0
SCK cycle #
SCK
(from master)
MOSI
(from master)
•
0
3
1
z
0
MODF detected
Note:
0
B5
MODF detected
When SS is discarded (SS disabled) it is not possible to detect a MODF error in master
mode because the SPI is internally unselected and the SS pin is a general purpose I/O.
Mode fault detection in Slave mode
In slave mode, the MODF error is detected when SS goes high during a transmission.
A transmission begins when SS goes low and ends once the incoming SCK goes back
to its idle level following the shift of the eighteen data bit.
A MODF error occurs if a slave is selected (SS is low) and later unselected (SS is high)
even if no SCK is sent to that slave.
At any time, a ’1’ on the SS pin of a slave SPI puts the MISO pin in a high impedance
state and internal state counter is cleared. Also, the slave SPI ignores all incoming SCK
clocks, even if it was already in the middle of a transmission. A new transmission will be
performed as soon as SS pin returns low.
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4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 51. Mode Fault Conditions in Slave Mode
0
SCK cycle #
SCK
(from master)
MOSI
(from master)
0
OverRun Condition
2
3
4
MSB
B6
B5
B4
1
z
0
1
z
0
MISO
(from slave)
1
z
0
SS
(slave)
1
z
0
MSB
MSB
MODF detected
Note:
1
B6
MODF detected
when SS is discarded (SS disabled) it is not possible to detect a MODF error in slave
mode because the SPI is internally selected. Also the SS pin becomes a general purpose I/O.
This error mean that the speed is not adapted for the running application:
An OverRun condition occurs when a byte has been received whereas the previous one
has not been read by the application yet.
The last byte (which generate the overrun error) does not overwrite the unread data so
that it can still be read. Therefore, an overrun error always indicates the loss of data.
Interrupts
Three SPI status flags can generate a CPU interrupt requests:
Table 47. SPI Interrupts
Flag
Request
SPIF (SPI data transfer)
SPI Transmitter Interrupt Request
MODF (Mode Fault)
SPI mode-fault Interrupt Request
SPTE (Transmit register empty)
SPI transmit register empty Interrupt Request
Serial Peripheral data transfer flag, SPIF: This bit is set by hardware when a transfer
has been completed. SPIF bit generates transmitter CPU interrupt request only when
SPTEIE is disabled.
Mode Fault flag, MODF: This bit is set to indicate that the level on the SS is inconsistent
with the mode of the SPI (in both master and slave modes).
Serial Peripheral Transmit Register empty flag, SPTE: This bit is set when the transmit
buffer is empty (other data can be loaded is SPDAT). SPTE bit generates transmitter
CPU interrupt request only when SPTEIE is enabled.
Note: While using SPTE interruption for “burst mode” transfers (SPTEIE=’1’), the
user software application should take care to clear SPTEIE, during the last but one
data reception (to be able to generate an interrupt on SPIF flag at the end of the last
data reception).
90
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Figure 52. SPI Interrupt Requests Generation
SPIF
SPTEIE
SPI
CPU Interrupt Request
SPTE
MODFIE
MODF
Registers
Three registers in the SPI module provide control, status and data storage functions.
These registers are describe in the following paragraphs.
Serial Peripheral Control
Register (SPCON)
•
The Serial Peripheral Control Register does the following:
•
Selects one of the Master clock rates
•
Configure the SPI Module as Master or Slave
•
Selects serial clock polarity and phase
•
Enables the SPI Module
•
Frees the SS pin for a general-purpose
Table 48 describes this register and explains the use of each bit
Table 48. SPCON Register
SPCON - Serial Peripheral Control Register (0D4H)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPR2
SPEN
SSDIS
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
Bit Number
Bit Mnemonic
7
SPR2
6
SPEN
Description
Serial Peripheral Rate 2
Bit with SPR1 and SPR0 define the clock rate (See bits SPR1 and
SPR0 for detail).
Serial Peripheral Enable
Cleared to disable the SPI interface (internal reset of the SPI).
Set to enable the SPI interface.
SS Disable
Cleared to enable SS in both Master and Slave modes.
5
SSDIS
4
MSTR
Set to disable SS in both Master and Slave modes. In Slave mode,
this bit has no effect if CPHA =’0’. When SSDIS is set, no MODF
interrupt request is generated.
Serial Peripheral Master
Cleared to configure the SPI as a Slave.
Set to configure the SPI as a Master.
91
4383B–8051–01/05
Bit Number
Bit Mnemonic
3
CPOL
Description
Clock Polarity
Cleared to have the SCK set to ’0’ in idle state.
Set to have the SCK set to ’1’ in idle state.
Clock Phase
2
Cleared to have the data sampled when the SCK leaves the idle
state (see CPOL).
CPHA
Set to have the data sampled when the SCK returns to idle state (see
CPOL).
1
SPR1
0
SPR0
SPR2
SPR1
SPR0 Serial Peripheral Rate
0
0
0
Invalid
0
0
1
FCLK PERIPH /4
0
1
0
FCLK PERIPH /8
0
1
1
FCLK PERIPH /16
1
0
0
FCLK PERIPH /32
1
0
1
FCLK PERIPH /64
1
1
0
FCLK PERIPH /128
1
1
1
Invalid
Reset Value = 0001 0100b
Not bit addressable
Serial Peripheral Status Register
and Control (SPSCR)
The Serial Peripheral Status Register contains flags to signal the following conditions:
•
Data transfer complete
•
Write collision
•
Inconsistent logic level on SS pin (mode fault error)
Table 49. SPSCR Register
SPSCR - Serial Peripheral Status and Control register (0D5H)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIF
-
OVR
MODF
SPTE
UARTM
SPTEIE
MODFIE
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Serial Peripheral Data Transfer Flag
7
SPIF
Cleared by hardware to indicate data transfer is in progress or has been
approved by a clearing sequence.
Set by hardware to indicate that the data transfer has been completed.
This bit is cleared when reading or writing SPDATA after reading SPSCR.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Overrun Error Flag
5
OVR
- Set by hardware when a byte is received whereas SPIF is set (the previous
received data is not overwritten).
- Cleared by hardware when reading SPSCR
92
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Mode Fault
- Set by hardware to indicate that the SS pin is in inappropriate logic level (in both
master and slave modes).
- Cleared by hardware when reading SPSCR
4
MODF
When MODF error occurred:
- In slave mode: SPI interface ignores all transmitted data while SS remains high.
A new transmission is perform as soon as SS returns low.
- In master mode: SPI interface is disabled (SPEN=0, see description for SPEN
bit in SPCON register).
Serial Peripheral Transmit register Empty
3
SPTE
- Set by hardware when transmit register is empty (if needed, SPDAT can be
loaded with another data).
- Cleared by hardware when transmit register is full (no more data should be
loaded in SPDAT).
Serial Peripheral UART mode
2
UARTM
Set and cleared by software:
- Clear: Normal mode, data are transmitted MSB first (default)
- Set: UART mode, data are transmitted LSB first.
Interrupt Enable for SPTE
Set and cleared by software:
1
SPTEIE
- Set to enable SPTE interrupt generation (when SPTE goes high, an interrupt is
generated).
- Clear to disable SPTE interrupt generation
Caution: When SPTEIE is set no interrupt generation occurred when SPIF flag
goes high. To enable SPIF interrupt again, SPTEIE should be cleared.
Interrupt Enable for MODF
0
MODFIE
Set and cleared by software:
- Set to enable MODF interrupt generation
- Clear to disable MODF interrupt generation
Reset Value = 00X0 XXXXb
Not Bit addressable
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4383B–8051–01/05
Programmable
Counter Array (PCA)
The PCA provides more timing capabilities with less CPU intervention than the standard
timer/counters. Its advantages include reduced software overhead and improved accuracy. The PCA consists of a dedicated timer/counter which serves as the time base for
an array of five compare/capture modules. Its clock input can be programmed to count
any of the following signals:
•
PCA clock frequency/6 (see “clock” section)
•
PCA clock frequency/2
•
Timer 0 overflow
•
External input on ECI (P1.2)
Each compare/capture modules can be programmed in any one of the following modes:
•
rising and/or falling edge capture,
•
software timer,
•
high-speed output,
•
pulse width modulator.
Module 4 can also be programmed as a WatchDog timer. see the "PCA WatchDog
Timer" section.
When the compare/capture modules are programmed in capture mode, software timer,
or high speed output mode, an interrupt can be generated when the module executes its
function. All five modules plus the PCA timer overflow share one interrupt vector.
The PCA timer/counter and compare/capture modules share Port 1 for external I/Os.
These pins are listed below. If the port is not used for the PCA, it can still be used for
standard I/O.
PCA Timer
94
PCA Component
External I/O Pin
16-bit Counter
P1.2/ECI
16-bit Module 0
P1.3/CEX0
16-bit Module 1
P1.4/CEX1
16-bit Module 2
P1.5/CEX2
16-bit Module 3
P1.6/CEX3
16-bit Module 4
P1.7/CEX4
The PCA timer is a common time base for all five modules (see Figure 53). The timer
count source is determined from the CPS1 and CPS0 bits in the CMOD SFR (see Table
8) and can be programmed to run at:
•
1/6 the PCA clock frequency.
•
1/2 the PCA clock frequency.
•
the Timer 0 overflow.
•
the input on the ECI pin (P1.2).
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Figure 53. PCA Timer/Counter
To PCA
modules
FPca/6
FPca/2
CH
T0 OVF
overflow
CL
It
16 bit up counter
P1.2
CIDL
WDTE
CF
CR
CPS1 CPS0
ECF
CMOD
0xD9
Idle
CCF4 CCF3 CCF2 CCF1 CCF0
CCON
0xD8
The CMOD register includes three additional bits associated with the PCA.
•
The CIDL bit which allows the PCA to stop during idle mode.
•
The WDTE bit which enables or disables the WatchDog function on module 4.
•
The ECF bit which when set causes an interrupt and the PCA overflow flag CF in
CCON register to be set when the PCA timer overflows.
The CCON register contains the run control bit for the PCA and the flags for the PCA
timer and each module.
PCA Modules
•
The CR bit must be set to run the PCA. The PCA is shut off by clearing this bit.
•
The CF bit is set when the PCA counter overflows and an interrupt will be generated
if the ECF bit in CMOD register is set. The CF bit can only be cleared by software.
•
The CCF0:4 bits are the flags for the modules (CCF0 for module0...) and are set by
hardware when either a match or a capture occurs. These flags also can be cleared
by software.
Each one of the five compare/capture modules has six possible functions. It can
perform:
•
16-bit Capture, positive-edge triggered
•
16-bit Capture, negative-edge triggered
•
16-bit Capture, both positive and negative-edge triggered
•
16-bit Software Timer
•
16-bit High Speed Output
•
8-bit Pulse Width Modulator.
In addition module 4 can be used as a WatchDog Timer.
95
4383B–8051–01/05
Each module in the PCA has a special function register associated with it (CCAPM0 for
module 0 ...). The CCAPM0:4 registers contain the bits that control the mode that each
module will operate in.
•
The ECCF bit enables the CCF flag in the CCON register to generate an interrupt
when a match or compare occurs in the associated module.
•
The PWM bit enables the pulse width modulation mode.
•
The TOG bit when set causes the CEX output associated with the module to toggle
when there is a match between the PCA counter and the module’s capture/compare
register.
•
The match bit MAT when set will cause the CCFn bit in the CCON register to be set
when there is a match between the PCA counter and the module’s capture/compare
register.
•
The two bits CAPN and CAPP in CCAPMn register determine the edge that a
capture input will be active on. The CAPN bit enables the negative edge, and the
CAPP bit enables the positive edge. If both bits are set both edges will be enabled.
•
The bit ECOM in CCAPM register when set enables the comparator function.
PCA Interrupt
Figure 54. PCA Interrupt System
CF
CR
CCF4 CCF3 CCF2 CCF1 CCF0
CCON
PCA Timer/Counter
Module 0
Module 1
To Interrupt
Module 2
Module 3
Module 4
ECF
CMOD.0
PCA Capture Mode
96
ECCFn
EC
EA
CCAPMn.0
IEN0.6
IEN0.7
To use one of the PCA modules in capture mode either one or both of the CCAPM bits
CAPN and CAPP for that module must be set. The external CEX input for the module
(on port 1) is sampled for a transition. When a valid transition occurs the PCA hardware
loads the value of the PCA counter registers (CH and CL) into the module’s capture registers (CCAPnL and CCAPnH). If the CCFn bit for the module in the CCON SFR and the
ECCFn bit in the CCAPMn SFR are set then an interrupt will be generated.
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Figure 55. PCA Capture Mode
PCA Counter
CH
CL
(8bits) (8bits)
CEXn
n = 0, 4
CCAPnH CCAPnL
PCA
Interrupt
Request
CCFn
CCON
-
0CAPPn CAPNn
ECCFn
0
7
16-bit Software Timer
Mode
000
CCAPMn Register (n = 0, 4)
The PCA modules can be used as software timers by setting both the ECOM and MAT
bits in the modules CCAPMn register. The PCA timer will be compared to the module’s
capture registers and when a match occurs an interrupt will occur if the CCFn (CCON
SFR) and the ECCFn (CCAPMn SFR) bits for the module are both set.
Figure 56. PCA 16-bit Software Timer and High Speed Output Mode
PCA Counter
CH
CL
(8 bits) (8 bits)
Compare/Capture Module
CCAPnL
CCAPnH
(8 bits)
(8 bits)
Match
Toggle
16-Bit Comparator
CEXn
Enable
CCFn
CCON reg
7
“0”
Reset
Write to
CCAPnL
“1”
PCA
Interrupt
Request
ECOMn0 0 MATn TOGn0 ECCFn
0
CCAPMn Register
(n = 0, 4)
For software Timer mode, set ECOMn and MATn.
For high speed output mode, set ECOMn, MATn and TOGn.
Write to CCAPnH
97
4383B–8051–01/05
High Speed Output Mode In this mode the CEX output (on port 1) associated with the PCA module will toggle
each time a match occurs between the PCA counter and the module’s capture registers.
To activate this mode the TOG, MAT, and ECOM bits in the module’s CCAPMn SFR
must be set.
Figure 57. PCA High Speed Output Mode
CF
Write to
CCAPnH
CCF4 CCF3 CCF2 CCF1 CCF0
CCON
0xD8
Reset
PCA IT
Write to
CCAPnL
“0”
CR
CCAPnH
“1”
CCAPnL
Enable
16-bit comparator
CH
Match
CL
CEXn
PCA counter/timer
ECOMn CAPPn CAPNn MATn TOGn PWMn ECCFn
Pulse Width Modulator
Mode
98
CCAPMn, n = 0 to 4
0xDA to 0xDE
All the PCA modules can be used as PWM outputs. The output frequency depends on
the source for the PCA timer. All the modules will have the same output frequency
because they all share the PCA timer. The duty cycle of each module is independently
variable using the module’s capture register CCAPLn. When the value of the PCA CL
SFR is less than the value in the module’s CCAPLn SFR the output will be low, when it
is equal to or greater than it, the output will be high. When CL overflows from FF to 00,
CCAPLn is reloaded with the value in CCAPHn. the allows the PWM to be updated without glitches. The PWM and ECOM bits in the module’s CCAPMn register must be set to
enable the PWM mode.
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Figure 58. PCA PWM Mode
CCAPnH
CL rolls over from FFh TO 00h loads
CCAPnH contents into CCAPnL
CCAPnL
“0”
8-Bit
Comparator
CL (8 bits)
CL < CCAPnL
CEX
CL > = CCAPnL
“1”
PCA WatchDog Timer
ECOMn
PWMn
CCAPMn.6
CCAPMn.1
An on-board WatchDog timer is available with the PCA to improve system reliability
without increasing chip count. WatchDog timers are useful for systems that are sensitive
to noise, power glitches, or electrostatic discharge. Module 4 is the only PCA module
that can be programmed as a WatchDog. However, this module can still be used for
other modes if the WatchDog is not needed. The user pre-loads a 16-bit value in the
compare registers. Just like the other compare modes, this 16-bit value is compared to
the PCA timer value. If a match is allowed to occur, an internal reset will be generated.
This will not cause the RST pin to be driven high.
To hold off the reset, the user has three options:
•
periodically change the compare value so it will never match the PCA timer,
•
periodically change the PCA timer value so it will never match the compare values,
or
•
disable the WatchDog by clearing the WDTE bit before a match occurs and then reenable it.
The first two options are more reliable because the WatchDog timer is never disabled as
in the third option. If the program counter ever goes astray, a match will eventually occur
and cause an internal reset. If other PCA modules are being used the second option not
recommended either. Remember, the PCA timer is the time base for all modules;
changing the time base for other modules would not be a good idea. Thus, in most applications the first solution is the best option.
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4383B–8051–01/05
PCA Registers
Table 50. CMOD Register
CMOD (S:D9h)
PCA Counter Mode Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CIDL
WDTE
-
-
-
CPS1
CPS0
ECF
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
PCA Counter Idle Control bit
Clear to let the PCA run during Idle mode.
Set to stop the PCA when Idle mode is invoked.
7
CIDL
6
WDTE
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2-1
CPS1:0
0
ECF
WatchDog Timer Enable
Clear to disable WatchDog Timer function on PCA Module 4,
Set to enable it.
EWC Count Pulse Select bits
CPS1 CPS0 Clock source
0
0
Internal Clock, FPca/6
0
1
Internal Clock, FPca/2
1
0
Timer 0 overflow
1
1
External clock at ECI/P1.2 pin (Max. Rate = FPca/4)
Enable PCA Counter Overflow Interrupt bit
Clear to disable CF bit in CCON register to generate an interrupt.
Set to enable CF bit in CCON register to generate an interrupt.
Reset Value = 00XX X000b
100
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Table 51. CCON Register
CCON (S:D8h)
PCA Counter Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CF
CR
-
CCF4
CCF3
CCF2
CCF1
CCF0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
CF
PCA Timer/Counter Overflow flag
Set by hardware when the PCA Timer/Counter rolls over. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECF bit in CMOD register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
6
CR
PCA Timer/Counter Run Control bit
Clear to turn the PCA Timer/Counter off.
Set to turn the PCA Timer/Counter on.
5
-
4
CCF4
PCA Module 4 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 4 bit in CCAPM 4 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
3
CCF3
PCA Module 3 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 3 bit in CCAPM 3 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
2
CCF2
PCA Module 2 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 2 bit in CCAPM 2 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
1
CCF1
PCA Module 1 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 1 bit in CCAPM 1 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
0
CCF0
PCA Module 0 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 0 bit in CCAPM 0 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = 00X0 0000b
101
4383B–8051–01/05
Table 52. CCAPnH Registers
CCAP0H (S:FAh)
CCAP1H (S:FBh)
CCAP2H (S:FCh)
CCAP3H (S:FDh)
CCAP4H (S:FEh)
PCA High Byte Compare/Capture Module n Register (n=0..4)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCAPnH 7
CCAPnH 6
CCAPnH 5
CCAPnH 4
CCAPnH 3
CCAPnH 2
CCAPnH 1
CCAPnH 0
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CCAPnH
7:0
High byte of EWC-PCA comparison or capture values
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 53. CCAPnL Registers
CCAP0L (S:EAh)
CCAP1L (S:EBh)
CCAP2L (S:ECh)
CCAP3L (S:EDh)
CCAP4L (S:EEh)
PCA Low Byte Compare/Capture Module n Register (n=0..4)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCAPnL 7
CCAPnL 6
CCAPnL 5
CCAPnL 4
CCAPnL 3
CCAPnL 2
CCAPnL 1
CCAPnL 0
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CCAPnL
7:0
Low byte of EWC-PCA comparison or capture values
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
102
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Table 54. CCAPMn Registers
CCAPM0 (S:DAh)
CCAPM1 (S:DBh)
CCAPM2 (S:DCh)
CCAPM3 (S:DDh)
CCAPM4 (S:DEh)
PCA Compare/Capture Module n Mode registers (n=0..4)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
ECOMn
CAPPn
CAPNn
MATn
TOGn
PWMn
ECCFn
Bit
Number
7
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
Reserved
The Value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
ECOMn
Enable Compare Mode Module x bit
Clear to disable the Compare function.
Set to enable the Compare function.
The Compare function is used to implement the software Timer, the high-speed
output, the Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) and the WatchDog Timer (WDT).
5
CAPPn
Capture Mode (Positive) Module x bit
Clear to disable the Capture function triggered by a positive edge on CEXx pin.
Set to enable the Capture function triggered by a positive edge on CEXx pin
4
CAPNn
Capture Mode (Negative) Module x bit
Clear to disable the Capture function triggered by a negative edge on CEXx pin.
Set to enable the Capture function triggered by a negative edge on CEXx pin.
3
MATn
Match Module x bit
Set when a match of the PCA Counter with the Compare/Capture register sets
CCFx bit in CCON register, flagging an interrupt.
2
TOGn
Toggle Module x bit
The toggle mode is configured by setting ECOMx, MATx and TOGx bits.
Set when a match of the PCA Counter with the Compare/Capture register
toggles the CEXx pin.
1
PWMn
Pulse Width Modulation Module x Mode bit
Set to configure the module x as an 8-bit Pulse Width Modulator with output
waveform on CEXx pin.
0
ECCFn
Enable CCFx Interrupt bit
Clear to disable CCFx bit in CCON register to generate an interrupt request.
Set to enable CCFx bit in CCON register to generate an interrupt request.
Reset Value = X000 0000b
103
4383B–8051–01/05
Table 55. CH Register
CH (S:F9h)
PCA Counter Register High Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CH 7
CH 6
CH 5
CH 4
CH 3
CH 2
CH 1
CH 0
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CH 7:0
High byte of Timer/Counter
Reset Value = 0000 00000b
Table 56. CL Register
CL (S:E9h)
PCA counter Register Low Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CL 7
CL 6
CL 5
CL 4
CL 3
CL 2
CL 1
CL 0
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CL0 7:0
Low byte of Timer/Counter
Reset Value = 0000 00000b
104
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Analog-to-Digital
Converter (ADC)
This section describes the on-chip 10 bit analog-to-digital converter of the
AT89C51AC3. Eight ADC channels are available for sampling of the external sources
AN0 to AN7. An analog multiplexer allows the single ADC converter to select one from
the 8 ADC channels as ADC input voltage (ADCIN). ADCIN is converted by the 10-bit
cascaded potentiometric ADC.
Two kinds of conversion are available:
- Standard conversion (8 bits).
- Precision conversion (10 bits).
For the precision conversion, set bit PSIDLE in ADCON register and start conversion.
The device is in a pseudo-idle mode, the CPU does not run but the peripherals are
always running. This mode allows digital noise to be as low as possible, to ensure high
precision conversion.
For this mode it is necessary to work with end of conversion interrupt, which is the only
way to wake the device up.
If another interrupt occurs during the precision conversion, it will be treated only after
this conversion is ended.
Features
ADC Port1 I/O Functions
•
8 channels with multiplexed inputs
•
10-bit cascaded potentiometric ADC
•
Conversion time 16 micro-seconds (typ.)
•
Zero Error (offset) ± 2 LSB max
•
Positive External Reference Voltage Range (VREF) 2.4 to 3.0Volt (typ.)
•
ADCIN Range 0 to 3Volt
•
Integral non-linearity typical 1 LSB, max. 2 LSB
•
Differential non-linearity typical 0.5 LSB, max. 1 LSB
•
Conversion Complete Flag or Conversion Complete Interrupt
•
Selectable ADC Clock
Port 1 pins are general I/O that are shared with the ADC channels. The channel select
bit in ADCF register define which ADC channel/port1 pin will be used as ADCIN. The
remaining ADC channels/port1 pins can be used as general-purpose I/O or as the alternate function that is available.
A conversion launched on a channel which are not selected on ADCF register will not
have any effect.
105
4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 59. ADC Description
ADCON.5
ADCON.3
ADEN
ADSST
ADC
Interrupt
Request
ADCON.4
ADC
CLOCK
ADEOC
CONTROL
EADC
AN0/P1.0
000
AN1/P1.1
001
AN2/P1.2
010
AN3/P1.3
011
AN4/P1.4
100
AN5/P1.5
101
AN6/P1.6
110
AN7/P1.7
111
IEN1.1
ADCIN
SAR
AVSS
8
ADDH
2
ADDL
+
-
Sample and Hold
10
R/2R DAC
SCH2
SCH1
SCH0
ADCON.2
ADCON.1
ADCON.0
VAREF VAGND
Figure 60 shows the timing diagram of a complete conversion. For simplicity, the figure
depicts the waveforms in idealized form and do not provide precise timing information.
For ADC characteristics and timing parameters refer to the Section “AC Characteristics”
of the AT89C51AC3 datasheet.
Figure 60. Timing Diagram
CLK
ADEN
TSETUP
ADSST
TCONV
ADEOC
Note:
106
Tsetup min = 4 us
Tconv=11 clock ADC = 1sample and hold + 10 bit conversion
The user must ensure that 4 us minimum time between setting ADEN and the start of the first conversion.
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
ADC Converter
Operation
A start of single A/D conversion is triggered by setting bit ADSST (ADCON.3).
After completion of the A/D conversion, the ADSST bit is cleared by hardware.
The end-of-conversion flag ADEOC (ADCON.4) is set when the value of conversion is
available in ADDH and ADDL, it must be cleared by software. If the bit EADC (IEN1.1) is
set, an interrupt occur when flag ADEOC is set (see Figure 62). Clear this flag for rearming the interrupt.
The bits SCH0 to SCH2 in ADCON register are used for the analog input channel
selection.
Table 57. Selected Analog input
Voltage Conversion
SCH2
SCH1
SCH0
Selected Analog input
0
0
0
AN0
0
0
1
AN1
0
1
0
AN2
0
1
1
AN3
1
0
0
AN4
1
0
1
AN5
1
1
0
AN6
1
1
1
AN7
When the ADCIN is equals to VAREF the ADC converts the signal to 3FFh (full scale). If
the input voltage equals VAGND, the ADC converts it to 000h. Input voltage between
VAREF and VAGND are a straight-line linear conversion. All other voltages will result in
3FFh if greater than VAREF and 000h if less than VAGND.
Note that ADCIN should not exceed VAREF absolute maximum range! (See section
“AC-DC”)
Clock Selection
The ADC clock is the same as CPU.
The maximum clock frequency is defined in the DC parmeters for A/D converter. A prescaler is featured (ADCCLK) to generate the ADC clock from the oscillator frequency.
fADC = fcpu clock/ (4 (or 2 in X2 mode)* PRS )
if PRS > 0 then fADC = Fperiph / 2 x PRS
if PRS = 0 then fADC = Fperiph / 64
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4383B–8051–01/05
Figure 61. A/D Converter clock
CPU
CLOCK
÷2
Prescaler ADCLK
ADC Clock
A/D
CPU Core Clock Symbol
Converter
ADC Standby Mode
When the ADC is not used, it is possible to set it in standby mode by clearing bit ADEN
in ADCON register. In this mode its power dissipation is about 1 µW.
IT ADC Management
An interrupt end-of-conversion will occurs when the bit ADEOC is activated and the bit
EADC is set. For re-arming the interrupt the bit ADEOC must be cleared by software.
Figure 62. ADC Interrupt Structure
ADCI
ADEOC
ADCON.2
EADC
IEN1.1
Routines examples
1. Configure P1.2 and P1.3 in ADC channels
// configure channel P1.2 and P1.3 for ADC
ADCF = 0Ch
// Enable the ADC
ADCON = 20h
2. Start a standard conversion
// The variable "channel" contains the channel to convert
// The variable "value_converted" is an unsigned int
// Clear the field SCH[2:0]
ADCON and = F8h
// Select channel
ADCON | = channel
// Start conversion in standard mode
ADCON | = 08h
// Wait flag End of conversion
while((ADCON and 01h)! = 01h)
// Clear the End of conversion flag
ADCON and = EFh
// read the value
value_converted = (ADDH << 2)+(ADDL)
3. Start a precision conversion (need interrupt ADC)
// The variable "channel" contains the channel to convert
// Enable ADC
108
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4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
EADC = 1
// clear the field SCH[2:0]
ADCON and = F8h
// Select the channel
ADCON | = channel
// Start conversion in precision mode
ADCON | = 48h
Note:
to enable the ADC interrupt:
EA = 1
109
4383B–8051–01/05
Registers
Table 58. ADCF Register
ADCF (S:F6h)
ADC Configuration
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CH 7
CH 6
CH 5
CH 4
CH 3
CH 2
CH 1
CH 0
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CH 0:7
Channel Configuration
Set to use P1.x as ADC input.
Clear to use P1.x as standart I/O port.
Reset Value =0000 0000b
Table 59. ADCON Register
ADCON (S:F3h)
ADC Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
PSIDLE
ADEN
ADEOC
ADSST
SCH2
SCH1
SCH0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
6
PSIDLE
5
ADEN
Pseudo Idle Mode (Best Precision)
Set to put in idle mode during conversion
Clear to convert without idle mode.
Enable/Standby Mode
Set to enable ADC
Clear for Standby mode (power dissipation 1 uW).
4
ADEOC
End Of Conversion
Set by hardware when ADC result is ready to be read. This flag can generate an
interrupt.
Must be cleared by software.
3
ADSST
Start and Status
Set to start an A/D conversion.
Cleared by hardware after completion of the conversion
2-0
SCH2:0
Selection of Channel to Convert
see Table 57
Reset Value =X000 0000b
110
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Table 60. ADCLK Register
ADCLK (S:F2h)
ADC Clock Prescaler
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
PRS 4
PRS 3
PRS 2
PRS 1
PRS 0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-5
-
4-0
PRS4:0
Reserved
The value read from these bits are indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
Clock Prescaler
See Note (1)
Reset Value = XXX0 0000b
Note:
1. In X1 mode:
For PRS > 0 FADC = FXTAL
4xPRS
For PRS = 0 FADC = FXTAL
128
In X2 mode:
For PRS > 0 FADC = FXTAL
2xPRS
For PRS = 0 FADC = FXTAL
64
Table 61. ADDH Register
ADDH (S:F5h Read Only)
ADC Data High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADAT 9
ADAT 8
ADAT 7
ADAT 6
ADAT 5
ADAT 4
ADAT 3
ADAT 2
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
ADAT9:2
ADC result
bits 9-2
Reset Value = 00h
Table 62. ADDL Register
ADDL (S:F4h Read Only)
ADC Data Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
ADAT 1
ADAT 0
111
4383B–8051–01/05
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-2
-
1-0
ADAT1:0
Reserved
The value read from these bits are indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
ADC result
bits 1-0
Reset Value = 00h
112
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AT89C51AC3
Interrupt System
Introduction
The Micro-controller has a total of 9 interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and
INT1), three timer interrupts (timers 0, 1 and 2), a serial port interrupt, a PCA, a timer
overrun interrupt and an ADC. These interrupts are shown below.
Figure 63. Interrupt Control System
INT0#
00
01
10
11
External
Interrupt 0
Highest
Priority
Interrupts
EX0
00
01
10
11
IEN0.0
Timer 0
ET0
INT1#
External
Interrupt 1
00
01
10
11
IEN0.1
EX1
00
01
10
11
IEN0.2
Timer 1
ET1
CEX0:5
PCA
00
01
10
11
IEN0.3
EC
TxD
UART
00
01
10
11
IEN0.6
RxD
ES
IEN0.4
00
01
10
11
Timer 2
ET2
IEN0.5
AIN1:0
00
01
10
11
A to D
Converter
EADC
IEN1.1
00
01
10
11
SPI
Controller
ESPI
EA
IEN1.3
IEN0.7
Interrupt Enable
IPH/L
Priority Enable
Lowest Priority Interrupts
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Each of the interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit in the Interrupt Enable register. This register also contains a global disable bit
which must be cleared to disable all the interrupts at the same time.
Each interrupt source can also be individually programmed to one of four priority levels
by setting or clearing a bit in the Interrupt Priority registers. The Table below shows the
bit values and priority levels associated with each combination.
Table 63. Priority Level Bit Values
IPH.x
IPL.x
Interrupt Level Priority
0
0
0 (Lowest)
0
1
1
1
0
2
1
1
3 (Highest)
A low-priority interrupt can be interrupted by a high priority interrupt but not by another
low-priority interrupt. A high-priority interrupt cannot be interrupted by any other interrupt
source.
If two interrupt requests of different priority levels are received simultaneously, the
request of the higher priority level is serviced. If interrupt requests of the same priority
level are received simultaneously, an internal polling sequence determines which
request is serviced. Thus within each priority level there is a second priority structure
determined by the polling sequence, see Table 64.
Table 64. Interrupt priority Within level
114
Interrupt Name
Interrupt Address Vector
Priority Number
external interrupt (INT0)
0003h
1
Timer0 (TF0)
000Bh
2
external interrupt (INT1)
0013h
3
Timer1 (TF1)
001Bh
4
PCA (CF or CCFn)
0033h
5
UART (RI or TI)
0023h
6
Timer2 (TF2)
002Bh
7
ADC (ADCI)
0043h
8
SPI interrupt
0053h
9
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AT89C51AC3
Registers
Table 65. IEN0 Register
IEN0 (S:A8h)
Interrupt Enable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EA
EC
ET2
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
EA
Enable All Interrupt bit
Clear to disable all interrupts.
Set to enable all interrupts.
If EA=1, each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or
clearing its interrupt enable bit.
6
EC
PCA Interrupt Enable
Clear to disable the PCA interrupt.
Set to enable the PCA interrupt.
5
ET2
Timer 2 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
Clear to disable Timer 2 overflow interrupt.
Set to enable Timer 2 overflow interrupt.
4
ES
Serial Port Enable bit
Clear to disable serial port interrupt.
Set to enable serial port interrupt.
3
ET1
Timer 1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
Clear to disable timer 1 overflow interrupt.
Set to enable timer 1 overflow interrupt.
2
EX1
External Interrupt 1 Enable bit
Clear to disable external interrupt 1.
Set to enable external interrupt 1.
1
ET0
Timer 0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
Clear to disable timer 0 overflow interrupt.
Set to enable timer 0 overflow interrupt.
0
EX0
External Interrupt 0 Enable bit
Clear to disable external interrupt 0.
Set to enable external interrupt 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
bit addressable
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Table 66. IEN1 Register
IEN1 (S:E8h)
Interrupt Enable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
ESPI
-
EADC
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
ESPI
2
-
1
EADC
0
-
SPI Interrupt Enable bit
Clear to disable the SPI interrupt.
Set to enable the SPI interrupt.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
ADC Interrupt Enable bit
Clear to disable the ADC interrupt.
Set to enable the ADC interrupt.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = xxxx 0x0xb
bit addressable
116
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AT89C51AC3
Table 67. IPL0 Register
IPL0 (S:B8h)
Interrupt Enable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
PPC
PT2
PS
PT1
PX1
PT0
PX0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
7
-
6
PPC
PCA Interrupt Priority bit
Refer to PPCH for priority level
5
PT2
Timer 2 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit
Refer to PT2H for priority level.
4
PS
Serial Port Priority bit
Refer to PSH for priority level.
3
PT1
Timer 1 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit
Refer to PT1H for priority level.
2
PX1
External Interrupt 1 Priority bit
Refer to PX1H for priority level.
1
PT0
Timer 0 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit
Refer to PT0H for priority level.
0
PX0
External Interrupt 0 Priority bit
Refer to PX0H for priority level.
Reset Value = X000 0000b
bit addressable
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Table 68. IPL1 Register
IPL1 (S:F8h)
Interrupt Priority Low Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
SPIL
-
PADCL
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
SPIL
2
-
1
PADCL
0
-
SPI Interrupt Priority Level Less Significant Bit
Refer to SPIH for priority level.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
ADC Interrupt Priority Level Less Significant Bit
Refer to PSPIH for priority level.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = XXXX 0X0Xb
bit addressable
118
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AT89C51AC3
Table 69. IPL0 Register
IPH0 (B7h)
Interrupt High Priority Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
PPCH
PT2H
PSH
PT1H
PX1H
PT0H
PX0H
Bit
Number
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
PPCH
PCA Interrupt Priority Level Most Significant bit
PPCH PPC
Priority level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest priority
PT2H
Timer 2 Overflow Interrupt High Priority bit
PT2H PT2
Priority Level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PSH
Serial Port High Priority bit
PSH PS
Priority Level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PT1H
Timer 1 Overflow Interrupt High Priority bit
PT1H PT1
Priority Level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PX1H
External Interrupt 1 High Priority bit
PX1H PX1
Priority Level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PT0H
Timer 0 Overflow Interrupt High Priority bit
PT0H PT0
Priority Level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PX0H
External Interrupt 0 high priority bit
PX0H PX0
Priority Level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
Reset Value = X000 0000b
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Table 70. IPH1 Register
IPH1 (S:F7h)
Interrupt High Priority Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
SPIH
-
PADCH
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
SPIH
2
-
1
PADCH
0
-
SPI Interrupt Priority Level Most Significant bit
SPIH SPIL Priority level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
ADC Interrupt Priority Level Most Significant bit
PADCH PADCL Priority level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = XXXX 0X0Xb
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AT89C51AC3
Electrical Characteristics
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Note:
Ambiant Temperature Under Bias:
I = industrial ....................................................... -40°C to 85°C
Storage Temperature .................................... -65°C to + 150°C
Voltage on VCC from VSS ......................................-0.5V to + 6V
Voltage on Any Pin from VSS..................... -0.5V to VCC + 0.2V
Stresses at or above those listed under “Absolute Maximum
Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This
is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device
at these or any other conditions above those indicated in
the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions may affect
device reliability.
The power dissipation is based on the maximum allowable
die temperature and the thermal resistance of the package.
Power Dissipation .............................................................. 1 W
DC Parameters for Standard Voltage
TA = -40°C to +85°C; VSS = 0V;
VCC =2.7V to 5.5V and F = 0 to 40 MHz (both internal and external code execution)
VCC =4.5V to 5.5V and F = 0 to 60 MHz (internal code execution only)
Table 71. DC Parameters in Standard Voltage
Symbol
Parameter
Min
VIL
Input Low Voltage
VIH
Input High Voltage except XTAL1, RST
VIH1
Input High Voltage, XTAL1, RST
VOL
VOL1
VOH
VOH1
RRST
Typ(5)
Max
Unit
-0.5
0.2Vcc - 0.1
V
0.2 VCC + 0.9
VCC + 0.5
V
0.7 VCC
VCC + 0.5
V
0.3
V
IOL = 100 μA(4)
0.45
V
IOL = 1.6 mA(4)
1.0
V
IOL = 3.5 mA(4)
0.3
V
IOL = 200 μA(4)
0.45
V
IOL = 3.2 mA(4)
1.0
V
IOL = 7.0 mA(4)
(6)
Output Low Voltage, ports 1, 2, 3 and 4
Output Low Voltage, port 0, ALE, PSEN
(6)
Output High Voltage, ports 1, 2, 3, and 4
Output High Voltage, port 0, ALE, PSEN
RST Pulldown Resistor
VCC - 0.3
V
VCC - 0.7
V
VCC - 1.5
V
VCC - 0.3
V
VCC - 0.7
V
VCC - 1.5
V
50
100
200
kΩ
Test Conditions
IOH = -10 μA
IOH = -30 μA
IOH = -60 μA
VCC = 3V to 5.5V
IOH = -200 μA
IOH = -3.2 mA
IOH = -7.0 mA
VCC = 5V ± 10%
IIL
Logical 0 Input Current ports 1, 2, 3 and 4
-50
μA
Vin = 0.45V
ILI
Input Leakage Current
±10
μA
0.45V < Vin < VCC
ITL
Logical 1 to 0 Transition Current, ports 1, 2, 3
and 4
-650
μA
Vin = 2.0V
CIO
Capacitance of I/O Buffer
10
pF
Fc = 1 MHz
TA = 25°C
IPD
Power-down Current
150
μA
3V < VCC < 5.5V(3)
75
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4383B–8051–01/05
Table 71. DC Parameters in Standard Voltage (Continued)
Symbol
ICC
Notes:
Parameter
Typ(5)
Min
ICCOP = 0.4 Frequency (MHz) + 8
Power Supply Current
ICCIDLE = 0.2 Frequency (MHz) + 8
Max
Unit
mA
Test Conditions
Vcc = 5.5V(1)(2)
1. Operating ICC is measured with all output pins disconnected; XTAL1 driven with TCLCH, TCHCL = 5 ns (see Figure 67.), VIL =
VSS + 0.5V,
VIH = VCC - 0.5V; XTAL2 N.C.; EA = RST = Port 0 = VCC. ICC would be slightly higher if a crystal oscillator used (see Figure
64.).
2. Idle ICC is measured with all output pins disconnected; XTAL1 driven with TCLCH, TCHCL = 5 ns, VIL = VSS + 0.5V, VIH = VCC 0.5V; XTAL2 N.C; Port 0 = VCC; EA = RST = VSS (see Figure 65.).
3. Power-down ICC is measured with all output pins disconnected; EA = VCC, PORT 0 = VCC; XTAL2 NC.; RST = VSS (see Figure 66.). In addition, the WDT must be inactive and the POF flag must be set.
4. Capacitance loading on Ports 0 and 2 may cause spurious noise pulses to be superimposed on the VOLs of ALE and Ports 1
and 3. The noise is due to external bus capacitance discharging into the Port 0 and Port 2 pins when these pins make 1 to 0
transitions during bus operation. In the worst cases (capacitive loading 100pF), the noise pulse on the ALE line may exceed
0.45V with maxi VOL peak 0.6V. A Schmitt Trigger use is not necessary.
5. Typicals are based on a limited number of samples and are not guaranteed. The values listed are at room temperature.
6. Under steady state (non-transient) conditions, IOL must be externally limited as follows:
Maximum IOL per port pin: 10 mA
Maximum IOL per 8-bit port:
Port 0: 26 mA
Ports 1, 2, 3 and 4: 15 mA
Maximum total IOL for all output pins: 71 mA
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater
than the listed test conditions.
Figure 64. ICC Test Condition, Active Mode
VCC
ICC
VCC
P0
VCC
RST
(NC)
CLOCK
SIGNAL
VCC
EA
XTAL2
XTAL1
VSS
All other pins are disconnected.
122
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Figure 65. ICC Test Condition, Idle Mode
VCC
ICC
VCC
VCC
P0
RST
EA
XTAL2
XTAL1
VSS
(NC)
CLOCK
SIGNAL
All other pins are disconnected.
Figure 66. ICC Test Condition, Power-Down Mode
VCC
ICC
VCC
VCC
P0
RST
(NC)
EA
XTAL2
XTAL1
All other pins are disconnected.
VSS
Figure 67. Clock Signal Waveform for ICC Tests in Active and Idle Modes
VCC-0.5V
0.45V
TCLCH
TCHCL
TCLCH = TCHCL = 5ns.
DC Parameters for A/D
Converter
0.7VCC
0.2VCC-0.1
Table 72. DC Parameters for AD Converter in Precision Conversion
Symbol Parameter
AVin
Analog input voltage
Rref
Resistance between Vref and Vss
Vref
Reference voltage
Cai
Analog input Capacitance
Rai
Analog input Resistor
INL
Integral non linearity
DNL
Differential non linearity
OE
Note:
Offset error
Min
Typ(1)
Vss- 0.2
12
16
2.40
Max
Unit
Vref + 0.2
V
24
kΩ
3.00
V
60
-2
Test Conditions
pF
During sampling
400
Ω
During sampling
1
2
lsb
0.5
1
lsb
2
lsb
1. Typicals are based on a limited number of samples and are not guaranteed.
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4383B–8051–01/05
AC Parameters
Explanation of the AC
Symbols
Each timing symbol has 5 characters. The first character is always a “T” (stands for
time). The other characters, depending on their positions, stand for the name of a signal
or the logical status of that signal. The following is a list of all the characters and what
they stand for.
Example: TAVLL = Time for Address Valid to ALE Low.
TLLPL = Time for ALE Low to PSEN Low.
TA = -40°C to +85°C; VSS = 0V; VCC = 3V to 5.5V; F = 0 to 40 MHz.
(Load Capacitance for port 0, ALE and PSEN = 60 pF; Load Capacitance for all other
outputs = 60 pF.)
Table 73, Table 76 and Table 79 give the description of each AC symbols.
Table 74, Table 78 and Table 80 give for each range the AC parameter.
Table 75, Table 78 and Table 81 give the frequency derating formula of the AC parameter for each speed range description. To calculate each AC symbols: Take the x value
and use this value in the formula.
Example: TLLIV and 20 MHz, Standard clock.
x = 30 ns
T = 50 ns
TCCIV = 4T - x = 170 ns
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External Program Memory
Characteristics
Table 73. Symbol Description
Symbol
T
Parameter
Oscillator clock period
TLHLL
ALE pulse width
TAVLL
Address Valid to ALE
TLLAX
Address Hold After ALE
TLLIV
ALE to Valid Instruction In
TLLPL
ALE to PSEN
TPLPH
PSEN Pulse Width
TPLIV
PSEN to Valid Instruction In
TPXIX
Input Instruction Hold After PSEN
TPXIZ
Input Instruction Float After PSEN
TAVIV
Address to Valid Instruction In
TPLAZ
PSEN Low to Address Float
Table 74. AC Parameters for a Fix Clock (F = 40 MHz)
Symbol
Min
T
25
ns
TLHLL
40
ns
TAVLL
10
ns
TLLAX
10
ns
TLLIV
Max
70
Units
ns
TLLPL
15
ns
TPLPH
55
ns
TPLIV
TPXIX
35
0
ns
ns
TPXIZ
18
ns
TAVIV
85
ns
TPLAZ
10
ns
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4383B–8051–01/05
Table 75. AC Parameters for a Variable Clock
Symbol
Type
Standard
Clock
X2 Clock
X parameter
Units
TLHLL
Min
2T-x
T-x
10
ns
TAVLL
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
15
ns
TLLAX
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
15
ns
TLLIV
Max
4T-x
2T-x
30
ns
TLLPL
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
10
ns
TPLPH
Min
3T-x
1.5 T - x
20
ns
TPLIV
Max
3T-x
1.5 T - x
40
ns
TPXIX
Min
x
x
0
ns
TPXIZ
Max
T-x
0.5 T - x
7
ns
TAVIV
Max
5T-x
2.5 T - x
40
ns
TPLAZ
Max
x
x
10
ns
External Program Memory Read Cycle
12 TCLCL
TLHLL
TLLIV
ALE
TLLPL
TPLPH
PSEN
PORT 0
TLLAX
TAVLL
INSTR IN
TPLIV
TPLAZ
A0-A7
TPXIX
INSTR IN
TPXAV
TPXIZ
A0-A7
INSTR IN
TAVIV
PORT 2
126
ADDRESS
OR SFR-P2
ADDRESS A8-A15
ADDRESS A8-A15
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
External Data Memory
Characteristics
Table 76. Symbol Description
Symbol
Parameter
TRLRH
RD Pulse Width
TWLWH
WR Pulse Width
TRLDV
RD to Valid Data In
TRHDX
Data Hold After RD
TRHDZ
Data Float After RD
TLLDV
ALE to Valid Data In
TAVDV
Address to Valid Data In
TLLWL
ALE to WR or RD
TAVWL
Address to WR or RD
TQVWX
Data Valid to WR Transition
TQVWH
Data set-up to WR High
TWHQX
Data Hold After WR
TRLAZ
RD Low to Address Float
TWHLH
RD or WR High to ALE high
Table 77. AC Parameters for a Variable Clock (F=40MHz)
Symbol
Min
TRLRH
130
ns
TWLWH
130
ns
TRLDV
TRHDX
Max
100
0
Units
ns
ns
TRHDZ
30
ns
TLLDV
160
ns
TAVDV
165
ns
100
ns
TLLWL
50
TAVWL
75
ns
TQVWX
10
ns
TQVWH
160
ns
TWHQX
15
ns
TRLAZ
TWHLH
10
0
ns
40
ns
127
4383B–8051–01/05
Table 78. AC Parameters for a Variable Clock
128
Symbol
Type
Standard
Clock
X2 Clock
X parameter
Units
TRLRH
Min
6T-x
3T-x
20
ns
TWLWH
Min
6T-x
3T-x
20
ns
TRLDV
Max
5T-x
2.5 T - x
25
ns
TRHDX
Min
x
x
0
ns
TRHDZ
Max
2T-x
T-x
20
ns
TLLDV
Max
8T-x
4T -x
40
ns
TAVDV
Max
9T-x
4.5 T - x
60
ns
TLLWL
Min
3T-x
1.5 T - x
25
ns
TLLWL
Max
3T+x
1.5 T + x
25
ns
TAVWL
Min
4T-x
2T-x
25
ns
TQVWX
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
15
ns
TQVWH
Min
7T-x
3.5 T - x
25
ns
TWHQX
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
10
ns
TRLAZ
Max
x
x
0
ns
TWHLH
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
15
ns
TWHLH
Max
T+x
0.5 T + x
15
ns
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
External Data Memory Write Cycle
TWHLH
ALE
PSEN
TLLWL
TWLWH
WR
TQVWX
TLLAX
PORT 0
PORT 2
A0-A7
TWHQX
TQVWH
DATA OUT
TAVWL
ADDRESS
OR SFR-P2
ADDRESS A8-A15 OR SFR P2
External Data Memory Read Cycle
PSEN
TLLWL
RD
TLLAX
PORT 0
PORT 2
TWHLH
TLLDV
ALE
TRLRH
TRHDZ
TAVDV
TRHDX
A0-A7
TAVWL
ADDRESS
OR SFR-P2
DATA IN
TRLAZ
ADDRESS A8-A15 OR SFR P2
Serial Port Timing – Shift Register Mode
Table 79. Symbol Description (F = 40 MHz)
Symbol
Parameter
TXLXL
Serial port clock cycle time
TQVHX
Output data set-up to clock rising edge
TXHQX
Output data hold after clock rising edge
TXHDX
Input data hold after clock rising edge
TXHDV
Clock rising edge to input data valid
129
4383B–8051–01/05
Table 80. AC Parameters for a Fix Clock (F = 40 MHz)
Symbol
Min
Max
TXLXL
300
ns
TQVHX
200
ns
TXHQX
30
ns
TXHDX
0
ns
TXHDV
Units
117
ns
Table 81. AC Parameters for a Variable Clock
Symbol
Type
Standard
Clock
X2 Clock
X parameter
for -M range
TXLXL
Min
12 T
6T
TQVHX
Min
10 T - x
5T-x
50
ns
TXHQX
Min
2T-x
T-x
20
ns
TXHDX
Min
x
x
0
ns
TXHDV
Max
10 T - x
5 T- x
133
ns
Units
ns
Shift Register Timing
Waveforms
0
INSTRUCTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
ALE
TXLXL
CLOCK
TXHQX
TQVXH
0
OUTPUT DATA
WRITE to SBUF
1
2
4
5
6
TXHDX
TXHDV
INPUT DATA
3
VALID
VALID
VALID
SET TI
VALID
VALID
VALID
VALID
Table 82. AC Parameters
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
TCLCL
Oscillator Period
25
ns
TCHCX
High Time
5
ns
TCLCX
Low Time
5
ns
TCLCH
Rise Time
5
ns
TCHCL
Fall Time
5
ns
60
%
TCHCX/TCLCX
130
VALID
SET RI
CLEAR RI
External Clock Drive
Characteristics (XTAL1)
7
Cyclic ratio in X2 mode
40
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
External Clock Drive
Waveforms
VCC-0.5V
0.45V
0.7VCC
0.2VCC-0.1
TCHCX
TCLCH
TCLCX
TCHCL
TCLCL
AC Testing Input/Output
Waveforms
INPUT/OUTPUT
VCC -0.5V
0.2 VCC + 0.9
0.2 VCC - 0.1
0.45V
AC inputs during testing are driven at VCC - 0.5 for a logic “1” and 0.45V for a logic “0”.
Timing measurement are made at VIH min for a logic “1” and VIL max for a logic “0”.
Float Waveforms
FLOAT
VOH - 0.1 V
VOL + 0.1 V
VLOAD
VLOAD + 0.1 V
VLOAD - 0.1 V
For timing purposes as port pin is no longer floating when a 100 mV change from load
voltage occurs and begins to float when a 100 mV change from the loaded VOH/VOL level
occurs. IOL/IOH ≥ ± 20 mA.
131
4383B–8051–01/05
Clock Waveforms
Valid in normal clock mode. In X2 mode XTAL2 must be changed to XTAL2/2.
INTERNAL
CLOCK
STATE4
STATE5
STATE6
STATE1
STATE2
STATE3
STATE4
STATE5
P1
P1
P1
P1
P1
P1
P1
P1
P2
P2
P2
P2
P2
P2
P2
P2
XTAL2
ALE
THESE SIGNALS ARE NOT ACTIVATED DURING THE
EXECUTION OF A MOVX INSTRUCTION
EXTERNAL PROGRAM MEMORY FETCH
PSEN
P0
DATA
SAMPLED
FLOAT
P2 (EXT)
PCL OUT
DATA
SAMPLED
FLOAT
PCL OUT
DATA
SAMPLED
FLOAT
PCL OUT
INDICATES ADDRESS TRANSITIONS
READ CYCLE
RD
PCL OUT (IF PROGRAM
MEMORY IS EXTERNAL)
P0
DPL OR Rt OUT
P2
DATA
SAMPLED
FLOAT
INDICATES DPH OR P2 SFR TO PCH TRANSITION
WRITE CYCLE
WR
P0
PCL OUT (EVEN IF PROGRAM
MEMORY IS INTERNAL)
DPL OR Rt OUT
PCL OUT (IF PROGRAM
MEMORY IS EXTERNAL
DATA OUT
P2
INDICATES DPH OR P2 SFR TO PCH TRANSITION
PORT OPERATION
OLD DATA NEW DATA
MOV PORT SRC
MOV DEST P0
P0 PINS SAMPLED
MOV DEST PORT (P1. P2. P3)
(INCLUDES INTO. INT1. TO T1)
SERIAL PORT SHIFT CLOCK
P1, P2, P3 PINS SAMPLED
RXD SAMPLED
P0 PINS SAMPLED
P1, P2, P3 PINS SAMPLED
RXD SAMPLED
TXD (MODE 0)
This diagram indicates when signals are clocked internally. The time it takes the signals to propagate to the pins, however,
ranges from 25 to 125 ns. This propagation delay is dependent on variables such as temperature and pin loading. Propagation also varies from output to output and component. Typically though (TA=25°C fully loaded) RD and WR propagation
delays are approximately 50ns. The other signals are typically 85 ns. Propagation delays are incorporated in the AC
specifications.
132
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Flash/EEPROM Memory
Table 83. Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
Conditions
S (Hardware
condition)
PSEN#,EA
L
Low
R
RST
V
Valid
B
FBUSY flag
X
No Longer Valid
Table 84. Memory AC Timing
VDD = 3V to 5.5V, TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Typ
TSVRL
Input PSEN# Valid to RST Edge
50
ns
TRLSX
Input PSEN# Hold after RST Edge
50
ns
TBHBL
Flash/EEPROM Internal Busy
(Programming) Time
10
Max
Unit
ms
Figure 68. Flash Memory – ISP Waveforms
RST
TSVRL
TRLSX
PSEN#1
Figure 69. Flash Memory – Internal Busy Waveforms
FBUSY bit
TBHBL
133
4383B–8051–01/05
Ordering Information
Table 85. Possible Order Entries
Part Number
Boot Loader
Temperature Range
Package
Packing
Product Marking
AT89C51AC3-RLTIM
UART
Industrial
VQFP44
Tray
AT89C51AC3-IM
AT89C51AC3-SLSIM
UART
Industrial
PLCC44
Stick
AT89C51AC3-IM
AT89C51AC3-RDTIM
UART
Industrial
VQFP64
Tray
AT89C51AC3-IM
AT89C51AC3-S3SIM
UART
Industrial
PLCC52
Stick
AT89C51AC3-IM
134
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Package Drawing
VQFP44
135
4383B–8051–01/05
PLCC44
136
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
VQFP64
137
4383B–8051–01/05
PLCC52
138
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Datasheet Change Log
Changes from 4383A
10/04 - 4383B 01/05
1. Various minor corrections made throughout the document.
2. Clarification to Mode Switching Waveforms diagram. See page 17.
139
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
Features................................................................................................ 1
Description ........................................................................................... 1
Block Diagram...................................................................................... 2
Pin Configuration................................................................................. 3
I/O Configurations................................................................................................. 7
Port 1, Port 3 and Port 4 ....................................................................................... 7
Port 0 and Port 2................................................................................................... 8
Read-Modify-Write Instructions ............................................................................ 9
Quasi-Bidirectional Port Operation ..................................................................... 10
SFR Mapping...................................................................................... 11
Clock ................................................................................................... 15
Description.......................................................................................................... 15
Registers............................................................................................................. 18
Data Memory ...................................................................................... 20
Internal Space.....................................................................................................
External Space ...................................................................................................
Dual Data Pointer ...............................................................................................
Registers.............................................................................................................
21
22
24
25
Power Monitor.................................................................................... 27
Description.......................................................................................................... 27
Reset ................................................................................................... 29
Introduction ......................................................................................................... 29
Reset Input ......................................................................................................... 29
Reset Output........................................................................................................ 30
Power Management ........................................................................... 31
Introduction .........................................................................................................
Idle Mode ............................................................................................................
Power-Down Mode .............................................................................................
Registers.............................................................................................................
31
31
31
34
EEPROM Data Memory...................................................................... 35
Write Data in the Column Latches ......................................................................
Programming ......................................................................................................
Read Data...........................................................................................................
Examples ............................................................................................................
Registers.............................................................................................................
35
35
35
36
37
1
4383B–8051–01/05
Program/Code Memory ..................................................................... 38
Flash Memory Architecture................................................................................. 40
Overview of FM0 Operations .............................................................................. 44
Operation Cross Memory Access .................................................... 53
Sharing Instructions.......................................................................... 54
In-System Programming (ISP) .......................................................... 56
Flash Programming and Erasure........................................................................
Boot Process ......................................................................................................
Application Programming Interface.....................................................................
XROW Bytes.......................................................................................................
Hardware Security Byte ......................................................................................
56
56
58
58
59
Serial I/O Port .................................................................................... 60
Framing Error Detection ....................................................................................
Automatic Address Recognition..........................................................................
Given Address ...................................................................................................
Broadcast Address ............................................................................................
Registers.............................................................................................................
60
61
62
62
63
Timers/Counters ................................................................................ 66
Timer/Counter Operations ..................................................................................
Timer 0................................................................................................................
Timer 1................................................................................................................
Interrupt ..............................................................................................................
Registers.............................................................................................................
66
66
69
70
70
Timer 2 ................................................................................................ 74
Auto-Reload Mode............................................................................................. 74
Programmable Clock-Output .............................................................................. 75
Registers............................................................................................................. 76
Watchdog Timer................................................................................. 79
Watchdog Programming ..................................................................................... 80
Watchdog Timer During Power-down Mode and Idle ......................................... 81
Serial Port Interface (SPI).................................................................. 83
Features.............................................................................................................. 83
Signal Description............................................................................................... 83
Functional Description ........................................................................................ 85
Programmable Counter Array (PCA) ............................................... 94
PCA Timer .......................................................................................................... 94
PCA Modules...................................................................................................... 95
2
AT89C51AC3
4383B–8051–01/05
AT89C51AC3
PCA Interrupt ...................................................................................................... 96
PCA Capture Mode............................................................................................. 96
16-bit Software Timer Mode ............................................................................... 97
High Speed Output Mode ................................................................................... 98
Pulse Width Modulator Mode.............................................................................. 98
PCA WatchDog Timer ........................................................................................ 99
PCA Registers .................................................................................................. 100
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)................................................. 105
Features............................................................................................................
ADC Port1 I/O Functions ..................................................................................
ADC Converter Operation.................................................................................
Voltage Conversion ..........................................................................................
Clock Selection .................................................................................................
ADC Standby Mode ..........................................................................................
IT ADC Management ........................................................................................
Routines examples ...........................................................................................
Registers...........................................................................................................
105
105
107
107
107
108
108
108
110
Interrupt System .............................................................................. 113
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 113
Registers........................................................................................................... 115
Electrical Characteristics................................................................ 121
Absolute Maximum Ratings .............................................................................. 121
DC Parameters for Standard Voltage ................................................................ 121
DC Parameters for A/D Converter .................................................................... 123
AC Parameters .................................................................................................. 124
Ordering Information....................................................................... 134
Package Drawing ............................................................................. 135
VQFP44 ............................................................................................................
PLCC44 ............................................................................................................
VQFP64 ............................................................................................................
PLCC52 ............................................................................................................
135
136
137
138
Datasheet Change Log.................................................................... 139
Changes from 4383A 10/04 - 4383B 01/05 ...................................................... 139
3
4383B–8051–01/05
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4383B–8051–01/05
/xM